Informationsmarktverzerrung durch Fundamentalismus am Beispiel der USA

Kapitel 1: Einführung

5. Christlich-fundamentalistische Organisationen und Pressure Groups

von Margarete Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Margarete <1942 - >: Informationsmarktverzerrung durch Fundamentalismus am Beispiel der USA. -- Kapitel 1: Einführung. -- 5. Christlich-fundamentalistische Organisationen und Pressure Groups. -- Fassung vom 2005-04-19. -- URL:

Erstmals publiziert: 2005-03-23

Überarbeitungen: 2005-04-19 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-04-18 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-04-10 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-04-09 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-04-07 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-04-06 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-03-25 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-03-24 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung an der Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart, Sommersemester 2005

Copyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers.

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Diese Inhalt ist unter einer Creative Commons-Lizenz lizenziert.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung  Länder und Kulturen von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

01. Übersicht

Selbstverständlich erhebt die Auswahl der Organisationen keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Die behandelten Organisationen sind wegen ihrer überragenden Bedeutung oder als typische Beispiele gewählt.

02. Mottos

"The Christian Right's ability to adapt to this political reality is largely a function of its having many different organizations. If one political strategy or style fails to work or inspire supporters, another is waiting in the wings."

[Diamond, Sara: Not by politics alone : the enduring influence of the Christian Right. -- New York : Guilford Press, ©1998.  -- xiv, 280 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN 1572303859. -- S. ix. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

Onward, Christian soldiers, marching as to war,
With the cross of Jesus going on before.
Christ, the royal Master, leads against the foe;
Forward into battle see His banners go!


Onward, Christian soldiers, marching as to war,
With the cross of Jesus going on before.

At the sign of triumph Satan’s host doth flee;
On then, Christian soldiers, on to victory!
Hell’s foundations quiver at the shout of praise;
Brothers lift your voices, loud your anthems raise.


Like a mighty army moves the church of God;
Brothers, we are treading where the saints have trod.
We are not divided, all one body we,
One in hope and doctrine, one in charity.


What the saints established that I hold for true.
What the saints believèd, that I believe too.
Long as earth endureth, men the faith will hold,
Kingdoms, nations, empires, in destruction rolled.


Crowns and thrones may perish, kingdoms rise and wane,
But the church of Jesus constant will remain.
Gates of hell can never gainst that church prevail;
We have Christ’s own promise, and that cannot fail.


Onward then, ye people, join our happy throng,
Blend with ours your voices in the triumph song.
Glory, laud and honor unto Christ the King,
This through countless ages men and angels sing.


Text: Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924), 1865
Melodie: Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842-1900), 1871

This hymn is sung at the end of the 1942 Academy Award-winning movie, “Mrs. Miniver"

Baring-Gould wrote about this hymn:

Whit-Monday is a great day for school festivals in Yorkshire. One Whit-Monday, thirty years ago, it was arranged that our school should join forces with that of a neighboring village. I wanted the children to sing when marching from one village to another, but couldn’t think of any­thing quite suitable; so I sat up at night, resolved that I would write something myself. “Onward, Christian Soldiers” was the result. It was written in great haste, and I am afraid some of the rhymes are faulty. Certainly nothing has surprised me more than its popularity. I don’t remember how it got printed first, but I know that very soon it found its way into several collections. I have written a few other hymns since then, but only two or three have become at all well-known.

This hymn was sung at the fun­er­al of Amer­i­can pre­si­dent Dwight Ei­sen­how­er at the Na­tion­al Ca­thed­ral, Wash­ing­ton,

Klicken Sie hier, um "Onward .." zu hören

Quelle der midi-Datei: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-06

1. Christian Coalition of America

"Danger! Christian Americans are under siege. Schoolchildren are being threatened and adults jailed for the peaceful practice of God-given rights.

It's time to say, enough. Time to regain a voice in government and raise a righteous standard. When you wear a Christian Coalition lapel pin, you give Evangelicals, pro-family Roman Catholics and other concerned citizens strength in numbers. Strength to speak out in the public arena. To train Christian leaders for social and political action. To protest anti-Christian bias. To represent Christians in courts of law and before legislative bodies.

Now Christians can united behind a grassroots movement that will change the status quo."

Anzeige der Christian Coalition, 1990

[Zitiert in: Diamond, Sara: Not by politics alone : the enduring influence of the Christian Right. -- New York : Guilford Press, ©1998.  -- xiv, 280 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN 1572303859. -- S. 77. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

Webpräsenz: Christian Coalition of America. -- Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-02-28

"About Cristian Coalition of America

Thank you for visiting the Christian Coalition of America's website. You have come to the home of the largest and most active conservative grassroots political organization in America. The Christian Coalition of America offers people of faith the vehicle to be actively involved in shaping their government - from the County Courthouse to the halls of Congress.

Today, Americans are bombarded with countless political messages from across the ideological spectrum. Because of this, it is becoming increasingly difficult to separate truth from fiction and right from wrong. The Christian Coalition of America is committed to representing the pro-family agenda and educating America on the critical issues facing our society. Whether it is the fight to end Partial Birth Abortion or efforts to improve education or lower the family's tax burden, the Christian Coalition stands ready and able to work for you.

Our hallmark work lies in voter education. Prior to the November election the Christian Coalition of America distributed a record 70 million voter guides throughout all 50 states. These non-partisan guides gave voters a clear understanding of where various candidates stood on the issues important to them. With this knowledge, millions of voters went to polls ready to make their voices heard.

Our efforts, however, do not stop with voter guides. We actively lobby Congress and the White House on numerous issues, hold grassroots training schools around the country, host events all around the country and in Washington that draw thousands of pro-family supporters from around the nation and organize community activists regarding issues facing their local government.

If you are interested in having a positive pro-family impact on your government, the Christian Coalition of America is your organization.

Please take some time to investigate the numerous resources this web site offers. Your involvement is paramount to our efforts. After deciding how you want to be involved, please contact us by letter, phone or email so we can send you the information you need to be successful.

In politics, every voice counts. "

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-02]

"The Christian Coalition was founded in 1989 as a means towards helping to give Christians a voice in their government again. We represent a growing group of over 2 million people of faith all across America.

Our Mission

  • Represent the pro-family point of view before local councils, school boards, state legislatures and Congress
  • Speak out in the public arena and in the media
  • Train leaders for effective social and political action
  • Inform pro-family voters about timely issues and legislation
  • Protest anti-Christianity bigotry and defend the rights of people of faith

    What We Believe

    Christian Coalition of America is a political organization, made up of pro-family Americans who care deeply about becoming active citizens for the purpose of guaranteeing that government acts in ways that strengthen, rather than threaten, families. As such, we work together with Christians of all denominations, as well as with other Americans who agree with our mission and with our ideals.

    Today, Christians need to play an active role in government again like never before. If we are going to be able to change policy and influence decisions - from the school boards to Washington, DC - it is imperative that people of faith become committed to doing what Ronald Reagan called "the hard work of freedom". We are driven by the belief that people of faith have a right and a responsibility to be involved in the world around them. That involvement includes community, social and political action. Effective citizen activism begins with knowledge - and the Christian Coalition's ability to break down the complexities of politics and convey those issues clearly is what makes us different. Since its inception, the Christian Coalition has worked to provide critical education and information to the pro-family community in order to challenge and equip individuals and churches to make a difference at all levels of government.

    To that end, we continuously work to identify, educate and mobilize Christians for effective political action! Such action will preserve, protect and defend the Judeo-Christian values that made this the greatest country in history. "

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-02]

  • Christian Coalition of America's Agenda for the 109th Congress (2005)
    • Getting votes in the first session of the 109th Congress to confirm President Bush's judicial nominations and confirm any of President Bush's Supreme Court nominees. Filibusters were conducted against 10 of President Bush's circuit court of appeals nominees including Priscilla Owen, Janice Rogers Brown, and Carolyn Kuhl during the 107th and 108th Congresses (2001-2004). After the nomination of the President's nominee, Miguel Estrada's had been filibustered by the Senate for months, Mr. Estrada asked that his nomination be withdrawn. Christian Coalition will also strongly support President Bush's nominations to the Supreme Court and support efforts by Majority Leader Bill Frist to return to Senate precedents whereby if a judicial nominee has the support of a majority of Senators, that judicial nominee should get a vote on the Senate floor. For the past 4 years, only 41 Senators could stop a judicial nominee from even getting a vote on the Senate floor. The Founding Fathers never intended that 60 Senators would be needed to vote on a judicial nomination. President Bush has promised to appoint only strict constructionists (who do not legislate from the bench) to the Supreme Court.

    • Making permanent President Bush's 2001 federal tax cuts, including the marriage penalty tax cut and supporting President Bush's tax reform Helping the Congress make permanent the president's 2001 tax cuts, including all income tax cuts, the marriage penalty tax cut, child tax credit, etc. now set to expire in 2010. In addition, since the American people waste about $300 billion in tax preparation costs every year because of the hugely complicated Internal Revenue Service code and laws, Christian Coalition will support tax reform which could include abolition of the IRS and the federal income tax and replacing it with a flat tax or a national sales tax with people in lower income tax brackets getting refunds (possibly monthly refunds.)

    • Passing the "Child Custody Protection Act" in the House and Senate (i.e. protecting parental notification rights for abortions on minors) Senator John Ensign's bill, "Child Custody Protection Act" had 23 co-sponsors in the 108th Congress. His bill would "prohibit taking minors across state lines in circumvention of laws requiring the involvement of parents on abortion decisions." Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen has a bill which is similar to the Senate bill and she had over co-sponsors in the 108th Congress. Her bill has already passed in the U.S.House of Representatives overwhelming by a margin of 260-161.

    • Helping pass President Bush's Social Security reform (private accounts for young people and up to age 50). Christian Coalition will support Social Security reform which President Bush strongly supports and possibly the legislation to be introduced by Senator John Sununu or Senator Lindsey Graham and by Congressman Paul Ryan in the U.S. House of Representatives. President Bush wants Social Security reform to include turning President Roosevelt's New Deal-era retirement program into a self-financing private investment accounts system which workers could own and control. Right now those receiving Social Security cannot give the remainder of their benefits at their death to their children. The White House is considering letting workers put up to 4% of their payroll taxes into stock or bond funds. It will be similar to the hugely successful federal employee retirement system that now lets workers invest in several stock, bond, or fixed investment securities. In the beginning of the new Social Security private account system for younger people, there would be limited investment choices: three or more, all fully diversified, low-risk funds.

    • Get a vote on Congressman Chris Smith's "Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act" Congressman Chris Smith introduced his "Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act" during the 108th Congress, similar to Senator Sam Brownback's bill. The bill would require abortion providers to notify women who want an abortion 20 weeks after fertilization that the evidence suggests their unborn child feels pain and they have the option to obtain anesthesia for their unborn child in order in order to reduce or eliminate pain. Christian Coalition has made this a top priority to pass in the 109th Congress.

    • Getting a vote on the Marriage Protection (constitutional) amendment in the United States Senate (which was filibustered by Minority Leader Tom Daschle's left-wing Democrats earlier this year), and then getting a vote in the U.S. House again. Although there was a vote on the "Marriage Protection (constitutional) Amendment (MPA) sponsored by Congresswoman Marilyn Musgrave, R-CO, in the U.S. House of Representatives, left-wingers led by now-defeated Minority Leader Tom Daschle, prevented a vote on the MPA on the U.S. Senate floor. Christian Coalition was the only major organization supporting the Musgrave marriage amendment from the beginning when she introduced it in May 2003, and supported a similar constitutional amendment introduced by Senator Wayne Allard in late 2003. Although Congresswoman Musgrave got a 227-186 majority in the United States House of Representatives in 2004, a constitutional amendment needs 290 votes in the House and 67 Senate votes. Christian Coalition will work to grow the votes until it finally passes Congress and is sent to the state legislatures where 38 states are needed to ratify the marriage constitutional amendment allowing it to become the 28th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. One Senator believes that after the huge support for the state constitutional amendments (an average of 71% have supported the 13 state constitutional amendments this year) and the infamous 4-3 Massachusetts Supreme Court decision allowing homosexual "marriages", the federal constitutional marriage amendment could even pass this year.

    • Supporting increases for abstinence-only funding which is now up to about $170 million. Abstinence funding has been increased to $170 million with the help of Christian Coalition. These funds will be used to teach young people the benefits of abstaining from sex until marriage. By law, they are not allowed to discuss any benefits of birth control or condoms in preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    • Passing Congressman Walter Jones' "Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act." Congressman Walter Jones' bill, H.R. 235, got around 175 votes in the House in the 108th Congress. This bill does not affect the 2002 campaign finance law. This bill will liberate clergy from the muzzle imposed by the absolute ban on all speech that may be regarded as "political" and thereby enable them to speak out on all vital and moral and political questions of the day. It will free houses of worship from fear, anxiety, and uncertainty created by the threat that the IRS will impose financial penalties or revoke tax-exempt status altogether says its sponsor. Christian Coalition will fight to get a vote in the first session of the 109th Congress.

    • Passing Congressman Bartlett's First Amendment Restoration Act, H.R.3801. Congressman Roscoe Bartlett's bill, H. R. 3801, the First Amendment Restoration Act (FARA), campaign reform legislation will restore First Amendment rights in the 30-60 day period before elections. The Bartlett bill would repeal an unconstitutional provision in the McCain-Feingold campaign finance reform bill passed by Congress and signed into law by the president in 2002. The McCain-Feingold bill bans non-PAC-funded issue advocacy and other such references to federal candidates in broadcast ads during the 30 and 60 days before primary and general elections.

    • Passing Senator Shelby's/Congressman Aderholt's Constitutional Restora.Act.of 2004. Senator Richard Shelby's (S. 2082) and Congressman Roberta Aderholt's (H.R.3799) "Constitutional Restoration Act of 2004" will restrict the applellate jurisdiction of the U.S. Supreme Court and all lower federal courts to that jurisdiction permitted to them by the U.S. Constitution.
    • Getting a vote on Congressman Henry Brown's "Real and Virtual Child Pornography Ban Constitutional Amendment" in both the House and Senate. Congressman Brown introduced his constitutional amendment to get rid of real and "virtual" child pornography in the past 2 Congresses. Christian Coalition will seek a vote on his amendment in the 109th Congress.
    • Passing Congressman Robert Aderholt's "10 Commandments Display Act,"H.R.2045. Congressman Aderholt's states' rights bill gives the individual States the power to decide whether or not to display the Ten Commandments on or within publicly owned buildings and the bill does not mandate that they be displayed. Christian Coalition will seek a vote on this bill during the 109th Congress.
    • Support Congressman Todd Akin's "Pledge Protection Act" bill. Congressman Akin's bill, H.R.2028, had more than 220 co-sponsors and it will "To amend title 28, United States Code, with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance. It passed in the U.S. House in 2004. Christian Coalition will seek to also get a vote in the U.S. Senate during the 109th Congress.
    • Passing Senator Lindsey Graham's and Congressman Joe Wilson's "Holy Sites" resolution. Senator Graham's "Holy Sites" resolution and Congressman Wilson's similar resolution addresses the protection of religious sites mainly in and near Israel and the freedom of acess and worship in these sites.
    • Passing Majority Whip Roy Blunt's "Charitable Giving Act of 2003," H.R. 7. Christian Coalition will seek to pass Congressman Blunt's faith-based bill passed in the U.S. Senate in 2005. His bill's provisions would mean an additional $4.3 billion in giving to American charities.
    • Passing Senator Sam Brownback's anti-cloning bill in the U.S. Senate. Christian Coalition will seek a vote on Sen. Brownback's anti-cloning bill in the U.S. Senate. The House passed the bipartisan bill sponsored by Congressmen Dave Weldon and Bart Stupak on February 27, 2003 by a margin of 241-155. Senator Orin Hatch has joined forces with Senator Diane Feinstein to come up with their own much-watered down anti-cloning bill. Left-wingers in the U.S. Senate have prevented an up or down vote, with no substitute bills, on the Brownback anti-cloning bill.
    • Get a vote for Congressman Charles "Chip" Pickering's "Safeguarding Our Religious Liberties Act." Congressman Pickering has sponsored "Safeguarding our Religious Liberties Act," introduced in September 2003. The States will be able to make decisions such as the display of the 10 Commandments and recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance. All federal courts, except the Supreme Court, will not be able to rule on such issues.
    • Helping to pass "Holly's Law" to take the abortion pill, RU 486 off market until there is an investigation Congressman Roscoe Bartlett's and Congressman Jim DeMint introduced their bill called "Holly's Law" named after 18-year-old Holly Patterson died after taking the abortion pill, RU486 has bipartisan support. At least 2 other women have died after taking the abortion pill. It had 59 original co-sponsors in the 108th Congress."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-24]

    Abb.: A brochure re: Political Do's and Dont's for Pastors and Churches, 2000
    [Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-10]

    Abb.: Christian Coalition voter guide, Präsidentenwahl 2000
    [Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-10]

    "In September, the Coalition sent voter registration packets to 250,000 churches. At the convention, members organized to distribute 30 million voter guides, in 300 local versions, which they successfully did in October. Christian Coalition executive director Ralph Reed explained that the voter guides allow candidates and campaigners to bypass "expensive and biased media." On one piece of paper, the Coalition makes a chart showing pictures of the Democratic and Republican candidates for Senate, Governor and Congressional seats. The chart simply lists four to six issues phrased as the Right sees them—this year they included abortion on demand; homosexuals in the military; banning ownership of legal firearms; voluntary prayer in schools; parental choice in education—along with the words "supports" or "opposes" under each candidate's picture.

    The Coalition's 1,100 chapters are responsible for distributing the voter guides by identifying sympathetic churches and by finding "pro-family" voters on a one-by-one basis. Roberta Combs, state chair of the South Carolina Christian Coalition, told conventioneers how she has organized Coalition members in 60 percent of her state's electoral precincts. "You are in warfare," she said. "Politics equals people. People equals numbers. Numbers equal precincts. Get ten people to start with. Get a map, voter registration lists, church directories, other 'pro-family' lists." Correlate these lists and identify sympathetic voters street by street, Combs urged, and then go door-to-door with the Coalition's fall voter guides.Combs is typical of many Christian Right leaders. Until recently going full-time with the Coalition, she ran a successful business as an interior designer. She began Working for Republicans in local elections in 1978. Then she ran the South Carolina branch of Americans for Robertson in 1988.

    She put on successful fundraising affairs for the state GOP and they elected her to be their treasurer. She and her army can now take credit for electing South Carolina's new Republican Governor David Beasley.

    In Pennsylvania, Christian Coalition members backed the new Republican governor Tom Ridge, one of the party's so-called moderates. Ridge is pro-choice on abortion, which caused an outcry by some in the Christian Right in Pennsylvania; they backed a minor party anti-abortion candidate named Peg Luksik. Overall, however, the Christian Coalition's strategy was to back any and all Republicans, pro-choice or not. In California they backed gubernatorial candidate Michael Huffington who was nominally pro-choice and who had also supported the removal of the ban on gay military personnel. This game is about power, not principle.

    Now as we face the coming legislative onslaught of a Republican dominated Congress, people on the Left are talking about emulating the grassroots organizing tactics of the Right. This idea is sensible but one does not create a citizen lobbying apparatus overnight. For years, people in the Christian Right have learned to make their activism a regular habit. Not a week goes by that the movement's TV and radio stations plus scores of organizational newsletters don't mobilize people to call and write their elected officials. Here are people who believe in the efficacy of their own small but persistent actions. They think their individual postcards and phone calls make a difference, and they do.

    During the controversy two years ago over Clinton's proposal to allow openly gay military personnel, Christian Right activists shut down the Congressional switchboard and deluged their representatives with mail. It worked, and it worked again in early 1994 when an amendment that would have required certification of home school teachers was attached to a federal education bill. Within a week, home schooling leader Mike Farris went on two nationally syndicated Christian radio talk shows and revved up the phone trees of his 37,000-member Home School Legal Defense Association. Eight hundred thousand phone calls later, only one member of Congress was willing to vote for the amendment.

    Is this the kind of activity the Left could or would emulate? probably not, because these dramatic incidents do not occur in i vacuum. They are made possible by the day in and day out orga nizing the Christian Right does, and they are made possible by tht network of institutions the movement has built over several decades. These institutions include a $2.5 billion a year religious broadcasting industry, a slew of independent book publishing companies, dozens of independent regional monthly newspapers, several dozen state-based think tanks that do legislative lobbying, and an array of legal firms devoted exclusively to Christian right causes. The Left has nothing even remotely comparable."

    [Quelle: Diamond, Sara: Facing the wrath : confronting the Right in dangerous times. -- Monroe, Me. : Common Courage Press, ©1996.  -- 236 p. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN
    1567510787. -- S. 41 - 43.]

