The  Student's Guide to Sanskrit Composition

06. Lesson VI

by Vaman Shivaram Apte

Mit den Auflösungen nach dem "Key" neu herausgegeben von Alois Payer 

Zitierweise | cite as:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit Composition (Being a treatise on Sanskrit Syntax).  -- 3. ed. -- 1890. -- 06. Lesson VI. -- Fassung vom 2010-02-11. --  URL:                                                                   

Ursprünglich erschienen als:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit composition : being a treatise on Sanskrit syntax ; for the use of schools and colleges. -- 3rd ed. -- Poona : R. A. Sagoon, 1890. -- 450 S.

A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2009-04-03

Überarbeitungen: 2010-02-11 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Public domain

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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[] = A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

{} = Notes by Alois Payer

Lesson VI

The Instrumental Case.

§ 50.1 The Instrumental case in Sanskrit has two principal senses:

as, ततो देव्या किमभिहितम् (Veṇīsaṃhāra 1) 'then what was said by the Queen?'; संचूर्ण्यामि गदया न सुयोधनोरू (Veṇīsaṃhāra 1) 'shall I not reduce to powder the tights of Suyodhana with my club?' तामेवे दिव्ययोषितं चक्षुषा पनर्निरूपयामास (Kādambarī 131) 'again looked at the same celestial woman with his eye.'

1 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया । (Pāṇini II.3.18) {'In denoting the agent (I.4.54) or the instrument (I.4.42), the third case-affix is employed.' Transl. Vasu, 1891}

§ 51. The instrumentality, which this case denotes, may be expressed by various relations:

(a) The manner of doing an action, or an attribute which characterizes a noun ; आत्मानुरूपां विध्नोपयेमे (Kumārasaṃbhava I.18) 'he married (her) worthy of himself according to the rite'; प्रकृत्या दर्तनीयः (Mahābhāṣya) 'lovely by nature'; माठरो ऽस्मि गोत्रेण (ibid.) 'I am Māṭhara by my family-name'; विषमेण धावति (ibid.) 'walks unevenly'; similarly द्विद्रोणेन धान्यं क्रीणाति, सहस्रेण पशून् क्रीणाति, शतेन शतेन पाययति वत्सान् &c.

(b) The price at which a thing is bought ; as, कियता मूल्येन क्रीतं पुस्तकं 'at what price was the book bought?'

(c) With verbs indication motion, the conveyance becomes the instrument; as, आत्मनः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः (Raghuvaṃśa XIII.1) 'passing through his own abode (the sky) in a balloon.'

(d) With verbs of carrying or placing, that on which a thing is carried or placed is put in the Instrumental; as, स श्वानं स्कन्धेनोवाह (Hitopadeśa 4) 'he bore the dog on his shoulder'; भर्तुराज्ञां मूर्ध्ना आदाय (Kumārasaṃbhava III.22) 'placing his master's order on his head.'

(e) With words of 'swearing' that, in whose name the oath is taken, becomes the instrument; as, जीवितेनैव शपामि ते (Kādambarī 233) 'I swear to thee by my very life.'

(f) The direction or route followed to go to a particular place also becomes the instrument ; as कतमेन गिग्भागेन गतः स जामः (Veṇīsaṃhāra 1) 'in what direction did the rogue go?'

§ 52. With verbs implying 'excelling' and 'resembling', the Instrumental is used with the qualities in which the excellence consists, or the points or particulars referred to in the resemblance; as, पूर्वान्महाभाग तयातिशेषे (Raghuvaṃśa V.14) 'O you fortunate one, you excel your ancestors in that (devotion)'; स्वरेण रामभद्रमनुहरति (Uttararāmacarita 4) 'resembles Rāma in his voice.'

Obs. Sometimes the Lokative is used in the same sense; as, धनदेन सम्स्त्यागे सत्ये धर्म इवापरः (Rāmāyaṇa I.1.19) 'equal to Kubera in (point of) charity (munificence), and like another Dharma (a second Dharma) in truthfulness'.

Abb.: धनदः कुबेरः
10th century
Zereshk / Wikipedia. GNU FDLIcense]

(a) Words implying 'separation from' are usually construed with the Instrumental; as, अयमेकपदे तया वियोग उपनतः (Vikramorvaśīya 4) 'here is the separation from her suddenly fallen to my lot'; so मा भूदेवं क्षणमपि च ते विद्युता विप्रयोगः (Meghadūta 118).

(b) Words expressing 'likeness' or 'equality' are also used with this case; as, धनदेन समस्त्यागे 'equal to Kubera in munificence';  अस्य मुखं सीताया मुखचन्द्रेण संवदति (Uttararāmacarita 4) 'his face corresponds to (is just similar to) the moonlike face of Sītā.' See under Genitive also.

§ 53.1 The Instrumental is used with words expressive of time or place when the accomplishment of the desired object is meant to be expressed; as, द्वादशवर्शैर्व्याकरणं श्रूयते (Pańcatantra 1) 'grammar is learnt in twelve years'; क्रोशेन पाठस्तेनाधीतः (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'the lesson was learnt by him in (i.e. by going over) a Koss.'

