Informationsmarktverzerrung durch Fundamentalismus am Beispiel der USA

Kapitel 6: Apokalyptische Außenpolitik

8. Die arme Welt (Window 10/40)
Aber dieses Evangelium vom Reich wird auf der ganzen Welt verkündet werden, damit alle Völker es hören; dann erst kommt das Ende " (Mt 24,14)

von Margarete Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Margarete <1942 - >: Informationsmarktverzerrung durch Fundamentalismus am Beispiel der USA. -- Kapitel 6: Apokalyptische Außenpolitik. -- 8. Die arme Welt (Window 10/40)  — "Aber dieses Evangelium vom Reich wird auf der ganzen Welt verkündet werden, damit alle Völker es hören; dann erst kommt das Ende " (Mt 24,14) -- Fassung vom 2008-03-26. -- URL: 

Erstmals publiziert: 2005-03-30

Überarbeitungen: 2008-03-26; 2005-04-19 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-04-16 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung an der Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart, Sommersemester 2005

Copyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers.

Creative Commons-Lizenzvertrag
Diese Inhalt ist unter einer Creative Commons-Lizenz lizenziert.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung  Länder und Kulturen von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

0. Übersicht

1. Mottos

The Christian Flag! behold it,
And hail it with a song,
And let the voice of millions
The joyful strain prolong,
To every clime and nation,
We send it forth today;
God speed its glorious mission,
With earnest hearts we pray.


The Christian Flag! behold it,
And hail it with a song,
And let the voice of millions
The joyful strain prolong.

The Christian Flag! unfurl it,
That all the world may see
The bloodstained cross of Jesus,
Who died to make us free.
The Christian Flag! unfurl it,
And o’er and o’er again,
Oh! may it bear the message,
“Good will and peace to men.”


The Christian Flag! God bless it!
Now throw it to the breeze,
And may it wave triumphant
O’er land and distant seas,
Till all the wide creation
Upon its folds shall gaze,
And all the world united,
Our loving Savior praise.


Text: Fanny Crosby (1820 - 1915), 1903
Melodie: Raymond Huntington Woodman (1861 - 1943)

Klicken Sie hier, um "The Christian ..." zu hören

Quelle der midi-Datei: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-27

Abb.: Ann Coulter: "kill [the Muslim] leaders and convert them to Christianity"
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-05-27]

"We should invade their [i.e. of Muslim hijackers] countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity. We weren't punctilious about locating and punishing only Hitler and his top officers. We carpet-bombed German cities; we killed civilians. That's war. And this is war."

Ann Coulter, 2001-09-12. -- -- Zugriff am 29005-05-27]]

2. Biblische Grundlagen

2.1. Endzeit

Voraussetzung für die Endzeit ist die Verkündigung des Evangeliums an alle Völker:

Matthäusevangelium 24,14:

"Aber dieses Evangelium vom Reich wird auf der ganzen Welt verkündet werden, damit alle Völker es hören; dann erst kommt das Ende." [Einheitsübersetzung]

"End Times. A primary scriptural impetus for the global missionary enterprise is the Great Commission statement crowning the First Gospel: "go and make disciples of all nations. ... I am with you to the very end of the age" (Matt. 28:19-20). Jesus makes it clear that the urgent emphasis of mission must not be simply to "disciple" the world, but to continue to do so until the culmination of the end times events.

Relatedly, the Savior had already spoken to the heart of the issue in the Olivet Discourse, Jesus' sermon on the end of the age. Assurance that the global evangelistic task will be completed can be drawn from Matthew 24:14: "And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come." Unfortunately, this passage does not elaborate on how this climactic proclamation will come about or who will accomplish it, nor does it address other questions that divide evangelical Bible scholars and missiologists.

Nor are these the only key passages that relate mission to the end times. For example, in Acts 2:17 the apostle Peter relates the phenomena going on around him on the Day of Pentecost to "the last days," citing Joel 2:28-32, which is there linked to the "day of the Lord" (Acts 2:20), a great theme of Old Testament eschatology. These references added urgency to Peter's appeal to his hearers: Call on the name of the Lord and be saved (v. 21) before it is too late for you to do so (v. 20)!

This passage also reveals the balancing perspective that "the last days" actually began in earnest with the inbreaking of the new age of the Spirit at Pentecost. This understanding is shared by the description of Christ being revealed in "these last days" in Hebrews 1:2. Relatedly, Paul speaks of ungodly behavior characterizing "later times," which seems to include his own day (1 Tim. 4:1).

On the other hand, Paul also looks ahead to absolutely "terrible times in the last days" (2 Tim. 3:1), though still times in which the God-breathed Scriptures will bring hearers to salvation (3:15-4:5). Of that latter-day period, Peter reminds his readers that the Lord wants "everyone to come to repentance" (2 Peter 3:9), urging a blameless lifestyle that will be a crucial aspect of attracting unbelievers to salvation (w. 14—15).

Unfortunately, to this point, evangelicals have not sufficiently probed the Book of Revelation for specifics with regard to the completion of the Great Commission. Recently, however, R. Bauck-ham's programmatic discussion of the "conversion of the nations" in regard to the Apocalypse has served to stimulate fresh discussion in this area.

For example, it is quite likely that "a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language" (Rev. 7:9) standing before the heavenly throne is to be linked to the Matthean Commission. This vast throng from "all the nations" (Matt. 28:19), whether martyrs or not, are the end times fruit of the Great Commission.

Also, the references to "the eternal gospel to proclaim to those who live on the earth, to every nation, tribe, language and people" (Rev. 14:6-7) and the group of martyrs standing on the glassy sea (15:2) apparently are the fulfillment of the promise of the age-concluding preaching of the gospel described in Matthew 24:14. That understanding becomes even more likely when one sees that this use of "gospel" in 14:6 is its lone inclusion in the Book of Revelation.

Further, the two-sided harvest of Revelation 14:14-19 reflects strikingly similar imagery and terminology to Christ's parable of the wheat and the weeds (Matt. 13:24-30, 36-43). Since it speaks of the judgment at the "end of the age" (w. 39-40), in which the children of the kingdom and the children of the evil one are separated to their ultimate destinies, there are important mis-siological implications.

So, if nothing else, recent study of the Book of Revelation has located several passages that seem to detail the completion of the Great Commission in the end times. It remains for further exegetical and theological study to clarify important details that will inform the theory and practice of the evangelical missionary enterprise in the crucial time ahead.

With the new millennium, there is great curiosity about the possible arrival of the "end times." From the standpoint of mission, there has been much creative strategizing and sending, including hundreds of strategies aimed toward the goal of completing the global imperative by the turn of the century.

Since there is still much uncertainty attached to the specific impact of these efforts with respect to God's plan and timing, encouragement should be drawn from joyfully remembering the promise of the risen Lord, in the context of the carrying out of the Great Commission: "I am with you always, to the very end of the age" (Matt. 28:20).

On the other hand, God's sovereignty must never be an excuse for irresponsibility or complacency. Employing imagery with overtones of the end times, the apostle Paul laid out the practical urgency of "understanding the present time. The hour has come for you to wake up from your slumber, because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. The night is nearly over; the day is almost here" (Rom. 13:11-12)."

