The  Student's Guide to Sanskrit Composition

03. Lesson III

by Vaman Shivaram Apte

Mit den Auflösungen nach dem "Key" neu herausgegeben von Alois Payer 

Zitierweise | cite as:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit Composition (Being a treatise on Sanskrit Syntax).  -- 3. ed. -- 1890. -- 03. Lesson III. -- Fassung vom 2010-01-11. --  URL:                                                                

Ursprünglich erschienen als:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit composition : being a treatise on Sanskrit syntax ; for the use of schools and colleges. -- 3rd ed. -- Poona : R. A. Sagoon, 1890. -- 450 S.

A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2009-03-23

Überarbeitungen: 2010-02-11 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Public domain

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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<> = Apte`s own Notes (loc. cit. pp. 277ff.)

[] = A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

{} = Notes by Alois Payer

Part II. Government

Lesson III.

The Accusative Case.

§ 26. We come to Government, the second general principle regulating the grammatical union of words in sentences. 'Government' is the power which a word has to regulate the case of a noun or pronoun. The Lessons in this part are intended to explain and illustrate this power.

§ 27. 'Kāraka' is the name given to the relation subsisting between a noun and a verb in a sentence. Thus any relation subsisting between words not connected with the verb will not be called a Kāraka.

There are six Kārakas in Sanskrit:

These relations belong to the first seven cases except the Genitive, which is not regarded as a Kāraka case [because it is not connected with the verb.]

कर्ता is principally the sense of the Instrumental, and means 'agent'.

The nominative in Sanskrit, as in other languages, is simply the naming case, that which is concerned in अभिधान 'predication'. According to Pāṇini II.3.46 (प्रातिपदिकार्थलिंगपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा), the nominative is used to denote the crude form or base of a word, gender, measure, and number only; as, नीचैः, कृष्णः, ज्ञानं, तटः तटी तटं, द्रोणो व्रीहिः, एकः, द्वौ, बहवः &c.

Note. Several indeclinable words govern nouns in one or another of the Kāraka cases, and such cases are then called 'उपपदविभक्ति,' i.e. cases governed by indeclinables &c., as distinguished from कारकविभक्ति, cases governed by verbs; as, नमो नृसिंहाय, मांअन्तरा, ग्रामादुत्तरं &c. The latter predominate over the former, where both are possible (उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी).

§ 28. The person or thing, upon whom or which the effect of an action takes place, is called an object of that action. An object is put in the Accusative case, except in the passive voice; as, स हरिमपश्यत् 'he saw Hari;' ओदनं बुभुक्षुर्विषं भुंक्ते 'wishing to eat food he eats poison.' Here हरि and विष are objects of the verbs अपश्यत् and भुंक्ते. But in हरिः सेव्यते the passive form सेव्यते expresses the relation of object an verb which exist between हरि and सेव्, and therefore हरि is not required to be in the Accusative case; but in हरिं सेवते, there being no passive termination, the noun हरि is put in the Accusative case.

§ 29. Verbs signifying 'to nam', 'to choose', 'to make', 'to appoint', 'to call', 'to know', 'to consider' &c. and the like, govern a factitive or indirect object, besides a direct; as, त्वामामनन्ति प्रकृतिं (Kumārasambhava II.13) 'they consider thee to be Prakṛti;' कामपि गणिकामवरोधनकरोत् (Daśakumāracarita II.6) 'made a certain courtesan his wife;' जानामि त्वाम् प्रकृतिपुरुषम् (Meghadūta 6) 'I know thee (to be) the chief person (minister)'.

§ 30. All verbs that show motion govern the Accusative case; as, गतो हं कामदेवायतनं (Mālatīmādhava 1) 'I had gone to the temple of Cupid;' अहमपि महीमटन् (Daśakumāracarita II.2.) 'I also roaming over the earth;' यमुनाकच्छमवतीर्णः (Pańcatantra I.1) 'went down the bank of the Jumna;' so विचचार दावं (Raghuvaṃśa III.3) {'he got lost in the forest'}. But this idea of motion is expressed in a variety of idiomatic expressions, when the motion is not actual but merely conceived; as, परं विपादमगच्छत् (Pańcatantra I.1) 'was greatly dejected;' अश्वत्थामा न यातः स्मृतिं ते (Veṇīsaṃhāra 3) 'was not Aśvatthāman thought of by you?'; पश्चादुमाख्यां सुमुखी जगाम (Kumārasaṃbhava I.26) 'the fair-faced lady afterwards went by (acquired) the name Umā'; so नरपतिहितकर्ता द्वेष्यतां याति लोके {who acts to the advantage of the king becomes hated by the people}  (Pańcatantra I.2) ; न तृप्तिमाययौ (Raghuvaṃśa III.3) {'he did not become content'}.