    Abb.: A bookmark detailing prayers for the first 100 days of the new congress, 2000
    [Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-10]

    Abb.: Email alert to Christian Coalition members re: expressing concerns to school bard members in Charlottesville, 2000
    [Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-10]

    Der Contract with the Amaerican Family (1995-05):

    "Contract with the American Family

    The Contract with the American Family was a set of 10 social policy suggestions proposed by the Christian Coalition in May 1995. Following on the heels of the House Republican—instigated Contract with America, the coalition believed it was time to shift Congress's policy focus from economic and regulatory issues to social ones. The Contract with the American Family focused on the following 10 areas:
    1. Restoring Religious Equality: Perhaps the most important of the 10, this proposed constitutional amendment would protect voluntary religious expression in public places. While not intended to reinstate mandatory prayer in public schools or Bible reading, it sought to ensure the rights of voluntary and community-led prayers at public events.
    2. Return Education Control to the Local Level: The intent of this proposal was to return total control and funding of education to local communities and school boards, abolishing the federal Department of Education.
    3. Promoting School Choice: Including vouchers, tax credits, and school choice programs, this proposal sought stronger federal support for a wide range of alternative school selection and funding initiatives.
    4. Protecting Parental Rights: Seeking to enact a parental rights act, this proposal was also aimed at blocking the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The proposed legislation would protect parents' right to make most decisions for their children.
    5. Family-Friendly Tax Relief: This proposal encouraged significant reforms in the federal income tax structure for families. It included a parental tax credit, elimination of the "marriage penalty," and reform of the Internal Revenue Service's regulations to allow homemakers to contribute equally with their working husbands.
    6. Restoring Respect for Human Life: While affirming the coalitions desire to see the end of all abortion, this proposal focused primarily on three less comprehensive goals. First, they emphasized outlawing all late-term abortions, especially partial-birth. Second, they called for the repealing of laws requiring states to pay for abortions in the cases of rape and incest. Third, they stressed ending federal funding to organizations, domestic and international, that perform or promote abortion.
    7. Encouraging Support of Private Charities: As a first step in transforming the welfare system into a private and faith-based arrangement, this proposal sought to enhance private giving through tax relief and incentives.
    8. Restricting pornography: Intended to make existing laws tougher, this proposal specifically sought to protect children from viewing pornography, both on the Internet and through inadequately scrambled cable signals.
    9. Privatizing the Arts: This proposal sought the privatization of the National Endowment for the Arts, National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Believing that the federal government should not be the arbiter of "good" or "bad" art. the Christian Coalition proposed the end of public funding for all art.
    10. Crime Victim Restitution: As part of a larger program intended to reduce recidivism in America's prisons, this proposal sought legislation that would require convicted criminals to make restitution to their victims. It would also require states that receive federal money for prisons to ensure that all inmates were part of a work or educational program.

    The contract, introduced in a press conference attended by several high-profile Republican leaders, was strongly supported by conservatives in the House of Representatives. House Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) pledged that the House would vote on the proposals outlined by the contract. Seen by many as payback for the Christian Coalition's strong support of the earlier Contract with America, coalition leader Ralph Reed even made mention of the coalition's million-dollar campaign to pass the earlier contract in his remarks introducing the Contract with the American Family.

    While enjoying considerable support among new evangelicals in congress and the electorate, reaction to the Contract with the American Family was strongly mixed. Many leaders of less conservative religious denominations and spokespersons of minority groups roundly criticized the contract for being a contract with the white middle-class Christian American family, not a broad gesture in the interests of all.

    These criticisms, combined with waning support in a Congress concerned more with economic- and regulatory-oriented legislation, were a prelude to the failure of the contract. The 104th Congress passed none of the proposed legislation. Although several of the propositions have subsequently been passed, instituting the $500-per-child tax credit and removal of the marriage penalty, none were passed under the aegis of religious conservative pressure."

    [Quelle: Kimberly Conger. -- In: Encyclopedia of American religion and politics / Paul A. Djupe and Laura R. Olson [eds.].  -- New York : Facts On File, ©2003.  -- xi, 512 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 0-8160-4582-8. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

    2. The Moral Majority Coalition (TMMC)

    Videoclip: Präsident Ronald Reagan vor einer Moral Majority Versammlung, 1984

    Klicken Sie hier, um den Videoclip zu sehen

    [Quelle der mov-Datei: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-10]

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-02]

    "What We Are All About:

    Following the sweeping re-election of President Bush and a new generation of conservative lawmakers nationwide, a new organization, The Moral Majority Coalition, has been launched. The group’s central premise is to utilize the momentum of the November 2 elections to maintain an evangelical revolution of voters who will continue to go to the polls to “vote Christian.” Essentially, TMMC is a 21st century resurrection of the Moral Majority.

    At age 71, I am committing to a four-year stint as national chairman of The Moral Majority Coalition (TMMC). In addition, Mathew Staver, founder and general counsel of the Orlando, Fla.-based Liberty Counsel, will serve as vice-chairman, while my son, Jonathan Falwell, will serve as executive director. Additionally, renowned author and theologian Dr. Tim LaHaye will serve as the Coalition’s board chairman.

    One of our primary commitments is to help make President Bush’s second term the most successful in American history. He will certainly need the consistent prayer and support of the evangelical community as he continues to spearhead the international war on terror and the effort to safeguard America.


    Our four-fold platform is:

    (1) TMMC will conduct an intensive four-year "Voter Registration Campaign" through America's conservative churches, para-church ministries, pro-life and pro-family organizations.

    (2) TMMC will conduct well organized "Get-Out-The-Vote Campaigns" in 2006 and 2008.

    (3) TMMC will engage in the massive recruitment and mobilization of social conservatives through television, radio, direct mail (U.S.P.S. and Internet) and public rallies.

    (4) TMMC will encourage the promotion of continuous private and corporate prayer for America's moral renaissance based on 2 Chronicles 7:14.

    My new leadership role in TMMC reminds me of a similar commitment I made more than a quarter-century ago. It was April 1979. I had just founded the Moral Majority and agreed to devote five years to its leadership. I actually gave ten years of my life before disbanding the organization in 1989 to focus on the expansion of Liberty University.

    At that time, God burdened my heart to mobilize religious conservatives around a pro-life, pro-family, strong national defense and pro-Israel platform, designed to return America to her Judeo-Christian heritage.

    And I distinctively feel that burden again. Our nation simply cannot continue as we know it if we allow out-of-control lawmakers and radical judges — working at the whims of society — to alter the moral foundations of America.

    During Moral Majority’s heyday, we registered millions of new voters and re-activated millions more. More than 100,000 pastors, priests and rabbis and nearly seven million families joined hands and hearts to reclaim America for God. Many historians believe the result was the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980 and the genesis of what the media calls the “Religious Right.”


    On November 2, my wife Macel and I watched the election returns until early the next morning. President Bush was reelected (despite apparent manipulation of the early exit polling). Eleven family initiatives passed overwhelmingly in favor of traditional marriage, and opposing same-sex marriage. Unprecedented victories in the Senate and the House strengthened the President’s hand for future congressional action.

    Tom Daschle, the Senate Minority Leader who had consistently obstructed President Bush’s efforts to appoint constructionist judges, was defeated. His defeat should serve as a powerful indicator that we have the power to effectively take on politicians who are under the spell of the potent abortion-rights organizations across this nation.

    On election night, I actually shed tears of joy as I saw the fruit of a quarter century of hard work. Nearly 116 million Americans voted. More than 30 million were evangelical Christians who, according to the pollsters, voted their moral convictions. I proudly say... they voted Christian!!

    Christian giants like Dr. James Dobson, founder of Focus on the Family, provided energetic and courageous leadership. Dr. Donald Wildmon of the American Family Association, Dr. D. James Kennedy of Coral Ridge Ministries, Dr. John Hagee of Cornerstone Church in San Antonio, the many national leaders of the Arlington Group, the upstart alternative Internet news sites and more than 225,000 evangelical pastors helped turn out the largest electorate ever. And, I repeat, they all voted Christian!!

    We must now diligently work to multiply our turnout for the 2006 and 2008 elections.

    As national chairman of TMMC, I am committed to lending my influence to help send out at least 40 million evangelical voters in 2008. The thought of a Hillary Clinton or John Edwards presidency is simply unacceptable (and quite frightening).


    Over the past few days, I have been inundated with requests from across America to “finish what you started 25 years ago.”

    With more than seven decades now in the rear view mirror, I can honestly say that I feel the leading of the Holy Spirit to answer that call and to once again mobilize people of faith to reclaim this great country as “one nation under God.” My primary “light of the world” calling is to continue serving as pastor of Thomas Road Baptist Church and chancellor of Liberty University.

    But I am praying for the strength and wisdom to also successfully complete my “salt of the earth” ministry. America is worth saving. Our children and children’s children will hold us accountable if we fail.

    We will be organizing in all 50 states and enlisting and training millions of Americans to become partners in this exciting task of bringing this nation back to the moral values of faith and family on which it was founded. My National Liberty Journal newspaper will serve as a springboard for this great effort.

    I urge my friends around the country to immediately get involved and join me in this four-year commitment, which is really an investment in America, in our children and in our children’s children. "

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-02]

    "Moral Majority Timeline

    1973 - Thomas Road Baptist Church Founder and Pastor Jerry Falwell begins a series of meetings and conversations with theologian Francis Schaeffer (“How Should We Then Live?”). Dr. Schaeffer routinely encourages Falwell to defy traditional evangelical reasoning by taking on a policy of confronting the culture with the Gospel. In the months to come, Falwell begins to meet with conservative leaders, including Sen. Jesse Helms (R-N.C.), to formulate how Christians can begin to influence the culture, specifically in terms of the burgeoning environment of legalized abortion (initiated with the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Roe v. Wade).

    1979 - With the country in a seeming moral downfall, in April, Falwell joins with Drs. Tim and Beverly LaHaye, Dr. Charles Stanley and Dr. D. James Kennedy to launch an organization with a mission of organizing evangelical leaders who will boldly engage the culture. The Moral Majority kicks off with a pro-life, pro-traditional family, pro-national defense and pro-Israel platform.

    1980 - By November, more than 100,000 evangelical pastors, conservative Cath-olic priests and orthodox rabbis have come on board along with seven million families. Add-itionally, the organization mobilizes 8.5 million new voters, largely through church-based voter registration drives, and raises $70 million to continue its efforts. The Moral Majority backs the presidential candidacy of Ronald Reagan and helps sweep him into office in dramatic fashion. In addition, 12 liberal Democrat senators and several liberal House members are also defeated, launching a new wave of political activity within the evangelical community. The political landscape is spectacularly altered.

    1988 - At the end of his presidency, Ronald Reagan has appointed three Supreme Court justices and 378 federal judges and has almost single-handedly defeated the “evil empire” of communism. Continuing a close relationship with Falwell and the pro-life community, President Reagan has enhanced respect for unborn life. Most importantly, he has revived America’s esprit de corps, the combination of pride and purpose that is rooted in the values of the nation’s founding.

    1989 - Determining that he must focus on the growth of Liberty University — which has today grown into an 8,100-student resident training ground for future political, social and church leaders — Falwell announces that he is disbanding the Moral Majority. The “religious right” continues to survive through the following years, but seems to decline and meander during the Clinton years.

    1995 - In February, Falwell launches the National Liberty Journal. The monthly newspaper is designed to inform evangelicals on key moral and spiritual issues of the day. The publication serves as a major tool to encourage hundreds of thousands of pastors and leaders to once again conduct voter registration efforts and get-out-the-vote campaigns in 2000 and 2004.

    2004 - In November, Falwell unveils The Moral Majority Coalition , an organization designed to continue the “evangelical revolution” that swept President Bush back into the White House and saw the election of many pro-life leaders to national office. Referring to TMMC as a “21st century resurrection of the Moral Majority,” Falwell, the father of the modern “religious right” political movement, commits to leading the organization for four years."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-02]

    3. Traditional Values Coalition (TVC)

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 205-03-03]

    "Empowering People of Faith with Truth

    Traditional Values Coalition is the largest non-denominational, grassroots church lobby in America. Founded in 1980, TVC has sought to empower people of faith with truth.

    TVC’s membership of over 43,000 churches bridges racial and socio-economic barriers and includes most Christian denominations. Churches across the United States and throughout Puerto Rico are members of TVC and many participate in our Latino Outreach or work closely with the Asian American Family Alliance.

    With an emphasis on the restoration of the values needed to maintain strong, unified families, Traditional Values Coalition focuses upon issues such as education, homosexual advocacy, family tax relief, pornography, the right to life and religious freedom.

    While Traditional Values Coalition is a lobbying organization, its sister organization, Traditional Values Education & Legal Institute, is a foundation dedicated to educating and supporting churches in their efforts to restore America’s cultural heritage.

    TVC believes America’s strength is in her churches. Pastors and their churches are not barred by law from being involved in the making of public policy. Traditional Values Coalition is a resource for Christians and pastors, providing education on the representative process and up-to-the-minute public policy information.

    Rev. Louis P. Sheldon is the Chairman and founder of Traditional Values Coalition. Rev. Sheldon grew up in Washington D.C. and studied History at Michigan State University. He received his Master of Divinity from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1960 and served for 25 years as an ordained minister.

    Rev. Sheldon currently resides in Anaheim, CA with his wife Beverly. He is the father of four children and the grandfather of nine.

    Mrs. Andrea Sheldon Lafferty, a former Reagan Administration official, is Executive Director of TVC and directs the day-to-day lobbying in Washington. She works regularly with members of the House and Senate and their staffs on behalf of TVC’s member churches.

    According to the Los Angeles Times,"Her energy, tenacity and access to Republican leaders impress both allies and enemies. Even those with unvarnished contempt for the TVC acknowledge Andrea's ability to disarm - and even to charm."

    What Others Have Said:

    "Traditional Values Coalition is a selfless organization. It is committed to its member churches and to those values and beliefs that have made America great!"

    William Bennett, former Secretary of Education and award winning author

    "They are neither on the right or the left. They are on the Bible." Representative J. C. Watts (R-OK)

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    4. Free Congress Foundation

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03

    "Washington is full of "think tanks," places that produce books and papers about particular policy questions. So what’s different about the Free Congress Research and Education Foundation?

    Free Congress Foundation is politically conservative, but it is more than that: it is also culturally conservative. Most think tanks talk about tax rates or the environment or welfare policy and occasionally we do also. But our main focus is on the Culture War. Will America return to the culture that made it great, our traditional, Judeo-Christian, Western culture? Or will we continue the long slide into the cultural and moral decay of political correctness? If we do, America, once the greatest nation on earth, will become no less than a third world country."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    "Policy Centers:

    The Center for Conservative Governance
    The Free Congress Foundation’s Center for Conservative Governance strives to educate American citizens using the principles in which our Founding Fathers assembled in the traditional governing documents, such as the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights.

    Center for Technology Policy
    The Center for Technology Policy represents the beliefs of millions of Americans who have expressed a concern with the invasions of personal freedoms and constitutional liberties in regards to privacy and technology. With the rapid advancements in technology, our society stands to reap enormous economic and societal benefits from the widespread implementation of technical innovation. However, one major obstacle stands in the way - government intervention.

    Center for Cultural Conservatism
    Cultural conservatism is the belief that there is a necessary, unbreakable, and causal relationship between traditional Western, Judeo-Christian values, definitions of right and wrong, ways of thinking and ways of living -- the parameters of Western culture -- and the secular success of Western societies: their prosperity, their liberties, and the opportunities they offer their citizens to lead fulfilling rewarding lives. If the former are abandoned, the latter will be lost.

    Center for Law and Democracy -- Judicial Selection Monitoring Project
    The Judicial Selection Monitoring Project evaluates judicial nominees, reviews decisions of judicial appointees, assesses the Senate's role in the judicial selection process, and participates in the debate over the proper scope of judicial power. It has assembled the largest coalition in history to oppose judicial activism, including grassroots organizations and interactive media. "

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    5. Heritage Foundation

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-15

    "The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank located in Washington, D.C., is widely regarded as one of the world's most influential public policy research institutes.

    Founded in 1973, initial funding came from Joseph Coors, a political conservative and owner of the Coors Brewing Company in Golden, Colorado. Conservative activist Paul Weyrich was its first head and Edwin Feulner has been its President since 1974.

    Until 2001, when it was acquired by the Hoover Institution, the Heritage Foundation published Policy Review, one of the world's leading conservative public policy journals.

    History and major initiatives

    The Heritage Foundation is known for the wide-ranging nature of its work. However, it is perhaps best known for the following two efforts:

    First, throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, the Heritage Foundation was a key architect and advocate of the Reagan Doctrine, under which the United States government channeled overt and covert (and often times illegal) support to anti-Communist governments and/or resistance movements in such places as Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador, Nicaragua and generally supported global anti-communism in an effort to "win" the Cold War.

    Unlike traditional think tank advocacy, Heritage foreign policy analysts didn't restrict their support for the Reagan Doctrine to work from behind a Washington desk. During the 1980s and early 1990s, many were also deeply intertwined players in wars against legitimate regimes, visiting regularly with rebel forces in Angola, Cambodia and Nicaragua to provide rebel insurgents with valued political and military guidance.

    Heritage's support for anti-Communist forces drew public praise from these resistance movements, and some conservative historians believe it ultimately was a contributing factor in Moscow's decision to withdraw from these theaters. In the view of Reagan Doctrine opponents, however, Heritage's involvement in these conflicts vastly inflamed Third World hostilities, fueling even more unnecessary death and destruction.

    The foundation also advanced President Ronald Reagan's belief that the former Soviet Union was an "evil empire" and that its defeat, not its mere containment, should be America's foreign policy objective. Consistent with this thinking, Heritage also played a key role in building support for Reagan's plans to build an orbital ballistic missile shield, the ("Strategic Defense Initiative"), for the United States, more commonly known as "Star Wars".

    Second, in partnership with the Wall Street Journal, the Heritage Foundation publishes the annual Index of Economic Freedom, which measures how free a country's citizens are in terms of property rights, control over their money, freedom from regulation, and so on. The factors used to calculate the Index score are corruption in government, barriers to international trade, income tax and corporate tax rates, government expenditures, rule of law and the ability to enforce contracts, regulatory burdens, banking restrictions, labor regulations, and black market activities. Deficiencies in any of these areas result in a lower score on Heritage's Index.

    Many Heritage Foundation personnel have held, or gone on to hold, influential roles in American business and government, including Richard V. Allen, L. Paul Bremer, Elaine Chao, Michael Johns and Edwin Meese. Other notables include: David Brock (right-wing journalist turned left-wing activist), Todd Gaziano (legal scholar), Stephen Glass (journalist on which the movie "Shattered Glass" is based), Eli Lehrer (law enforcement guru), Robert Moffitt (health care analyst), Nina Rees (education analyst and Bush administration staffer) and Larry Wortzel (foreign policy expert).

    Although Heritage is just over 30 years old, it has assumed a preeminent place among Washington think tanks. While the American Enterprise Institute and the Cato Institute continue to be forces on the right, Heritage is recongnized as the face of conservatism worldwide. The only other organization with any comparable level of influence is Heritage's liberal counterpart, the Brookings Institution.

    Financial support

    Though it boasts enormous clout on Capitol Hill, the Heritage Foundation insists it doesn't "lobby." This allows Heritage to retain tax-exempt status, which, in turn, helped it collect $29.7 million in 2004. Core funding comes from just a few places: In 1995, a total of 31 checks accounted for $8.5 million; another 123 donors supplied $2.6 million more. Through direct mail fundraising, however, Heritage obtains millions more from American citizens. Among Washington's major think tanks, in fact, The Heritage Foundation is the only institution with a large, popular base of funding support.

    In 1973, beer baron Joseph Coors contributed a quarter-million dollars to get The Heritage Foundation rolling. Since then, substantial money has come from the founders of Amway Corp. and a slew of right-leaning foundations and wealthy families with names like Scaife and Mellon. Billionaire Richard Mellon Scaife has been a generous Heritage Foundation donor.

    With a long history of receiving large donations from overseas, Heritage continues to rake in a minimum of several hundred thousand dollars from Taiwan and South Korea each year.

    In autumn of 1988, the South Korean National Assembly uncovered a document revealing that Korean intelligence gave $2.2 million to the Heritage Foundation on-the-sly during the early 1980s. Heritage has denied the allegation.

    Heritage's latest annual report does acknowledge a $400,000 grant from the Korean conglomerate Samsung. And another donor, the Korea Foundation, which conduits money from the South Korean government, has given Heritage almost $1 million in the past three years."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-06]

    "About The Heritage Foundation

    The Heritage Foundation is a unique institution—a public policy research organization, or “think tank.”  We draw solutions to contemporary problems from the ideas, principles and traditions that make America great.

    We are not afraid to begin our sentences with the words “We believe,” because we do believe: in individual liberty, free enterprise, limited government, a strong national defense, and traditional American values.

    We want an America that is safe and secure; where choices (in education, health care and retirement) abound; where taxes are fair, flat, and comprehensible; where everybody has the opportunity to go as far as their talents will take them; where government concentrates on its core functions, recognizes its limits and shows favor to none. And the policies we propose would accomplish these things.

    Our expert staff—with years of experience in business, government and on Capitol Hill—don’t just produce research. We generate solutions consistent with our beliefs and market them to the Congress, the Executive Branch, the news media and others. These solutions build on our country’s economic, political and social heritage to produce a safer, stronger, freer, more prosperous America. And a safer, more prosperous, freer world.

    As conservatives, we believe the values and ideas that motivated our Founding Fathers are worth conserving. And as policy entrepreneurs, we believe the most effective solutions are consistent with those ideas and values.

    We believe that ideas have consequences, but that those ideas must be promoted aggressively.So, we constantly try innovative ways to market our ideas.We are proud of our broad base of support among the American people and we accept no government funds.

    Our vision is to build an America where freedom, opportunity, prosperity and civil society flourish."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06]

    6. Council for National Policy

    "Council for National Policy

    From dKosopedia, the free political encyclopedia.

    The Council for National Policy (CNP) is a secretive forum, which was first formed in 1981, for leading US conservative political leaders, financiers and religous right activist leaders to organize their respective agendas.