1 अपवर्गे तृतीया । (Pāṇini II.3.6) {'The third case-affix is employed after the words denoting the duration of time or place, when the accomplishment of the desired object is meant to be expressed.' Transl. Vasu, 1891}

§ 54.1 When a noun denotes the cause or motive of a thing or action, as distinguished from the means or instrumen, it is put in the Instrumental case; as, गुरौ भक्त्या प्रीतास्मि ते (Raghuvaṃśa II.63) 'I am pleased with thee for thy devotion to thy preceptor'; अतिदवीयस्तया च तस्य प्रदेशस्य न किंचिद्ददर्श (Kādambarī 126) 'the place being very far off, he could not see anything.'

1 हेतौ । (Pāṇini II.3.23) {'When a word denotes 'cause', it takes the third case-affix.' Transl. Vasu, 1891}

(a) The object or purpose also is put in the Instrumental case; as, अध्ययनेन वसति (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'dwells with the view (for the purpose) of studying.'

Obs. The Instrumental which is used with verbs meaning 'to be satisfied,' 'to rejoice at,' 'to be astonished at,' 'to be ashamed of,' is accounted for by this rule; as, कापुरुषः स्वल्पकेनापि तृष्यति (Pańcatantra I.1) 'a low person is pleased even with little'; उभयोर्न तथा लोकह् प्रावीण्येन विसिष्मिये (Raghuvaṃśa XV.68) 'the people did not so much wunder at the proficiency of both of them'; अनेन प्रागल्भ्येन लज्जे (Kādambarī 193) 'I am ashamed of this boldness.'

§ 55.1 Attributes, which show some defect of the body, govern the (word expressive of the) defective limb in the Instrumental case; as, अक्ष्णा काणः (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'blind of one eye'; so पादेन खञ्जः, कर्णेन बधिरः, etc.

1 येनाङ्गविकारः । (Pāṇini II.3.20) {'By whatever limb, being defective, is pointed out the defect of the person, after that the third case-affix is employed.' Transl. Vasu, 1891}

§ 56.1 An attribute, which indicates the existence of a particular state or condition, is put in the Instrumental case to express this relation; as, जटाभिस्तापस्यः (Siddhāntakaumudī) 'he is an ascetic (by the fact of his having) matted hair.'

1 इत्थंभूतलक्षणे । (Pāṇini II.3.21) {'Any mark or attribute, by which is indicated the existence of a particular state or condition, is put in the third case to express this relation.' Transl. Vasu, 1891}

znany. -- -- Accessed 2009-03-31. -- Creative Commons License (by, no commercial use, share alike)]

§ 57. अलं and कृतं, meaning 'enough', govern this case; as, अलमतिविस्तरेण (Veṇīsaṃhāra 1) 'enough of prolixity'; कृतमश्वेन (Uttararāmacarita 4) 'away with the horse'; तस्मात्कृतं चरणपात्स्विडम्बनाभिः (Pańcatantra IV.1) ['Away, therefore, with this mockery of falling at my feet.]

(a) In this sense अलं is often used with agerund; as, अलमन्यथा गृहीत्वा (Mālavikāgnimitra 1) 'enough of misunderstanding (do not misunderstand).' In such case it has a prohibitive force.

§ 58.1 Words like सह, साकं, सार्धं, समं &c., having the sense of 'companionship,'  govern the Instrumental case of that which expresses the accompaniment of the principal subject of assertion; as, त्वया सह निवत्स्यामि वनेषु (Uttararāmacarita 2) 'I will dwell with thee in forests'; अमरसिंधुः सार्धमस्मद्विधाभिः (Uttararāmacarita 3) 'the heavenly river with persons like us'; आस्स्व साकं मया सौधे (Bhaṭṭikāvya VIII.79) 'sit with me on the mansion.'

1 सहयुक्ते प्रधाने । (Pāṇini II.3.19) {'When the word  सह 'with,' is joined to a word, the latter takes the third case, when the sense is that the word in the third case is not the principal but the accompaniment of the principal thing.' Transl. Vasu, 1891}

§ 59. Words like किं, कार्यं, अर्थः, प्रयोजनं, गुणः, &c., expressing use or need, and the root कृ with किं when used in this sense, govern the Instrumental of that which is used or needed, and the Genitive of the user; as, देवपादानां सेवकैर्न प्रयोजनं (Hitopadeśa 1) 'your Mayesty's feet have no need of servants'; तृणेन कार्यं भवतीश्वराणां (Pańcatantra I.1) 'of rich persons (even) some purpose is served by a blade of grass'; किं तया दृष्टया (Śakuntalā 2) 'what is the good of seeing her?'; अप्राज्ञेन सानुरागेण मृत्येन को गुणः (Mudrārākṣasa 1) 'what is the use of a devoted but foolish servant?'