(a) Generally intransitive roots preceded by prepositions become transitive in sense, and then govern this case; as वृत् 'to be'; अनुवृत् 'to act according to,' 'to follow', as, प्रभुचित्तमेव जनो ऽनुवर्तते (Śiśupālavadha XV.41) 'the people, indeed, follow the will of their lord'; अचलतंगशिखरमारुरोह (Kādambarī 120) 'ascended the lofty summit of the mountain'; similarly, यन्ता गजस्याभ्यपतद्गजस्थं (Raghuvaṃśa VII.37)1; नोत्पतति वा दिवं (Kādambarī 132); ऋषीणां पुराद्यानां वाचमर्थो ऽनुधावति (Uttararāmacarita 1) ['But in the case of primeval sages sense follows their utterance (i.e. whatever they say comes to pass).].

1 [Key: यान्ता -  a rider; an elephant-warrior attacked one who rode an elephant (i.e. a warrior sitting on an elephant).]

§ 31.1 The roots शी 'to lie down', स्था 'to stand' and आस् 'to sit', when preceeded by अधि, govern the Accusative of place where these actions are performed; as, चन्द्रापीडो मुक्ताशिलापट्टमधिशिश्ये (Kādambarī 206) 'Candrapīḍa lay down on a slab of pearl-stone'; अर्धासनं गोत्रभिदो ऽधितष्ठौ (Raghuvaṃśa VI.73) 'stood on (occupied) half the seat of Indra'; अध्यास्य पर्णशालां (Raghuvaṃśa I.95) 'lying in a hut (made) of leaves.'

1 अधिशीङ्स्थासां कर्म Pāṇini I.4.46

(a) 1 विश् with अभिनि governs the same case; as, अभिनिविशते सन्मार्गम् (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'he resorts to a good path;' so  भयं तावत्सेवादभ्निविशते सेवकजनं (Mudrārākṣasa 5) ['In the first place fear from (of) the master (lit. the person to be served) takes possession or overtakes a servant.]

1 अभ्निविशश्च Pāṇini I.4.47 {'That which is the site of the verb abhiniviś to enter, is also called karma-kāraka.' transl. Vasu, 1891}

§ 32.1 The root वस् 'to dwell', when precedded by the prepositions उप, अनु, अधि or आ, governs the Accusative case of that which forms the place of residence; as, उप-अनु-अधि-आ-वसति वैकुण्ठं हरिः (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'Hari dwells in Vaikuṇṭha (the heaven).'

1 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः Pāṇini I.4.48 {'That which is the site of the verb vas to dwell, when preceeded by upa, anu, adhi, and āṅ, is called karma-kāraka.' transl. Vasu, 1891}

§ 33.1 The words उभयतः, सर्वतः, धिक् and the double forms उपर्युपरि, अधोधः, अध्यधि, when they have the sense of 'nearness', and प्रति 'to', govern the Accusative case; as, उभयतः कृष्णं गोपाः (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'cowherds are on both sides of Kṛṣṇa;' उपर्युपरि लोकं हरिः (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'Hari is just over the world;' अधोधो लोकं (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'just below the world;' धिग्जाल्मान् (Uttararāmacarita 5) 'fie upon the rogues'; न मे संशीतिरस्या दिव्यतां प्रति (Kādambarī 132) 'I have no doubt as to her being heavenly'; so बुभुक्षितं न प्रति भाति किंचित् (Mahābhāṣya). When nearness is not indicated, the Genetive may be used; as उपर्युपरि सर्वेषामादित्य इव तेजसा (Mahābhārata) 'higher and higher than all by means of his lustre, like the sun.'

1 उभसर्वतसोः कार्या धिगुपर्यादिषु त्रिषु ।
द्वितीयाम्रेडितान्तेषु ततो ऽन्यत्रापि दृश्यते ॥ (Vārttika)

(a) धिक् may be sometime be used with the nominative or vokative; as धिङ् मूढ 'fie upon thee, fool'; धिगियं दरिद्रता (Pańcatantra II) 'cursed be this poverty.'

§ 34.1 The words अभ्तः, परितः (both meaning 'round'), समया, निकषा (both meaning 'near' ) and हा 'woe be to', govern the Accusative case; as परिजनो राजानमभ्तः स्थितः (Mālavikāgnimitra 1) 'the attendants stood round the king'; रक्षांसि वेदीं परितो निरास्थत् (Bhaṭṭikāvya I.12) 'destroyed the demons (seated) round the alltar;' ग्रामं समया or निकषा (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'near the village;' so निकषा सौधभित्तिं (Daśakumāracarita); (पयोधिं) विलंघ्य लंकां निकषा हनिष्यति (Śiśupālavadha I.68); हा कृष्णाभक्तं (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'woe be to a non-worshipper of Kṛṣṇa.' हा is sometimes used with the Vocative; as हा भगवत्यरुन्धति (Uttararāmacarita 1) 'alas! O revered Arundhatī.'