[Quelle: A. Boyd Luter. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

2.2. Great Commandement

Markusevangelium 12, 28-34

28Und es trat zu ihm der Schriftgelehrten einer, der ihnen zugehört hatte, wie sie sich miteinander befragten, und sah, dass er ihnen fein geantwortet hatte, und fragte ihn: Welches ist das vornehmste Gebot vor allen?
29Jesus aber antwortete ihm: Das vornehmste Gebot vor allen Geboten ist das: »Höre Israel, der HERR, unser Gott, ist ein einiger Gott;
30und du sollst Gott, deinen HERRN, lieben von ganzem Herzen, von ganzer Seele, von ganzem Gemüte und von allen deinen Kräften.« Das ist das vornehmste Gebot.
31Und das andere ist ihm gleich: »Du sollst deinen Nächsten lieben wie dich selbst.« Es ist kein anderes Gebot größer denn diese.
32Und der Schriftgelehrte sprach zu ihm: Meister, du hast wahrlich recht geredet; denn es ist ein Gott und ist kein anderer außer ihm.
33Und ihn lieben von ganzem Herzen, von ganzem Gemüte, von ganzer Seele, und von allen Kräften, und lieben seinen Nächsten wie sich selbst, das ist mehr denn Brandopfer und alle Opfer.
34Da Jesus aber sah, dass er vernünftig antwortete, sprach er zu ihm: »Du bist nicht ferne von dem Reich Gottes.« Und es wagte ihn niemand weiter zu fragen.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

Matthäusevangelium 22, 34 - 40

34Da aber die Pharisäer hörten, wie er den Sadduzäern das Maul gestopft hatte, versammelten sie sich.
35Und einer unter ihnen, ein Schriftgelehrter, versuchte ihn und sprach:
36Meister, welches ist das vornehmste Gebot im Gesetz?
37Jesus aber sprach zu ihm: »Du sollst lieben Gott, deinen HERRN, von ganzem Herzen, von ganzer Seele und von ganzem Gemüte.«
38Dies ist das vornehmste und größte Gebot.
39Das andere aber ist ihm gleich; Du sollst deinen Nächsten lieben wie dich selbst.
40In diesen zwei Geboten hängt das ganze Gesetz und die Propheten.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

Lukasevangelium 10, 25 - 28

25Und siehe, da stand ein Schriftgelehrter auf, versuchte ihn und sprach: Meister, was muss ich tun, dass ich das ewige Leben ererbe?
26Er aber sprach zu ihm: Wie steht im Gesetz geschrieben? Wie liesest du?
27Er antwortete und sprach: »Du sollst Gott, deinen HERRN, lieben von ganzem Herzen, von ganzer Seele, von allen Kräften und von ganzem Gemüte und deinen Nächsten als dich selbst.«
28Er aber sprach zu ihm: Du hast recht geantwortet; tue das, so wirst du leben.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

"Great Commandment. When considering missions, it is usually not the "Great Commandment" (Mark 12:28-34 par. Matt. 22:34-40; cf. Luke 10:25-28) but the "Great Commission" (Matt. 28:16-20; Luke 24:46-49) that takes center stage. Arguably, however, the Great Commandment provides a crucial foundation for the Great Commission, and a unilateral emphasis on the latter creates an imbalance that may render the church's mission ineffective. We will first discuss the scriptural foundation for the Great Commandment and subsequently deal with its contemporary relevance for mission.

Scriptural Foundation. The Great Commandment, according to Jesus, is the Old Testament command to love God with all of one's heart, soul, mind, and strength (Deut. 6:4-5), together with the injunction to love one's neighbor as oneself (cf. Lev. 19:18b; on the question of who is one's "neighbor," cf. Lev. 19:34; Luke 10:25-27; and Matt. 5:43-48). To call this commandment the Great Commandment is to follow Matthew's terminology (Matt. 22:36: "great"; 22:38: "great and first"), where "great" is probably used with elative force to denote what is "greatest" or "most important." Mark simply numbers the commandments as "first" and "second" (Mark 12:38, 41; cf. Matt. 22:38). In Luke, the lawyer's question is, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" (Luke 10:25), raising the question of whether Luke's account refers to a different event altogether, especially since, in Luke, it is not Jesus who is speaking but the lawyer (Luke 10:27).

The question of what constituted the heart of the Law was an issue widely discussed in rabbinic circles in Jesus' day. Jesus' emphatic statement, only found in Matthew, that the entire Law and the Prophets depend on the Great Commandment, is therefore of utmost significance (Matt. 22:40). Unlike the Decalogue, which is mostly given in the form of prohibitions, Jesus states this injunction in a positive way (cf. Matt. 7:12). By expressing the commandment in an absolute and categorical rather than a relative and limited fashion, Jesus stresses the priority of the inward disposition over the outward action. In keeping with Old Testament prophetic tradition, Jesus requires heart religion, not merely formalistic legalism. At the same time, it is not his desire to use this commandment to relegate every other obligation of the believer to the point of irrelevance.

What is the relationship between the Great Commandment and the Great Commission in Matthews Gospel? Since Matthew presents disci-pleship as the way of righteousness (cf. Matt. 5:6,

10, 20; 6:33), and since the Great Commission entails the teaching of converts to obey everything Jesus commanded, it is clear that the keeping of the Great Commandment is a prerequisite for the fulfillment of the Great Commission. Moreover, the latter entails, not mere Evangelism in modern parlance, where the term usually refers merely to the bringing of a person to the point of conversion, but the grounding of Christian converts in the way of righteousness, including the observance of the Great Commandment (and, ultimately, once again the Great Commission!). Finally, the concept of righteousness in Matthew, while possessing a spiritual core, is not limited to the religious domain but also has social and economic dimensions. In these ways Matthew lays a crucial foundation for the understanding of the relationship between the Great Commandment and the Great Commission in contemporary discussion.

Contemporary Relevance for Mission. Historically, Anglo-Saxon Protestant missionary thought has emphasized the Great Commission, while the latter task never occupied an equally central position among Christians on the European Continent. The issue of the relationship between the Great Commission and the Great Commandment caused considerable discussion at the Lausanne Congress on World Evangelism in 1974. While in the final conference document evangelism was named as the primary mission of the church, this drew the criticism of a significant number of participants, including John Stott, R. Sider, and others. After a reaffirmation of the primacy of evangelism by the Consultation on World Evangelization (COWE) in Pattaya, Thailand, in June 1980, the question was taken up again by the Consultation on the Relationship between Evangelism and Social Responsibility held in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in June 1982, an effort co-sponsored by the World Evangelical Fellowship (WEF) and the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization (LCWE) (see Lausanne Movement). This conference identified three kinds of relationships between Evangelism and Social Responsibility: (1) social responsibility as a consequence of evangelism; (2) social action as a bridge to evangelism; and (3) social concern as a partner of evangelism. The delegates advocated a holistic approach to mission, since "[s]eldom if ever should we have to choose between satisfying physical hunger and spiritual hunger, or between healing bodies or saving souls, since an authentic love for our neighbor will lead us to serve him or her as a whole person" (see Holistic Mission).