    While those involved are from the United States, their organizations and influence cover the globe, both religiously and politically. Members include corporate executives, television evangelists, legislators, former military or high ranking government officers, leaders of 'think tanks' dedicated to molding society and those who many view as "Christian" leadership. Members in many cases are owners or leaders from industry such as lumber, oil, mining, commodities, real estate, the media, including owners of radio, television and print, with all aspects of life covered. Many are involved in education, determining to influence society's direction by direct input with children and youth.

    In its 2002 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) return the CNP describes its activities and purpose as "Educational conferences for national leaders in the fields of business, government, religion and academia to explore national policy alternatives. Weekly newsletters are distributed to all members to keep them apprised of member activities and public policy issues. A semi-annual journal is produced from membership meeting speeches," it states .[1]

    The CNP, which meets three times a year, gathered ahead of the 2004 Republican National Convention. "The real crux of this is that these are the genuine leaders of the Republican Party, but they certainly aren't going to be visible on television next week," the executive director of Americans United for Separation of Church and State, Barry W. Lynn, told the New York Times.[2]

    According to ABC News, "The CNP describes itself as a counterweight against liberal domination of the American agenda." [3]

    More directly it has been described as "a highly secretive... a theocratic organization -- what they want is basically religious rule" (Mark Crispin Miller, A Patriot Act).


    One source, the CNP was formed in 1981 by Texas millionaires Nelson Bunker Hunt, William Herbert Hunt, and T. Cullen Davis.[4] A second source reports that it was formed by Richard Viguerie to rival the Council on Foreign Relations.[5] The council is composed of politically powerful, wealthy individuals. It intentionally maintains a very low profile. One of the conditions of membership is not to reveal the names of other members or the substance of the group's meetings. The CNP bills itself as being the "Council on Foreign Policy for the Right".[6] But, its importance does not lie in producing and promoting an ultra-conservative foreign policy agenda, as many of its affiliates already do that. It is considered by its members as a network that encompasses the entire spectrum of right-wing politics.[7] It provides a "safe" place for representatives of a wide range of ultra- conservative, anticommunist, pro-military organizations--including the executive branch of the White House--to discuss and promote their programs.

    CNP members are found in Christian organizations encompassing James Dobson's Focus on the Family, Bill Bright's Campus Crusade for Christ and it's many branches, Robert Weiner's Maranatha shepherding group, Gideons, Youth for Christ, World Vision, Wycliffe Bible Translators, Billy Graham Evangelical Assoc., Intercessors for America, International Charismatic Bible Ministries, National Evangelical Assoc., National Religious Broadcasters Assoc., Promise Keepers and many more.

    In-depth biographies of CNP founders and past/present officers and many members reveal that many are directly affiliated with or part of such organizations as the Knights of Malta, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Unification Church of Sun Myung Moon, the Church of Scientology, and other cults and organizations.

    At the meetings, talks are given by government officials or key figures in current U.S. policy endeavors sometimes even foreign policy issues.[8] Adolfo Calero attended several meetings and spoke to the group about the Nicaraguan contra situation in 1984.[9] Col. Oliver North, adviser to the National Security Council and key figure in the Iran-Contra affair, spoke to the group several times before joining it as a member.[10]

    The meetings are closed to the public and attendees rarely speak publicly about the proceedings. The agenda of a meeting at the Broadmoor in Colorado Springs in 1982 was filled with CNP members talking to the "already committed" about their favorite topics--Phyllis Schlafly on "traditional values", Maj. Gen. John Singlaub on special operations in El Salvador, Gen. Albion Knight on national defense, and so on.[11] The list of speakers includes most of the major figures of the Right including: Philip Truluck of the Heritage Foundation; Howard Phillips of the Conservative Caucus; beer baron Joseph Coors; conservative commentator and frequent Presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan; Frank Shakespeare, chairman of Heritage Foundation; direct mail wizard Richard Viguerie; Jerry Falwell of the Moral Majority; the president of Amway Corp, Richard DeVos; Neal Blair, president of Free the Eagle; John (Terry) Dolan, chairman of the National Conservative Political Action Committee, Jeane Kirkpatrick, then U.S. delegate to the United Nations; and from the Christian Broadcasting Network, evangelist Pat Robertson.[12] ..."

    While many involved in the CNP have denied political activity in their respective organizations, the role of the CNP appears to be that of a policy and funding conduit for the Religious Right projects, both political and religious. Many would view many involved as representative of born-again Christians. However, one of the intents of the CNP seems to be that of appearing to be a mouthpiece of "true believers", while in reality pushing a decidedly secular political agenda yet claim, rather, to being conservative, holding 'traditional values' and family orientated. The CNP's strategy is distinctly based on many of the theories of the Strausian to propagate the idea of transforming the United States back to it's 'godly' heritage, its actions appear to be pushing a raw capitalist and expansionist policy coupled with an aggressive authoritarian approach to governance. 

    In the CNP Directories for 1984-1985 and also 1996, it is stated that:  "The Council for National Policy is an educational foundation registered under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations to the CNP are tax-deductable as charitable contributions, less $10 per year for your subscription to Policy Counsel" 

    CNP Action, Inc., is a (501)(c)(4), a branch of the CNP, is exempt from taxes, but contributions to it are not deductible. CNP Action, Inc. can lobby and conduct other political activity, which means that one cannot say that the CNP merely meets to discuss problems of the day. They are there to provide united solutions to political agendas.. CNP members who lobby usually do so in their own name, or in the name of the organization they head. The newsletter of CNP Action, Inc., Capitol Hill Report, costs $300 a year and keeps members informed of needed action and political victories. From the now defunct Unofficial Council for National Policy web site, published by the Institute for First Amendment Studies:   CNP Action, Inc. also sponsors standing committee workshops at CNP conferences which provide a vehicle for members to work together to influence crucial public policy decisions. According to a CNP memo, attendees at these workshops "formulate strategies and execute plans to make a difference on the issues where we can have real impact."    The six permanent standing committees are:

    • Family co-chaired by Dr. James Dobson of Focus on the Family and Phyllis Schlafly of Eagle Forum.
    • Law and Justice co-chaired by former Attorney General Edwin Meese III and former Texas Court of Appeals judge Paul Pressler. 
    • Economics co-chaired by former Office of Management and Budget director Jim Miller and Reed Larson of the National Right to Work Committee. 
    • Defense and foreign policy co-chaired by Sen. Jon Kyl (R-AZ) and Howard Phillips of Conservative Caucus.
    • Institutional reform co-chaired by former California state senator H.L. Richardson and direct mail expert Richard Viguerie.
    • Environment chaired by former Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of Energy Don Hodel." 

    According to that same source, the CNP Rules and Regulations are as follows: 

    "In order to "allow open, uninhibited remarks" from the speakers, CNP members must adhere to strict rules regarding the meetings. A memorandum from executive director Morton C. Blackwell listed the rules. They are: 
    • Special guests may attend only with advance unanimous approval of the Executive Committee. 
    • The solicitation of funds on a one-to-one basis is prohibited at meetings. 
    • Council meetings are closed to the media and the general public. The media should not know when or where we meet or who takes part in our programs, before or after a meeting. 
    • Speakers' remarks at Council meetings are off the record and not for circulation later, except with special permission.
    • Members and guests are requested to keep in their personal possession their registration packets and other materials distributed at the meeting. 
    • Our membership list is strictly confidential and should not be shared outside the Council.
    • Fundraising from the list is also prohibited. 
    • Members are asked to avoid organizing and attending formal meetings of other groups or organizations in the same city before, during or immediately after a Council meeting.

    The CNP proper is composed of an Executive Committee with Officers, the Board of Governors, regular members and a separate Youth Council whose members must be under the age of 30. Membership does not come cheap, which fits with the financial status of those involved. The cost for regular members is $1500 per year, Board of Governors pay $5000 per year, and Youth Council members are required to pay $100 per year. According to their 1984-1985 Annual Directory, their Board of Governors meets about four times a year. 

    One doesn't ask to join the CNP. One must be recruited by a CNP member and is contingent on a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee. Referring to their Nomination Process, individuals must be nominated by a member, and it must be seconded in order to begin the process to be accepted into the group. A résumé or biographical information must be attached to the Nomination Form. 

    In the Post-nomination process, once the above requirements are met, the nominees names are placed on a ballot for a confidential vote by the CNP Executive Committee, which appears to be composed of thirteen or fourteen members, including the Officers. That vote must be unanimous for a nominee to be invited to membership.

    Granted, there are most likely sincere Christians who have been invited to become a part of this ecumenical group. The lure of building a Theocracy, which many desire, is simply part of the deception. It's easy to sell the idea that uniting with various groups to find a common ground will result in turning a "morally deficient" society into a more "conservative minded" one.


    "The media should not know when or where we meet or who takes part in our programs, before of after a meeting," the New York Times reported.[13]


    CNP is a 501c3 non-profit organisation. For the year ending December 31, 2002, CNP income was $1,240,377. [16].

    According to Media Transparency between 1995 and 2002 the CNP received $125,000 (unadjusted for inflation) from the Richard and Helen DeVos Foundation and the Castle Rock Foundation. In 2000 the Castle Rock Foundation paid a membership fee of $10,000. [17]

    The CNP also has a related 501c4 organisation CNP Action Inc.. CNP Action re-imbursed CNP $16,563 for the use of its facilities with and $39,457 of staff time.

    Contact information

    10329-A Democracy Lane
    Fairfax, Virginia 22030
    Phone: 703 890 0113

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06]

    7. American Family Association (AFA)

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03

    Motto: Working Together We Can Work Wonders

    "Who is AFA?

    AFA is for people who are tired of cursing the darkness and who are ready to light a bonfire. We are a non-profit (501(c)(3)) organization founded in 1977 by Don Wildmon. The American Family Association represents and stands for traditional family values, focusing primarily on the influence of television and other media – including pornography – on our society.

    AFA believes that the entertainment industry, through its various products, has played a major role in the decline of those values on which our country was founded and which keep a society and its families strong and healthy. For example, over the last 25 years we have seen the entertainment industry "normalize" and glorify premarital sex. During that time we have suffered a dramatic increase in teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS and abortion as a means of birth control.

    We believe in holding accountable the companies which sponsor programs attacking traditional family values. We also believe in commending those companies which act responsibly regarding programs they support."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    Has AFA Made an Impact?

    The impact of AFA is recognized nationwide. Don Wildmon and other AFA personnel have appeared on programs such as Good Morning America, The Today Show, MacNeill Lehrer Report, Nightline, The 700 Club, Meet the Press, Crossfire, and Focus on the Family. AFA is a long-time member of the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability.

    • Disney/ABC cancels the pro-homosexual show Ellen, for "lack of ratings." AFA led the campaign to encourage responsible advertisers to drop from the show.
    • AFA and other pro-family groups sponsored a rally in support of Judge Roy Moore of Alabama who refused to remove the Ten Commandments from his courtroom.
    • AFA leads the effort to clean up Howard Stern Radio Show. To date, over 2/3rds off all advertisers dropped from the show in monitored areas.
    • AFA promotes Pornography Awareness Week.
    • AFA distributes 400,000 copies of the the "Fight Back Book," a comprehensive resource guide of TV advertisers, products and addresses.
    • AFA supports and promotes Shatter the Silence, a national observance to bring attention to religious persecution throughout the world.
    • AFA leads efforts to expose abuses of tax dollars by National Endowment for the Arts.
    • The 43 Federal Prisons removed porn magazines from their commissaries after efforts by AFA supporters.
    • The Southland Corporation, owners and franchisers of the 7-Eleven convenience store chain, along with 30,000 other convenience stores pulled porn magazines from shelves after intensive boycotting and picketing by AFA.
    • In 1994, AFA launched a "war on divorce," by helping develop and distribute the Marriage Savers video series.
    • AFA has promoted successful boycotts of several national advertisers because they were leading sponsors of TV sex, violence and profanity. Because of the boycotts, some companies - including Burger King, Clorox and S. C. Johnson - have changed their advertising policies.

    Does AFA Hate Homosexuals?

    Absolutely Not! The same Holy Bible that calls us to reject sin, calls us to love our neighbor. It is that love that motivates us to expose the misrepresentation of the radical homosexual agenda and stop its spread though our culture. AFA has sponsored several events reaching out to homosexuals and letting them know there is love and healing at the Cross of Christ.

    Does AFA Support Censorship?

    AFA does not support "censorship." Censorship, by definition is government imposed. What AFA does support is responsibility. Producers and advertisers alike realize that what people see and hear does affect them. (If this were not true, they would not pay the astronomical fees for advertising.) Our belief is that if we can encourage advertisers to sponsor only quality programming, then networks and producers will not have the financial encouragement to produce shows diametrically opposed to the traditional family."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    8. Focus on the Family

    Abb.: Maxine Sieleman
    [Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-18]

    "I think women are the key to turning this nation around. I firmly believe that this is why Satan went to Eve, not Adam. I think the influence that women have on society Satan knew back in the Garden of Eden. He knew that if he could convince Eve, she could convince Adam. And so, therefore, if Satan can deceive women about the role God created them for, then the women will be able to confuse and influence men. I firmly believe the role of a woman today is to nurture our next generation. She has the power within her hands to either make or break a nation. A good woman can make a bad man good, but a bad woman can make a good man bad. A woman has tremendous influence upon her husband and her children. That frightens me, in a way, because I think women today have been confused about their roles as women. The secret to a woman's role, I believe, is authority and being submissive. And I feel that just as God asked the woman to bear children because He knew that she wouldn't want to put up with a pregnant man for nine months or He knew that a man could not tolerate the pain of having a child, God also asked her to be submissive, which is one of the hardest things that a woman is asked to do. But therein comes real peace. As we submit to God and become all we can be under God's authority, we find fulfillment. There's no limit to what women can do today."

    Maxine Sieleman, head of the Iowa chapter of Concerned Women for America-- Zitiert in: Balmer, Randall Herbert <1954 - >: Mine eyes have seen the glory : a journey into the evangelical subculture in America. -- 3rd ed.  -- New York : Oxford University Press, ©2000.  -- xviii, 327 S. ; 21 cm.  -- ISBN: 0195131800. -- S. 157. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03

    "Welcome to Focus on the Family

    Focus on the Family began in 1977 in response to Dr. James Dobson's increasing concern for the American family. A Ph.D. in child development (University of Southern California), he had served 14 years as associate clinical professor of pediatrics at the USC School of Medicine and a concurrent 17 years on the attending staff of Los Angeles Children's Hospital in the divisions of Child Development and Medical Genetics. What he had seen included massive internal and external pressures on American households, causing unprecedented disintegration. Yet there seemed to be no comprehensive, rational and biblically based conception of the family for those in greatest need.

    From a two-room suite in Arcadia, Calif., Dr. Dobson began with radio—a 25-minute weekly program heard on only a few dozen stations. Focus on the Family has since become an international organization with more than 74 different ministries requiring nearly 1,300 employees. On the now-daily broadcast heard on over 6,000 facilities worldwide, Dr. Dobson still explores family issues, usually with one or more recognized experts as guests.

    Meanwhile, other parts of the organization produce six additional broadcasts, ten magazines sent to more than 2.3 million people a month, award-winning books, films and videos. Focus also responds to as many as 55,000 letters a week, offers professional counseling and referrals to a network of 1,500 therapists, and addresses public policy and cultural issues.

    Dr. Dobson's method attempts to "turn hearts toward home" by reasonable, biblical and empirical insights so people will be able to discover the founder of homes and the creator of families: Jesus Christ."

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    "Our Guiding Principles

    Since Focus on the Family's primary reason for existence is to spread the Gospel of Jesus Christ through a practical outreach to homes, we have firm beliefs about both the Christian faith and the importance of the family. This ministry is therefore based upon five guiding philosophies that are apparent at every level throughout the organization. These "pillars" are drawn from the wisdom of the Bible and the Judeo-Christian ethic, rather than from the humanistic notions of today's theorists. In short, Focus on the Family is a reflection of what we believe to be the recommendations of the Creator Himself, who ordained the family and gave it His blessing.

    We believe that the ultimate purpose in living is to know and glorify God and to attain eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord, beginning within our own families and then reaching out to a suffering humanity that does not know of His love and sacrifice.

    We believe that the institution of marriage was intended by God to be a permanent, lifelong relationship between a man and a woman, regardless of trials, sickness, financial reverses or emotional stresses that may ensue.

    We believe that children are a heritage from God and a blessing from His hand. We are therefore accountable to Him for raising, shaping and preparing them for a life of service to His Kingdom and to humanity.

    We believe that human life is of inestimable worth and significance in all its dimensions, including the unborn, the aged, the widowed, the mentally handicapped, the unattractive, the physically challenged and every other condition in which humanness is expressed from conception to the grave.

    We believe that God has ordained three basic institutions — the church, the family and the government — for the benefit of all humankind. The family exists to propagate the race and to provide a safe and secure haven in which to nurture, teach and love the younger generation. The church exists to minister to individuals and families by sharing the love of God and the message of repentance and salvation through the blood of Jesus Christ. The government exists to maintain cultural equilibrium and to provide a framework for social order.

    Our commitment to these principles is apparent at every level throughout the organization. The values and techniques taught to parents are drawn from the wisdom of the Bible and Judeo-Christian ethic, rather than from the humanistic notions of today's theorists. In short, Focus on the Family is a reflection of what we believe to be the recommendations of the Creator Himself, who ordained the family and gave it His blessing."

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    The neutrality of this article is disputed.
    Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

    Focus on the Family is a US Evangelical Christian group founded by Dr. James Dobson and based in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The organization is a major component of the American Christian right and is highly active in promoting the election of Christian conservative politicians, especially members of the US Republican Party.

    Additionally, "Focus on the Family" broadcasts a national radio show of the same name hosted by Dobson or aides. The program has a range of themes, such as Christian-oriented assistance for victims of rape or childhood abuse; parenting difficulties; child adoption; husband/wife roles; family history and traditions; struggles with addictions (and quasi-addictions) to gambling, pornography, alcohol, and drugs; and many other themes. When programs deal with civic issues, listeners often respond to these programs by contacting political leaders. Such conservative evangelical activity has been a key factor in the right-ward political slant of US politics, including the re-election of President George W. Bush.

    "Focus on the Family" is one of a number of Evangelical para-church organizations that have arisen in the last generation. Their stated aim is to not start a new church or denomination, but to work interdenominationally to support and strengthen local churches.

    The group supports the teaching of traditional family values as expressed in their interpretation of historic Christian faith. It advocates school prayer and opposes banning corporal punishment of children. It strongly opposes abortion, homosexuality, pornography and juvenile sexual behavior. The organization seeks to strengthen the family as they understand it - a married father and mother, and their child or children - as a societal institution, and believes the keystone is having a personal faith in Jesus.

    Leadership for the organization was provided by Dobson alone until 2003. In 2003, Donald P. Hodel became president and CEO, tasked with the day to day operations. This left Dobson, as Chairman of the Focus Board of Directors, with chiefly creative and speaking duties.

    "Focus on the Family" began in 1977 out of a modest office in Arcadia, California. It soon outgrew that facility and began acquiring space in both Arcadia and in nearby Monrovia, California as its radio program grew in listenership. By 1990 the group needed even more space, and relocated to a new office complex in Pomona, California that was supposed to last the organization for many years. Further growth caused by increased listenership and readership of its books and magazines caused the organization to look for even more room to serve those looking for help from it. In September 1993, having relocated to temporary quarters in various locations in Colorado Springs in the previous months, "Focus on the Family" dedicated its main building on an expansive 49-acre (200,000 m²) site.

    Currently its three office buildings have a combined space of over 526,000 square feet (49,000 m²) housing over 1300 employees. One of the buildings is largely used for receiving telephone calls from listeners and providing requested assistance; this activity engages the largest segment of its employees.

    A branch of "Focus on the Family" also exists in Canada, which formed in 1983 and based in Langley, British Columbia. Their goals are the same: to elect pro-family conservative politicians in Canada.

    The organization's facilities are open for tours by the public Monday through Saturdays, excepting certain holidays. A bookstore and cafeteria are onsite, as is the child-oriented Whit's End Soda Shoppe which serves ice cream and "Wodfamchocsod" (world famous chocolate soda) made famous by the Adventures in Odyssey children's radio theatre show produced by "Focus on the Family".

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    9. Family Research Council (FRC)

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    Motto: Defending Family, Faith, and Freedom

    "The Family Research Council (FRC) champions marriage and family as the foundation of civilization, the seedbed of virtue, and the wellspring of society. FRC shapes public debate and formulates public policy that values human life and upholds the institutions of marriage and the family. Believing that God is the author of life, liberty, and the family, FRC promotes the Judeo-Christian worldview as the basis for a just, free, and stable society.

    Core Principles

    • God exists and is sovereign over all creation. He created human beings in His image. Human life is, therefore, sacred and the right to life is the most fundamental of political rights.
    • Life and love are inextricably linked and find their natural expression in the institutions of marriage and the family.
    • Government has a duty to promote and protect marriage and family in law and public policy.
    • The American system of law and justice was founded on the Judeo-Christian ethic.
    • American democracy depends upon a vibrant civil society composed of families, churches, schools, and voluntary associations.

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    "The Family Research Council (FRC) champions marriage and family as the foundation of civilization, the seedbed of virtue, and the wellspring of society. FRC shapes public debate and formulates public policy that values human life and upholds the institutions of marriage and the family. Believing that God is the author of life, liberty, and the family, FRC promotes the Judeo-Christian worldview as the basis for a just, free, and stable society.

