Zitierweise | cite as: Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 15. vaiśyavargaḥ (Über Vaiśyas). -- 2. Vers 6 - 15b (Ackerbau I, Ackerbaugeräte). -- Anhang: Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya [যোগেন্দ্রনাথ ভট্টাচার্য্য] über Hirtenkasten (1896). -- Fassung vom 2017-05-06. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa7/amara215gAnhang.htm
Erstmals hier publiziert: 2017-05-06
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Meinem Lehrer und Freund
Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron
ist die gesamte Amarakośa-Übersetzung
in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.
Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.
Die indischen indischen Schriftzeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen dafür eine Unicode-Schrift.
Bhattacharya, Jogendra Nath [ভট্টাচার্য্য, যোগেন্দ্রনাথ]: Hindu castes and sects : an exposition of the origin of the Hindu caste system and the bearing of the sects towards each other and toward other religious systems. -- Calcutta : Thacker, Spink, 1896. -- 623 S. -- S. 294 - 305
The, total population of the several castes whose primary occupation is cattle breeding is very large, amounting to nearly twenty millions in all. About three-fourths of the number are cowherds. They are variously called Goala [ग्वाला], Goli [गोली], Golla, &c., which designations are all colloquial forms of the Sanskrit word Gopala [गोपाल] (lit. keeper of cows).
The majority of the cowherd castes live on the income of the dairy produce of the flocks they keep, supplemented by that of agriculture which they also practise to a very considerable extent. With the exception of the Ahirs [अहीर], almost all the other cowherd castes are more or less notorious for their thieving propensities. Although the Gopas [गोप] or cowherds are included among the upper nine of the Sudra [शूद्र] castes, yet, with the exception of the Ahirs [अहीर], they are regarded as somewhat unclean. They have special priests, and a good Brahman cannot minister to any of them without being degraded for ever. Their low status in the caste system is due partly to their being suspected as criminal tribes, and partly also to the fact that they are in the habit of castrating their bull-calves, and branding their cattle with red-hot iron. In the modern towns of British India, some Goalas [ग्वाला] are suspected to be in the habit of secretly selling their bull-calves and old cows to butchers; but in the interior no Goala can do so knowingly without running the risk of severe persecution by the caste.
Generally speaking the Goalas are a poor and illiterate class. They celebrate their marriages and shradhs [श्रद्धा] in accordance with the Brahmanical shastras [शास्त्र]; but they are not a priest ridden class, and they do not devote much of their time or money to any religious rite or ceremony beyond those mentioned above. In some parts of the country, the Goalas wear a necklace of beads like the other Nava Shayakas [নবশাখ]. But it is very unusual for a man or woman of the cowherd caste to be initiated in the mantra of any sect, and that being the case they neither say any prayers nor count beads.
The Abhirs [अभीर] are the most numerous and the cleanest of the several castes of cowherds. Their total number exceeds eight millions, and they are to be found in almost every part of India to the north of the river Narmada [नर्मदा]. From the extent of country over which they are spread, and from the references to them in the most, ancient Sanskrit works, it seems very probable that they had been settled in the country long before the Brahmans and the Ksatriyas [क्षत्रिय] found their way into it. There is abundant evidence also as to the ancient Abhiras having been capable of wielding the sword as well as the crook. Krishna [कृष्ण], the great hero and statesman of ancient India, who is now worshipped by the majority of the Hindus as their chief god, was, if not actually an Abhira himself, at least, bred up from his infancy in the house of an Abhira cowherd. The Narayni army [नारायणी सेना] which he organised, and which made him so powerful that his friendship was eagerly sought by the greatest kings of his time, is described in the Mahābhārat as being all of the Abhira caste. The story of the Sanskrit drama “ Mrichakatika” [मृच्छकटिका] may be taken to warrant the conclusion that for a man of the cowherd caste to be a king, was not an uncommon event in ancient India. Further, it is established by authentic history, that a dynasty of Ahir [अहीर] kings ruled over Nepal at the beginning of the Christian era. But whatever the political importance or the military prowess of the Abhiras may have been in ancient times, they are now simple cattle breeders and tillers of the soil. There are a few landholders among them, but the majority of them are very poor and illiterate.
The three main divisions among the Ahirs are the following: —
The practice of marrying the widows of an elder brother prevails among some of the Ahir tribes in the Upper Doab, as among the Jats and Gujars of the locality. In the neighbourhood of Delhi, the Ahirs eat, drink and smoke with the Jats [जाट] and the Gujars [गुर्जर]. The Rajputs [राजपुत] generally repudiate all connection with the Ahirs, though it seems very probable that the Yadu Bansi Ksatriyas [यदुवंशी क्षत्रिय] were originally Ahirs.