The key questions addressed at the 1982 consultation were the following: What is mission? How broad is salvation in Scripture? What is the relationship between the church and the kingdom? What is the church's mandate for social justice? R. Sider and J. I. Packer, in contrast to

the World Council of Churches (WCC) at its Bangkok Conference (1973), argued for a narrow use of salvation language, restricting salvation "to the sphere of conscious confession of faith in Christ." A. Johnston, D. McGavran, P. Wagner, P. Beyerhaus, K. Bockmiihl, and H. Lindsell joined in affirming this position against those who sought to define salvation more broadly. This latter group contended that salvation has not only personal but also social and cosmic dimensions, so that socioeconomic improvements should be described as an aspect of salvation, pointing also to Luke 4:16-21 (cf. Isa. 61:1-2). It was further argued that the lordship of Christ extends over all demonic powers of evil that "possess persons, pervade structures, societies, and the created order."

How does Scripture adjudicate between these two positions? On the one hand, it cautions against a reductionistic focus on people merely as "souls" that need to be saved, so that the church's task should not be conceived in merely "religious" terms. On the other hand, Scripture does affirm the primacy of a person's spiritual dimension, so that the effort of leading unbelievers to a Christian conversion rightly belongs at the heart of the church's mission. As noted, read in the context of Matthew's entire Gospel, the fulfillment of the Great Commission entails a "commitment to both the King and his kingdom, to both righteousness and justice" (Bosch), while the making of disciples also involves teaching them to obey Jesus' teachings which include loving God and one's neighbor. Hence love for God and others ought to be the driving motivation for mission (see Motive, Motivation), since, in love, God sent his Son; in love, Jesus gave his life for others; and by our love, the world will know that we are his disciples."

[Quelle: Andreas J. Kostenberger. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

2.3. Great Commission

Go forth at Christ’s command,
Go forth to ev’ry land,
Through loyalty to Christ
Through loyalty to Christ;
Let strong your efforts be
To gain the victory,
Through loyalty, yes, loyalty,
Through loyalty to Christ.


Onward, onward, army of the Lord!
There’s naught to fear while trusting in His Word;
Go forth to fight the wrong,
And shout the victor’s song,
Through loyalty, yes, loyalty,
Through loyalty to Christ.

Be brave to help them win
Who strive to conquer sin,
Through loyalty to Christ,
Through loyalty to Christ;
Point out the path of light,
Be strong to do the right,
Through loyalty, yes, loyalty,
Through loyalty to Christ.


See! Satan’s banners wave,
O haste the lost to save
Through loyalty to Christ,
Through loyalty to Christ;
Beat back the hosts of sin,
Press on the fight to win,
Through loyalty, yes, loyalty,
Through loyalty to Christ.


O children of the free!
Let this your watchword be:
“Through loyalty to Christ,
Through loyalty to Christ”;
Let hills and valleys ring,
While men and angels sing,
Through loyalty, yes, loyalty,
Through loyalty to Christ.


Text und Melodie: J. Howard Entwisle (1863-1901), 1897

Klicken Sie hier, um "Go forth ..." zu hören

Quelle der midi-Datei: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29

Matthäusevangelium 28, 18 - 20

18Und Jesus trat zu ihnen, redete mit ihnen und sprach: Mir ist gegeben alle Gewalt im Himmel und auf Erden.
19Darum gehet hin und lehret alle Völker und taufet sie im Namen des Vaters und des Sohnes und des heiligen Geistes,
20und lehret sie halten alles, was ich euch befohlen habe. Und siehe, ich bin bei euch alle Tage bis an der Welt Ende.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

Markusevangelium 16, 15 - 16

15Und er sprach zu ihnen: Gehet hin in alle Welt und prediget das Evangelium aller Kreatur.
16Wer da glaubet und getauft wird, der wird selig werden; wer aber nicht glaubt, der wird verdammt werden.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

Lukasevangelium 24, 46 - 49

46und er sprach zu ihnen: Also ist's geschrieben, und also musste Christus leiden und auferstehen von den Toten am dritten Tage
47und predigen lassen in seinem Namen Buße und Vergebung der Sünden unter allen Völkern und anheben zu Jerusalem.
48Ihr aber seid des alles Zeugen.
49Und siehe, ich will auf euch senden die Verheißung meines Vaters. Ihr aber sollt in der Stadt Jerusalem bleiben, bis ihr angetan werdet mit der Kraft aus der Höhe.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

Johannesevangelium 20, 21

21Da sprach Jesus abermals zu ihnen: Friede sei mit euch! Gleichwie mich der Vater gesandt hat, so sende ich euch.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

Apostelgeschichte 1, 8

8sondern ihr werdet die Kraft des Heiligen Geistes empfangen, welcher auf euch kommen wird, und werdet meine Zeugen sein zu Jerusalem und in ganz Judäa und Samarien und bis an das Ende der Erde.

[Luther-Bibel 1912]

"Great Commission. The term "Great Commission" is commonly assigned to Christ's command to his disciples as found in Matthew 28:18-20, Mark 16:15-16, Luke 24:46-49, John 20:21, and Acts 1:8. It is sometimes referred to as the "Evangelistic Mandate" and distinguished from the "Cultural" and/or "Social Mandate" found in Genesis 1:28-30 and Genesis 9:1-7 (see Cultural Mandate). The prominence accorded to the Great Commission in the past two hundred years is not apparent in previous church history. The early church made remarkable progress in spreading the faith throughout the Mediterranean world by virtue of the witness of dispersed Christians and the missionary journeys of the apostle Paul and others. However, there is no clear indication in the Book of Acts that this effort was motivated by explicit appeals to the Great Commission. Rather, after Pentecost the Holy Spirit both motivated and orchestrated the missionary effort in accordance with that Commission. Similarly, throughout the early centuries when both the Eastern and especially Western branches of the church were expanding significantly, the Great Commission as such does not appear to have been a decisive motivating or defining factor.

In Reformation times concerns and controversies relating to the Great Commission had to do with its applicability. In 1537 Pope Paul III emphasized the importance of the Great Commission and said that all people are "capable of receiving the doctrines of the Faith." However, sixteenth-century Catholic theology applied the text to the Church with its episcopacy, not to the individual Christians as such. The Reformers generally taught that the Great Commission was entrusted to the apostles and that the apostles fulfilled it by going to the ends of their known world. This is not to say that they had no missionary vision. Hadrian Saravia (1531-1613) and Justinian von Welz (1621-61) found reason enough to write treatises in which they urged Christians to recognize their responsibility to obey the Great Commission and evangelize the world. Nevertheless, it remained for William Carey (1761-1834) to make one of the most compelling cases for the applicability of the Great Commission to all believers. The first section of his treatise An Inquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens (published in 1792) made a concerted argument that individual Christians should join together in an effort to take the gospel to the Heathen" (at that time the common designation for the unevangelized) in obedience to the Great Commission. Some historians have concluded that An Inquiry rivals Luther's Ninety-five Theses in terms of its influence on church history.