1 अभितःपरितःसमयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगे ऽपि । (Vārttika)

§ 35.1 The word अन्तरेण meaning 'without,' 'excepting', and 'with reference to, regarding,' governs the same case; as को ऽन्यस्त्वामन्तरेण शक्तः प्रतिकर्तुं (Veṇīsamhāra 3) 'who else but thee is able to retaliate?' भवन्तमन्तरेण कीदृशो ऽस्या दृष्टिरागः (Śakuntalā 2) 'how is her eye-love regarding you?'

1 अन्तरान्तरेणयुक्ते Pāṇini II.3.4 {'A word joined with (or governed by} the word antarā, or antareṇa takes the second case-affix.' transl. Vasu, 1891}

(a) So also अन्तरा, meaning 'between'; अन्तरा त्वां च मां च कमण्डलुः (Mahābhāṣya); पंचालस्तव पश्चिमेन त इमे वामा गिरां भाजनास्त्वद्दृष्टेरतिथीभवन्तु यमुनां त्रिस्रोतसं चांतरा (Prasannarāghava) ['This is the beautiful country of Pańcāla lying to your west, the subject of our conversation; let it meet (lit. be the guest of) your eyes, lying between the Yamunā and the Ganges.']

§ 36. Words denoting duration of time and space are put in the Accusative case; as, न ववर्ष वर्षाणि द्वादश दशशताक्षः (Daśakumāracarita II.6) 'the thousand-eyed (indra) did not rain for 12 years';  क्रोशं कुटिला नदी (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'the river runs winding for 2 miles'; सभा वैश्रवणी राजन् शतयोजनमायता (Mahābhārata II.10.1) 'O king, the hall of Viśravaṇa is 100 yojanas in length.'

§ 37. The preposition अनु is sometimes found to be used by itself with nouns in the Accusative case, in the sense of 'after, in consequence of, or being indicated by,' 'resmbling, or imitating;' as जपमनु प्रावर्षत् (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'it rained after the muttering of prayers;' सर्वं मामनु ते (Vikramorvaśīya V.4) 'everything of thee is after mine (resembles mine).'

Obs. Pāṇini mentions अभि in the sense of 'before,' 'hard by,' 'in', उप 'near', 'inferior to', अति 'superior to', and अनु 'by the side of,' 'along,' 'inferior,' under the category of prepositions, which can be used by themselves and which govern the Accusative case (See Pāṇini I.4.84-87, 90.1-5); as, हरिमभिवर्तते, भक्तो हरिमभि, उप हरिं सुराः, अति देवान् कृष्णः, नदीमन्ववसिता सेना ['the army standing in close contact with the river'], अनु हरिं सुराः, &c. (Siddhāntakaumudī). Prepositions, used by themselves and governing a noun in some case, are called कर्मप्रवचनीय.


धारिणीभूतधारिण्योर् भव भर्ता शरच्छतम् ॥१॥ (Mālavikāgnimitra 1)

[Key: Be thou the lord of queen Dhāriṇī and of the earth (the supporter of creature) for a hundred years (शरदां शतं).]

बिंदूत्क्षेपान् पिपासुः परितपति शिखी भ्रामन्तमद्वारियन्त्रम् ॥२॥ (Mālavikāgnimitra 2)

<Notes: बिंदूत्क्षेपान्  'the drops of water thrown out' by the revolving wheel.'>

[Key: पिपासुः - Desiderative noun from पा (पिपासति). शिखा crest अयास्तीति शिखी. The peacock wheels round the whirling water-machine desirous of drinking the drops thrown up (by it).]

मन्दौत्सुक्यो ऽस्मि नगरगमनं प्रति ॥३॥ (Śakuntalā 1)

[Key: My desire to return to the city has become feeble (I am not anxious to return &c.)]

एषा मे मनोरथप्रियतमा सकुसुमास्तरणं शिलापट्टमधिशयाना सखीभ्यामन्वास्यते ॥४॥ (Śakuntalā 3)

[Key: Here is the darling of my heart (the object of my cherished desire) lying (reclined) on a stone-slab with a flowery bed spread over it, and attended upon by her two friends. मनोरथ्येन प्रियतमा ; सकुसुमानामास्तरणं यस्मिंस्तत् ]

सागरं वर्जयित्वा कुत्र वा महानद्यवतरति । क इदानीं सहकारमन्तरेणातिमुक्तलतां पल्लवितां सहते ॥५॥ (Śakuntalā 3)

<Notes: Priyaṃvada means to say: 'Who else but DuṢyanta can support (the live of) her who has exhibited signs of deep love?'>

[Key: Where can a great river descend to, leaving (if not to) the sea? Who now, except the Sahakāra (a kind of mango) can bear the Atimukta creeper in blossoms? पल्लवा अस्याः संजाताः पल्लविता ताम् ।]

{अतिमुक्त = Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz

"H. benghalensis is a stout, high-climbing liana or large shrub, with white or yellowish hairs on the stem. Its leaves are lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate and approximately 20 cm (8 in) long, and 9 cm (4 in) broad; petioles are up to 1 cm long. It has scandent branches up to 5 m (16 ft) high.