    The Early Years

    The idea of the Family Research Council originated at the 1980 White House Conference on Families. Among the conferees, James Dobson stood out because of his rare combination of Christian social values and academic and professional credentials. A practicing clinical psychologist and noted author, Dobson had recently transitioned into radio broadcasting and also launched a nonprofit, family service organization. He felt that the time was ripe to establish an organization that would drive the national debate on family issues. In 1983, the Family Research Council incorporated as a nonprofit educational institution in the District of Columbia; its founding board included Dobson and two noted psychiatrists, Armand Nicholoi Jr. of Harvard University and George Rekers of the University of South Carolina.

    Under the leadership of Gerry Regier, a former Reagan Administration official at the Department of Health and Human Services, FRC began to link policy makers with researchers and professionals from a variety of disciplines. Gary Bauer, a domestic policy advisor to President Reagan, succeeded Regier in 1988 and by the mid-1990s the organization had grown into a $10 million operation with a nationwide network of support.

    After Bauer resigned to seek public office in 2000, the board appointed Ken Connor -- a prominent attorney from Tallahassee and former Florida gubernatorial candidate -- to lead FRC. As a pro-life advocate, Connor had served as president and board chairman of Florida Right to Life, vice chairman of Americans United for Life, and board chairman of Care Net, an umbrella organization for five hundred pre-natal care centers. Under Connor's tenure, FRC launched the Center for Human Life and Bioethics and the Center for Marriage and Family, thereby reaffirming FRC's commitment to provide the nation's lawmakers with critical research on public policy affecting the family.

    Rolling Up the Sleeves

    In July of 2003, Connor resigned to return to the practice of law and was succeeded by veteran pro-family activist and policy maker Tony Perkins. Described as a legislative pioneer by the national media, Perkins had a significant impact on Louisiana politics as a two-term state representative and as a candidate for the United States Senate in 2002. Recognized as the leading conservative voice in the Louisiana Legislature, Perkins had been the main opponent to the state's gambling industry and one of the state's most vocal pro-life advocates. In an effort to address the growing social problems brought about by the instability of marriage and no-fault divorce, he authored and passed the nation's first Covenant Marriage law. Perkins is the fourth president in FRC's 20 year history. He and his wife have four children."

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    10. Eagle Forum

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    "Eagle Forum supports American sovereignty

    We oppose all encroachments against American sovereignty through treaties (such as the International Criminal Court) and United Nations conferences (such as those aimed at imposing energy restrictions on the U.S., registering privately owned guns, imposing global taxes, or promoting feminist goals).

    We oppose sending U.S. troops to participate in foreign "engagements" or wars unless U.S. national security is at stake and Congress's constitutional power is respected.

    We support the deployment of an anti-ballistic missile defense to protect American lives.

    We support establishing English as our official language.

    Eagle Forum supports American freedoms

    We support large-scale reduction in income taxes.

    We support the immediate cessation of electronic profiling, i.e., entering personal information about law-abiding citizens on government databases or vaccine registries.

    We support putting control of health care spending in the hands of individuals by making health insurance tax deductible for all persons, not just for employers.

    We support the private enterprise system and reject the false dogma that tax-and-spend government can solve our social and economic problems.

    Eagle Forum supports the Constitution

    We oppose all efforts to call a new Constitutional Convention that could rewrite our U.S. Constitution.

    We support the sanctity of human life as a gift from our Creator, as proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence.

    We support congressional action to curb the Imperial Judiciary by refusing to confirm activist judges and repealing federal laws that diminish the Tenth Amendment.

    We support the right of individuals to keep and bear arms, as guaranteed in the Second Amendment.

    We oppose statehood for the District of Columbia or Puerto Rico.

    We support making elections honest by requiring positive identification for voters, cleaning up registration rolls, and enforcing ballot security.

    Eagle Forum exposes the radical feminists

    We honor the institution of marriage and the role of the fulltime homemaker.

    Eagle Forum successfully led the ten-year battle to defeat the misnamed Equal Rights Amendment with its hidden agenda of tax-funded abortions and same-sex marriages.

    Eagle Forum supports traditions education

    Every child should be able to read by the end of the first grade and should be taught to read using phonics. We urge parents to teach their own children to read before they enter school. Reducing illiteracy is an Eagle Forum priority.

    We oppose and deplore the dumbing down of the academic curriculum through fads such as Outcome-Based Education and self-esteem courses, and we oppose liberal propaganda in the curriculum through global education and Political Correctness.

    We support parents' rights to guide the education of their own children, to protect their children against immoral instruction and materials, and to home-school without oppressive government regulation.

    We oppose federal control of the public school classroom through Goals 2000, School-to-Work, national tests, or national standards.

    Eagle Forum was a primary factor in passing the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment, and we strongly support its enforcement to protect children against psychological testing without parental consent.

    We oppose the feminist goals of federally financed and regulated child care and the feminization of the military.

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    11. Concerned Women for America (CWA)

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    "CWA is built on prayer and action.

    We are the nation's largest public policy women's organization with a rich 25-year history of helping our members across the country bring Biblical principles into all levels of public policy.

    What We Do

    We help people focus on six core issues, which we have determined need Biblical principles most and where we can have the greatest impact. At its root, each of these issues is a battle over worldviews.

    We have several active departments in our national office in Washington, D.C.

    CWA is a unique blend of policy experts and an activist network of people in small towns and big cities across the country working to address mutually held goals and concerns. Meet the CWA spokespersons. CWA works with many other groups around the country. Find these and other sources of information on our links page.

    Mission Statement

    The mission of CWA is to protect and promote Biblical values among all citizens - first through prayer, then education, and finally by influencing our society - thereby reversing the decline in moral values in our nation.

    Vision Statement

    The vision of CWA is for women and like-minded men, from all walks of life, to come together and restore the family to its traditional purpose and thereby allow each member of the family to realize their God-given potential and be more responsible citizens."

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    Our Core Issues

    Concerned Women for America confronts many issues facing American citizens. We divide these into six different categories and have accordingly divided our web content here for you.

    Definition of the Family

    CWA believes the traditional family consists of one man and one woman joined in marriage, along with any children they may have. We seek to protect traditional values that support the Biblical design of the family.

    Sanctity of Human Life

    CWA supports the protection of all life from conception until natural death. This includes the consequences resulting from abortion.


    CWA seeks to reform public education by returning authority to parents.


    CWA endeavors to fight all pornography and obscenity.

    Religious Liberty

    CWA supports the God-given rights of individuals in the United States and other nations to pray and worship without fear of discrimination or persecution.

    National Sovereignty

    CWA believes that neither the United Nations nor any other international organization should have authority over the United States in any area, including economics, social policy, military, and land ownership.


    CWA also deals with a variety of other issues that don't comfortably fit into a category, yet are important to address.

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    Beverly LaHaye watched a television interview of Betty Friedan, founder of the National Organization for Women. Realizing that Friedan claimed to speak for the women of America, Beverly LaHaye was stirred to action. She knew the feminists' anti-God, anti-family rhetoric did not represent her beliefs, nor those of the vast majority of women.

    The first meeting to educate and alert Christian women on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), led by Beverly LaHaye, occurred in San Diego, California. More than 1,200 attended. This was the springboard to beginning Concerned Women for America as a national organization.


    Concerned Women for America became officially incorporated in January. CWA's first newsletter and word-of-mouth communication quickly spread word of the new organization.

    Very shortly, CWA leaders realized that we were in a struggle against spiritual forces of darkness, and we needed a strong foundation of prayer support. They organized our membership into powerful prayer chapters and privided regular concerns for prayer. CWA would not have survived without the quiet strength of prayer.

    President Jimmy Carter named 1979 as The International Year of the Child. CWA began an immediate campaign to expose this United Nations strategy to "nationalize" all children of the world.


    CWA joined attorney Michael Farris to declare that extending the ratification of the ERA was both illegal and unconstitutional. This case was eventually won.

    Forty women were approved to start Prayer/Action Chapters in 14 different states. As the battle for the family raged, the need for more Prayer/Action Chapters grew.

    CWA joined a National Pro-Family Coalition to fight against the liberal White House Conference on Families. Beverly LaHaye and her husbad, Tim, were named co-chairmen and worked with 150 other pro-family groups to make our views known about the presentation of the true family. An all-day alternate White House Conference called the American Pro-Family Conference was held in Long Beach, California, the same day as the final WHCF. More than 7,000 enthusiastic delegates attended.


    The fight against the ERA continued across the states. In Illinois, CWA produced four 30-second TV spots that aired 246 times in the state before the ERA vote was taken. CWA's budget was $40,000, compared to the National Organization for Women's budget of $2 million. Still, the ERA was defeated.

    CWA's membership reached 100,000.

    CWA joined the Clean Up TV Campaign led by Don Wildmon.


    The Prayer/Action Chapters began to fast and pray every Wednesday until the defeat of the ERA, and God answered our prayers! ERA failed to be ratified by enough states before the June 3 deadline.

    CWA's legal department, led by Michael Farris, represesented Suzanne Clarke of Bristol, Tennessee, a young mother sued for slander by the National Education Association. Mrs. Clarke had written a letter to the editor that exposed the NEA's agenda in the schools. On the eve of the trial in 1984, the judge dismissed the lawsuit for lack of merit.


    CWA opened a branch office at 499 S. Capitol Street in Washington, D.C., staffed by Michael Farris, attorney, and Barbara Gibbons, congressional liaison. The national headquarters remained in San Diego.

    A young mother was arrested on Thanksgiving eve when she attempted to remove her second-grade daughter from a reading class at the public school. Vicki Frost disagreed with the school's required reading book. CWA provided legal representation, and Mrs. Frost left jail the next day in time for Thanksgiving dinner with her family.

    Seven fathers from Nebraska were jailed because they wanted their children to have a Christian education in a church school that refused to be controlled by the state. CWA provided legal counsel for the fathers.


    CWA held its first national convention in Washington, D.C. Approximately 1,000 people attended this two-day conference.

    Michael Farris and CWA succeeded in getting the court to release the Nebraska fathers.

    CWA was called upon to represent Vicki Frost and several other parents in a battle over objectionable school curricula. The case was called Mozert v. Hawkins County Schools.

    CWA gave legal representation to Betty Batey, a woman arrested for taking her twelve-year-old son away from the custody of his homosexual father.

    CWA launched a volunteer lobbyist program called Project 535. This represents the 535 elected members of Congress.

    Beverly LaHaye wrote the thrilling story of CWA's origin in a book, Who But A Woman?.


    CWA's national office moved from San Diego to Washington, D.C., at 122 C Street.

    CWA launched "Operation Truth," to abolish alcoholic drink ads on radio and television. Thousands of petitions were delivered to Congress.

    In Witter v. Washington Department of Services for the Blind, brought by CWA, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the state may not deny education benefits to a blind student because he wants to study to be a minister. The decision was hailed as returning balance to the Constitution's Establishment Clause.


    Beverly LaHaye embarked on a fact-finding mission to Costa Rica to investigate the needs of refugees who had fled Nicaragua because of the Marxist conflict. She met with the first lady of Costa Rica who enabled her to visit some of the Nicaraguan refugee camps in her country. After this visit, Beverly LaHaye felt led to challenge the members of CWA to help these needy families.

    A federal judge awarded $50,000 in damages to the Tennessee families involved in the textbook case, Mozert v. Hawkins County Schools.

    Beverly LaHaye testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee in the confirmation hearings for Judge Antonin Scalia to the U.S. Supreme Court.


    President Ronald Reagan was the honored speaker at CWA's Fourth Annual Convention.

    A majority in Vermont rejected an Equal Rights Amendment to their state constitution. CWA of Vermont worked tirelessly until the final victory.

    Irina Ratushinskaia Gerashchecko, a Soviet Christian poet, was released after four years imprisonment in her country. Because the prayers and letters of CWA members played a key role in keeping her name in the public's attention, she attended our national convention and thanked our members.

    Beverly LaHaye appeared on "The Sally Jesse Raphael Show" to oppose four unmarried women who had been artificially inseminated and never wanted to be married.

    CWA fought to get the truth out about Judge Robert Bork, who awaited confirmation to the U.S. Supreme Court. CWA spearheaded a national petition drive, provided a 350-member team to lobby senators, and participated in the "Women for Bork" rally.

    CWA published its first constitutional issues volume, Christmas in the Schools by staff attorney Jordan Lorence. More than 20,000 copies were sent to parents and school officials.

    CWA continued to take teams of members, board members and staff to Costa Rica to care for the Nicaraguan refugees. Their goal was to provide food and medicine and to distribute $1 million worth of clothing donated by K-Mart. These efforts blessed thousands of refugees.


    Escuela de la Libertad (School of Liberty) was built and sponsored by CWA in the jungle of Costa Rica for Nicaraguan refugee children. Meanwhile, CWA's open-air medical clinics at the school offered physical, emotional and spiritual assistance.

    Beverly LaHaye testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee in the confirmation hearings for Judge Anthony Kennedy to the U.S. Supreme Court.

    CWA published a second Constitutional issues volume is published, The Case for Home Schooling by Christopher J. Klicka.

    CWA established a Central American Affairs Department led by Jim Woodall. Beverly LaHaye testified before Congress on human rights abuses by the Sandanista government in Nicaragua.

    CEO's of the three major TV networks received nearly 2 million postcards from CWA members and friends asking them not to advertise condoms.

    In celebration of CWA's Tenth Anniversary, 45,000 attended a satellite videoconference transmitted to 179 sites around the United States.


    Nicaraguan refugees, fleeing the tyranny of their homeland, flood into Florida's Dade County. CWA makes donations of rice, beans and used clothing to help the most impoverished refugees, and cash donations come within a penny of the amount required for the distribution.


    CWA began a daily radio broadcast called "Beverly LaHaye Live."

    Madalyn Murray O'Hair filed a $4 million libel suit against Beverly LaHaye and CWA. After hours of depositions, the judge declared the case "frivolous" and dismissed it on the eve of the trial.

    CWA published a curriculum on sex education, "Families, Decision Making and Human Development."

    Due to publicity by CWA, the Secretary of Health and Human Services cancelled a teen sex survey five days after it became public.

    Jim Woodall and Beverly LaHaye met with President Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua. It was Christmas time, and President Chamorro joined them in a distribution of food and toys to the poor people of Nicaragua.


    At a press conference, Mrs. LaHaye urges the Senate to reject the feminist strategy and to confirm Judge Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court. CWA's legal counsel testified at the first confirmation hearing for the judge.

    CWA obtained a permanent injunction against the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, which was limiting the distribution of gospel tracts. The U.S. District Court in Boston reached their decision based on two major U.S. Supreme Court cases, both of which CWA/CASE (Christian Advocates Serving Evangelism) had won. These decisions led to several decisions which paved the road for the gospel.

    CWA and other pro-family organizations met with the European companies involved in the production and distribution of RU-486, an abortion drug.

    Beverly LaHaye testified before the Committee on Appropriations , Interior Subcommittee, of the U.S. House of Representatives to argue for de-funding of the National Endowment for the Arts .

    Family Voice, CWA's monthly magazine is launched. An article exploring the connection between euthanasia and abortion includes an interview of Derek Humphrey, executive director of the Hemlock Society.


    A CWA member was appointed to the Presidential Commission on the Assignment of Women in the Armed Forces, which recommended against women serving in combat.

    The National Religious Broadcasters presented "Beverly LaHaye Live" the Talk Show of the Year Award.

    CWA generated a public outcry to the U.S. Senate over the Research Freedom Act, which would end the ban on federal funding for the transplantation of organs obtained from aborted babies.


    CWA-Iowa helped defeat the ERA in that state with a 52 percent majority vote.

    CWA delivered nearly 350,000 petitions to U.S. senators which urged them to vote against the pro-abortion Freedom of Choice Act (S. 25 /H.R. 1068 ). Some were hand-delivered to each senator by Project 535 volunteer lobbyists.

    Breast cancer researcher Joel Brind, Ph.D., appeared on "Beverly LaHaye Live" and published an article in Family Voice on how abortion increases a woman's risk for breast cancer, research squelched by pro-choice bias.


    After 66-year-old Joyce Woodall was arrested for praying outside an abortion clinic in Virginia, CWA filed suit against FACE (Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act ), which limited the constitutional right of free speech to pro-life protesters.

    Days before state elections, the Virginia State Democratic Committee files an injunction against CWA to stop the distribution of voter guides. Just one day before the election, CWA and the Family Foundation appealed to the courts, which ordered the ban lifted. Volunteers eagerly distributed the voter guides at the polls.

    "Wait for Me ," CWA's video on teen sexuality and abstinence, takes home four awards from the Southern California Motion Picture Council.


    When the U.S. Court of Appeals upholds the federal Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE), CWA appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court later refused to hear it.

    Beverly LaHaye led a delegation to the Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, from where she sent daily radio broadcasts back to CWA's studio. This was to ensure that the voice for pro-family women was heard.

    CWA joined in a boycott of companies tied to RU-486, the French abortion pill, which was being tested on American women.

    Family Voice broke the story on mandatory AIDS education in the federal workplace—actually an effort to re-educate and re-orient people's views. Articles in the Washington Times followed, as did programs on "Beverly LaHaye Live" and interviews on radio talk shows across the country. Soon The Washington Times reported "AIDS training no longer mandatory." the White House backed off. Legislation was soon introduced in Congress to prevent federal tax dollars from advancing the homosexual agenda.


    CWA and the Christian Advocates Serving Evangelism Legal Department won an important victory for religious liberty. Christian evangelism was then allowed at a site for the 1996 Olympic Games, thanks to a ruling by a Georgia state court.

    Mailings, "Beverly LaHaye Live," newspaper ads and Family Voice alerted the nation to the National Education Association's (NEA) Resolution B-7. This replaced "tolerance of" with "acceptance of" homosexuals and used the word "must." It also encouraged state affiliates to conduct training programs.

    As a result of CWA's actions, 12 NEA state affiliates disavowed B-9, which required celebration of gay history month; members of several chapters resigned, and teachers across the country refused to celebrate homosexual history month.

    CWA produces "After the Choice ," a video for women who are considering abortion—or have already made the decision. CWA provided free copies to nearly 3,500 CPCs, and the video received an Award of Excellence at the 19th International Angel Awards in Hollywood, California.

    CWA launched into cyberspace with its Web site at , which provides news, broadcasts of "Beverly LaHaye Today," resources and > Family Voice articles. It offers the ability to e-mail one's elected officials and other key political leaders on current issues. This new outreach received response from nine foreign countries who have listened to "Beverly LaHaye Today."

    CWA representatives attended the U.N. Conference on Human Settlements, Habitat II, in Istanbul, Turkey. CWA presented a workshop entitled "Who owns the family?" to an international group of delegates.

    Worldwide food production and consumption and "food security" were stated themes for a U.N. "mini-conference" in Rome. CWA representatives got out the real story: the U.N. themes of population control and sustainable development.


    CWA's Web site received an Excellence Award from the National Religious Broadcasters.

    CWA lobbied at the grassroots and on the Hill to pass the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act. The House overwhelmingly passed the ban , including 11 undecided or opposed House members who changed their minds on the day of the vote.

    After several years of lobbying, the $500-per-child tax credit was finally included in a budget plan, to begin as $400 in 1998 and increase to $500 in 1999.

    An article about Dr. Alfred Kinsey in The New Yorker confirmed the charges of CWA and Dr. Judith Reisman about his fraudulent, immoral research on human sexuality. Beverly LaHaye and CWA members called on Congress to investigate Kinsey's activities. CWA also launched RSVP America , a program to educate and equip grassroots activists to de-bunk Kinsey.

    CWA's campaign to expose Kiney's fraudulent research had the Kinsey institute taking notice. In their Fall newsletter, the institute refered to CWA's work and attempts to discredit it.


    CWA-California Bay Area helped gather 60,000 necessary signatures to force the Board of Supervisors to repeal or place on the ballot a domestic partnership ordinance. The Board repealed the ordinance.

    CWA co-hosted a press conference to expose Peru's national sterilization campaign. Participants, including Peruvian women, presented testimony of abuses and documented evidence. Later, sources reported that Peru's sterilizations decreased 68 percent.

    CWA was the only major, U.S. pro-family organization to attend the U.N.'s annual meeting of the Commission on the Status of Women, which aims to mainstream "gender identity and equality" worldwide.

    After strenuous lobbying, the House overwhelmingly passed the Freedom from Religious Persecution Act with a veto-proof vote of 375-41 .

    CWA, along with other pro-family groups, met with Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder to address child pornography and obscenity. We asked him to nationally address the problem of child pornography and to increase prosecutions to the level of previous administrations. As a result, Mr. Holder wrote to and urged all U.S. attorneys to step up prosecution of obscenity and pornography violations.

    Influenced by CWA members and Project 535 lobbyists, an amendment that would require parental notification before a minor can receive Title X services, such as contraceptives and abortion counseling, passes committee.

    CWA spoke at a press conference which urged legislators to end the marriage tax penalty, which taxes two-income married couples about $1,400 more than if they were unmarried.

    In the November elections, after CWA education efforts, voters in Alaska and Hawaii upheld biblical marriage and rejected same-sex marriage.

    The "Truth in Love" newspaper ads appeared across the country. National media quickly covered the ads, which spoke of God's power to deliver homosexuals. They generated hundreds of calls from individuals wanting to leave homosexuality.

    CWA hosted a press conference with other conservative leaders to call for the impeachment of President Clinton. CWA's statements aired on CNN one hour after the conference.