By the middle of the nineteenth century a consensus on the applicability of the Great Commission had emerged but this consensus paved the way for differences as to its application, particularly in America. Not everyone agreed with the interpretation and approach of A. T. Pierson and others who, in the 1880s and-1890s, pressed the completion of world evangelization by the year 1900 "in obedience to the Great Commission." The organizers of the great Edinburgh Conference of 1910 attempted to avoid controversy concerning the requirements of the Great Commission and the nature of mission by taking the position that the Great Commission is "intrinsic" rather than "extrinsic" (James Scherer's words) to the church and its missions. In other words, it is not so much an exterior law that sits in judgment upon the missionary activities of the church, but an inner principle of church faith and life allowing for freedom in the way churches and missions interpret and carry it out.

Subsequent history has revealed how diverse and divisive such interpretations can be. The twentieth century gave rise to a number of significant points of departure in understanding. First, upon a review of history and the biblical text, some (e.g., Harry Boer) have concluded that, in the process of convincing Christians that the Great Commission applied to them, proponents unwittingly contributed to the idea that the validity of Christian mission rested primarily upon that command. This led to a corresponding neglect of the missionary role of the Holy Spirit and the missionary thrust of the whole of biblical revelation. Second, perhaps responding to the emphasis on the social task of the church in the WCC and especially at the 1968 General Assembly in Uppsala, some evangelicals (e.g., John Stott) revised their thinking on the Great Commission and now argue against the generally accepted position that the statement in Matthew 28:16-20, being the most complete, possesses a certain priority. Their revised position is that the statement in John 20:21 ("As the Father has sent me, so send I you") takes priority and makes the Lord Jesus' earthly ministry as outlined in Luke 4:18, 19 a model for modern mission. This interpretation opens the way for sociopolitical action as an integral part of biblical mission. Third, many Pentecostals and charismatics have given a certain priority to the Markan version of the Great Commission with its emphasis on the "signs following" conversion and faith—casting out demons, speaking in new tongues, handling snakes, drinking poisonous liquids without hurt, and healing the sick (Mark 16:17-19). This approach is generally dependent upon a consideration of the manuscript evidence relating to the shorter and longer endings of Mark's Gospel. Fourth, some exegetes (e.g., Robert Culver) point out that the Matthew 28:18-20 text does not support the commonly understood interpretation with its overemphasis on "going" into all the world in obedience to Christ. Rather, the main verb and imperative is "make disciples." The other verbs (in English translations) are actually participles and take their imperitival force from the main verb. In descending order of importance the verbs are "make disciples," "teach," "baptize, and "go." The text would be better translated "Going . . ." or "As you go . . ." and understanding enhanced by giving more attention to the grammatical construction of the original text. Fifth, Donald McGavran held that there is a clear distinction between disciple-making and teaching in fulfilling the Great Commission. The former has to do with people of a culture turning from their old ways, old gods, and old holy books or myths to the missionary's God, the Bible, and a new way of living. The latter has to do with "perfecting" as many as will take instruction and follow the "new way" more closely. In obeying the Great Commission, "discipling" new peoples should never be discontinued in an effort to "perfect" a few. Though comparatively few agreed with McGavran early on, in recent years there has been a somewhat wider acceptance of certain aspects of his thesis. Sixth, Church Growth advocates generally and proponents of the AD 2000 and Beyond Movement especially (e.g., Ralph Winter) have placed great emphasis on the phrase panta ta ethne in Matthew 28:19 and have insisted that this is best understood as having reference to the various "people groups" of the world (see Peoples, People Groups). Originally Donald McGavran identified endogamy as a primary characteristic of a "people group" but subsequently other characteristics such as a common worldview, religion, ethnicity, language, social order, and self-identification have been emphasized. This understanding lends itself to a program of world evangelization whereby people groups are identified and "reached" by planting viable, New Testament churches that become the primary means of evangelizing the group socially to the fringes and temporally into the future. Seventh, in recent years a growing number of missi-ologists (e.g., Trevor Mcllwain) have advocated a missionary approach that gives more serious attention to the Great Commission requirement to teach all that Christ commanded. To many missions people this has seemed altogether too encompassing and demanding. They have preferred to communicate basic truths about human spiritual need and the way in which the Lord Jesus has met that need by means of his death and resurrection. In a way the tension between these two approaches reflects a classic missions controversy as to whether missionaries should first communicate truths about the nature of God and his requirements as revealed in the whole of Scripture or are better advised to begin with the New Testament account of Jesus' teaching and ministry. What is distinctive about the recent emphasis, however, is that its proponents usually link "all I [Christ] have commanded" in Matthew 28:20 with John 5:39 and a chronological teaching of the Bible as redemptive history.

However one may assess the foregoing (among other) responses to the requirements of the Great Commission, it seems apparent that, unlike the first two hundred years of Protestantism, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the Great Commission came to play an extremely important role in missions and missiology. In fact, the authors of the Frankfurt Declaration of 1970 placed it first in their list of "seven indispensable basic elements of mission." In a way this growing appreciation for the Great Commission was reflected in the changed thinking of even the early-twentieth-century liberal scholar Adolf von Harnack. At first he concluded that the words of 28:18-20 probably constituted a later addition to the Gospel of Matthew. In later life he found it to be not only a fitting conclusion to that Gospel, but a statement so magnificent that it would be difficult to say anything more meaningful and complete in an equal number of words."

[Quelle: David J. Hesselgrave. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

3. Mission and Missions

"Mission and Missions. Derived from the Latin mitto, which in turn is a translation of the Greek apostello (to send), the term "mission," as an English term with no direct biblical equivalent, has a broad range of acceptable meanings. The Oxford Dictionary gives the earliest occurrences of the English word in 1598. By 1729, use of the word in relation to the church focused on the Great Commission: "Jesus Christ gave his disciples their mission in these words, 'Go and teach all nations, & etc."' (E. Chambers, Cyclopaedia; or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences).

The contemporary secular definition of mission is simply "sending someone forth with a specific purpose." That purpose may be defined broadly (e.g., to represent the interests of the sender) or very narrowly (e.g., to hand-deliver a message written by the sender). With the broadness of the term, our concept of the mission of the church will to a large degree depend on our theological orientation rather than an etymological analysis.

Few would challenge the need for clarity in our definition, for, as Dyrness notes: "mission lies at the core of theology—within the character and action of God himself. There is an impulse to give and share that springs from the very nature of God and that therefore characterized all his works. So all that theologians call fundamental theology is mission theology" (p. 11). At the same time, however, the difficulty of defining mission cannot be overlooked or minimized. "Mission is never something self-evident, and nowhere—neither in the practice of mission nor in even our best theological reflections on mission, does it succeed in removing all confusions, misunderstandings, enigmas and temptations" (Bosch, 9).