Obs. Pāṇini mentions दिवः कर्म च (I.4.43) i.e. दिव् to play governs the Accusative or Instrumental; as, अक्षैरक्सान्वा दीव्यति 'he plays at dice'; also संज्ञो ऽन्यतरस्यां कर्मणि (Pāṇini II.3.22); पित्रा पितरं वा संजानीते 'he lives in harmony with his father.'


अलमलं बहु विकत्थ्य । राज्ञः समक्षमेवावयोरधरोत्तरव्यक्तिर्भविष्यति ॥१॥ (Mālavikāgnimitra 1)

<Notes: अधरोत्तरव्यक्तिर्भविष्यति 'it will be manifest who is inferior and who is superior.'>

[Key: अधरश्चोत्तर्श्च तयोर्व्यक्तिः । Enough, enough of too much bragging. It will be manifest just in the presence of the king which of us two is superior and which inferior.]

देवेन देव्या च परिगृहीतो ऽहममुना हरदत्तेन प्रधानपुरुषसमक्षमयं न मे पादरजसा तुल्य इत्यधिक्षिप्तः ॥२॥ (Mālavikāgnimitra 1)

<Notes: अहम्  - अयम् Gaṇadāśa, who complained to the king about Haradatta.>

[Key: प्रधानाश्च ते पुरुषाश्च, तेषां समक्षं ; पादस्य रजः पादरजस्तेन । I, who was received with favor or patronized by your Majesty and the Queen was traduced, in the presence of the chief persons, by this Haradatta, saying 'He is not equal to the dust of my feet'.]

शापितासि मम लवंगिकावलोकितयोश्च जीवितेन यदि वाचा न कथयसि ॥३॥ (Mālatīmādhava 8)

<Notes: I conjure you by the life of' &c., if you do not say it in words. - Said by Mādhava, when Mālatī simply nodded replies to his questions.>

[Key: Thou art conjured by my life as well as that of Lavaṅgikā and Avalokitā, if you will not tell it in words.]

आगंतुकतयाश्रुतपूर्व आवाभ्यामेष वृत्तान्तः ॥४॥ (Śakuntalā 6)

[Key: पूर्वं श्रुतः श्रुतपूर्वः; नश्रुतपूर्वः अश्रुतपूर्वः । On account of our being strangers (here) this affair was not heard by us before.]

भगवति तमसे अयं (करिकलभकः) तावदीदृशः संपन्नाः । तौ पुनर्न जाने कुशलवावेतावता कालेन कीदृशाविव भवतः ॥३॥ (Uttararāmacarita 3)

[Key: Revered Tamasā, as for this (elephants cub) it has grown as much; but I do not know how far the two, Kuśa and Lava, have grown by this time.]

चन्द्रापीडस्य सहपांशुक्रीडिततया सहसंवृद्धतया च सर्वविश्रमस्थानं द्वितीयमिव हृदयं वैशंपायनः परं मित्रमासीत् ॥४॥ (Kādambarī 76)

[Key: On account of their having played in the same dust (सहं पांशौ क्रीडनं ययोः तयोर्भावस्तत्ता तया) and having been brought up together, Vaiśaṃpāyana became the great friend of Candrāpīḍa, the abode of all his confidential matters and his second heart, as it were.]

अलमतियन्त्रणया । कृतमतिप्रसादेन । भगवति प्रसीद विमुच्यतामयमत्यादर इति तामब्रवीत् ॥५॥ (Kādambarī 133)

[Key: Away with great constraint, enough of too great a favor; revered lady, be pleased; give up showing this high respect - thus he addressed her.]

उषसि चोत्थाय तस्य जरद्द्रविडधार्मिकस्येच्छया निसृष्टैर्धनविसरैः पूरयित्वा मनोरथमभ्मतमभ्रमर्णायेषु प्रदेशेषु विवसन्नल्पैरेवाहोभिरुज्जयिनीमाजगाम ॥६॥ (Kādambarī 229)

<Notes: जरद्द्रविडधार्मिकः 'an old Driviḍa ascetic.' इच्छया goes with निसृष्टैः, and means 'to the satisfaction of.' अभिमतं goes with मनोरथं 'wished for,' 'cherished.'>

[Key: जरद् द्रविडधार्मिकस्तस्य । धनस्य विसरः तैः । Construe -  धार्मिकस्य इच्छया निसृष्टैः धनविसरैः अभिमतं मनोरथं पूरयित्वा &c.

Having got up early in the morning he gratified the cherished desire of the old Draviḍa ascetic by giving him large amounts of money in accordance with his wishes, and halting in spots delightful all round, returned in a few days to Ujjain.]

Abb.: उज्जयिन्याः स्थितिः
[©MS Encarta]

अलमुपाल्भ्य । आर्य दैवेनेदमनुष्ठितं किमत्रार्यस्य ॥७॥ (Mudrārākṣasa 3)

[Key: अलमु- This seems to be not properly copied down from the Mudrārākṣasa. As it stands, the meaning will be. -- Away with blaming yourself, sir; this was the work of (was brought about by) fate; what hand had Your Honour in this!]