    A CWA representative appeared on ABC's "Nightline" regarding the impeachment of President Clinton.

    Rep. Bob Schaffer (R-Colorado) honors CWA's 20th anniversary in a speech on the House floor. "CWA is the leading voice for women across the nation embracing and promoting traditional family values," he said. "Feminists can no longer claim to be the one and only voice for all American women. I am honored to commend CWA for 20 outstanding years of dedicated service." CWA honored former President Ronald Reagan as Statesman of the Century.

    CWA sponsored a news conference focusing on the victims of pornography. Speakers included Rep. John Hostettler (R-Indiana) and Rep. Joe Pitts (R-Pennsylvania). Many news stations covered the event, which featured four persons devastated by pornography.

    CWA inaugurates the Beverly LaHaye Institute: A Center for Studies in Women's Issues , which will conduct and analyze research and hold symposiums to encourage balanced research on issues important to women and the family.

    CWA representatives attend the United Nations' Cairo+5 conference in New York. They joined in pro-family efforts to oppose the population control agenda and provide daily "highlights" via our Web site.

    CWA joined the "Truth in Love" campaign for TV and made the ads available on our Web site. The campaign offered hope in Jesus Christ for those caught in homosexuality. As a result, the British Broadcasting Company commissioned a program on homosexual transformational ministries.

    With Jill Stanek, a registered nurse near Chicago, CWA broke the story about the increasingly common practice of live birth abortions. These efforts prompted ABC's 20/20 to conduct an investigation and Congress to hold a hearing on the sale of baby body parts—a plausible motivation for live birth abortion.


    CWA attended the U.N. Beijing+5 conference which evaluated countries' progress in ensuring "equality" for women according to the 1995 Platform for Action. With the help of CWA, the Third World countries stood strong and successfully resisted the radical feminist agenda.

    CWA began educating members on what exactly embryonic stem cell research means. We also championed the treatment derived from adult stem cell research.

    The Supreme Court handed down several major decisions at the end of its term. The Boy Scouts and partial-birth abortion were among these opinions, both decided 5-4. CWA filed briefs in each of these cases.

    Continuing the fight over live birth abortion, CWA's efforts prompted Congress to hold a vital hearing with Jill Stanek and others troubled by the practice.

    Through the efforts of CWA and other pro-family groups, Congress successfully passed relief for couples from the marriage tax. This bill, however, was vetoed by the president; an override attempt was unsuccessful.

    After approval of the abortion drug RU-486 was unsuccessfully barred in the House, the FDA approved the drug. CWA held a press conference in firm opposition to this decision and explained the inevitable problems to come.

    During the extended election, CWA drew people to a greater understanding of our United States system of government, the concept of checks and balances and the importance of the electoral college.


    CWA and many other groups rallied around Attorney General John Ashcroft and his confirmation in the Senate, holding a press conference of women leaders, generating 13,233 e-mails to senators, phone calls from members, hand-delivering information to senators and appearing on several major news networks in his support.

    The Culture and Family Institute was established to focus on cutting-edge social issues with particular emphasis on the homosexual activist movement and other forces that threaten to undermine marriage, family and religious freedom.

    CWA received United Nations accreditation to be officially recognized at the U.N. as a non-governmental organization (NGO). CWA sent representatives to Istanbul+5, the World Summit for Children, World Conference on Racism to make sure the language in these important documents is consistent with biblical principles.

    President Bush announced his decision regarding embryonic stem cell research which rewards the killing of embryos. CWA was one of few conservative groups openly expressing disappointment over the unethical aspects of the decision.


    Concerned Women for America is a vibrant organization with well over 500,000 members spread across all 50 states who are coordinated by a dynamic staff from the national office in Washington, D.C.

    Although CWA is primarily a "women's" organization, men are also encouraged to join —biblical principles as applied to all of our core issues affect men and women. CWA's membership includes women and men of all ages, various church affiliations and multiple political parties."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    12. Citizens For Excellence in Education (CEE)

    Webpräsenz: . -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03

    "Your Reliable Conservative Source on Public Schools

    Citizens For Excellence in Education (CEE) exists to help parents and public school teachers across the United States. 

    Since 1983, NACE/CEE has worked with Christians and conservatives to restore academic excellence and traditional moral values to the public schools.  

    We also provide tools to help strengthen and nurture Christian families at home.  CEE is now also helping parents rescue their children from public schools to private Christian schools and home schools, and rescue their children within the public schools, with our major new focus:  Rescue 2010.

    NACE/CEE helps you in many ways:

    • Helping individuals resolve local public school issues - ranging from opt-out policies for sex ed, to outcome-based education and Goals 2000.
    • Helping parents form local "chapters" with other concerned citizens to make positive policy and curricula changes, help elect good conservative school board members, and build consensus with school officials.
    • Networking with education leaders and leading bureaucrats, as well as other Christian organizations, at the national level, to affect laws and build bridges of understanding.
    • Providing resources for churches and individual families, from an evangelical perspective.
    • Publishing well-balanced, objective resources to help both parents and professionals understand issues and research, from a conservative worldview.
    • Parent Participation Plan for public schools.
    • Putting on an Education Decision Day in your church to help parents make wise and informed schooling choices.
    • Helping parents make informed decision between public, Christian and home school and make their desired choice happen.  

    The NACE/CEE Connection

    In 1983, Dr. Robert Simonds organized the National Association of Christian Educators (NACE) to serve Christian teachers in the public schools. As more parents brought their concerns to the organization asking for help, and teachers' impact became further restricted within the schools as thier job security was threatened, Citizens for Excellence in Education (CEE) was formed to allow NACE/CEE two avenues to reform teachers within the system, and enable parents to exert pressure from outside the bureaucracy. Since, 1983, NACE/CEE has operated together as one unified organization of parents and teachers, sharing information and strategies to achieve positive results for the children. Some local chapters meet together with parents and teachers while others meet seperately to address their unique concerns."

    [Quelle: . -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]  

    13. National Right to Life Committee

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03

    "Mission Statement

    The National Right to Life Committee was founded in 1973 in response to a United States Supreme Court decision released on January 22 of that year, legalizing the practice of human abortion in all 50 states, throughout the entire nine months of pregnancy. Prior to that Supreme Court case-- Roe vs. Wade -- the abortion debate had been centered in the legislatures of the states, 17 of which had legalized abortion under some circumstances and 33 of which had voted to continue to protect human life from conception.

    In June of 1973, a group of pro-life leaders met in Detroit for the first meeting of a new organization, to be non-sectarian, non- partisan, and to have its board consist of an elected representative from each of the 50 states. These first board members included experts in the fields of science, medicine, medical ethics, constitutional law, and religion.

    Since its official beginning at that conference, the National Right to Life Committee has grown to represent over 3000 chapters in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

    The NRLC Board of Directors now consists of a director from each state-- elected to fill the position by the state group-- as well as an internally elected nine- member executive committee and officers, and three "at-large" board positions. NRLC also publishes a monthly newspaper, the National Right to Life News, and has an internal Political Action Committee and Educational Trust Fund.

    The National Right to Life Committee has been instrumental in achieving a number of legislative reforms at the national level, including a ban on non-therapeutic experimentation of unborn and newborn babies, a federal conscience clause guaranteeing medical personnel the right to refuse to participate in abortion procedures, and various amendments to appropriations bills which prohibit (or limit) the use of federal funds to subsidize or promote abortions in the United States and overseas.

    The ultimate goal of the National Right to Life Committee is to restore legal protection to innocent human life. The primary interest of the National Right to Life Committee and its members has been the abortion controversy; however, it is also concerned with related matters of medical ethics which relate to the right to life issues of euthanasia and infanticide. The Committee does not have a position on issues such as contraception, sex education, capital punishment, and national defense.

    In addition to maintaining a lobbying presence at the federal level, NRLC serves as a clearinghouse of information for its state affiliates and local chapters, its individual members, the press, and the public."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    14. Operation Save America (OSA)

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03

    "Operation Save America unashamedly takes up the cause of preborn children in the name of Jesus Christ. We employ only biblical principles. The Bible is our foundation; the Cross of Christ is our strategy; the repentance of the Church of Jesus Christ is our ultimate goal. As the Church changes its heart toward unborn children, God Himself will hear from heaven, forgive our sin, and bring healing to our land. We believe that Jesus Christ is the only answer to the abortion holocaust. It is upon our active repentance in the streets of our cities that the Gospel is visibly lived out. We become to the church, to our city, and to our nation living parables which rightly represent God's heart toward His helpless children.

    There are no cheap political solutions to the holocaust presently ravaging our nation. Like slavery before it, abortion is preeminently a Gospel issue. The Cross of Christ is the only solution. "

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-03]

    15. Southern Baptist Convention

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06

    "The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. The words Southern Baptist Convention refer both to the denomination and its annual meeting of delegates. Because Baptist churches believe strongly in the local autonomy of the church, the SBC can be seen mainly as a cooperative organization by which churches can pool resources, rather than as a body with any administrative control over local churches. It does, however, maintain a central administrative organization based in Nashville, Tennessee.


    Baptists arrived in the southern United States near the end of the 17th century. The first Baptist church in the south was formed in Charleston, South Carolina under the leadership of William Screven, a Baptist preacher and shipbuilder who arrived there from Maine in 1696. But the zealous evangelism of the Separate Baptists was the chief instrument of spreading the Baptist denomination throughout the southern U. S. The first associations formed in the South were the Charleston Association (org. 1751) and the Sandy Creek Association (org. 1758). Baptists in the South participated in forming the first national Baptist organization in 1814 - the General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States of America for Foreign Missions (better known as the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions or the Triennial Convention; it met every three years).

    The Southern Baptist Convention was formed May 8-12, 1845 in Augusta, Georgia. Its first president was William Bullein Johnson (1782-1862), who was president of the Triennial Convention in 1841. The immediate, though not only, cause was the controversy over slavery between Northeners and Southerners within the Triennial Convention and the Home Mission Society. Though the bodies were theoretically neutral, some Baptists in the South did not believe the assurances of neutrality. They knew several leaders were engaged in abolitionist activity. To test this, Georgia Baptists recommended James E. Reeve, a slaveholder, to the Home Mission Society as a missionary in the South. The Society did not appoint Reeve, presumably not on the basis of his being a slaveholder, but because the Georgia Baptists wished his appointment specifically because he was a slaveholder. Baptists from the South subsequently broke from this organization and formed the new convention.

    Another issue that disturbed the churches in the south was the perception that the American Baptist Home Mission Society (org. 1832) did not appoint a proportionate number of missionaries to the southern region of the U. S. It is also evident that Baptists north and south preferred a different type of denominational organization. The Baptists in the north as a whole preferred a loosely structured society composed of individuals who paid annual dues. Each society usually focused on a single ministry. The southern churches preferred an organization composed of churches patterned after their associations. A variety of ministries were thereby brought under the direction of one denominational organization.

    In addition to the controversy that led to the formation of the SBC, the Convention has suffered several issues that caused loss of churches and/or support, notably Landmarkism, which led to the formation of Gospel Missions and the forming of the American Baptist Association; the Whitsitt controversy (1896-1899); and the fundamentalist/modernist controversy, which led to the formation of independent Baptist groups such as the World Baptist Fellowship. The more recent conservative/moderate controversy has led to the founding of both the Alliance of Baptists and the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship.

    The general theological perspective of the churches of the Southern Baptist Convention is represented in the Baptist Faith and Message.

    The churches of the SBC support a number of educational institutions, the oldest being the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky (founded in 1859 in Greenville, South Carolina). Other such instituions include Southeastern Seminary in Wake Forest, North Carolina; Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas; Golden Gate Baptist Seminary in Mill Valley, California; Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Kansas City, Missouri; and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. The SBC also operates one of the largest religious publishing houses in the United States, LifeWay Christian Resources, which was founded as the Baptist Sunday School Board in 1891.

    Southern Baptists are the largest baptist and protestant group in the United States, claiming 16 million members. According to the Religious Congregations Membership Study, the Convention had 15,922,039 members in 41,514 churches in the United States in 2000. It has 1,200 local associations, 41 state conventions and fellowships, and supports thousands of missionaries worldwide (over 10,000 in 2003). There are more Southern Baptist churches in America than of any other religious group, including the Roman Catholic Church. Their greatest numbers are in the southern part of the United States, where they exert considerable influence. Some southern states have no lotteries or any gambling because of strong Baptist opposition to gambling. Also many majority Southern Baptist counties are "dry" because of their strong opposition to any alcohol consumption.

    In 2004, the SBC elected Dr. Bobby Welch, pastor of First Baptist Church in Daytona Beach, Florida, as its president. Prominent Southern Baptists include Evangelist Billy Graham, probably the most famous Southern Baptist alive today; his son and designated successor, Franklin; former US President Bill Clinton; Charles Stanley, the pastor of the nearly 16,000-member First Baptist Church of Atlanta; Jerry Falwell, the pastor of the 24,000-member Thomas Road Baptist Church in Lynchburg, Virginia; Adrian Rogers, the pastor of the 28,000 member Bellevue Baptist Church in Memphis, Tennessee; Rick Warren, pastor of the Saddleback Church in California and author of The Purpose Driven Life; H. Edwin Young, the pastor of the 31,000 member Second Baptist Church in Houston, Texas; and Jerry Vines, pastor of the First Baptist Church of Jacksonville, Florida.

    Former US President Jimmy Carter was associated with the Southern Baptist Convention until October, 2000 when disassociated himself due to the Convention's stance on subordination of women. ( ( & (


    In the 1970s, two clear factions emerged in the convention. Moderates argued for a less fundamentalist interpretation of the Bible and were open to adopting changes that reflected those taking place in society as a whole. Amongst other things, moderates took more liberal positions on issues such as temperance and ordination of women.

    Conservatives, alarmed by what they considered to be an erosion of their traditional values, fought back and engineered an effort to gain administrative control over the convention. Led by Paul Pressler and Paige Patterson, conservatives succeeded in having conservative sympathizers elected to key administrative positions in the convention. Throughout the eighties, conservatives consolidated their control over the convention at every level from the administration to key faculty at their seminaries.


    In 1998, the largest state constituent convention of the Southern Baptist Convention, the Baptist General Convention of Texas voted to disassociate itself from the SBC. Its stated reasons for doing so were its objections to proposed changes in the Baptist Faith and Message for the year 2000. The document has traditionally served as a statement of beliefs for the convention. The Texas convention in particular was opposed to language that made the document sound like a creed. They feared that if the full acceptance of such a document were required for church officials, the writers of the document would be able to effectively control who held any position of power.

    The Texans were also opposed to the deletion of a passage declaring that "the criterion by which the Bible is to be interpreted is Jesus Christ." They believed that this omission would allow a published church document to supersede the fundamental authority of Jesus Christ, which could in turn lead to a more liberal interpretation of the scriptures. Conservatives, however, proposed this change to make clear their view that the entire text of the Bible is divinely inspired, claiming that the recorded words of Jesus are equal in authority to other passages. The Texans do not recognize the 2000 document, retaining instead the 1963 version.

    The departure of the Texas convention has not led to a wider schism in the convention. This is primarily attributed to the fact that the individual churches have a high degree of autonomy, unlike the strict hierarchical structure of the Roman Catholic Church.

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06]

    Die Überzeugungen der Souhern Baptist Convntion am Beispiel der Our Beleifs der First Baptist Church of Dallas (Texas), der größten Southern Baptists Kongragation der Welt:

    Abb.; First Baptist Dallas Campus
    [Bildquelle: -- Zugrif am 2005-03-25]

    "Our Beliefs

    As Presented in The Baptist Faith and Message

    The Scriptures

    The Holy Bible was written by men divinely inspired and is God's revelation of Himself to man. It is a perfect treasure of divine instruction. It has God for its author, salvation for its end, and truth, without any mixture of error, for its matter. Therefore, all Scripture is totally true and trustworthy. It reveals the principles by which God judges us, and therefore is, and will remain to the end of the world, the true center of Christian union, and the supreme standard by which all human conduct, creeds, and religious opinions should be tried. All Scripture is a testimony to Christ, who is Himself the focus of divine revelation.

    Exodus 24:4; Deuteronomy 4:1-2; 17:19; Joshua 8:34; Psalms 19:7-10; 119:11,89,105,140; Isaiah 34:16; 40:8; Jeremiah 15:16; 36:1-32; Matthew 5:17-18; 22:29; Luke 21:33; 24:44-46; John 5:39; 16:13-15; 17:17; Acts 2:16ff.; 17:11; Romans 15:4; 16:25-26; 2 Timothy 3:15-17; Hebrews 1:1-2; 4:12; 1 Peter 1:25; 2 Peter 1:19-21.


    There is one and only one living and true God. He is an intelligent, spiritual, and personal Being, the Creator, Redeemer, Preserver, and Ruler of the universe. God is infinite in holiness and all other perfections. God is all powerful and all knowing; and His perfect knowledge extends to all things, past, present, and future, including the future decisions of His free creatures. To Him we owe the highest love, reverence, and obedience. The eternal triune God reveals Himself to us as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, with distinct personal attributes, but without division of nature, essence, or being.

    God the Father

    God as Father reigns with providential care over His universe, His creatures, and the flow of the stream of human history according to the purposes of His grace. He is all powerful, all knowing, all loving, and all wise. God is Father in truth to those who become children of God through faith in Jesus Christ. He is fatherly in His attitude toward all men.

    Genesis 1:1; 2:7; Exodus 3:14; 6:2-3; 15:11ff.; 20:1ff.; Leviticus 22:2; Deuteronomy 6:4; 32:6; 1 Chronicles 29:10; Psalm 19:1-3; Isaiah 43:3,15; 64:8; Jeremiah 10:10; 17:13; Matthew 6:9ff.; 7:11; 23:9; 28:19; Mark 1:9-11; John 4:24; 5:26; 14:6-13; 17:1-8; Acts 1:7; Romans 8:14-15; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Galatians 4:6; Ephesians 4:6; Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17; Hebrews 11:6; 12:9; 1 Peter 1:17; 1 John 5:7.

    God the Son

    Christ is the eternal Son of God. In His incarnation as Jesus Christ He was conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary. Jesus perfectly revealed and did the will of God, taking upon Himself human nature with its demands and necessities and identifying Himself completely with mankind yet without sin. He honored the divine law by His personal obedience, and in His substitutionary death on the cross He made provision for the redemption of men from sin. He was raised from the dead with a glorified body and appeared to His disciples as the person who was with them before His crucifixion. He ascended into heaven and is now exalted at the right hand of God where He is the One Mediator, fully God, fully man, in whose Person is effected the reconciliation between God and man. He will return in power and glory to judge the world and to consummate His redemptive mission. He now dwells in all believers as the living and ever present Lord.

    Genesis 18:1ff.; Psalms 2:7ff.; 110:1ff.; Isaiah 7:14; 53; Matthew 1:18-23; 3:17; 8:29; 11:27; 14:33; 16:16,27; 17:5; 27; 28:1-6,19; Mark 1:1; 3:11; Luke 1:35; 4:41; 22:70; 24:46; John 1:1-18,29; 10:30,38; 11:25-27; 12:44-50; 14:7-11; 16:15-16,28; 17:1-5, 21-22; 20:1-20,28; Acts 1:9; 2:22-24; 7:55-56; 9:4-5,20; Romans 1:3-4; 3:23-26; 5:6-21; 8:1-3,34; 10:4; 1 Corinthians 1:30; 2:2; 8:6; 15:1-8,24-28; 2 Corinthians 5:19-21; 8:9; Galatians 4:4-5; Ephesians 1:20; 3:11; 4:7-10; Philippians 2:5-11; Colossians 1:13-22; 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:14-18; 1 Timothy 2:5-6; 3:16; Titus 2:13-14; Hebrews 1:1-3; 4:14-15; 7:14-28; 9:12-15,24-28; 12:2; 13:8; 1 Peter 2:21-25; 3:22; 1 John 1:7-9; 3:2; 4:14-15; 5:9; 2 John 7-9; Revelation 1:13-16; 5:9-14; 12:10-11; 13:8; 19:16.

    God the Holy Spirit

    The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God, fully divine. He inspired holy men of old to write the Scriptures. Through illumination He enables men to understand truth. He exalts Christ. He convicts men of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment. He calls men to the Savior, and effects regeneration. At the moment of regeneration He baptizes every believer into the Body of Christ. He cultivates Christian character, comforts believers, and bestows the spiritual gifts by which they serve God through His church. He seals the believer unto the day of final redemption. His presence in the Christian is the guarantee that God will bring the believer into the fullness of the stature of Christ. He enlightens and empowers the believer and the church in worship, evangelism, and service.

    Genesis 1:2; Judges 14:6; Job 26:13; Psalms 51:11; 139:7ff.; Isaiah 61:1-3; Joel 2:28-32; Matthew 1:18; 3:16; 4:1; 12:28-32; 28:19; Mark 1:10,12; Luke 1:35; 4:1,18-19; 11:13; 12:12; 24:49; John 4:24; 14:16-17,26; 15:26; 16:7-14; Acts 1:8; 2:1-4,38; 4:31; 5:3; 6:3; 7:55; 8:17,39; 10:44; 13:2; 15:28; 16:6; 19:1-6; Romans 8:9-11,14-16,26-27; 1 Corinthians 2:10-14; 3:16; 12:3-11,13; Galatians 4:6; Ephesians 1:13-14; 4:30; 5:18; 1 Thessalonians 5:19; 1 Timothy 3:16; 4:1; 2 Timothy 1:14; 3:16; Hebrews 9:8,14; 2 Peter 1:21; 1 John 4:13; 5:6-7; Revelation 1:10; 22:17.