Several questions among the many which could be asked illuminate the contemporary discussion and options: (1) Is mission, most broadly, the whole scope of God's intention in the world or, more narrowly, the God-given Missionary Task of the church? (2) If our focus is on the task of the church, is mission limited to one core component of the church's work or is it everything that the church does? (3) Is it possible to determine a focus or priority for mission, and, if so, what should that be? At least until the IMC Willingen Conference in 1952, the answers to these questions for evangelicals appeared to be relatively straight forward. Missions was evangelism and the evidence of successful missions was the extension of the church through the crossing of cultural, geographic, and linguistic boundaries.

In this century, however, we have seen several developments, most of which were birthed in the Ecumenical Movement and brought into evangelical discussion by people involved in both groups. Two of these developments relate to the word mission. First was the recognition that God's mission was broader than the activities of his Church. Missio Dei, coined as a missiological term by Karl Hartenstein in 1934, was used in the 1952 Willingen Conference to stress that mission is God's not the church's. Georg Vicedom popularized it in the Mexico City Conference (1963) and in his text The Mission of God (1965). Missio Dei focuses on everything God does in his task of establishing his kingdom in all its fullness in all the world. While it includes what the church does, it is not limited to that, for God works both in and out of the church. Thus themes such as "Let the world set the agenda" were driven by a recognition that God is not limited to his work in and through the church and that his mission is seen wherever kingdom values (especially justice and mercy) are being promoted, fought for, or instituted.

The second important development was the dropping of the "s" from "missions" to reflect the unity of the total biblical task of the church. The dropping of the final "s" was formalized in ecumenical discussion when the International Review of Missions became the International Review of Mission in 1970. By 1972, George Peters, an evangelical teaching at Dallas Theological Seminary, wrote that mission, in contrast to missions, was "a comprehensive term including the upward, inward and outward ministries of the church. It is the church as 'sent' (a pilgrim, stranger, witness, prophet, servant, as salt, as light, etc.) in this world" (Peters, 11). He maintained that missions, on the other hand, is the actual work and the practical realization of the mission of the church. Some evangelicals voiced concerns that dropping the "s" might lead to the loss of commitment to, and action for, world evangelization and church planting.

Evangelical approaches to defining mission have not been unified. John Stott allowed the broadening of the discussion, as long as evangelism was seen as a leading partner in the missionary task. W. Harold Fuller proposed using mission for our purpose and passion, while ministry refers to all that we do. Arthur Johnston opposed any broadening of mission. Ron Sider argued that social transformation is mission. On a pragmatic level, the reality of the disagreement is seen in the titles used for introductory theology courses taught in 78 North American institutions: 31 drop the final "s" ("Theology of Mission") and 46 keep it ("Theology of Missions") (Siewert).

Multiple conferences organized from within the Evangelical Movement have sought to address the issue of mission and the primacy of evangelism within it. The Congress on the Church's Worldwide Mission (Wheaton Congress, 1966) was organized to deal with theological and practical issues. Affirming the scriptural foundation for social justice, the declaration of the congress still proclaimed the primacy of evangelism. In the same year the World Congress on Evangelism (Berlin Congress 1966) was also held. Focused primarily on responding to shifting definitions of evangelism, the integral relationship of evangelism and missions was maintained. In 1970, the Frankfurt Declaration on the Fundamental Crisis in Christian Mission was developed in response to ecumenical shifts in thinking about mission, and it promoted a return to the classic orientation of mission as the presentation of salvation through evangelism. Calls for broadening the evangelical perspective came at the Thanksgiving Workshop on Evangelicals and Social Concern (Chicago, 1973), which issued the "Chicago Declaration of Evangelical Social Concern." This was "essentially an affirmation of God's total claim on the lives of his people, a confession of failure in demonstrating God's justice in society, and a call for evangelicals 'to demonstrate repentance in a Christian discipleship that confronts the social and political injustice of our nation'" (Padilla, 242). At the Lausanne Congress on World Evangelism (1974), John Stott pointed to the broadening of the definition of mission and indicated that he saw no reason to resist this development. Building his paradigm on John's version of the Great Commission, he proposed that we see mission as the church "sent" into the world to serve just as Jesus served, including Evangelism and Social Responsibility as partners in the missionary task. He did not see fulfilling the Great Commission as completing the directive of the Great Commandment, maintaining both as integral to mission. Lausanne proved to be a critical juncture in this respect. By 1989, in fact, the role of the Lausanne Covenant would be noted in the official story of Lausanne II as follows: "It is a watershed in placing social justice within the purposes of the Church's mission (Articles 4 and 5)" (Nichols, 15).

Since Lausanne, three streams have solidified within evangelicalism.
  • One emphasizes the historic orientation of mission as evangelism, and carried on in meetings such as the Global Consultations on World Evangelization (GCOWE) organized in 1989, 1995, and 1997. The focus of this stream remains the development of thriving church movements among people groups around the world.
  • A second stream, following Stott, focuses on integrating a holistic approach to mission, incorporating evangelism and issues of social justice and reconciliation (see Holistic Mission). Consultations such as that in Wheaton in 1983, convened to discuss the nature of the church, gave voice to this group and "laid a sound theological basis for the mission of the Church, with no dichotomy between evangelism and social responsibility" (Padilla, 247).
  • The third stream, sometimes referred to as the radical discipleship group, and including evangelicals such as Ron Sider, Rene Padilla, and Samuel Escobar, considers social justice to be mission just as evangelism is, and does not give priority to either (see also Option for the Poor) .

Representatives of the three streams have come together from time to time, perhaps most notably at the Consultation on the Relationship Between Evangelism and Social Responsibility (CRESR 1982), where the partnership of evangelism and social responsibility and the primacy of evangelism were both reaffirmed, though it was noted that "some of us have felt uncomfortable about this phrase, lest by it we should be breaking the partnership" (LCWE, p. 24). Wheaton '83 gave greater weight to the partnership stream, as well as opening discussion on transforming societies through structural intervention as an element of holistic mission. Finally, representatives of all three streams were also present at the Lausanne Congress II on World Evangelism (Manila, 1989). Again, the focus continued to give weight to the idea of partnership with evangelism being primary. Through the declaration and subsequent ongoing reflection, the second stream gained prominence in evangelical mission.

The debate continues and consensus over this complex issue remains a goal to be reached in the future rather than a present reality."

[Quelle: A. Scott Moreau. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

3.1. Dispensationalism und Mission

"Dispensationalism. An approach to Holy Scripture which sees God's revelation unfolding through various stages. Throughout Scripture, God reveals his missionary purpose. George Peters showed that this purpose was generally "centripetal" in the Old Testament, that is, nations learned of God by coming to Israel. In the New Testament, mission is predominantly "centrifugal," that is, the church moves out to all nations with the gospel (1972, 21).

The modern missionary movement parallels the emergence of dispensationalism. William Carey, who went to India in 1793, is often mentioned as the father of modern evangelical missions, although there were earlier groups, such as the Moravians (see Moravian Missions).