अयि पंचालतनये अलं विषादेन । किं बहुना । यत्करिष्ये तच्छ्रूयताम् । अचिरेणैव कालेन सुयोधनशोणितशोणपानिस्तव कचान् भीम उत्तंसयिष्यति ॥८॥ (Veṇīsamhāra 1)

<Notes: किं बहुना 'why say much,' to be brief.>

[Key: O you, daughter of the king of the Pańcālas, dismiss this soorow. Why waste words! Hear, what I will do.

सुयोधनस्य शोणितं तेन शोनौ पाणी यस्य । In short time shall Bhīma, his hands red with the blood of Suyodhana, tie up your hair.]

स्वहृदयेनापि विदितवृत्तान्तेनामुना जिह्रेमि ॥९॥ (Kādambarī 232)

<Notes: 'I am ashamed of my very heart, now that it knows the whole affair.'>

[Key: I am ashamed even of this my heart, now that it has known the matter.]

प्रवातशयने निषण्णा देवी परिजनहस्तगृहीतेन चरणेन परिव्राजिकया कथाभिर्वनोद्यमाना तिष्ठति ॥१०॥ (Mālavikāgnimitra 4)

[Key: प्रकृष्टो वातो यत्र तत्प्रवातं (स्थानं) तत्र शयनं तस्मिन् परिजनेन हस्ते गृहीतः । The queen, who is reclined on a bed spread in a windy place, with her foot taken in her hand by a maid-servant, is being amused with tales by the female ascetic.]

मदनमपि गुणैर्विशेषयन्ती
रतिरिव मूर्तिमती विभाति सेयम् ॥११॥ (Mṛcchakaṭika 4)

[Key: Setting off even Madana by her graces, this is she who appears like Rati incarnate.]

शुद्धान्तदुर्लभमिदं वपुराश्रमवासिनो यदि जनस्य ।
दूरीकृताः खलु गुणैरुद्यानलता वनलताभिः ॥१२॥ (Śakuntalā 1)

<Notes: जनस्य scil. अस्ति 'belongs to;' 'is possessed by.' 'Then garden-creepers are, indeed, distanced by wild creepers, in point of excellence', i.e. 'nature unadorned adorns the most.'>

[Key: शुद्धान्ते दुर्लभं शुद्धान्तदुर्लभं; आश्रमे वस्तुं शीलं यस्य असौ आश्रमशीली तस्य । Construe - आश्रमवासिनो जनस्य शुद्धान्तदुर्लभमिदं वपुः यदि तर्हि उद्यानलताः वनलताभिः गुणैः दूरीकृताः खलु ।

If such (so exquisitely beautiful) be the form of a person living in a hermitage, then garden-creepers <are, indeed, distanced by wild creepers, in point of excellence.>; see notes (distanced i.e. surpassed).]

शरीरसादाद्समग्रभूषणा मुखेन सालक्ष्यत लोध्रपाण्डुना ।
तनुप्रकाशेन विचेयतारका प्रभातकल्पा शशिनेव शर्वरी ॥१३॥ (Raghuvaṃśa III.2)

<Notes: describe the state of Sudakiṇā when pregnant. असमग्रभूषणा 'not having put on all her ornaments.,' but only a few necessary ones, such as मंगलसूत्र, कंकण &c. मुखेन =  मुखेनोपलक्षिता. तनुप्रकाश 'of dim lustre'. विचेयतारका the night, 'the stars in which have to be searched out,' being very few, as it is nearly day-break.>

[Key: शरीरस्य सादः शरीरसादः । न समाग्राणि असमाग्राणि भूषणानि यस्याः । लोघ्रमिव पाण्डु लोघ्रपाण्डु तेन । तनुः प्रकाशः यस्य तेन । विचेयाः तारका यस्याम् ।

Construe - शरीरसादाद् असमग्रभूषणा सा लोघ्रपाण्डुना मुखेन विचेयतारका प्रभातकल्पा शर्वरी त्नुप्रकाशेन शशिना इवालक्ष्यत ।

She, who did not put on all her ornaments (i.e. had a few ornaments on) on account of the emaciation of her body, appeared, with her face pale like the lodhra flower, like the night when near day-break, having a few stars appearing therein and with the moon dimly shining.]

{लोध्रः = Symplocos racemosa Roxb. = Sweetleaf, Sapphire Berry, Californian Cinchona, China Nora, Lodh Tree

Abb.: Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]


यो मामजमनादिं च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम् ।
असंमूढः स मर्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥१४॥ (Bhagavadgītā X.3)

<Notes: मर्त्येषु असंमूढः 'he among all men, who, undeluded, knows me' etc.>

[Key: He who (being) undeluded, among all men, knows me to be unborn, without beginning and the supreme lord of the world, is freed from all sins.]

किं तया क्रियते धेन्वा या न सूते न दुग्धदा ।
ऽर्थः पुत्रेण जातेन यो न विद्वान् न भक्तिमान् ॥१५॥ (Pańcatantra I)

[Key: What is the use of that cow that brings forth no calf no gives milk; what purpose is served by that son who is neither learned nor pious (or devoted to his parents)?]