    Man is the special creation of God, made in His own image. He created them male and female as the crowning work of His creation. The gift of gender is thus part of the goodness of God's creation. In the beginning man was innocent of sin and was endowed by his Creator with freedom of choice. By his free choice man sinned against God and brought sin into the human race. Through the temptation of Satan man transgressed the command of God, and fell from his original innocence whereby his posterity inherit a nature and an environment inclined toward sin. Therefore, as soon as they are capable of moral action, they become transgressors and are under condemnation. Only the grace of God can bring man into His holy fellowship and enable man to fulfill the creative purpose of God. The sacredness of human personality is evident in that God created man in His own image, and in that Christ died for man; therefore, every person of every race possesses full dignity and is worthy of respect and Christian love.

    Genesis 1:26-30; 2:5,7,18-22; 3; 9:6; Psalms 1; 8:3-6; 32:1-5; 51:5; Isaiah 6:5; Jeremiah 17:5; Matthew 16:26; Acts 17:26-31; Romans 1:19-32; 3:10-18,23; 5:6,12,19; 6:6; 7:14-25; 8:14-18,29; 1 Corinthians 1:21-31; 15:19,21-22; Ephesians 2:1-22; Colossians 1:21-22; 3:9-11.


    Salvation involves the redemption of the whole man, and is offered freely to all who accept Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, who by His own blood obtained eternal redemption for the believer. In its broadest sense salvation includes regeneration, justification, sanctification, and glorification. There is no salvation apart from personal faith in Jesus Christ as Lord.

    Regeneration, or the new birth, is a work of God's grace whereby believers become new creatures in Christ Jesus. It is a change of heart wrought by the Holy Spirit through conviction of sin, to which the sinner responds in repentance toward God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Repentance and faith are inseparable experiences of grace.

    Repentance is a genuine turning from sin toward God. Faith is the acceptance of Jesus Christ and commitment of the entire personality to Him as Lord and Savior.

    Justification is God's gracious and full acquittal upon principles of His righteousness of all sinners who repent and believe in Christ. Justification brings the believer unto a relationship of peace and favor with God.

    Sanctification is the experience, beginning in regeneration, by which the believer is set apart to God's purposes, and is enabled to progress toward moral and spiritual maturity through the presence and power of the Holy Spirit dwelling in him. Growth in grace should continue throughout the regenerate person's life.

    Glorification is the culmination of salvation and is the final blessed and abiding state of the redeemed.

    Genesis 3:15; Exodus 3:14-17; 6:2-8; Matthew 1:21; 4:17; 16:21-26; 27:22-28:6; Luke 1:68-69; 2:28-32; John 1:11-14,29; 3:3-21,36; 5:24; 10:9,28-29; 15:1-16; 17:17; Acts 2:21; 4:12; 15:11; 16:30-31; 17:30-31; 20:32; Romans 1:16-18; 2:4; 3:23-25; 4:3ff.; 5:8-10; 6:1-23; 8:1-18,29-39; 10:9-10,13; 13:11-14; 1 Corinthians 1:18,30; 6:19-20; 15:10; 2 Corinthians 5:17-20; Galatians 2:20; 3:13; 5:22-25; 6:15; Ephesians 1:7; 2:8-22; 4:11-16; Philippians 2:12-13; Colossians 1:9-22; 3:1ff.; 1 Thessalonians 5:23-24; 2 Timothy 1:12; Titus 2:11-14; Hebrews 2:1-3; 5:8-9; 9:24-28; 11:1-12:8,14; James 2:14-26; 1 Peter 1:2-23; 1 John 1:6-2:11; Revelation 3:20; 21:1-22:5.

    God's Purpose of Grace

    Election is the gracious purpose of God, according to which He regenerates, justifies, sanctifies, and glorifies sinners. It is consistent with the free agency of man, and comprehends all the means in connection with the end. It is the glorious display of God's sovereign goodness, and is infinitely wise, holy, and unchangeable. It excludes boasting and promotes humility.

    All true believers endure to the end. Those whom God has accepted in Christ, and sanctified by His Spirit, will never fall away from the state of grace, but shall persevere to the end. Believers may fall into sin through neglect and temptation, whereby they grieve the Spirit, impair their graces and comforts, and bring reproach on the cause of Christ and temporal judgments on themselves; yet they shall be kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation.

    Genesis 12:1-3; Exodus 19:5-8; 1 Samuel 8:4-7,19-22; Isaiah 5:1-7; Jeremiah 31:31ff.; Matthew 16:18-19; 21:28-45; 24:22,31; 25:34; Luke 1:68-79; 2:29-32; 19:41-44; 24:44-48; John 1:12-14; 3:16; 5:24; 6:44-45,65; 10:27-29; 15:16; 17:6,12,17-18; Acts 20:32; Romans 5:9-10; 8:28-39; 10:12-15; 11:5-7,26-36; 1 Corinthians 1:1-2; 15:24-28; Ephesians 1:4-23; 2:1-10; 3:1-11; Colossians 1:12-14; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14; 2 Timothy 1:12; 2:10,19; Hebrews 11:39-12:2; James 1:12; 1 Peter 1:2-5,13; 2:4-10; 1 John 1:7-9; 2:19; 3:2.

    The Church

    A New Testament church of the Lord Jesus Christ is an autonomous local congregation of baptized believers, associated by covenant in the faith and fellowship of the gospel; observing the two ordinances of Christ, governed by His laws, exercising the gifts, rights, and privileges invested in them by His Word, and seeking to extend the gospel to the ends of the earth. Each congregation operates under the Lordship of Christ through democratic processes. In such a congregation each member is responsible and accountable to Christ as Lord. Its scriptural officers are pastors and deacons. While both men and women are gifted for service in the church, the office of pastor is limited to men as qualified by Scripture.

    The New Testament speaks also of the church as the Body of Christ, which includes all of the redeemed of all the ages, believers from every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation.

    Matthew 16:15-19; 18:15-20; Acts 2:41-42,47; 5:11-14; 6:3-6; 13:1-3; 14:23,27; 15:1-30; 16:5; 20:28; Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 3:16; 5:4-5; 7:17; 9:13-14; 12; Ephesians 1:22-23; 2:19-22; 3:8-11,21; 5:22-32; Philippians 1:1; Colossians 1:18; 1 Timothy 2:9-14; 3:1-15; 4:14; Hebrews 11:39-40; 1 Peter 5:1-4; Revelation 2-3; 21:2-3.

    Baptism and the Lord's Supper

    Christian baptism is the immersion of a believer in water in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. It is an act of obedience symbolizing the believer's faith in a crucified, buried, and risen Savior, the believer's death to sin, the burial of the old life, and the resurrection to walk in newness of life in Christ Jesus. It is a testimony to his faith in the final resurrection of the dead. Being a church ordinance, it is prerequisite to the privileges of church membership and to the Lord's Supper.

    The Lord's Supper is a symbolic act of obedience whereby members of the church, through partaking of the bread and the fruit of the vine, memorialize the death of the Redeemer and anticipate His second coming.

    Matthew 3:13-17; 26:26-30; 28:19-20; Mark 1:9-11; 14:22-26; Luke 3:21-22; 22:19-20; John 3:23; Acts 2:41-42; 8:35-39; 16:30-33; 20:7; Romans 6:3-5; 1 Corinthians 10:16,21; 11:23-29; Colossians 2:12.

    The Lord's Day

    The first day of the week is the Lord's Day. It is a Christian institution for regular observance. It commemorates the resurrection of Christ from the dead and should include exercises of worship and spiritual devotion, both public and private. Activities on the Lord's Day should be commensurate with the Christian's conscience under the Lordship of Jesus Christ.

    Exodus 20:8-11; Matthew 12:1-12; 28:1ff.; Mark 2:27-28; 16:1-7; Luke 24:1-3,33-36; John 4:21-24; 20:1,19-28; Acts 20:7; Romans 14:5-10; I Corinthians 16:1-2; Colossians 2:16; 3:16; Revelation 1:10.

    The Kingdom

    The Kingdom of God includes both His general sovereignty over the universe and His particular kingship over men who willfully acknowledge Him as King. Particularly the Kingdom is the realm of salvation into which men enter by trustful, childlike commitment to Jesus Christ. Christians ought to pray and to labor that the Kingdom may come and God's will be done on earth. The full consummation of the Kingdom awaits the return of Jesus Christ and the end of this age.

    Genesis 1:1; Isaiah 9:6-7; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Matthew 3:2; 4:8-10,23; 12:25-28; 13:1-52; 25:31-46; 26:29; Mark 1:14-15; 9:1; Luke 4:43; 8:1; 9:2; 12:31-32; 17:20-21; 23:42; John 3:3; 18:36; Acts 1:6-7; 17:22-31; Romans 5:17; 8:19; 1 Corinthians 15:24-28; Colossians 1:13; Hebrews 11:10,16; 12:28; 1 Peter 2:4-10; 4:13; Revelation 1:6,9; 5:10; 11:15; 21-22.

    Last Things

    God, in His own time and in His own way, will bring the world to its appropriate end. According to His promise, Jesus Christ will return personally and visibly in glory to the earth; the dead will be raised; and Christ will judge all men in righteousness. The unrighteous will be consigned to Hell, the place of everlasting punishment. The righteous in their resurrected and glorified bodies will receive their reward and will dwell forever in Heaven with the Lord.

    Isaiah 2:4; 11:9; Matthew 16:27; 18:8-9; 19:28; 24:27,30,36,44; 25:31-46; 26:64; Mark 8:38; 9:43-48; Luke 12:40,48; 16:19-26; 17:22-37; 21:27-28; John 14:1-3; Acts 1:11; 17:31; Romans 14:10; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 15:24-28,35-58; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Philippians 3:20-21; Colossians 1:5; 3:4; 1 Thessalonians 4:14-18; 5:1ff.; 2 Thessalonians 1:7ff.; 2; 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1,8; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 9:27-28; James 5:8; 2 Peter 3:7ff.; 1 John 2:28; 3:2; Jude 14; Revelation 1:18; 3:11; 20:1-22:13.

    Evangelism and Missions

    It is the duty and privilege of every follower of Christ and of every church of the Lord Jesus Christ to endeavor to make disciples of all nations. The new birth of man's spirit by God's Holy Spirit means the birth of love for others. Missionary effort on the part of all rests thus upon a spiritual necessity of the regenerate life, and is expressly and repeatedly commanded in the teachings of Christ. The Lord Jesus Christ has commanded the preaching of the gospel to all nations. It is the duty of every child of God to seek constantly to win the lost to Christ by verbal witness under girded by a Christian lifestyle, and by other methods in harmony with the gospel of Christ.

    Genesis 12:1-3; Exodus 19:5-6; Isaiah 6:1-8; Matthew 9:37-38; 10:5-15; 13:18-30, 37-43; 16:19; 22:9-10; 24:14; 28:18-20; Luke 10:1-18; 24:46-53; John 14:11-12; 15:7-8,16; 17:15; 20:21; Acts 1:8; 2; 8:26-40; 10:42-48; 13:2-3; Romans 10:13-15; Ephesians 3:1-11; 1 Thessalonians 1:8; 2 Timothy 4:5; Hebrews 2:1-3; 11:39-12:2; 1 Peter 2:4-10; Revelation 22:17.


    Christianity is the faith of enlightenment and intelligence. In Jesus Christ abide all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. All sound learning is, therefore, a part of our Christian heritage. The new birth opens all human faculties and creates a thirst for knowledge. Moreover, the cause of education in the Kingdom of Christ is co-ordinate with the causes of missions and general benevolence, and should receive along with these the liberal support of the churches. An adequate system of Christian education is necessary to a complete spiritual program for Christ's people.

    In Christian education there should be a proper balance between academic freedom and academic responsibility. Freedom in any orderly relationship of human life is always limited and never absolute. The freedom of a teacher in a Christian school, college, or seminary is limited by the pre-eminence of Jesus Christ, by the authoritative nature of the Scriptures, and by the distinct purpose for which the school exists.

    Deuteronomy 4:1,5,9,14; 6:1-10; 31:12-13; Nehemiah 8:1-8; Job 28:28; Psalms 19:7ff.; 119:11; Proverbs 3:13ff.; 4:1-10; 8:1-7,11; 15:14; Ecclesiastes 7:19; Matthew 5:2; 7:24ff.; 28:19-20; Luke 2:40; 1 Corinthians 1:18-31; Ephesians 4:11-16; Philippians 4:8; Colossians 2:3,8-9; 1 Timothy 1:3-7; 2 Timothy 2:15; 3:14-17; Hebrews 5:12-6:3; James 1:5; 3:17.


    God is the source of all blessings, temporal and spiritual; all that we have and are we owe to Him. Christians have a spiritual debtorship to the whole world, a holy trusteeship in the gospel, and a binding stewardship in their possessions. They are therefore under obligation to serve Him with their time, talents, and material possessions; and should recognize all these as entrusted to them to use for the glory of God and for helping others. According to the Scriptures, Christians should contribute of their means cheerfully, regularly, systematically, proportionately, and liberally for the advancement of the Redeemer's cause on earth.

    Genesis 14:20; Leviticus 27:30-32; Deuteronomy 8:18; Malachi 3:8-12; Matthew 6:1-4,19-21; 19:21; 23:23; 25:14-29; Luke 12:16-21,42; 16:1-13; Acts 2:44-47; 5:1-11; 17:24-25; 20:35; Romans 6:6-22; 12:1-2; 1 Corinthians 4:1-2; 6:19-20; 12; 16:1-4; 2 Corinthians 8-9; 12:15; Philippians 4:10-19; 1 Peter 1:18-19.


    Christ's people should, as occasion requires, organize such associations and conventions as may best secure cooperation for the great objects of the Kingdom of God. Such organizations have no authority over one another or over the churches. They are voluntary and advisory bodies designed to elicit, combine, and direct the energies of our people in the most effective manner. Members of New Testament churches should cooperate with one another in carrying forward the missionary, educational, and benevolent ministries for the extension of Christ's Kingdom. Christian unity in the New Testament sense is spiritual harmony and voluntary cooperation for common ends by various groups of Christ's people. Cooperation is desirable between the various Christian denominations, when the end to be attained is itself justified, and when such cooperation involves no violation of conscience or compromise of loyalty to Christ and His Word as revealed in the New Testament.

    Exodus 17:12; 18:17ff.; Judges 7:21; Ezra 1:3-4; 2:68-69; 5:14-15; Nehemiah 4; 8:1-5; Matthew 10:5-15; 20:1-16; 22:1-10; 28:19-20; Mark 2:3; Luke 10:1ff.; Acts 1:13-14; 2:1ff.; 4:31-37; 13:2-3; 15:1-35; 1 Corinthians 1:10-17; 3:5-15; 12; 2 Corinthians 8-9; Galatians 1:6-10; Ephesians 4:1-16; Philippians 1:15-18.

    The Christian and the Social Order

    All Christians are under obligation to seek to make the will of Christ supreme in our own lives and in human society. Means and methods used for the improvement of society and the establishment of righteousness among men can be truly and permanently helpful only when they are rooted in the regeneration of the individual by the saving grace of God in Jesus Christ. In the spirit of Christ, Christians should oppose racism, every form of greed, selfishness, and vice, and all forms of sexual immorality, including adultery, homosexuality, and pornography. We should work to provide for the orphaned, the needy, the abused, the aged, the helpless, and the sick. We should speak on behalf of the unborn and contend for the sanctity of all human life from conception to natural death. Every Christian should seek to bring industry, government, and society as a whole under the sway of the principles of righteousness, truth, and brotherly love. In order to promote these ends Christians should be ready to work with all men of good will in any good cause, always being careful to act in the spirit of love without compromising their loyalty to Christ and His truth.

    Exodus 20:3-17; Leviticus 6:2-5; Deuteronomy 10:12; 27:17; Psalm 101:5; Micah 6:8; Zechariah 8:16; Matthew 5:13-16,43-48; 22:36-40; 25:35; Mark 1:29-34; 2:3ff.; 10:21; Luke 4:18-21; 10:27-37; 20:25; John 15:12; 17:15; Romans 12-14; 1Corinthians 5:9-10; 6:1-7; 7:20-24; 10:23-11:1; Galatians 3:26-28; Ephesians 6:5-9; Colossians 3:12-17; 1 Thessalonians 3:12; Philemon; James 1:27; 2:8.

    Peace and War

    It is the duty of Christians to seek peace with all men on principles of righteousness. In accordance with the spirit and teachings of Christ they should do all in their power to put an end to war.

    The true remedy for the war spirit is the gospel of our Lord. The supreme need of the world is the acceptance of His teachings in all the affairs of men and nations, and the practical application of His law of love. Christian people throughout the world should pray for the reign of the Prince of Peace.

    Isaiah 2:4; Matthew 5:9,38-48; 6:33; 26:52; Luke 22:36,38; Romans 12:18-19; 13:1-7; 14:19; Hebrews 12:14; James 4:1-2.

    Religious Liberty

    God alone is Lord of the conscience, and He has left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men, which are contrary to His Word or not contained in it. Church and state should be separate. The state owes to every church protection and full freedom in the pursuit of its spiritual ends. In providing for such freedom no ecclesiastical group or denomination should be favored by the state more than others. Civil government being ordained of God, it is the duty of Christians to render loyal obedience thereto in all things not contrary to the revealed will of God. The church should not resort to the civil power to carry on its work. The gospel of Christ contemplates spiritual means alone for the pursuit of its ends. The state has no right to impose penalties for religious opinions of any kind. The state has no right to impose taxes for the support of any form of religion. A free church in a free state is the Christian ideal, and this implies the right of free and unhindered access to God on the part of all men, and the right to form and propagate opinions in the sphere of religion without interference by the civil power.

    Genesis 1:27; 2:7; Matthew 6:6-7,24; 16:26; 22:21; John 8:36; Acts 4:19-20; Romans 6:1-2; 13:1-7; Galatians 5:1,13; Philippians 3:20; 1 Timothy 2:1-2; James 4:12; 1 Peter 2:12-17; 3:11-17; 4:12-19.

    The Family

    God has ordained the family as the foundational institution of human society. It is composed of persons related to one another by marriage, blood, or adoption.

    Marriage is the uniting of one man and one woman in covenant commitment for a lifetime. It is God's unique gift to reveal the union between Christ and His church and to provide for the man and the woman in marriage the framework for intimate companionship, the channel of sexual expression according to biblical standards, and the means for procreation of the human race.

    The husband and wife are of equal worth before God, since both are created in God's image. The marriage relationship models the way God relates to His people. A husband is to love his wife as Christ loved the church. He has the God-given responsibility to provide for, to protect, and to lead his family. A wife is to submit herself graciously to the servant leadership of her husband even as the church willingly submits to the headship of Christ. She, being in the image of God as is her husband and thus equal to him, has the God-given responsibility to respect her husband and to serve as his helper in managing the household and nurturing the next generation.

    Children, from the moment of conception, are a blessing and heritage from the Lord. Parents are to demonstrate to their children God's pattern for marriage. Parents are to teach their children spiritual and moral values and to lead them, through consistent lifestyle example and loving discipline, to make choices based on biblical truth. Children are to honor and obey their parents.

    Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-25; 3:1-20; Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Joshua 24:15; 1 Samuel 1:26-28; Psalms 51:5; 78:1-8; 127; 128; 139:13-16; Proverbs 1:8; 5:15-20; 6:20-22; 12:4; 13:24; 14:1; 17:6; 18:22; 22:6,15; 23:13-14; 24:3; 29:15,17; 31:10-31; Ecclesiastes 4:9-12; 9:9; Malachi 2:14-16; Matthew 5:31-32; 18:2-5; 19:3-9; Mark 10:6-12; Romans 1:18-32; 1 Corinthians 7:1-16; Ephesians 5:21-33; 6:1-4; Colossians 3:18-21; 1 Timothy 5:8,14; 2 Timothy 1:3-5; Titus 2:3-5; Hebrews 13:4; 1 Peter 3:1-7."

    [Quelle: -- Zugrif am 2005-03-25]

    "Am Memorial Sunday, an dem die Amerikaner ihrer gefallenen Soldaten gedenken, stand ich früh auf und fuhr ins Stadtzentrum zur First Baptist Church of Dallas. Dies ist eine der größten und reichsten Kirchen Amerikas. Sie hat 28 000 Mitglieder und beschäftigt 300 Personen, darunter eine private Sicherheitstruppe, die den gesamten Block bewacht, in dem sich die Kirche und die angegliederten Einrichtungen - das Criswell-Bibelkolleg, die Criswell-Rundfunkstation und noch ein halbes Dutzend weitere, nach Dr. Criswell oder seinen Freunden benannte Institutionen - befinden. Das Oberhaupt dieses Imperiums ist ein fast schon legendärer Prediger, Reverend W. A. Criswell, Pastor der »Ersten Baptistenkirche« seit 1944 und Guru einer ganzen Generation von neuen radikalen Fundamentalisten. In seiner Kirche würde man ganz und gar nicht erwarten, auf die Ewings oder andere Größen der texanischen »Ölogarchie« zu treffen. Obwohl einige der »Southern Baptists« auch wohlhabend sind, stammen die meisten aus der Arbeiterschicht oder haben kaum verdeckte bäuerliche Wurzeln. Von Dr. Criswell erwartete ich eine echte Höllenfeuer-Predigt, und ich wurde nicht enttäuscht.