Around the same time, John Nelson Darby (1800-1882) founded both the Plymouth Brethren and dispensationalism. It is clear from the beginning that personal piety, church purity, and missions, together with a dispensational orientation, were the ongoing marks of the Brethren movement. Darby, Groves, Mueller, and a host of others testifv to this union of biblical method and missions"(Coad, 1968, 16, 28, 37).

Nondispensational pietists, Reformed, Armini-ans, postmillennialists, and amillennialists have all had an honored part in the expansion of the gospel during the modern missions era. Yet George Ladd, himself not a dispensationalist, affirmed the following about dispensational leaders:

It is doubtful if there has been any other circle of men who have done more by their influence in preaching, teaching, and writing to promote a love for Bible study, a hunger for the deeper Christian life, a passion for evangelism, and zeal for missions in the history of American Christianity (1952, 49).

Dispensationalists, especially in North America, have had a great impact on missions through the Bible College movement. Graduate schools of theology like Dallas Theological Seminary have also played a key role in the development and teaching of dispensationalism. Nondispensational Bible colleges have also sent many graduates into missions. But the missionary impact of dispensational Bible colleges can be seen in the fact that Moody Bible Institute, founded in 1886, alone, has sent out over 6,600 missionaries, of whom almost 3,500 are serving cross-culturally today.

A number of dispensational missiologists have contributed to missions thinking. Among them are George W. Peters, J. Herbert Kane, David Hesselgrave, and Edward Pentecost. What are the distinctives of a dispensational approach to missions?

The Urgency of Missions. George Peters emphasized that missions is a response to an emergency (1972, 15). The crisis is the sinfulness of humanity, which, apart from an intervention of God, will be visited with judgment. God provided Jesus Christ who offered himself on the cross for the sin of the world (John 3:16-17; 2 Cor. 5:19; 1 John 2:2). In Christ, God was offering Israel their Messiah and the beginning of the millennial kingdom. But in their rejection and crucifixion of Christ, God provided for the salvation of the world (John 1:12; 3:16). This should not have been surprising; Jesus said that his Father had always been concerned for the Gentiles (Luke 4:24-27). But there was a new dimension to this era. The saved of all nations would be united in one body, the church. Paul called it a mystery not previously revealed as it was through his ministry (Eph. 3:1-13). This Good News directed to all the world is critically urgent to share.

Missions also derives urgency from the fact that Christ is the unique solution to humanity's dilemma (Acts 4:12). Dispensationalists are Christocentric with an evangelistic priority. People who die without conscious faith in Christ have no hope of salvation (Heb. 9:27). Christ may return at any moment (Matt. 25:36-44). Believers stand instructed by Scripture (2 Peter 3:8-15) to pay attention to personal holiness, understanding that time goes on because of God's concern for the lost. Time, then, is missionary in purpose.

This sense of urgency coupled with the belief in a future "postponed" millennial reign of Christ on earth could diminish a dispensationalists interest in working toward present social improvement (see also Millennial Thought and Mission). But this is denied by more progressive dispensationalists (Blaising and Bock, 1992, 14), as well as by many who are more traditional. Hundreds of hospitals, community development projects, and literacy endeavors conducted by both dispensational and nondispensational missionaries testify to an equal interest in Holistic Mission.

Closure Strategy. Linked to the matter of urgency is that of actually finishing the task of world evangelism. Late-twentieth-century mission leaders emphasized finishing world evangelism by the year 2000. This is similar to what occurred at the close of the last century in the Student Volunteer Movement.

Focus on closure has had a tremendous effect on mission. The great evangelical advances in Latin America, Korea, and the Philippines occurred almost entirely in this century. Many cite Matthew 24:14 as the basis for their concern to finish the work of missions: "This gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come." Perhaps believers today can facilitate the return of Christ.

Dispensationalists agree that all peoples will, in fact, be evangelized (though not all saved) before the end of time, but they consider the "end" as the end of the great tribulation period referred to in both Daniel 9:25-27 and Revelation 7:9-17. Most dispensationalists believe that Christ will come for his saints prior to "The Great Tribulation" and they do not believe they will be involved in the final consummation of the missionary task. A final and comprehensive job of world evangelization will be done during the tribulation, possibly by witnesses who are Jewish people converted during those days (Rev. 7:4-8).

Dispensationalism and missions have had a long and rich connection. As a movement committed to the Word of God, the presence and power of Christ and his Spirit, and preaching the riches of God's incomparable grace, dispensationalists are motivated to engage in the work of missions until he comes!

[Quelle: Michael Pocock. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

4. Lausanne 1974: evangelikale Mission miteinander statt gegeneinander

Abb.: Flow Chart of Lausanne-Related Consultations, Congresses, and Conferences 1966-2004
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

Grundlage für die moderne evangelikale Mission der International Congress for World Evangelization in Lausanne (Schweiz) 1974. Er gab den Anstoß zu einer internationalen Kooperation der evangelikalen Missionen. Die Lausanner Verpflichtung (Lausanne Covenant) ist das Manifest evangelikaler Mission.

Webpräsenz des Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization (LCWE): -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29

"Lausanne Movement. The Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization (LCWE) was organized following the Lausanne Congress on World Evangelization in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1974. It is an international movement committed to encouraging Christians and churches everywhere to pray, study, plan, and work together for the evangelization of the world.

The congress in Lausanne was called by American evangelist Billy Graham. Some 2,300 Christian leaders from 150 nations, representing a wide cross-section of denominational affiliations, attended the congress. The congress produced an influential document, "The Lausanne Covenant," and authorized the Lausanne Continuation Committee to continue the work begun at the congress. This committee became the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization. Subsequently, LCWE

convened another consultation in Pattaya, Thailand, in 1980, and held "Lausanne II" in Manila in 1989.

LCWE believes that:
  1. cooperation and sharing are better than competition;
  2. the whole gospel includes demonstration by deeds as well as proclamation by words;
  3. biblical theology and mission strategy must be consistent;
  4. its own neutrality creates space for all evangelicals to work together, regardless of their church or faith tradition.

LCWE is a volunteer network of individuals and groups that affirm "The Lausanne Covenant," and are committed to support the work of world evangelization, wherever it is done in a way that is true to the Bible. Its network includes some thirty committees in different countries and regions of the world. It is supported financially by people in its network, and by the gifts of those who believe in its work.

LCWE organizes small international consultations on subjects that are critical to completing the task of world evangelization. More than thirty such consultations have brought together key people to achieve an approach that is both biblical and strategic. More than fifty regional, national, and international conferences have been held in response to expressed needs.

Publications have included a number of papers and books on subjects pertinent to world evangelization, as well as a quarterly magazine, World Evangelization (now discontinued), which includes news and analyses of current issues arising for those who want to make Christ known to the world. Making Christ Known. Historic Mission Documents from the Lausanne Movement, 1974-1989, edited by John Stott, was published in 1997.

More recently, LCWE sees itself as the "Barnabas factor" in the church. As such, it encourages churches to (1) trust new and younger leaders; (2) undertake work among people different from themselves; and (3) stay with people who have different ideas until they find each other in a new way.