Additional Sentences.

अधुनान्या गतिर्नास्ति । अकथ्यमाने च महाननर्थोपनिपातो जायते प्राण्परित्यागेनापि रक्षणीयाः सुहृदसव इति कथयामि ॥१६॥ (Kādambarī 152)

<Notes: अकथ्यमाने i.e. पुण्डरीकवृत्तांते.>

[Key: Now, there is no other course left; if it be not told, a great calamity will result; and the life of a friend ought to be saved even at the cost of one's life; so (for these reasons) I tell.]

तेषु तेषु रम्यतरेषु स्थानेषु तया सह तानि तान्यपरिसमाप्तान्यपुनरुक्तानि न केवलं चन्द्रमाः कादंबर्या सह कादंबरी महाश्वेतया स्ह महश्वेता तु पुण्डरिकेन सह पुण्डरीको पि चन्द्रमसा सह परस्परावियोगेन सर्व एव सर्वकालं सर्वसुखान्यनुभवन्तः परां कोटिमानन्दस्याधगच्छन् ॥१७॥ (Kādambarī 369)

[Key: अतिशयेन रम्याणि रम्यतराणि ।  परस्परस्य अवियोगस्तेन । Not only did the (Candrāpīḍa) in the company of Kādambarī, and Kādambarī in that of Mahāśvetā, but Mahāśvetā also in the company of Puṇḍarīka, and Puṇḍarīka in that of the moon, enjoy, in various delightful spots, those different kinds of a pleasure that knew no end and that were ever new (lit. non repeated), but all of them, enjoying all kinds of pleasures, all the times, without being separated from one another, reached the highest pinnacle of joy.]

अवधूतप्रणिपाताः पश्चात्संतप्यमानमनसो ऽपि ।
निभृतैर्व्यपत्रपन्ते दयितानुयैर्मनिस्विन्यः ॥१८॥  (Vikramorvaśīya 3)

<Notes: Translate: 'Proud women, though they, having first slighted a prostration, are subsequently stung with remorse, are nevertheless secretly (at heart) ashamed of propitiating their beloved ones,' i.e. do not like to openly conciliate them.>

[Key: अवधूतः प्रणिपातः याभिः । प्रशस्तं मनो ऽस्या अस्तीति मन्स्विनी ; a high-minded lady. For translation see Notes.]

कष्टं जनः कुलधनैरतुरञ्जनीयस्तन्नो यदुक्तमशिवं न हि तत्क्षमं ते ।
नैसर्गिकी सुरभिणः कुसुमस्य सिद्धा मूर्ध्नि स्थितिर्न चरणैरवताडनानि ॥१९॥ (Uttararāmacarita 1)

<Notes: Said by Rāma to Sītā, when Lakṣmaṇa said 'यावदार्याया हुताशने विशुद्धिं' 'till the purification of Sītā in fire.' Rāma means to say: 'Pity is it that people have to be propitiated by those whose wealth consists in their noble (untarnished) family, and hence that step (purification) was taken simply to please the people; and therefore what ill we have said of you, does not befit you.' नः = अस्माभिः.>

[Key: कष्टं A pity it is, a hard lot it is. कुलमेव धनं येषां तैः Lit. who have family as their wealth i.e. who attach the highest importance to the maintenance of their family honour. न हि तत्क्षमं ते - Certainly it is not worthy of thee, i.e. proper to be said of thee. Rāma fears that the mention of purification might imply real sin on Sītā's part and hence this remark. For translation of the 1st line se Notes. 2nd line - The natural position of a fragrant flower is (fixed) on the head; i.e. the natural place for a flower to lie is the head; it ought not to be trampled down under the feet.]

Abb.: नैसर्गिकी सुरभिणः कुसुमस्य सिद्धा मूर्ध्नि स्थिति:
Sigiriya = සීගිරිය
/ Sri Lanka
[Source: Ela112 / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons License (by, share alike)]

अथ दुर्लघ्यशासनतया भगवतो मनोभुवो मदजननतया च मधुमासस्यातिरमणीयतया च तस्य प्रदेशस्याविनयबहुलतया चाभिनवयौवनस्य चंचलप्रकृतितया चेन्द्रियाणां दुर्निवारतया च विषयाभिलाषाणां तथा भवितव्यतया च तस्य वस्तुनस्तमपि तरलतामनयदनंगः ॥२०॥ (Kādambarī 143)

<Notes: Every Instrumental is tu be construed with the noun following it. अविनयबहुलतया etc. 'because blooming youth abounds in immodest acts.' तमपि =  पुंडरीकं.>

[Key: दुर्लघ्यं शासनमस्यासौ दुर्लघ्यशासनः तस्य भावस्तत्ता तया । मनसि भवतीति मनोभूः the god of love मदं जनयतीति मदजननः तस्य भावस्तत्ता । मधु Caitra अविनया बहुला यस्मिन् सः अविनयबहुलस्तस्य भावस्त्तत्ता तया । अभिनवं च तद्यौवनं च अभिनवयौवनम् । चंचला प्रकृतिः येषां तानि चंचलप्रकृतीनि तेषां भावस्तत्ता तया । the state of being fickle by nature.