H. benghalensis flowers intermittently during the year, and produces fragrant flowers borne in compact ten-to-thirty-flowered axillary racemes. The flowers are pink to white, with yellow marks. Fruits are samaras with three spreading, papery oblanceolate to elliptic wings, 2-5 cm long, and propagate via wind or by cuttings.

Hiptage benghalensis is a native of India, Southeast Asia and the Philippines."

[Source: -- Accessed on 2009-03-20]

Abb.: Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz

[Bildquelle: Kirtikar, K. R. ; Basu, B. D.: Indian medical plants with illustrations. Ed., revised, enlarged and mostly rewritten by E. Blatter, J. F. Caius and K. S. Mhaskar. -- 2. ed. -- Dehra Dun : Oriental Enterprises. -- 2003. -- 11 Bde : 3846 S. : Ill. ; 26 cm.  -- Reprint der Ausgabe von 1933, die Abbildungen stammen aus der Ausgabe von 1918. -- Vol. 2. -- S. 577]}

स राजर्षिरिमानि दिवसानि प्रजागरकृशो लक्ष्यते ॥६॥ (Śakuntalā 3)

[Key: The royal sage appears, now-a-days, to have been reduced by weakfulness (by passing sleepless nights.) प्रजागरेण कृशः ]

धिङ् मामुपस्थितश्रेयो वमानिनम् ॥७॥ (Śakuntalā 6)

[Key: Fie upon me, the despiser of good fortune that had com to me!]

धिगिमां देहभृतामसारताम् ॥८॥ (Raghuvaṃśa VIII.51)

[Key: Fie upon the transitoriness or frailty of embodied beings.]

इष्टान्देशान्विचर जलद प्रावृषा संभृतश्रीः ॥९॥ (Meghadūta 118)

<Notes: प्रवृषा संभृतश्रीः 'whose splendour is enhanced by the rainy season.'>

[Key: Roam over countries desired by you, o cloud, with your beauty enhanced by the rainy season.]

कृतकार्यमिदं दुर्गं वनं व्यालनिषेवितम् ।
यदध्यास्ते महाराजो रामः शस्त्रभृतां वरः ॥१०॥ (Rāmāyaṇa II.98.13)

<Notes: कृतकार्यं predicate of वनं, 'having its object accomplished', blessed. यद् object of अध्यास्ते.>

[Key: Blessed is this impassable forest, inhabited by ferocious beasts, in which dwells the great king Rāma, the foremost of warriors (lit. weapon-holders). कृतं कार्यं येन, दुःखेन गम्यते इति दुर्गः ; शस्त्राणि बिभ्रतीति शस्त्रभृतः तेषु वरः.]

धिक् प्रहसनम् । अयमृष्यशृंगाश्रमादरुन्धतीपुरस्कृतान् महाराजदशरथस्य दारानधिष्ठाय भगवान् वसिष्ठः प्राप्तः । तकिमेवं प्रलपामि ॥११॥ (Uttararāmacarita 4)

<Notes: अधिष्ठाय 'becoming the leader or conductor', becoming the guide.>

[Key: Fie upon (this) joking! This is the venerable Vasiṣṭha that has come here, leading (bringing with him) the wives (of wife) of the great king Daśaratha from the hermitage of Ṛyaśṛṅga.

N.B. दार is m. and pl.]

तत्र च निखिलधरणितलपर्यटनखिन्नस्य निजबलस्य विश्रामहेतोः कतिपयान् दिवसानतिष्ठत् ॥१२॥ (Kādambarī 119)

[Key: There he halted for some days with the object of (for) giving rest to his army that was fatigued by its journey over the whole world. निखिलं च तद्धरणितलं च तत्र पर्यटनं तेन खिन्नं तस्य.]

अस्यां वेलायां किं नु खलु मामन्तरेण वैशंपायन इति चिन्तयन्नेव स निद्रां ययौ ॥१३॥ (Kādambarī 178)

[Key: What may Vaiśampāyana be thinking about me at this time - while lost in such thoughts he fell asleep (sank into sleep).]

अमी वेदिं परितः कॢप्तधिष्ण्याः समिन्दूतः प्रान्तसंस्तीर्णदर्भाः ।
अपघ्नन्तो दुरितं हव्यगन्धैर्वैतानास्त्वां वह्नयः पावयन्तु ॥१४॥ (Śakuntalā 4)

<Notes: अमी goes with वह्नयः. कॢप्तधिष्ण्यः 'whose plases have been fixed or assigned.'>

[Key: May these sacrificial fires, whose places round the Vedi (alter) are fixed, to which the holy sticks are offered, which have the Kuśa grass strewn round them, and which destroy sin by the smell of the oblations, purify thee! कॢप्तं धिष्ण्यं place येषां, प्रान्तेषु संस्तीर्ना दर्भा येषाम्, वैतान of  वितान or sacrifice.]