The long-term staying factor in the movement has been "The Lausanne Covenant." It has been translated into more than twenty languages. It has been adopted by hundreds of churches and parachurch agencies as their basis of operations and cooperation. It has led to the formation of a number of national and regional movements in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, North America, and Latin America. It has stimulated many cooperative movements, mostly ad hoc, short-term, and noncompetitive. It has spun off related movements such as the Lausanne Consultation on Jewish Evangelism and the Chinese Coordinating Committee for World Evangelization. It has been the basis for a variety of consultations, the findings of which have been published as "Lausanne Occasional Papers."

The issues addressed by the covenant in 1974 are still very much alive in the world of church and missions at the end of the century. For example: (1) the relationship of evangelism and social concern; (2) unity, diversity, and cooperation among Christians; (3) the uniqueness of Christ; (4) the validity of missions; (5) the work of the Holy Spirit in evangelism; (6) religious liberty and human rights; (7) the relationship of the gospel to culture.

LCWE's organizational structure is made up of what it calls" the current partners of the Lausanne Movement." This international grassroots committee includes members from Argentina, Asia, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, England, Estonia, Europe, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Korea, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, the United States, and Wales.

International structures include the Chinese Coordinating Committee for World Evangelization, the Health and Healing Network, the Jewish Committee, and the Tentmakers Exchange. Special interest members include the Intercession Working group, the Theology and Strategy Working Group, and groups focusing on disabled people, women, strategic evangelism partnerships, research, tentmakers, and information technology ("

[Quelle: Jim Reapsome. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

4.1. The Lausanne Covenant  Die Lausanner Verpflichtung

"The Lausanne Covenant  Die Lausanner Verpflichtung


Wir, Glieder der Gemeinde Jesu Christi aus mehr als 150 Nationen, Teilnehmer am Internationalen Kongress für Weltevangelisation in Lausanne, loben Gott, weil Er Sein Heil geschenkt hat und freuen uns an der Gemeinschaft, die Er uns mit Ihm und untereinander schenkt. Gottes Wirken in unserer Zeit bewegt uns tief. Unser Versagen führt uns zur Buße. Die unvollendete Aufgabe der Evangelisation fordert uns heraus. Wir glauben, dass das Evangelium Gottes gute Nachricht für die ganze Welt ist. Durch Seine Gnade sind wir entschlossen, dem Auftrag Jesu Christi zu gehorchen, indem wir Sein Heil der ganzen Menschheit verkündigen, um alle Völker zu Jüngern zu machen. Darum wollen wir unseren Glauben und unseren Entschluss bekräftigen und unserer Verpflichtung öffentlich Ausdruck geben.

1. Der Plan Gottes

Wir bekräftigen unseren Glauben an den einen ewigen Gott, Schöpfer und Herrn der Welt, Vater, Sohn und Heiliger Geist, der alle Dinge nach dem Ratschluss Seines Willens regiert. Er hat Sein Volk aus der Welt herausgerufen und sendet es zurück in die Welt, als Seine Diener und Zeugen. Er hat die Gläubigen zur Ausbreitung Seines Reiches, zur Erbauung des Leibes Christi und zur Verherrlichung Seines Namens herausgerufen. Wir bekennen und bereuen, dass wir unserer Berufung oft untreu gewesen sind und unseren Auftrag nicht erfüllt haben, indem wir uns der Welt anpassten oder uns von ihr zurückzogen. Doch freuen wir uns daran, dass das Evangelium, selbst wenn es in irdenen Gefäßen gefasst ist, ein kostbarer Schatz ist. Erneut übernehmen wir die Aufgabe, diesen Schatz durch die Kraft des Heiligen Geistes bekanntzumachen.

(Jes. 40,28; Matth. 28,19; Eph. 1,11; Apg. 15,14; Joh. 17,6.18; Eph. 4,12; 1. Kor. 5,10; Rö. 12,2; 2. Kor. 4,7)

2. Die Autorität der Bibel

Wir halten fest an der göttlichen Inspiration, der gewissmachenden Wahrheit und Autorität der alt- und neutestamentlichen Schriften in ihrer Gesamtheit als dem einzigen geschriebenen Wort Gottes. Es ist ohne Irrtum in allem, was es bekräftigt und ist der einzige unfehlbare Maßstab des Glaubens und Lebens. Wir bekennen zugleich die Macht des Wortes Gottes, Seinen Heilsplan zu verwirklichen. Die Botschaft der Bibel ist an die ganze Menschheit gerichtet, denn Gottes Offenbarung in Christus und in der Heiligen Schrift ist unwandelbar. Der Heilige Geist spricht noch heute durch diese Offenbarung. Er erleuchtet Sein Volk in allen Kulturen. So erkennen die Gläubigen Seine Wahrheit immer neu. Der Heilige Geist enthüllt der ganzen Gemeinde mehr und mehr die vielfältige Weisheit Gottes.

(2. Tim. 3,16; 2. Petr. 1,21; Joh. 10,35; Matth. 5,17.18; Eph. 1,17.18; 3,10.18)

3. Einzigartigkeit und Universalität Jesu Christi

Wir bekräftigen: Es gibt nur einen Erlöser und nur ein Evangelium, jedoch eine große Vielfalt evangelistischer Arbeitsweisen. Zwar wissen wir, dass alle Menschen aus der allgemeinen Offenbarung in der Natur Gott erkennen können, aber wir bestreiten, dass sie dies erretten kann, denn sie unterdrücken die Wahrheit durch Ungerechtigkeit. Als Herabsetzung Jesu Christi und des Evangeliums lehnen wir jeglichen Synkretismus ab und jeden Dialog, der vorgibt, dass Jesus Christus gleichermaßen durch alle Religionen und Ideologien spricht. Jesus Christus, wahrer Mensch und wahrer Gott, hat sich selbst als die einzige Erlösung für Sünder dahingegeben. Er ist der einzige Mittler zwischen Gott und Menschen. Es ist auch kein anderer Name, durch den wir gerettet werden. Alle Menschen gehen an ihrer Sünde verloren, Gott aber liebt alle. Er will nicht, dass jemand verloren werde, sondern dass sich jedermann zur Buße kehre. Wer aber Jesus Christus ablehnt, verschmäht die Freude des Heils und verdammt sich selbst zur ewigen Trennung von Gott. Wenn Jesus als der "Erlöser der Welt" verkündigt wird, so heißt das nicht, dass alle Menschen von vornherein oder am Ende doch noch gerettet werden. Man kann erst recht nicht behaupten, dass alle Religionen das Heil in Christus anbieten. Vielmehr muss Gottes Liebe einer Welt von Sündern verkündigt werden. Alle Menschen sind eingeladen, Ihn in persönlicher Hingabe durch Buße und Glauben als Heiland und Herrn anzuerkennen. Jesus Christus ist erhöht über alle Namen. Wir sehnen uns nach dem Tag, an dem sich aller Knie vor Ihm beugen und alle Zungen bekennen, dass Er der Herr sei.