Now, on account of the revered god of love being difficult to be transgressed (lit. the intransgressibleness of the command of Cupid) the capacity of the spring season (lit. the month Madhu) to beget passion and the extreme loveliness of the region, as youth abounds in acts of immodesty, as the senses are fickle by nature, as the desire for carnal pleasures is difficult to be repelled and (after all) as every thing was so destined to happen, the bodiless one (Cupid) agitated him (lit. shook off the peace of his mind) also.]

{मधु = चैत्र = March/April}

विनाप्यर्थैर्वीरः स्पृशति बहुमानोन्नतिपदम्
प्यर्थैः परिभवपदं याति कृपणः ।
स्वभावादुद्भूतां गुणसमुदयावाप्तिविषयाम्
द्युतिं सैंहीं किं श्वा धृतकनकमालो
ऽपि लभते ॥२१॥ (Hitopadeśa 1)

<Notes: स्पृशति पदं 'attains to a position.' गुण etc. 'being connected with (arising from) the possession of a number of qualities', which are not found in the dog.>

[Key: बहुर्मानो यस्मिन् ; तच्च तदुन्नतेः  पदम् च ; यद्वा बहुमानेन युक्तमुन्नतिपदं ; गुणानां समुदयः गुणसमुदयस्तस्यावाप्तिस्या विषया ताम् । सिंहस्येयं सैंही ताम् । धृता कनकस्य माला येन सः ।

A valiant man, even though without wealth, attains to a high position attended with honour, while a miser, although possessing wealth, becomes an object of contempt. Can a dog, although wearing necklaces of gold, possess the majesty of the lion which is manifested naturally and which is the seat (cause) of the attainment of a number of good qualities?]

अलं महीपल तव श्रमेण प्रयुक्तमप्यस्त्रमितो वृथा स्यात् ।
न पादपोन्मूलनशक्ति रंहः शिलोच्चये मूर्च्छति मारुतस्य ॥२२॥ (Raghuvaṃśa II.34)

 <Notes: इतः = मयि.>

[Key: पादैः पिबति इति पादपः ; पादपानामुन्मूलने शक्तिर्यस्य तत् । शिलानामुच्चयः । रंहः (neuter) force, velocity.

Construction 2nd line - मारुतस्य पादपोन्मूलशक्ति रंहः शिलोच्चये न मूर्च्छति.

Away with your efforts, O protector of the earth; your weapon, though employed (discharged) here (against me) will be of no avail; the force of the wind that has power to uproot trees has no effect on a mountain.]

कुलेन कांत्या वयसा नवेन गुणैश्च तैस्तैर्विनयप्रधानैः ।
त्वमात्मनस्तुल्यममुं वृणीष्व रत्नं समागच्छतु कांचनेन ॥२३॥ (Raghuvaṃśa VI.79)

<Notes: विनयप्रधानैः - विनयः प्रधानः येषां तैः 'amongs which modesty stands foremost'.>

[Key:  Do you choose him who is your equal as regards family, bodily complexion, freh youth and those virtues of which modesty is the chief: let a jewel be united with gold.]

लोभश्चेदगुणेन किं पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः
सत्यं चेत्तपसा च किं शुचि मनो यद्यस्ति तीर्थेन किम् ।
सौजन्यं यदि किं गुणैः सुमहिमा यद्यस्ति किं मण्डनैः
सद्विद्या यदि किं धनैरपयशो यद्यस्ति किं मृत्युना ॥२४॥ (Bhartṛhari, Nītiśataka 55)

[Key: If there be greed, why want other bad qualities; if there be wickedness why need other sins; if one has truthfulness why practice penance; if the mind be pure where is the need for bathing in holi water; &c. &c.]

{"55. If a man be covetous, what worse vice can he have ? What sin is worse than slandering ? Why should the cheerful man stand in need of penances ? Why should the pure-minded man require a sacred bathing-place ? What virtue is higher than generosity? If a man possess greatness of mind, what further adornment should he require ? If a man be learned, why should he stand in need of the company of others ? And if a man is overtaken by disgrace, why need he be afraid of death ?" (transl. by J. M. Kennedy)}

अयमार्यचाणक्यस्तिष्ठति -
यो नन्दमौर्यनृप्योः परिभूय लोकम्
अस्तोदयौ प्रतिदिशन्नविभिन्नकालम् ।
धाम्नातिशाययति धाम सहस्रधाम्नः ॥२५॥ (Mudrārākṣasa 3)

<Notes: नंदमौर्यनृपयोः goes with अस्तोदयौ. अविभिन्नकालं 'simultaneously'. These lines show the superiority of Cāṇakya to the sun: 'Who surpasses, by his lustre, the lustre of the thousand-rayed god, which is not all-pervading, and which causes cold and heat in alternate succession (and not at one and the same time as did Cāṇakya).>