The Ahars [अहर], who are found chiefly in Rohilkhand [रोहिलखंड], seem to be a sub-class of the Ahirs, though they disclaim such connection.
The Gujars [गूजर] are a pastoral tribe of Western India, the majority of whom have in recent times espoused the Mahomedan faith. With the Jats [जाट] they form the backbone of the rural population of the Panjab [ਪੰਜਾਬ ], though inferior to them in civilization, industry, and agricultural skill. The Gujars possessed at one time great importance, as appears from the fact that they gave their name to the peninsula of Gujrat [ગુજરાત], and also to the district of the same name in the Panjab. As the Gujars are at present, they are believed to be one of the criminal classes, there being among them many who are said to be cattle-lifters and gang robbers. The name of the tribe seems to be derived from the compound Gouchor which might mean a “grazier of cows." In Scinde [سنڌ] the Gujars keep cows, while the Gowars sell milk and its preparations.
The Gujar population of India exceeds two millions, and is distributed as follows: —
|Panjab [ਪੰਜਾਬ ]||711,800|
The Gujars are an illiterate caste. There are very few big men among them. It is quite possible that among the minor chiefs and landholders there area few who were originally Gujars. But as these now claim to be Ksatriyas [क्षत्रिय], it is very rare to find any one even among the barons who will admit his being of the Gujar caste. The higher classes of Brahmans do not minister to the Gujars as priests. They have a special class of ecclesiastics called Gujar Gour Brahmans [गूजर गौड़ ब्राह्मण].
It is a noticeable fact that the religion of Guru Nanak [ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ, 1469 - 1539], which was eagerly embraced by the Jats [जाट] and Roras [अरोड़ा], and gave them a new political life, failed to make any impression on the Gujars. They seem to be quite as indifferent to all forms of religion as the other cowherd castes. A great many of them have, no doubt, espoused the Mahomedan faith, but that must be due to compulsion. In the last Census Report the Gujars are included among the military and agricultural castes; but their proper place seems to be among the pastoral tribes.
The common name of the several cowherd castes is Goala. Even the Ahirs [অহীর] and the Gujars [গূজর] are spoken of generally as only sub-divisions of the Goala [গোআল] caste. It is, however, not to be supposed that the Goalas of the different provinces are completely identical in caste. Even in the same province there are generally as many different sections among them as among the higher castes. The Goala population of Bengal is very large. According to the last Census their number exceeds four millions.
The Goalas [গোআল] form the principal Hindu element in the agricultural population of Bengal proper. The majority of the cultivators in the eastern and central districts of Bengal are Mahomedans. Of the Hindu ryots by far the largest number are Goalas among whom may be included the Sadgopas [সদগোপ].
The only other Hindu castes that usually earn their living by agriculture are the
The Goalas are generally illiterate and poor. There are, however, some among them who hold possession of valuable tenures, and there are a few zemindars also among them. Instances are known also of Goalas having attained University distinctions, and holding such high offices as are now usually allowed to be filled by the natives of this country.
The usual surnames of the Goalas of Bengal are the
The Goalas of Bengal are divided into the following classes: —
An account of the Sadgopa tribe has been given already in connection with the agricultural castes of Bengal. Of the other sections of the Bengal Goalas only the Godos require special notice.
The name of this class seems to be derived from the Gada [গড়], which means a fort. From their very name, and from what other facts are known relating to them, it seems probable that formerly they served in the armies of the Hindu and Mahomedan kings of the country. Their services are still utilised by the landholders of Bengal for those little boundary warfares which usually involve them in the most ruinous litigations, civil and criminal. The Godos of the tract of country to the cast of the famous field of Plassy [পলাশী] are a criminal tribe of the worst type. They are hereditary gang robbers, assassins and free lances. After more than a century of British rule, highway robberies are still so frequent in the locality, that no one can, even now, safely travel alone through the pergunnah [পরগনা] inhabited by them. Some of the Godos practise agriculture; but, like the Irish peasants, they never pay any “rint” to their landlords, and have brought about the ruin of many capitalists who had invested their money in taking perpetual leases of the pergunnah from its zemindar.