{दर्भ = Kuśagras = Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf}


Abb.: Kuśa (Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf)

[Bildquelle: Häfliger, Ernst ; Scholz, Hildemar: Grass weeds. -- Basel : Ciba-Geigy, 1980-1982. -- 3 Bde. : Ill. -- (Documenta / Ciba-Geigy). -- Bd. 2. -- S. 59 ]}

शक्रस्य दिव्या सभा -
विस्तीर्णा योजन्शतं शतमधध्यर्धमायता ।
वैहायसी कामगमा पञ्चयोजनमुच्छ्रिता ॥१५॥ (Mahābhārata II.7.3)

<Notes: give the dimensions of the hall. शतमध्यर्धं 'one hundr[ed and fifty'.>

[Key: The heavenly (or luminous) hall of Indra, situated in heaven and moving at will (or, where all desires are obtained कामानां गमो यस्यां or where can move at will कामेन गमो यस्यां) is a hundred Yojanas in breath, a hundred and fifty Yojanas in length, and five Yojanas in heigh.]

{1 Yojana ~ 13 km (?)}

रम्यां रघुप्रतिनिधिः स नवकोपकार्यं
बाल्यात्वरामिव द्शां मदनो
ऽध्युवास ॥१६॥ (Raghuvaṃśa V.63)

<Notes: रघुप्रतिनिधिः 'the representative of Raghu', i.e. Aja. 'Like cupid assuming a state other than boyhood.' (or rather - the state next to childhood (i.e. youth).>

[Key: That son (lit. representative) of Raghu (Aja) dwelt in the beautiful new tent, as Madana (God of love) does in the stage that comes next to childhood (i.e. youth).]

तस्य पुत्रो महातेजाः संप्रत्येष पुरीमिमाम् ।
आवसत्परमप्रख्यः सुमतिर्नाम दुर्जयः ॥१७॥ (Rāmāyaṇa I.47.17)

<Notes: संप्रत्यावसत् 'has recently dwelt.>

[Key: His son, of mighty spirit (or great splendour), Sumati by name, of great renown and unconquerable, has recently dwelt in this city.]

क्रमेण सुप्तामनु संविवेश सुप्तोत्थितां प्रातरनूदतिष्ठत् ॥१८॥ (Raghuvaṃśa II.24]

<Notes: 'He slept after she had slept, and rose in the morning after she had risen from sleep.'>

[Key: Following the order (of the actions of the cow) he slept &c. See notes.]

Additional Sentences for Exercise.

सकृत्कृतप्रणयो यं जनः । तदस्या देवीं वसुमतीमन्तरेण महदुपालम्भनं गतो ऽस्मि ॥१९॥ (Śakuntalā 5)

<Notes: अयं जनः generally refers to the speaker. Duṣyanta means to sey: 'This person (i.e. I) once made love (to her, i.e. Haṃsapadikā); and hence have I been subjected to a great taunt with reference to the queen Vasumatī.'>

[Key: This person (see notes) once made love. So I am subjected to great taunt by her with reference to queen Vasumatī.]

कथय कथमियन्तं कालमवस्थिता मया विना भवती ॥२०॥ (Vikramorvaśīya 4)

[Key: Tell me, pray, how your lordship stayed away so long (इयत्प्रमाणमस्यासौ इयान् तं) without (in separation from) me.]

भाव प्रेषिता हि स्वगृहान्महारजेन लंकासमरभुहृदो महात्मानः प्लवंगराक्षसा नानादिगंतागता ब्रह्मर्षयो राजर्षयश्च येषामाराधनायेयतो दिवसानुत्सव आसीत् ॥२१॥ (Uttararāmacarita 1)

[Key: भाव The Sūtradhāra is so addressed in dramas. लङ्कायां समरं तस्मिन्सुहृदः ।

Sir, (this is) because the great king has sent off from his palace his friends (those who fought on his side) in the war of Laṅkā, the great monkeys and Rākṣasas, as also the Brāhmaṇa sages and the royal sages that had come from different quarters, in whose honour (or for whose recreation) festivities were held for so many days.]

विवक्षता दोषमपि च्युतात्मना
त्वैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् ॥२२॥ (Kumārasambhava V.81)

<Notes: दोषं विवक्षता त्वया 'by thee intending to imply a fault.'>

[Key: विवक्षिता Pres. part. of the Desid. of वच्, wishing to mention. च्युत आत्मा यस्य. By thee wishing to point out the faults (of Śiva) and therefore, a degraded soul, one thing was spoken well (properly) about Īśa.]

धिग्विधातारमसदृशसंयोगकारि्णम् ॥२३॥ (Kādambarī 12)

[Key: न सदृशौ असदृशौ तयोः संयोगं कर्तुं शीलमस्य. Fie upon the Creator who unites (brings together) things unworthy of each other!]

आर्य आर्य प्रणिपत्य देवश्चन्द्रगुप्तो विज्ञापयति क्रियान्तरान्तरायमन्तरेणार्यं द्रष्टुमिच्छामीति ॥२४॥ (Mudrārākṣasa 5)

<Notes: क्रियान्तरान्तरायमन्तरेण 'without interfering with your other duties', i.e., at a time when you have no other matters to attend to.>

[Key: Sir, having bowed (or paid his respects) to Your Excellency His Majesty Candragupta says that he wishes to see Your Excellency without being an obstacle to (at a time when it will nor interfere with) your duties (i.e. at leisure). See notes.]