    Selbst zum Acht-Uhr-Gottesdienst war die Kirche beinahe voll. Das als Auditorium konzipierte Gebäude mit Eichenbänken und Fenstern aus Tiffanyglas fasste nur etwa 3000 Menschen, einen Bruchteil aller Kirchenmitglieder. Die überwältigende Mehrzahl der Gemeinde war weiß, jung und adrett. Die Frauen waren hübsch, aber keineswegs aufdringlich gekleidet, mit halblangen Kleidern oder Kostümen mit Bluse. Die Männer trugen helle Anzüge in Grau oder Beige. Ich war bestimmt der einzige Mann, dessen Haar über den Hemdkragen ging. Die Kinder, auch die ganz jungen, benahmen sich musterhaft. Ethnisch und kulturell gehörten diese Menschen eindeutig zum anglo-kolonialen Typus: der gleiche Schlag, den man auch in Salt Lake City findet, oder in Neuseeland - Angehörige jener außergewöhnlichen Menschenrasse, die erbarmungslos die Kontinente unterwirft, um sie für Einfamilienhäuser und Einkaufszentren sicher zu machen.

    Man sang muntere Choräle, alte Lieblingslieder der Baptisten, und der Chor gab einen gut einstudierten Psalm zum besten, begleitet von der berühmten »Hallelujah Brass Band« der Kirche.

    Dr. Criswell war ein stämmiger, untersetzter Mann von weit über siebzig, der einen sommerlichen Anzug in kräftigen Farben trug. Seine Aura war halb die eines Showman, halb die eines weisen Staatsmannes. Zum Thema seiner Predigt machte er, wie vorauszusehen, die Bedeutung der Bibel, die Notwendigkeit, den Geist Christi mit der Autorität des Wortes zu untermauern. Er trug ein Gedicht vor, das man bei der Leiche eines im Krieg gefallenen jungen Soldaten gefunden hatte:

    Lieber Gott, ich spreche zu dir das erste Mal,
    Doch irgendwie find ich das ganz normal.
    Denn weißt du, Gott, man sagte, dich gibt es nicht,
    Und ich hatte dieses Denken in mich eingesogen.
    Gestern im Bunker aber sah ich dein Licht,
    Und da war mir klar, sie hatten gelogen.

    ... in diesem Tonfall ging es noch über zwanzig Zeilen lang weiter.

    Nachdem er uns diese recht idyllische Gottesschau präsentiert hatte, schlug der Pastor einen eher furchterregenden, anklagenden Ton an.

    »In der Stunde des Jüngsten Gerichts, wenn wir vor Gott dem Allmächtigen stehen«, skandierte er, wobei er jede Silbe mit schwingender Klarheit artikulierte, »wer wird dann bei uns sein? Wer wird uns verteidigen? Und wer wird uns VERDAMMEN?« Die Worte erschollen aus seiner Kehle wie das Dröhnen der letzten Posaune, ihr Widerhall drang bis in den letzten Winkel des Raums. Die folgende Stille schwang noch stärker nach: nicht ein Zuhörer hustete, kein Kind quietschte auf. Und dann die unerwartete Antwort, in gedämpftem Bühnenflüstern: »Sogar jene, die ihr liebt...«

    »Vor sechzig Jahren, in meinem ersten Pastorat«, fuhr er fort, und in seiner Stimme bebte eine leise Nostalgie, »im schönen Tennessee, wo meine erste kleine Kirche stand, da wurde jemand gehängt. Und es war ein Bursche, ein junger Mann, ein sehr junger. Und als schon der Strick des Henkers um seine Kehle lag, da fragte man ihn, wie es kurz vor der Hinrichtung üblich ist: 'Willst du noch ein letztes Wort sagen?' Und er antwortete: 'Ja, ich möchte mit meiner Mutter sprechen'. Und so holten sie seine Mutter auf das Gerüst hinauf. Und der Junge sagte zu seiner Mutter:

    'Mutter, hättest du mich Gottes Wort gelehrt, mir den Erlöser nahegebracht und mich als kleiner Junge immer in die Sonntagsschule und zur Kirche geschickt, wäre ich dann wohl heute hier und würde für meine Verbrechen mit dem Leben bezahlen?'

    Was für ein SCHRECKLICHER Moment, was für ein SCHRECKLICHER Schmerz! Und das ist nur ein kleiner Vorgeschmack auf jenen schweren letzten, allerletzten Tag, an dem all jene, die sich von unserem Erlöser abwenden, in ewiges Dunkel und Feuer und Verdammnis gestoßen werden: dann werden auch ihre Kinder aufstehen und die Eltern tadeln: »Hättet ihr uns Gottes Wort gelehrt, uns dem Herrn nahegebracht, dann müssten wir jetzt nicht auf Ewigkeit in der Hölle schmoren !«"

    [Quelle: Ruthven, Malise <1942 - >: Der göttliche Supermarkt : auf der Suche nach der Seele Amerikas. -- Frankfurt am Main : S. Fischer, 1991. -- 327 S. : Kt. ; 23 cm. -- Originaltitel: The devine supermarket (1989). -- ISBN: 3-10-068507-5. -- S. 221 - 223.]

    16. Bob Jones University

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-15

    "Bob Jones University (BJU) is the largest private liberal arts university in South Carolina. It is a Christian university in Greenville, South Carolina, and was founded in 1927 by Bob Jones, Sr., an evangelist and revival-preacher.

    The current president of the university is Bob Jones III, grandson of the founder. It was announced in January 2005 that his son, Stephen Jones, will take over as president in May of 2005. The university has a staff of 1,800 and a student body of 4,200, and offers degrees in 126 majors, plus additional schools from kindergarten through 12th grade. The University is currently seeking accreditation through the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools. The process is expected to be completed by 2005.

    Its mission statement is "Within the cultural and academic soil of liberal arts education, Bob Jones University exists to grow Christlike character that is Scripturally disciplined; others-serving; God-loving; Christ-proclaiming; and focused above."

    The school also produces a vast quantity of textbooks and other material under the name Bob Jones University Press.


    On December 3, 2004, the school broke the World Record for Christmas caroling with 7,514 carolers.


    BJU was founded in 1927 by evangelist Bob Jones, Sr., in College Point, Florida. Jones was the son of an Alabama sharecropper. His stated purpose was to create a school where Christian students could receive a high-quality education in a strongly traditional Christian environment.

    The school moved to Cleveland, Tennessee in 1933, and to its present campus in Greenville, South Carolina in 1947.

    From its 1927 founding to 1971, black people were prohibited from enrolling at the school. From 1971 to 1975, only unmarried black people were permitted to apply to the school. After the 1975 court decision of McCrary v. Runyon, which prohibited racial exclusion from private schools, the policy was changed. A person of any race could apply to the school, but the school adopted a disciplinary rule prohibiting interracial dating or marriage:

    There is to be no interracial dating.
    1. Students who are partners in an interracial marriage will be expelled. [461 U.S. 574, 581]
    2. Students who are members of or affiliated with any group or organization which holds as one of its goals or advocates interracial marriage will be expelled.
    3. Students who date outside of their own race will be expelled.
    4. Students who espouse, promote, or encourage others to violate the University's dating rules and regulations will be expelled."

    The former policies of Bob Jones University on interracial dating are indebted to the founder's view that the Bible forbids interracial dating and marriage, though today, Bob Jones University sometimes claims that the policy is a product of a (1950s) legal threat on the part of the parents of a female Asian student (who threatened legal action after learning that their daughter was dating a white student).

    The school lost its Internal Revenue Service tax exemption in 1980 because of its anti-interracial dating policy. The school appealed all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, arguing that the school met the criteria for tax-exempt status on several counts, including that the school engaged in racial discrimination on the basis of sincerely held religious beliefs. U.S. President Ronald Reagan supported the school's tax exempt status, but the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1983 in favour of the IRS (see Bob Jones University v. United States, 461 U.S. 574) and the school does not intend to seek tax-exempt status again. In 2000, the policy was dropped in its entirety[1] ( (after some experimentation with a policy of parental consent for interracial dating) shortly after the State of South Carolina formally legalized interracial marriage.


    The University is composed of six colleges and schools that offer over 125 undergraduate majors. Among these majors are fourteen "trade school" programs that range from aircraft management to cosmetology. Classes are also offered by correspondence and also through the Univeristy's live, interactive satellite system.

    Graduates have been accepted into medical schools at a rate that exceeds the national average. Graduates in other fields have been accepted into many law schools, and other graduate programs at other colleges and universities.

    Art gallery

    Bob Jones, Jr., son of the founder, had an interest in art depicting scenes from the Bible, especially those which had a highly illustrative nature rather than those relying on symbols. He began collecting after World War II, and concentrated on Italian Baroque painters. This style was out of favor in the mid-20th century and the works were relatively inexpensive, and Jones built up an important collection. He donated his paintings to a museum at the University. The BJU Museum & Gallery ( now is considered the largest collection of religious art in the Western Hemisphere.


    Students at BJU recite the University Creed at chapel services each day.

    I believe in the inspiration of the Bible (both the Old and the New Testaments); the creation of man by the direct act of God; the incarnation and virgin birth of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ; His identification as the Son of God; His vicarious atonement for the sins of mankind by the shedding of His blood on the cross; the resurrection of His body from the tomb; His power to save men from sin; the new birth through the regeneration by the Holy Spirit; and the gift of eternal life by the grace of God.

    The BJU biology department proudly proclaims its support for creationism. Its Dept. of Biology website states:

    Although Bob Jones University is primarily a teaching institution, the members of the science faculty have a long tradition of speaking, writing, and doing research related to defending the Bible's account of creation.

    Since mainstream biological scientists generally prefer the theory of evolution as an explanation of biological diversity, this embrace of creationism is likely one of the major reasons that the BJU biology department has chosen to forego accreditation until recently.


    The University has an intramural sports program in many different fields including soccer, basketball, softball, track, volleyball, tennis, badminton, and table tennis. The highlight of the sports season is the Turkey Bowl, where the top two societies (the University's version of fraternities and sororities) compete in a soccer match usually during Thanksgiving.

    The University also competes in intercollegiate debate in the National Educational Debate Association.

    Political campaigns

    Over the years many gubernatorial and presidential candidates have spoken at the school, including Ronald Reagan, Jack Kemp, Bob Dole, and Alan Keyes. Democrats tend to avoid the school, and on a national level, it is mainly Republicans who appear there (see Southern strategy).

    On February 2, 2000, George W. Bush, while campaigning to become U.S. President, addressed the school's chapel service. Many people, including many American conservatives, disagreed with Bush's decision to speak at the controversial institution. Bush's speech did not include any mention of either the school's ban on interracial dating or its alleged anti-Catholic sentiments. Following public outcry, the Bush campaign promptly released remarks declaring that Bush was neither anti-Catholic nor a racist, and that his brother Jeb Bush could not have dated his wife (who is Latina) if he had attended the school (Bush's campaign apparently misunderstood the difference between ethnicity and race). Bush also appeared before the press to deny that he either knew or approved of what he regarded as the school's intolerant policies.

    On February 26, after twenty-four days of considerable media pressure, Bush also wrote a formal letter of apology to Cardinal John O'Connor of New York for failing to denounce Bob Jones University's history of strongly anti-Catholic prejudice (among other things, the university's founder once called the Catholic Church a "satanic cult"). At a news conference following the letter's release, Bush stated: "I make no excuses. I had an opportunity and I missed it. I regret that." and "I wish I had gotten up then and seized the moment to set a tone, a tone that I had set in Texas, a positive and inclusive tone."

    On March 3, the school issued a "Letter to the Nation" defending their position and arguing that the real issue of the media pressure was religious freedom. [2] (

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06]
    "Bob Jones, Sr., who was a fundamentalist preacher "was a Ku Klux Klan mouthpiece who preached against Catholics and foreigners . . ." Jones, Sr. once clamored, "I would rather see a saloon on every comer than a Catholic in the White House. I would rather see a nigger as president."

    More recently, Bob Jones III rationalized in reference to the Curse of Ham:

    (A) Negro is best when he serves at the table. When he does that, he's doing what he knows how to do best. And the Negroes who have ascended to positions in government, in education, this sort of thing, I think you'll find, by and large, have a strong strain of white blood in them. Now, I'm not a racist and this school is not a racist institution. I can't stress that enough. But what I say is purely what I have been taught, and what I have been able to study is the teaching of the Scripture.

    James A. Landrith, Jr. of The Multiracial Activist, applied to BJU in 1998. He received a letter from BJU informing him of the university's ban on interracial dating. Since Landrith is interracially married, only he or his wife could be students at BJU, but not both of them. Later, BJU's community relations coordinator, Jonathon Paite, wrote to Landrith:

    God has separated people for His own purpose. He has erected barriers between the nations, not only land and sea barriers, but also ethnic, cultural, and language barriers. God has made people different one from another and intends those differences to remain. Bob Jones University is opposed to intermarriage of the races because it breaks down the barriers God has established. It mixes that which God separated and intends to keep separate. Every effort in world history to bring the world together has demonstrated man's self-reliance and his unwillingness to remain as God ordains. The attempts at one-worldism have been to devise a system without God and have fostered the promotion of a unity designed to give the world strength so that God is not needed and can be overthrown.

    Interestingly, BJU, from which Attorney General John Ashcroft received an honorary doctorate and delivered his acceptance speech in May 1999, is a favorite among Christian conservatives. Moreover, many conservative politicians have campaigned at BJU. This includes Republican Senator Strom Thurmond and former Republican Vice President Dan Quayle, who appeared with President George W. Bush. Many politicians have also graduated from or hold honorary degrees from the university."

    [Kimberly Blaker. -- In: The fundamentals of extremism : the Christian right in America / edited by Kimberly Blaker.  -- New Boston, Mich. : New Boston Books, ©2003.  -- 287 S. ; 22 cm.  -- ISBN: 0972549617. -- S. 123f. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

    17. Regent University

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06

    "About Regent University

    The nation's academic center for Christian thought and action.

    It's more than a description of Regent University - it's a way of life. As America's premier graduate school dedicated to combining quality education with biblical teachings, Regent continues to produce Christian leaders who will make a difference, who will change the world.

    Just a glance at the world class institution makes a lasting impression. Regent has more than 3,000 students in nine academic schools, two campuses and distance education reaching around the globe. From the gleaming beauty and technological sophistication of its facilities to the accomplishments of students and graduates, there's much to be proud of at Regent.

    The 31,000-square-foot Student Center on Regent's Virginia Beach Campus, opened in 2003, offers a central location for campus and student services. The building houses the University Bookstore, student organizations and meeting rooms, a cafe/coffee shop, computer lab, student lounge, and offices for the Registrar, Admissions and Financial Aid. The 135,000-square-foot Communication and Performing Arts Center, opened in 2002, includes film and animation studios in one of the most technologically advanced communication buildings on the East Coast.

    More than a collection of buildings, Regent produces students who excel in their fields. Recent student accomplishments include the School of Law's victory in the Best Brief in the Nation competition (out of 120 teams) at the ABA National Appellate Advocacy Competition and the Students in Free Enterprise team's regional SIFE championship in competition among 30 colleges and universities. The Regent Moot Court Team also claimed a title, becoming the first school in Virginia since 1988 to win the prestigious William B. Spong Jr. Moot Court Tournament at the College of William and Mary.

    All of the many accomplishments and physical presence of Regent in Virginia Beach and its Washington, D.C. campus near the Potomac River are even more impressive considering the school was founded only 25 years ago.

    Dr. M. G. "Pat" Robertson, founder and president of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), had an inspired vision to establish a graduate-level institution that would train men and women for the challenge of representing Christ in their professions. In 1978, Robertson's vision materialized, as 70 students began classes."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06]  

    18. Chalcedon Foundation

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 205-03-06

    "The Ministry of Chalcedon

    Established in 1965, Chalcedon (kal-SEE-dun) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) and Christian educational organization devoted to research, publishing, and promoting Christian reconstruction in all areas of life.

    Chalcedon is geared to all who understand that Jesus Christ speaks to the mind as well as to the heart.

    We believe that the whole Word of God must be applied to all of life. It is not only our duty as individuals, families and churches to be Christian, but it is also the duty of the state, the school, the arts and sciences, law, economics, and every other sphere to be under Christ the King. Nothing is exempt from His dominion. We must live by His Word, not our own.

    Chalcedon is premised on the belief that ideas have consequences. It takes seriously the words of Professor F. A. Hayek:

    "It may well be that scholars tend to overestimate the influence which we can exercise on contemporary affairs. But I doubt whether it is possible to overestimate the influence which ideas have in the long run."

    Chalcedon's resources are being used to remind Christians of this basic truth: What men believe makes a difference.

    "Therefore men should not believe lies, for it is the truth that sets them free" (John 8:32).

    Chalcedon's activities include foundational and leadership roles in Christian reconstruction. Our emphasis on the Cultural or Dominion Mandate (Genesis 1:28) and the necessity of a return to Biblical Law has been a a crucial factor in the challenge to Humanism by Christians in this country and elsewhere. Chalcedon's involvement in and commitment to Christian education began with its inception when founder Rousas John Rushdoony pinpointed the Christian and home schools as the most important institutions in reversing the influence of secular Humanism.

    Our scholars speak regularly at conferences in America and overseas for various churches, schools, and private organizations. Chalcedon also hosts its own regional conferences across America.

    In an era of uncertainty and fear of doom, Chalcedon presents a message of victory and envisions our age as a great opportunity for the consistent Biblical believer. A world that is increasingly pessimistic and disillusioned with the failure of secular Humanism is now feeling the impact of Christians who are exercising dominion and reclaiming lost spheres of authority for Christ the King."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06]

    What Chalcedon Believes

    In a lawless, compromising, and apostate age, any Christian individual, church, or institution that stands unequivocally for the Biblical authority and the orthodox Christian Faith and, moreover, obedience to the Word of God and its application for all of life, is likely to be misunderstood, maligned, and slandered, both outside and inside the church. Often, these assaults are the result of misinformation, in that professed Christians routinely break the Ninth Commandment. Unintentionally, they just as frequently pass on to others erroneous information. The fact that their intent is often not malevolent does not absolve them from their guilt of violating God's law. Others are truly malevolent. Their intent is malicious, and they employ their tongue to spread deceit, which they know to be deceit.

    Chalcedon is often the object of these attacks, both clearly malevolent as well as simply misinformed. Christians suckled on a pietistic view of the Faith and life simply cannot conceive of a world-conquering Christianity; because they cannot grasp this premise, they dismiss its defenders and spread misinformation about its position. Some are simply too irresponsible (or lazy) to acquaint themselves with our position and, failing to understand it, impute to Chalcedon positions and statements we do not espouse, and, in some cases, just the opposite of what we espouse. The malevolent detractors, on the other hand, know fully well what we believe and teach; their objective is to erect straw men, paint Chalcedon in the poorest possible light, and assassinate our position and character. We are not interested in dialoging with or defending ourselves against the accusations and innuendo of these malicious individuals. We are, however, patient with those who have not been sufficiently exposed to or who do not adequately grasp our position, and have simply been the recipients of misinformation. For that reason, I will set forth eight particular positions, often imputed to us, which we do not believe. At least on these points, I will set the record straight as to what Chalcedon actually believes so that sincere, honest inquirers may gain an informed understanding of our position, whether they agree with us or not.

    Misconception 1: Justification by Law or Works

    Because we strongly emphasize the authority of Biblical law, holding it to be a verbal description of God's character, and because we hold that Biblical law should govern every area of man's life and thought, it is sometimes suggested we believe that man is justified by keeping the law, or somehow by his good works. This charge is not merely seriously erroneous; it is monstrously mistaken. As Calvinists, we believe that sinners are saved solely on the ground of Christ's substitutionary, atoning death and law-keeping life, the passive and active obedience of Christ (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:24). Further, we believe that justification, man's legal acceptance in the sight of God as "not guilty," is appropriated by faith alone (Rom. 5:1; Eph. 2:8-10). Because faith itself is a gift of God, no law-keeping or works of any kind that man can perform could in any way secure or contribute to his justification or acceptance before God. God does not cooperate with man in saving him. God saves sinners; He does not help them save themselves. Law-keeping and good works are the essential results of justification; they are not the ground or means of appropriating justification. All who are truly justified will obey God's law, progressively, though not perfectly, in this life (1 Cor. 6:9-10; 1 Jn. 1:8). God, by His matchless grace in the atoning death of His Son, saves those whom He has chosen. He does the deep work of regeneration and conversion in their lives. This is God's work, not man's. But the God who justifies also sanctifies, and sanctification means progressive obedience to God's requirements, His law of the Old and New Testaments.

    Those who teach that man is justified by law-keeping or good works are pronounced cursed by God (Gal. 1:8-9; 2:16); just as clearly, those who as God's covenant people do not obey His law are cursed by God (Dt. 28:15-68). Men are justified by Christ's redemptive work alone, and appropriate this justification by faith alone; but those who are truly justified manifest that justification by their obedience to God's law.

    Misconception 2: Political Dominion

    Because we believe that the Bible should apply to all of life, including the state; and because we believe that the Christian state should enforce Biblical civil law; and finally, because we believe that the responsibility of Christians is to exercise dominion in the earth for God's glory, it is sometimes assumed that we believe that capturing state apparatus and enforcing Biblical law on a pervasively unbelieving populace is one of our hidden objectives. Our critics sometimes imply or state outright that we are engaged in a subtle, covert attempt to capture conservative, right-wing politics in order to gain political power, which we will then use to "spring" Biblical law on our nation. This is flatly false. We do not believe that politics or the state are a chief sphere of dominion.