Like the other criminal tribes, some of the Godos give regular training to their children in the arts of thieving and gang robbery. On occasions of festivity in the houses of the local nobility, they sometimes exhibit their skill in their art, and amuse and astonish the spectators by their feats. Reclining on a bamboo stick, about six feet long, one would get to the top of a house, while another with a similar weapon would ward off any number of brickbats that might be hurled against him. The importance of such gymnastic skill to a burglar must be obvious.
Like the Goalas [গোআল] of Bengal, those of Behar also are divided into a large number of sub-tribes. They all appear to be looked upon as good Sudras [शूद्र], and the ordinary Sudra Yajaka [शूद्रयाजक] priests of Behar minister to them as priests. As in other parts of India, the Goalas of Behar are, generally speaking, an illiterate class. There is, however, among them a section who usually acquire a sufficient knowledge of the three R. ’s to be qualified for book-keeping in the vernacular. The Separis, as they are called, are employed by the landholders as Putwaris or village accountants. They are looked upon as an inferior class by the other Goala sub-castes. The Goalas of Behar allow their widows to re-marry.
The usual family names of the Behar Goalas are the following: —
Among the Goalas of Orissa there are three main divisions, namely,
They are all generally very poor. The Oriya litter-carriers of Calcutta are mostly of the Goala caste. A very large number of them are employed by the European residents of Calcutta [কলকাতা] as orderlies, punka-pullers [पङ्खा], furniture cleaners and gardeners. Being Hindus they cannot serve as cooks or table-servants. But, apart from their caste prejudices, they are very serviceable and obedient, and they are sometimes employed as personal servants by the Hindu residents of Calcutta. The only reason why they are not more largely employed by the Hindu aristocracy of Bengal is the fact that they would never eat any food cooked by a Bengali, and in the household of a Hindu of moderate means, it is considered very inconvenient to have a servant who would cook his own food, instead of eating the preparations of the family cook. The Oriya domestics are generally very trustworthy like the Kahars [कहार] of Northern India. The master’s goods, however valuable , are always safe in their custody. It is only when deputed to make any purchases that an Oriya servant is tempted to act dishonestly, and to appropriate a part of the money by giving a false account. Like the Goalas of Behar [बिहार] those of Orissa allow the re-marriage of their widows.
In the Telegu country [తెలంగాణ] the cowherds are called Gollalu, in Mysore [ಮೈಸೂರು] Golla, and in the Tamil country [தமிழ் நாடு] Mattu Edia.
Among the Gollalus there are many sub-divisions, one of which is called Yathavas [యాదవ / ಯಾದವ / யாதவர்]. The Yadava [यादव] clan of Ksatriyas [क्षत्रिय] in Northern India is probably an offshoot of these pastoral Yathavas.
Among the Mattu Edias there are two classes, one of which profess the Vaishnava faith [வைணவ சமயம்], and the others are Sivites [சைவ]. There can be no marriage alliance between these two sub-divisions of the Mattu Edias, and practically they are separate castes.
The Gollas [ಮೈಸೂರು] of Mysore are divided into two sub-orders called
who neither eat together nor intermarry. They are mostly Krishna [ಕೃಷ್ಣ] worshippers. There are some very odd customs among the Kadu Gollas of Mysore.
“It is said that on the occurrence of a childbirth, the mother with the babe remains unattended in a small shed outside the village from 7 to 30 days when she is taken back to her home. In the event of her illness, none of the caste will attend on her, but a Nayak (Beda) woman is engaged to do so. Marriages among them are likewise performed in a temporary shed erected outside the village, and the attendant festivities continue for five days when the married couple are brought into the village. Their females do not, on the death of the husband, remove or break the bangles worn at the wrists. ” Mysore Census Report, p. 248.
The following table gives the names of the several shepherd castes of India, together with the figures relating to their numerical strength: —
The shepherds have a lower caste status than the cowherds. The family of the Maharaja Holkar [होलकर] are said by some to be of the Dangar caste; but they take the sacred thread, and the Brahmans accept their gifts without any hesitation.
There are many Gadarias [গডরিযা] in and near some of the old towns of Bengal such as Nadiya [নদীয়া] and Dacca [ঢাকা]. These do not practise their caste profession, but live chiefly by working as bricklayers. Their females make the preparation of rice called chira [চিঁড়া] described in page 246. The shepherd castes are regarded as somewhat unclean everywhere.
Zurück zu: vaiśyavargaḥ (Über Vaiśyas) 7. Vers 57c - 66b: Viehzucht I: Hirten, Herden, Kälber, Stiere