मन्दो प्यमन्दतामेति संसर्गेण विपश्चितः ।
पङ्कच्छिदः पलस्येव निकषेणाविलं पयः ॥२५॥ (Mālavikāgnimitra 2)

[Key: Even a dull person loses his dullness (becomes sharp) by keeping company with a learned man; just as turbid water becomes clear by means of the power of the dust-removing fruit.]

{पङ्कच्छिद् = Strychnos potatorum = Therran = Nirmal. "The ripe seeds of Strychnos potatorum,, known as Therran or Nirmal, can be ground and used as a coagulant to purify water; or they may be rubbed against the inside walls of the earthenware water containers." [Source: -- Accessed 2009-03-23]

पङ्कच्छिद् = Strychnos potatorum = Therran = Nirmal

[Bildquelle: Kirtikar, K. R. ; Basu, B. D.: Indian medical plants with illustrations. Ed., revised, enlarged and mostly rewritten by E. Blatter, J. F. Caius and K. S. Mhaskar. -- 2. ed. -- Dehra Dun : Oriental Enterprises. -- 2003. -- 11 Bde : 3846 S. : Ill. ; 26 cm.  -- Reprint der Ausgabe von 1933, die Abbildungen stammen aus der Ausgabe von 1918. -- Vol. 7. -- S. 2269.]}

भर्तुर्मित्रं प्रियमविधवे विद्धि मामम्बुवाहम् ॥२६॥ (Meghadūta 102)

[Key: O you who are not a widow (whose husband is safe) know me to be a cloud, a dear friend of your husband.]

अथाधिशिश्ये प्रयतः प्रदोषे रथं रघुः कल्पितशस्त्रगर्भम् ॥२७॥ (Raghuvaṃśa V.28)

<Notes:  कल्पितशस्त्रगर्भम 'in the interior of which were weapons kept ready.'>

[Key: After that, Raghu, being pure, slept in the first part of the night, in his chariot, in the interior of which weapons had been arranged. (कल्पितानि शस्त्राणि गर्भे यस्य).]

मनुष्यवाह्यं चतुरस्त्रयानमधयास्य कन्या परिवारशोभि ।
विवेश मञ्चान्तरराजमार्गं पतिंवरा कॢप्तविवाहवेषा ॥२८॥ (Raghuvaṃśa  VI.10)

<Notes: चतुरस्त्रयानं 'a conveyance having four corners,' i.e. a palanquin. चतस्रः अस्रयओ यस्य तत्. मञ्चान्तरराजमार्गं 'the high (royal) road formed by the (rows of) sofas.' कॢप्तविवाहवेषा 'decked in her wedding dress.'>

[Key: मनुष्यैर्वाह्यम् ; चतुरस्रं (see notes) ca तद्यानं च चतुरस्रयानम्. परिवारेण शोभ्यत इति परिवरशोभि ; मञ्चान्तरे राजमार्गस्तम्. कॢप्तो विवाहस्य वेषो यया.

Then the princess, who was going to choose a husband and who had put on her wedding dress, sat in a palnquin (lit. a four-cornered vehicle) borne by men and charming on account of the retinue, and entered the broad (lit. royal) road between the two rows of the sofas.]

अभिन्यविक्षथास्त्वं मे यथैवाव्याहता मनः ।
तवाप्यध्यायसन्तं मां मा रौत्सीर्हृदयं तथा ॥२९॥ (Bhaṭṭikāvya VIII.80)

<Notes: Said by Rāvaṇa to Sītā.>

[Key: As you entered my heart without being obstructed (i.e. I freely gave you a seat in my heart) so you should not prevent me from dwelling in your heart (i.e. as I loved you so you should also love me).]

अर्थानामर्जने दुःखमर्जितानां च रक्षणे ।
आये दुःखं व्यये दुःखं धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः ॥३०॥ (Pańcatantra I.4)

<Notes: कष्टसंश्रयाः 'attended with miseries.'>

[Key: आय Acquisition. कष्टस्य संश्रयाः the abode of trouble or misery.]

{In acquisition of wealth is sorrow, in saving of acquired wealth is sorrow, in getting wealth is sorrow, in loosing wealth is sorrow. Fie upon wealth, the abode of misery.}

हा हा धिक् प्रगृहवासदूषणं यद्वैदेह्याः प्रशमितमद्भुतरुपायैः ।
एतत्त्तत्पुनरपि दैवदुर्विपाकादालर्कं विषमिव सर्वतः प्रसृप्तम् ॥३१॥ (Uttararāmacarita 1)

<Notes: यत् 'since'. The meaning is that, like the poison of a mad dog, this scandal about Sītā has spread everywhere, though it was removed before by miraculous means.>

[परगृहे वास एव दूषणं. अलर्कस्य इदमालर्कम्. हा हा परगृहवासदूषणं धिक् यद्वैदेह्याः अद्भुतैरुपायैः प्रशमितमपि आलर्कं विषमिव सदेतद् दैवदुर्विपाकादालर्कं प्रसृप्तम्.