[Key: अयं &c. ... नन्दश्च मौर्यश्च नन्दमौर्यौ नृपौ तयोः ; न विभिन्नः कालः यस्मिन्कर्मणि तद्यथा तया । पर्यायेण पातितं हिमं च उष्णं च येन तत् । सर्व गन्तुं शीलमस्य तत्सर्वगामि न सर्वगामि असर्वगामि ; सहस्रं धामानि यस्य स सहस्रधामा सूर्यः तस्य ।

Construe - यः लोकं परिभूय नन्दमौर्यनृपयोः अस्तोदयौ अविभिन्नकालं प्रतिदिशन् पर्यायपातितहिमोष्णं सर्वगामि सहस्रधामः धाम (आत्मनः) धाम्ना अतिशाययति ।

Here is the venerable Cāṇakya, who, overpowering (excelling) all the people, and bringing about the fall and rise of the Nanda and Maurya kings (respectively) at one and the same time, causes his own lustre (power) to surpass that of the sun which causes cold and heat in alternative succession and which is not all-reaching,]

भूषणाद्युपचारेण प्रभुर्भवति न प्रभुः ।
परैरपरिभूताज्ञस्त्वमिव प्रभुरुच्यते ॥२६॥ (Mudrārākṣasa 3)

[Key: भूषणान्यादौ यस्य स भूषणादिः स चासौ उपचारश्च तेन । न परिभूता आज्ञा यस्यासौ अपरिभूताज्ञः ।

A sovereign does not become a sovereign by such outer forms (decorations) as ornaments and other things; a king is (truly) called a king, like you, whose commands are not slighted by others.]

आज्ञा कीर्तिः पालनं ब्राह्मणानां ज्ञानं भोगो मित्रसंरक्षणं च ।
येषामेते षड्गुणा न प्रवृत्ताः को
ऽर्थस्तेषां पार्थिवोपाश्रयेन ॥२७॥ (Bhartṛhari, Nītiśataka 48)

[Key: Enforcement of commands, reputation, power to protect the Brāhmaṇas, knowledge, enjoyment, and the protection of fiends; those who have not gained these six advantages, what is the use of their resorting to a king, or resorting to you, O king. (पार्थिव स्वोपाश्रयेण or हे पार्थिव तवोपाश्रयेण).]

न तेन सज्यं क्वचिदुद्यतं धनुः कृतं न वा कोपविजिह्माननम् ।
गुणानुरागेण शिरोभिरुह्यते नराधिपैर्माल्यमिवास्य शासनम् ॥२८॥ (Kirātārjunīya I.21)

<Notes: describe the qualities of Duryodhana. उद्यतं 'uplifted' or drawn against enemies. His orders are most respectfully obeyed by kings. गुण also means 'a thread.'>

[Key: कोपेन विजिह्यं कोपविजिह्मं ; गुणेषु अनुरागः गुणानुरागः तेन ।

By him the ready bow was never raised (against an enemy) nor was the face made wry through anger; out of love for his good qualities his commands are born on their heads (respectfully obeyed) by kings, like garlands.]

समुद्र इव गांभीर्ये स्थैर्ये च हिमवानिव ।
विष्णुना सदृशो वीर्ये क्षमया पृथिवीसमः ॥२९॥ (Rāmāyaṇa I.1.17-18)

[Key: In gravity (depth) he was like a sea, and in stability he was like the mountain Himālaya; he was like Viṣṇu in valour, and like the earth in patience.]

स बाल आसीद्वयुषा चतुर्भुजो मुखेन पूर्णेन्दुनिभस्त्रिलोचनः ।
युवा कराक्रान्तमहीभृदुच्चकैरसंशयं सम्प्रति तेजसा रविः ॥३०॥ (Śiśupālavadha I.70)

<Notes: refer to Śiśupāla, as described by Nārada to Viṣṇu. बालः 'while yet a boy.' मुखेन etc. 'in face like the full moon, he was like the three-eyed god.' 'Now he being a youth (grown-up man), who has made kings subject to tributes, is, to be sure, pre-emeinantly like the sun (who occupies mountains with his rays).'>

[Key: चत्वारो भुजा यस्य ; पूर्णशासौ इन्दुश्च तेन सदृशः । त्रीणि लोचनान्यस्य । करैः राजदेयद्रव्यैः किरणैश्च आक्रान्ता महीभुजः नृपाः पर्वताश्च येन ।

He, when a boy, having four arms, was like Viṣṇu by his body and with a face resembling the full moon he was three-eyed (like Śiva); and now he, a young man, who has levied tributes from (other) kings is, by his mighty (उच्चकैः) lustre (power) undoubtedly like the sun covering the mountains with his bright rays.]

Abb.: चतुर्भुजो विष्णुः
ca. 1690
[Source: Wikipedia. Public domain]

Abb.: त्रिलोचनः शिवः
Chăm Pa, ca. 800
[Source: DoktorMax / Wikipedia. Public domain]

Sentences for Translation into Sanskrit

All translations from the Key.