    It is understandable why many people assume that we do hold this position, however. We believe firmly in social change. Liberals believe firmly in social change. Liberals believe that social change is the effect almost exclusively of politics and state coercion. For example, they believe that we can change society by means of state-financed and governed "public education"; health, education, and welfare programs; and speech codes. In other words, they believe, like communists, that man is essentially a plastic being that can be fundamentally reshaped by external means — education, wealth, health, penitentiaries, and so forth. Since no later than the French Revolution, most civil governments in the West have believed that social change occurs by revolution, not by regeneration. When, therefore, liberals (and even some alleged Christians) see us supporting and working toward social change, they presume that we are interested in political power. In simpler words, because they believe in social change exclusively by means of politics, they assume that anyone who supports social change or gets involved in politics is attempting to gain state power in order to further a social agenda.

    This is a serious miscalculation. We believe in regeneration , not in revolution. Men are not changed fundamentally by politics, but by the power of God. Men's hearts are changed by regeneration (Jn. 3:3). They are translated from the kingdom of darkness to the kingdom of God's dear Son (Col. 1:13). From that point, they progressively work to reorient their lives and every sphere they touch in terms of God's holy, infallible Word. Long-term, pervasive social change is the result of extensive regeneration and obedience by the people of God. This means, of course, that there can be no Christian society of any significance or longevity unless a large number of its members are Christians.

    We do encourage Christian political involvement, but not for the reason that many people suppose. In fact, we believe it is important for Christians to get involved in politics because we do not believe politics is too important. The great problem with modern politics is that it is used as an instrument of social change. We at Chalcedon passionately oppose this. The role of the state is in essence to defend and protect, in the words of the early American Republic, life, liberty, and property. It is to reward the externally obedient by protecting them from the externally disobedient (Rom. 13:1-7). Its role is not to make men virtuous; we have a name for civil governments that attempt to create a virtuous society: totalitarian. Biblically, the role of the state is to suppress external evil: murder, theft, rape, and so forth. Its role is not to redistribute wealth, furnish medical care, or educate its citizens' children.

    We do believe that the state one day will be Christian, but this no way implies that the role of the state is to Christianize its citizens. The Christian state is highly decentralized (localized). Our objective, therefore, in supporting Christian political involvement is to scale down the massive state in Western democracies, reducing it to its Biblical limits. We do not believe in political salvation of any kind.

    Misconception 3: A Dispensable Church

    Because we believe that men should seek first the kingdom of God, not the church; because we believe that the kingdom of God is much wider than the church; and, consequently, because we believe that the institutional church is simply one dimension of the church, it is often charged that we believe the institutional church is a dispensable, and perhaps even unnecessary, institution. This is greatly in error. While in the Bible there is but one true church, this church can been seen from several different perspectives. The Reformers recognized, for example, the invisible dimension of the church: that group of genuine believers throughout history seen only to the eye of God. This was not, in their mind, the institutional church. They were far from dismissing the institutional church, however. The Calvinists of the British Isles, for example, went so far as to concur with the church of Rome in identifying the institutional church with the kingdom of God. To their credit, more recent Reformed theologians have recognized the mistake of this view, though this does not imply that they believe that the institutional dimension of the church is unnecessary. On this we agree fully with them.

    The church as mentioned in the New Testament is the ecclesia . It began in the Old Testament as the visible covenant community. It is, in Rushdoony's words, God's government in the earth, and it is this government both within and without its institutional dimension. But its institutional dimension is one vital aspect of the church. Must the church be limited to its institutional expression? Surely not. Schools, colleges, mission agencies, evangelistic organizations, Christian foundations, and on and on may truly be considered an aspect of the church even though they are not themselves the institutional church. The kingdom of God is bigger than the church, just as the church is bigger than its institutional dimensions. However, the institutional church as the visible covenant community under the government of godly elders is a vital part of the church and the kingdom of God. Every Christian should be a member of some orthodox, institutional church. This institutional church should not monopolize or dominate the Christian life or the Faith, but it is a vital part of it. The institutional church as an agency for preaching the gospel, administering the sacraments, edifying the saints, and exercising godly dominion is an essential feature of God's kingdom.

    Misconception 4: Kingdom by the Power of Man

    Because we affirm postmillennialism, and because we believe that no church (in any of its dimensions) will ever have any qualitatively different and superior divine resources at its disposal than it now has, we are often accused of believing that man by his efforts, ingenuity, and strength is to bring in the kingdom of God on the earth. We are accused, in other words, of an implicit humanism. This is a woefully mistaken charge. In the first place, Jesus Christ already "brought in the kingdom" at His first coming. His glorious reign was formalized at His ascension (Dan. 7:13-14), after which He showered His royal gifts on His people so that they could advance His kingdom in the earth (Ac. 2:17-18, 30-33). Christ's kingdom is something that Christ Himself brings in. Christians do not bring in the kingdom; Christ brings in the kingdom.

    We do believe that God uses Christians as instruments to advance His kingdom. Thus, just as He used His covenant people in the Old Testament to advance His kingdom among the Hebrews, so He uses His people in the great multi-racial, multi-national church to advance His kingdom and His world-conquering gospel. The so-called Great Commission (Mt. 28:18-20) is the Marching Order of the King. Christians are His subjects, and they are called to obey Him in every area of their lives. Further, they are called to exercise godly dominion in every sphere with which they come into contact. Every area of the Christian's life is to be governed by God and His written Word, the Bible. God uses man's obedience to advance His kingdom. Jesus Christ did not tell His disciples that it was essential for Him to remain on earth so that the kingdom would be advanced; rather, He told them it was essential for Him to leave so that they could do greater works (Jn. 14:12; 16:7). Christians can do greater kingdom-advancing works in the King's absence, because at His ascension He was crowned with great gifts which He bestowed on His people by which His saints take dominion in the earth (Dan. 7:18, 22, 27).

    But fundamentally the work is God's, not man's.

    Misconception 5: Persecution for Religious Beliefs

    Because we believe that the state is an inherently religious institution, and because we believe that a Christian state should enforce the law of God appropriate to the civil sphere, some have accused us of endorsing state persecution for religious beliefs. This is wrong. Biblical law does require criminalization of a few sins like murder, kidnapping, theft, and child sacrifice; but these are not religious beliefs; they are violent practices that assault the fabric of society. The Bible does not permit the state to persecute or suppress any religious belief, only certain dangerous, socially destructive practices .

    Further, Biblical civil law is designed for a covenanted society, just as Biblical ecclesiastical and familial law are: Paul's epistles, for example, are written to Christian churches, not to Satanic synagogues. Biblical law governing the family is designed for Christian families. Likewise, Biblical civil law is created for a covenanted, Christian society. This is why God dictated His legislation (including civic legislation) to ancient Israel after He had entered into covenant with her (Ex. 19). Biblical civil legislation is for a covenanted nation, not for modern, secular Western democracies at war with God. Our first objective is to work to Christianize them.

    Misconception 6: Automatic Christian Children

    Because we believe that the children of Christian parents are to be included in the visible covenant of the church, and because we believe that these children should be treated as though they are among God's elect unless they give definite, objective evidence otherwise, occasionally some assume that we believe children of Christian parents are "automatically" saved because they are born into a Christian family, and that they do not need to hear the gospel. This is flagrantly untrue. The gospel is the chief component of man's salvation (Rom. 10:13-15). The gospel is the good news of salvation by faith in Christ alone, in His great sacrificial work of redemption on the cross. No one is saved apart from this work, or from the message of the gospel. The gospel is the power of God unto salvation (Rom. 1:16).

    Nevertheless, the Bible generally promises salvation to covenant children — that is, the children of Christian parents. This is one vital provision of the Abrahamic covenant: God would be a God to the seed of Abraham in the same sense He was a God to Abraham himself (Gen. 17:7). This is the promise to which Christian parents cling (Gal. 3:29). It is the promise not merely of "common grace," or general providential provision, but of salvation. This fact is reinforced in Acts 2:38-39:

    Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call.

    The promise of salvation is not just to those adults who believe, but also to their children. This is not a promise that every single covenant child will certainly be saved (Rom. 9:6-9), but we have good Biblical warrant to assume that our children are the elect of God unless they demonstrate otherwise by their faithlessness and disobedience. In the pithy Puritan quote: "God casts the lines of elections in the loins of Christian parents."

    In no way does this imply that they do not need to hear the gospel; indeed, it means that we must be more urgent in preaching to them the gospel. 2 Timothy 3:15 teaches us that the Old Testament Scriptures instructed the child Timothy in salvation, and it is most likely that his godly mother and grandmother nourished him in the gospel (2 Tim. 1:4-5). This is the calling of Christian parents: to nourish our children in the gospel and in the Faith . From infancy they must be taught that they are sinners and stand under God's judgment, that the only hope of salvation is Christ's redemptive work which can be appropriated only by faith. Those who do not nourish their children in the gospel, but simply presume that their covenant inclusion guarantees regeneration, run the risk that their children will never, or only rarely, hear the gospel by which men alone are saved.

    We may very well never know the exact moment of regeneration and conversion in Christian children; our calling as parents is not to absolute knowledge, but to faithful obedience. We nourish and bathe them in the gospel and the Faith and train them up as Christians (Eph. 6:1-4), as God's property (Ezek. 16:8, 20-21). Sinners are saved by the sovereign grace of God, but the preaching of the gospel is the instrument by which He accomplishes this salvation.

    Misconception 7: Faith is Mainly Scholarship

    Because we stress the importance of ideas, and because we believe that sound Christian scholarship is essential to the advancement of Christ's kingdom, it is sometimes thought that we believe that the Christian Faith is mainly a matter of Christian scholarship, and that those who are not scholars are second-class Christians. This is severely in error. God and the Faith, not scholarship, are central. Scholarship is instrumental; it can be used for good or evil purposes. The Bible forbids and condemns godless, faithless scholarship, not godly faithful scholarship (1 Cor. 1:18-31; 1 Tim. 4:13). Moses, Paul, and Apollos all used their extensive learning for the sake of Christ and His kingdom. Festus declared of St. Paul, "Paul, thou art beside thyself; much learning doth make thee mad" (Ac. 26:24).

    Critics of Christian scholarship often draw attention to 1 Corinthians 1, where Paul extols the foolish things of the world that confound the wise. What Paul is arguing against, of course, is not godly learning, but the pseudo-scholarship of the Greeks. The apostle's methodical argument in the book of Romans is a masterpiece of scholarly theological argumentation. In today's world, scholarship is almost exclusively on the side of God-haters, humanists, and apostates. Almost all of the leading seminaries in the country are apostate, and this is only slightly less true of colleges. Higher education is morally lower education. Many Christians, therefore, simply equate scholarship and learning with modernism, apostasy, and so forth.

    This is not merely mistaken from a Biblical standpoint; it is historically uninformed. The highest point of scholarship in the medieval world was within the bosom of the church; and although it was defective at certain key points, it was at least an attempt at intellectual reverence for God. The scholarship of the Reformation was even more rigorously Biblical, and this was no less true of the Reformation's successors, the Puritans, who greatly influenced England and the formation of the United States. The earliest institutions of higher education in the Americas were distinctly Christian, and only later apostatized with the advent of Deism, Rationalism, Transcendentalism, and other heresies.

    Scholarship should grow out of a vigorous Faith, but it is God and the Faith, not scholarship, that is central. Chalcedon agrees with Richard Weaver's premise that ideas have consequences. Men are saved by grace, not by ideas, but ideas are the result of a work of grace — this is why salvation has an inescapably intellectual component (Lk. 1:77). The Bible itself is a revelation of ideas as much as it is words; it is not a collection of isolated words, but of words that are divinely inspired and arranged to set forth ideas. Biblical revelation is propositional: it comes to us in words and sentences, conveying thought. To say that we should dismiss ideas and the work of scholarship is really to say that we should dismiss God's written revelation. One is deeply impressed, for example, with the wide scholarship of men like the Apostle Paul, Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, Calvin, Kuyper, Van Til, and many others. But this scholarship, in every case, springs from a simple faith — faith in the sovereign, Triune God and the authority of the Word of God. Scholarship is an instrument in the service of the advancement of the Faith and of Christ's kingdom. Scholarship is not central to the Faith, but a vigorous Faith requires scholarship. It is this sort of scholarship to which Chalcedon is dedicated.

    Misconception 8: Racist Religion

    Because we believe that the godly are called to exercise dominion in the earth; and because the notion of godly dominionism has been revived in the United States; and, finally, because some who claim to believe in dominion are also racists, it is occasionally presumed that we hold to a racist religion. The term "racism" itself can be and has been variously defined. One thing is for certain: We do not believe that one race is inherently superior to another, or that only one sector of the race is to take dominion as Christians, or that sinners of whatever race do not stand equally guilty in the sight of God, or that Christians of a certain race do not stand equally justified in the sight of God. Therefore, we believe that the racism of the KKK, the Arian Nation, the Identity Movement, Black Power, the Black Panthers, and the Asian, Hispanic, and Indian racist movements are anti-Christian at their very core.

    Chalcedon supports only one form of "racism": God blesses, nourishes, and honors the Royal Race of the Redeemed, all of those of whatever physical race that have placed their faith and trust in Jesus Christ, and God curses the race of the First Adam, all of those who live in unbelief, rebellion, and works-based righteousness (Rom. 5:12-21). This is the only "racial discrimination" the Bible knows anything about. God discriminates in favor of covenant-keepers, and discriminates against covenant-breakers (Dt. 28). Some may object that He favors the race of Israel in the Old Testament era, but it must be immediately noted that His choice was not fundamentally racial, but religious. For this reason, Gentiles could become a part of the Jewish race, and thus a part of the covenant people of God (Gen. 17:12-13). The non-racial aspect of Biblical Faith is clear from Ephesians 2:11-15:

    Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world: But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace....

    All converted Jews and Gentiles stand on the same plane of blessing in God's sight, just as all unconverted Jews and Gentiles stand on the same plane of judgment in God's sight. The race God favors is the race of the Second Adam; the race He disfavors is the race of the First Adam. And this has nothing to do with physical race.

    Misconception 9: Disposable Eschatology

    Because we believe that Christ's first coming established His kingdom (Mt. 3:2), and His church is presently energized to advance that kingdom (Mt. 28:18-20), and because some heretics have suggested that His Second Advent, and the final resurrection and judgment of the just and unjust occurred in A. D. 70, we are sometimes criticized for diminishing the importance of the great eschatological (future) events of Christianity. This charge is quite erroneous. As we noted above, Jesus Christ bestowed His royal gifts on His people after His ascension. He does not delay His blessings for kingdom advancement until His Second Coming.

    Nonetheless, there will be no sinlessness until the eternal state, which follows the Second Coming (1 Cor. 15:23-25). There will be a great time of future earthly peace and prosperity before the end (Is. 65:17-25), as a result of the success of the gospel; but there will still be death and sin in this era (Rev. 20:7-10). Death will not be finally overcome until Christ returns (Cor. 15:24-27). The millennium is a Godly Golden Age, but it is no utopia. The Second Coming definitively puts the finishing touches on God's plan for the earth and human history. It is the ringing culmination of His providential dealings with man.

    Further, those who claim that Jesus Christ's Second Advent, and the final resurrection and judgment of the just and unjust occurred in A. D. 70, assault the Bible and the Faith. Acts 1:11 tells us that Jesus will return just as he ascended — bodily and visibly, with his disciples gazing at him, and we know that this has not yet happened in history. He is to come "[i]n flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Thes. 1:8). Likewise, 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 declares:

    For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.

    This teaches that the final physical resurrection of the redeemed will occur when Christ returns, with great royal fanfare: "a shout…voice of the archangel, and…the trump of God." This is the announcement of the King's return to his earthly jurisdiction. It is a physical coming creating momentous physical consequences: resurrection of bodies, and the equipment of the redeemed for the eternal state and the unredeemed for eternal perdition. It concludes human history.

    Thus, while we must never diminish the power granted the church because of the operation of Christ's First Coming, we must be careful also never to diminish the finality of Christ's work in the world which the Second Advent initiates. The Second Coming and its attending events are crucial to the Christian Faith.


    This should set the record straight on certain key issues on which Chalcedon's views are often misunderstood. We will continue to suffer slander at the hands of unscrupulous, devious men — inside the church and out. But honest Christians, whether they agree with us or not, are entitled to hear a forthright declaration of our position on these misunderstood issues."

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-06]

    19. Promise Keepers

    Abb.: ®Motto der Promise Keepers

    We love Jesus, yes we do.
    We love Jesus. How about you?

    Lieblingslied der Promise Keepers

    Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-06

    Abb.: Bischof Wellington Boone spricht vor Promise Keepers

    Klicken Sie hier, um Wellington Boone zu hören

    Quelle der mp3-Datei: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-09

    "Seven Promises

    1. A Promise Keeper is committed to honoring Jesus Christ through worship, prayer and obedience to God's Word in the power of the Holy Spirit.

    2. A Promise Keeper is committed to pursuing vital relationships with a few other men, understanding that he needs brothers to help him keep his promises. 

    3. A Promise Keeper is committed to practicing spiritual, moral, ethical, and sexual purity.

    4. A Promise Keeper is committed to building strong marriages and families through love, protection and biblical values.

    5. A Promise Keeper is committed to supporting the mission of his church by honoring and praying for his pastor, and by actively giving his time and resources.

    6. A Promise Keeper is committed to reaching beyond any racial and denominational barriers to demonstrate the power of biblical unity.

    7. A Promise Keeper is committed to influencing his world, being obedient to the Great Commandment (see Mark 12:30-31) and the Great Commission (see Matthew 28:19-20).

    Mark 12:30-31
    Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. The second is this: Love your neighbor as yourself. (NIV)

    Matthew 28:19-20
    Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age. (NIV)

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-06]

    "Promise Keepers is an international Christian organization based in Denver, Colorado USA that describes itself as dedicated to introducing men to Jesus as their Savior and Lord, then helping them to grow in their personal Christian faith. This is mainly accomplished through their Seven Promises and men's conference ministry, supplemented with their own products.

    The Promise Keepers organization was incorporated as a nonprofit in the state of Colorado in December, 1990. Its founder and original president was Bill McCartney, then the head football coach at the University of Colorado at Boulder. McCartney resigned his coaching position in order to focus his attention on the new organization.

    Promise Keepers is a nonprofit, "501(c)(3)" organization in the United States. It is not affiliated with any Christian church or denomination. It promotes teachings some construe as socially conservative and openly teaches that men should be leaders and responsible providers in their families. Promise Keepers does have a constituency favorable to political conservatism, though as a US 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization it cannot publicly favor one political party or candidate over another.

    Their most widely publicized events have been mass rallies held at football stadiums and similar venues. They also sell a variety of promotional products to "help men keep their promises", including clothing, books, and music. Dr. Bruce Wilkinson developed the widely used video curriculum, Personal Holiness in Times of Temptation, as a part of “The Biblical Manhood” series for Promise Keepers.


    Abb.: Bill McCartney [Bild: Promise Keepers]

    Promise Keepers began as an idea on March 20, 1990 while McCartney, then head football coach for the Colorado Buffaloes, and Dave Wardell, Ph.D. were at a Pueblo, Colorado Fellowship of Christian Athletes meeting. As these two were in worship and prayer, a conversation between them caused the football coach to envision his home stadium, Boulder's Folsom Field, filled with men willing to be taught and helped to keep their promises to God to follow Jesus Christ in their marriage life, as well as in their family life and other aspects of living. After more months of prayer, 72 men came together at Boulder Valley Christian Church in Boulder to organize what would be Promise Keepers' first event at University of Colorado's Event Center. 4,200 men attended that first meeting in July, 1991. These first men were encouraged to bring 12 more men to future meetings, and as more men responded to these invitations, the meetings kept growing in attendance.

    What Makes a Man?, Promise Keepers' first hardbound book written for the organization, was first published by The Navigators' Navpress publishing arm in 1992 for its first Folsom Field gathering in June of that year. To help get the word out to men about attending this event, Dr. James Dobson had McCartney on his Focus on the Family nationwide radio program that same month. The numbers of those interested in the group increased markedly as a result of that broadcast. This June meeting marked the beginning of Promise Keepers speaking about actively seeking racial and denominational reconciliation among American men—in retrospect, admittedly a work still in progress.

    Abb.: Eröffnungszeremonie von Stand in the Gap mit Schofarbläser, 1997 [Bild: Promise Keepers]

    Perhaps Promise Keepers' most publicized event was its Stand in the Gap: A Sacred Assembly of men open-air gathering at the National Mall in Washington, D.C. on October 4, 1997. C-SPAN carried the event live in its entirety, and around 1 million men of diverse ethnic and national backgrounds from many if not all of the United States and around the world participated in a six-hour time of prayer and repentance. International media covered the gathering as a lead event of that weekend. Newspapers from all around America and around the world—some as far away as Hong Kong—printed stories about the event.

    In recent years the attendance for its large public events in the USA has dropped off, after years of packed attendance at its venues. Promise Keepers has responded by changing strategy, moving to smaller, all-weather meeting places around the United States.

    McCartney resigned as president on October 1, 2003 after a personal leave of absence to care for his wife's health which began in the previous March. Thomas S. Fortson, Ph.D., previously the group's executive vice president for administration and operations since 1996, became the group's president and CEO on that same date."

    Abb.: Tom Fortson [Bild: Promise Keepers]

    [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-05-06]


    Zu Kapitel 1.6.: Antifundamentalistische Organisationen und Pressure Groups