Alas, alas! Fie upon the infamy attaching to one's stay in the house of another; since the same, in the case of Vaidehī (or attaching to Vaidehī's residence in another's house), although put down (removed) by miraculous means, has again, owing to an adverse turn of destiny, thus spread all round (everywhere) like the poison of a mad dog.]


Abb.: अलर्कः
[Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Image Library (PHIL), identification number #2626. Public domain.]}

यत्र द्रुमा अपि मृगा अपि बन्धवो मे
यानि प्रियासहचरश्चिरमध्यवातसम् ।
एतानि तानि बहुनिर्झरकंदराणि
गोदावरीपरिसरस्य गिरेस्तटानि ॥३२॥ (Uttararāmacarita 3)

<Notes: प्रियासहचरः 'the companion of my beloved', i.e. accompanied by my beloved. गोदावरीपरिसरस्य 'in the vicinity of which is the river Godāvarī.>

[Key: बहवो निझराः कन्दराणि च येषु तानि । गोदावरी परिसरे यस्य तस्य ।

These are the slopes of the mountain, in the vicinity of which runs the Godāvarī, abounding in streams and caves where even the trees and the deer were my relatives and where I dwelt for along time in the company of my beloved wife.]

को वीरस्य मनस्विनः स्वविषयः को वा विदेशस्तथा
यं देशं श्रयते तमेव कुरुते बाहुप्रतापार्जितम् ।
यद् दंष्ट्रानखलांगुलप्रहरणः सिंहो वनं गाहते
तस्मिन्नेव हतद्विपेन्द्ररुधिरैस्तृष्णां छिनत्त्यआत्मनः ॥३३॥ (Hitopadeśa 1)

<Notes: दंष्ट्रा &c. 'having for his weapons his jaws, claws and tail'. तृष्णां छिनत्ति 'slakes or quenches his thirst.'>

[Key: प्रशस्तं मनो ऽस्यास्तीति मनस्वी तस्य । बाह्वोः प्रतापः बाहुप्रतापः तेनार्जितम् । दंष्ट्रा च नखानि च लांगुलं च दंष्ट्रानखलांगुलं तत्प्रहरणमसय । हताश्च ते द्विपेन्द्राश्च तेषां रुधिरैः ।

To a high-souled (spirited) heroic person what country is his own or what is a foreign one? Whichever country he betakes himself to, the same he conquers (makes his own) by the might of his arms. Whatever forest a lion, armed with his jaws, claws and tail, enters, in the same he quenches his thirst with the blood of the lordly elephants he kills.]

धिक् सानुजं कुरुपतिं धिगजातशत्रुं
धिग्भूपतीन्विफलशस्त्रभृतो धिगस्मान् ।
केशग्रहः खलु तदा द्रुपदात्मजाया
द्रोणस्य चाद्य लिखितैरिव वीक्षितो यैः ॥३४॥ (Veṇīsaṃhāra 3)

<Notes: अजातशत्रुः 'Dharma', who has no enemies. लिखितैरिव 'as if drawn in a picture', as if we were so many pictures devoid of the power of movement and retaliation.>

[Key: अनुजैः सहितः सानुजस्तम् । न जातः अजातः, अजातः शत्रुः यस्य one who regarded no one as his enemy (and not one who had no enemies); or अजातः शत्रुः a comp. सुप्सुपा; one who never became an enemy of another. विगतं फलं येषां तानि विफलानि, विफलानि शस्त्राणि बिभ्रति तान् । Const. यैः अस्माभिः लिखितैः इव तदा द्रुपदात्मजायाः केशग्रहः वीक्षितः अद्य च द्रोणस्य &c.

Fie upon the lord of the Kurus and all his brothers; fie upon Dharma; fie upon the kings also who held weapons to no purpose; and fie also upon us, by whom, indeed (as by so many pictures) witnessed the seizure of the hair of Draupadī at that time and today of Droṇa !]

जलानि सा तीरनिखातयूपा वहत्ययोध्यामनु राजधानीम् ॥३५॥ (Raghuvaṃśa XIII.61)

<Notes: 'It (the river Sarayū), on the banks of which are erected sacrificial posts, carries off its waters along the capital Ayodhyā.'>

[Key: तिरयोः निखाता यूपा यस्याः That river, having sacrificial posts planted on its banks, carries its waters along (flows near) the capital, Ayodhyā.]