1. A king should protect his subjects according to the rules laid down by Manu.

Should protect - रक्सेत्, पालयेत्, शिष्यात् or तन्वयेत्. According to the rules etc. - मनुप्रनीतैः नियमैः; मनुप्रणीतेन विधिना, मनुप्रणीतनियमानुसारेण; etc. ॥१॥

2. Morality says that one should save the life of one's friend even at the cost of one's own life.

स्वप्राण(जीवित)व्ययेन (परित्यागेन) अपि, स्वासुभिरपि, रक्षणीयाः सुहृदसयः इति नीतिः or नीतिविदो मन्यन्ते ॥२॥

3. This man is avarice incarnate; he will never be satisfied with hoarding money.

अयं नरो मुर्तो - मूर्तिमान् - लोभः । स धनसंचयनेनेन - संग्रहेण न कदाचिदपि तुष्येत् ॥३॥

4. Are you not ashamed of your ignorance, and do you boast of your noble birth, not attended with knowledge?

त्वमात्मनो ज्ञानेन न जिह्रेसि - लज्जसे किम् । आत्मनो ज्ञानासहकृतेन - ज्ञानविनाकृतेन - रहितेन आभिज्ञात्वेन - अभिजनेने - कुले जन्मना आत्मानं विकत्थसे - श्लावसे किम् । Or use the plural यूयं etc. ॥४॥

5. This king excels all others in bravery, knowledge, and a desire to keep his subjects contented.

अयं नृपः - महीपालः - राज्ञा &c. शौर्येण ज्ञानेन प्रजानुरञ्जनेच्छया च सर्वानन्यान्नरपालानतिशेते ॥५॥

6. That your orders are borne by other kings on their heads is one great sign of your sovereignty.

यत्तव शासनानि - आज्ञाः सर्वैर्नृपैः शिरोभिरुह्यन्ते तत्तवाधिपत्यस्य एकं निदर्शनं - चिह्नं - लक्षणम् ॥६॥

7. The man took the lamb on his shoulder, and went by the road  to the slaughter-house.

स नरश्छागं स्कन्देनोढ्वानेन मार्गेण वधस्थानं - गृहमगात् ॥७॥

8. I swear by my tutelary deity that I have never before seen your ring.

शपे ऽहं गृहदेवतया यत्तवाङ्गुलीयकं मया न कदाचिदपि दृष्टपूर्वम् ॥८॥

9. I know my servants will come back within fifteen days: for what is the use of their staying longer?

जाने - अवैमि मम भृत्याः पञ्चदशाहेन-हाभ्यन्तरे आगमिष्यन्तीति । यतः को ऽर्थस्तेषां  ततः परं तत्रावस्थानेन ॥९॥

10. Even a sinner is freed from all his sins by repeating but once the syllable Om through ardent devotion.

 गाढया-उत्कटया भक्त्या or दृढभक्त्या ॐइत्येतस्याक्षरस्य सकृदपि तावदुच्चारणेन पापो ऽप्यात्मनः सर्वेभ्यः पापेभ्यो मुच्यते ॥१०॥

11. What is the use of walking with this man? He is lame of his right leg and cannot walk swiftly.

को ऽर्थो ऽनेन नरेण सह गमनेन । स दक्षिणेन पादेन खञ्जो जवेन (or शीघ्रं) चलितुमक्षमश्च असमर्थश्च or चरितुं न शक्नोति-पारयति ॥११॥

12. Away with doubts in this respect. This matter is all but agreed to by my sister's husband.

अस्मिन् विषये-अर्थे अलं or कृतं शङ्काभिः-संदेहैः or संशीतिभिः । अङ्गीकृतप्रायः-प्रतिपन्नकल्पः अयमर्थः मम स्वसुः पत्या ॥१२॥

13. Fie upon you, fool! What is the use of this burden of books to you if you do not read them?

धिक्त्वां मुर्ख-वैधेय । को ऽर्थस्तवैषां पुस्तकानां भरेण etc. ॥१३॥

14. Do not (अलं) censure me; this was not done by me.

अलं मां निन्दित्वा or निर्भत्स्य &c. ॥१४॥

15. Child, do not (अलं) weep; when thy mother comes here, I shall cause thee to be fed with food by her.

बालक अलं रुदितेन । यदा तव मातागमिष्यति तदाहं त्वां तया भोजयिष्यामि ॥१५॥

16. Śakuntalā did not notice the approach of Durvāsas on account of her thinking of her lover.

भर्तृगतमनस्कतया-गतया चिन्तया शकुंतला दुर्वासस आगमनं नालक्षयत्-आचेतयत् ॥१६॥

17. O blind man, what is the use of this lamp to you?

रे अन्ध को ऽथस्तवानेन &c. ॥१७॥

को ऽर्थस्तवैषां पुस्तकानां भरेण ।
Kolkatta - কলকাতা 
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To Lesson VII