प्रमदामनु संस्थितः शुचा नृपतिः सन्निति वाच्यदर्शनात् ।
न चकार शरीरमग्निसात्सह देव्या न तु जीविताशया ॥३६॥ (Raghuvaṃśa VIII.72)

<Notes: वाच्यदर्शनात् 'perceiving the censure' (to which he would be exposed). नृपतिः सन् 'lord of men as he was'.>

[Key: Seeing that there would be the censure, that he, being a king (and should have acted as such) died (संस्थितः) after his young wife through grief, he did not conseign his body to fire, along with (that of) the queen and not through the desire to live (after his wife's death).]

Sentences for Translation into Sanskrit

All translations from the Key.

1. A wife should always follow the will of her husband.

भार्या सर्वदा पत्युरिच्छामनुवर्तेत ॥१॥

2. Here is another person coming to wait upon us with regard to another business.

अयमागच्छत्यन्यो नरो ऽन्यं विषयमन्तरेणास्मानुपस्थातुम् ॥२॥

3. Then she was made acquainted with (use अंतरेण) your immodesty by the girl when greatly importuned.

तदातिनिर्बन्धपृष्टया तया कन्यया सा भवतो ऽविनयमन्तरेण परिगृहीतार्था कृता ॥३॥

4. There is a beautiful garden round the city of Puṣpapura.

पुष्पौरं नगरं परितो रमणीयान्युद्यानानि सन्ति ॥४॥

{पुष्पपुर =  पाटलिपुत्र}

5. O (हा) my misfortune ! May only son also is reported to be dead !

हा मम मन्दभाग्यम् । ममैकाकी पुत्रो ऽपि मृत इति श्रूयते ॥५॥

6. He studied Nyāya for three years and seventy-five days, and has now become proficient in it.

त्रीणि वर्षाणि पञ्चसप्ततिं दिनानि च स न्यायमध्यैताधुना च तस्मिन्निपुणः - प्रवीणः - जातः ॥६॥

7. For two miles from Avantī are to be seen beautiful gardens on all sides.

अवन्तीं परितः क्रोशौ सर्वत्र रमणीयान्युद्यानानि दृश्यन्ते ॥७॥

8. Has she not yet recovered her senses? I believe it is impossible without the application of a better remedy.

अद्यापि सा न किं प्रकृतिमापन्ना or प्रकृतिस्था संवृत्ता । साधीयसः प्रतीकारस्य विधानमन्तरेण तद् दुष्करमिति मन्ये ॥८॥

9. What will the people of Maṇipura think of (अंतरेण) my past adventures in that city?

ममातीतानि चेष्टितान्यन्तरेण मणिपुरवासिनां जनानां किं मतं स्यात् ॥९॥

10. It appears to (प्रति) us proper that we should now return to the subject of our discussion.

अधुना प्रस्तुतं (or विवादविषयं) अनुसरेमेत्यस्मान्प्रति युक्तं भाति ॥१०॥

11. Fie upon those who wish to afflict others without any advantage to themselves!

धिक्तान्ये कमपि स्वलाभमन्तरेणान्यान्पीडयितुमिच्छन्ति ॥११॥

12. Woe be to those who follow immoral paths!

हा तान्ये कुनीतिपथं (कुमार्गं) अनुसरन्ति ॥१२॥

13. Rāma dwelt on (वस् with अधि) the mountain Citrakūṭa for several days.

रामः कतिचिद्दिनानि चित्रकूटपर्वतमध्यवसत् ॥१३॥

14. The servant informed the Queen that His Majesty was sitting (आस् with अधि) on the pleasure-mountain, and that he had called her there without delay.

भृत्यो देवीं व्यज्ञपयत् - महाराजः क्रीडापर्वतमध्यास्ते ऽत्रभवतीं च तत्राविलम्बितमाह्वयतीति ॥१४॥

15. When she was herself again, she burnt the body of her dead brother, and then slept (शी with अधि) on a mat for the whole night.

यदा स प्रकृतिमापन्ना (or संज्ञां लेभे) तदा मृतस्य भ्रातुः शवमग्निसात्कृत्वाखिलां रात्रिं कटमधिशिश्ये ॥१५॥

16. That cow now resides (स्था with अधि) in the lower regions, the doors of which are closed by large serpents.

सा धेनुः संप्रति महाभुजंगपिहितद्वारं पातालमधितिष्ठति ॥१६॥

17. The vernal season does not appear splendid without the presence of mango-spouts.

आम्रमञ्जरीणामुद्गमम् (प्रादुर्भावं, सद्भावं) अन्तरेण वसन्तो न शोभते ॥१७॥

18. I do not remember what you said to me after (अनु) the departure of that young sage.

ऋषिकुमारस्य गमनमनु यन्मामवोचत तन्न स्मरामि ॥१८॥

19. What do you say - "There is no Kṣatriya but our Emperor?" Fie upon you, rogues ! Here I take away your banner ; save it if you can !

किं ब्रूथ । अस्माकं सम्राजमन्तरेण न को ऽप्यन्यः क्षत्रियो विद्यत इति । धिग्वो जाल्मान् । अयमहं यिष्माकं पताकामपहरामि । तां रक्षत यदि वः शक्तिरस्ति ॥१९॥

To Lesson IV