(Gal. 1,6-9; Joh. 1,9; Apg. 17,26-28; 1. Tim. 2,5-6; Apg. 4,12; 2. Petr. 3,9; 1. Tim. 2,3-4; Joh. 3,16-19; 4,42; Phil. 2,9-11)

4. Wesen der Evangelisation

Evangelisieren heißt, die gute Nachricht zu verbreiten, dass Jesus Christus für unsere Sünden starb und von den Toten auferstand nach der Schrift und dass Er jetzt die Vergebung der Sünden und die befreiende Gabe des Geistes allen denen anbietet, die Buße tun und glauben. Für Evangelisation ist unsere Präsenz als Christen in der Welt unerlässlich, ebenso eine Form des Dialogs, die durch einfühlsames Hören zum Verstehen des anderen führt. Evangelisation ist ihrem Wesen nach die Verkündigung des historischen biblischen Christus als Heiland und Herrn. Ziel ist es, Menschen zu bewegen, zu Ihm persönlich zu kommen und so mit Gott versöhnt zu werden. Wer die Einladung des Evangeliums ausspricht, darf nicht verschweigen, dass Nachfolge etwas kostet. Jesus ruft alle, die Ihm nachfolgen möchten, auf, sich selbst zu verleugnen, ihr Kreuz auf sich zu nehmen und sich mit Seiner neuen Gemeinschaft zu identifizieren. Das Ergebnis der Evangelisation schließt Gehorsam gegenüber Jesus Christus, Eingliederung in Seine Gemeinde und verantwortlichen Dienst in der Welt ein.

(1. Kor. 15,3-4; Apg. 2,28; Joh. 20,21; 2. Kor. 4,5; 5,11.20; Apg. 2,47; Mk. 10,43-45)  

5. Soziale Verantwortung der Christen

Wir bekräftigen, dass Gott zugleich Schöpfer und Richter aller Menschen ist. Wir müssen deshalb Seine Sorge um Gerechtigkeit und Versöhnung in der ganzen menschlichen Gesellschaft teilen. Sie zielt auf die Befreiung der Menschen von jeder Art von Unterdrückung. Da die Menschen nach dem Ebenbild Gottes geschaffen sind, besitzt jedermann, ungeachtet seiner Rasse, Religion, Farbe, Kultur, Klasse, seines Geschlechts oder Alters, eine angeborene Würde. Darum soll er nicht ausgebeutet, sondern anerkannt und gefördert werden. Wir tun Buße für dieses unser Versäumnis und dafür, dass wir manchmal Evangelisation und soziale Verantwortung als sich gegenseitig ausschließend angesehen haben. Versöhnung zwischen Menschen ist nicht gleichzeitig Versöhnung mit Gott, soziale Aktion ist nicht Evangelisation, politische Befreiung ist nicht Heil. Dennoch bekräftigen wir, dass Evangelisation und soziale wie politische Betätigung gleichermaßen zu unserer Pflicht als Christen gehören. Denn beide sind notwendige Ausdrucksformen unserer Lehre von Gott und dem Menschen, unserer Liebe zum Nächsten und unserem Gehorsam gegenüber Jesus Christus. Die Botschaft des Heils schließt eine Botschaft des Gerichts über jede Form der Entfremdung, Unterdrückung und Diskriminierung ein. Wir sollen uns nicht scheuen, Bosheit und Unrecht anzuprangern, wo immer sie existieren. Wenn Menschen Christus annehmen, kommen sie durch Wiedergeburt in Sein Reich. Sie müssen versuchen, Seine Gerechtigkeit nicht nur darzustellen, sondern sie inmitten einer ungerechten Welt auch auszubreiten. Das Heil, das wir für uns beanspruchen, soll uns in unserer gesamten persönlichen und sozialen Verantwortung verändern. Glaube ohne Werke ist tot.

(Apg. 17,26.31; 1. Mo. 18,25; Jes. 1,17; Ps. 45,7; 1. Mo. 1,26.27; Jak. 3,9; 3. Mo. 19,18; Luk. 6,27.35; Jak. 2,14-26; Matth. 5,20; 6,33; 2. Kor. 3,18; Jak. 2,20)

6. Gemeinde und Evangelisation

Wir bekräftigen, dass Jesus Christus Seine erlöste Gemeinde in die Welt sendet, wie der Vater Ihn gesandt hat. Das erfordert, dass: wir ebenso tief und aufopfernd die Welt durchdringen. Wir müssen aus unseren kirchlichen Ghettos ausbrechen und in eine nichtchristliche Gesellschaft eindringen. Bei der Sendung der Gemeinde zum hingebungsvollen Dienst steht Evangelisation an erster Stelle. Die Evangelisation der Welt verlangt, dass die ganze Gemeinde der ganzen Welt das ganze Evangelium bringt. Die Gemeinde bildet die Mitte des weltumfassenden Planes Gottes und ist Sein auserwähltes Werkzeug zur Verbreitung des Evangeliums. Eine Gemeinde, die das Kreuz predigt, muss selber durch das Kreuz geprägt sein. Eine Gemeinde wird zum ernsthaften Hindernis der Evangelisation, wenn sie das Evangelium preisgibt, in keinem wirklich lebendigen Verhältnis zu Gott steht, die Menschen zu wenig liebhat und ihr auch in jeder Hinsicht, einschließlich Werbung und Finanzangelegenheiten, Lauterkeit fehlt. Die Gemeinde ist nicht so sehr Institution als vielmehr die Gemeinschaft des Volkes Gottes und darf mit keiner bestimmten Kultur, keinem sozialen oder politischen System, keiner von Menschen gemachten Ideologie gleichgesetzt werden.

(Joh. 17,18; 20,21; Matth. 20,19-20; Apg. 1,8; 20,27; Eph. 1,9- 10; 3,9-11; Gal. 6,14.17; 2. Kor. 6,3-4; 2. Tim. 2,19.21; Phil. 1,27)

7. Zusammenarbeit in der Evangelisation

Wir bekräftigen, dass die sichtbare Einheit der Gemeinde in Wahrheit Gottes Ziel ist. Evangelisation ruft uns auch zur Einheit auf, weil unsere Uneinigkeit das Evangelium der Versöhnung untergräbt. Wir stellen jedoch fest, dass es organisatorische Einheit in vielen Formen geben kann, dadurch aber nicht unbedingt die Evangelisation gefördert wird. Wir aber, die wir den gleichen biblischen Glauben haben, sollen uns eng in Gemeinschaft, Dienst und Zeugnis vereinen. Wir bekennen, dass unser Zeugnis manchmal durch sündhaften Individualismus und unnötige Überschneidung beeinträchtigt wurde. Wir verpflichten uns, eine tiefere Einheit in Wahrheit, Anbetung, Heiligung und Sendung zu suchen. Wir drängen auf die Entwicklung regionaler und funktionaler Zusammenarbeit, um die Sendung der Gemeinde, die strategische Planung, die gegenseitige Ermutigung, die gemeinsame Nutzung der Mittel und Erfahrungen voranzutreiben.

(Joh. 17,21.23; Eph. 4,3.4; Joh. 13,35; Phil. 1,27; Joh. 17,11- 23)

8. Gemeinden in evangelistischer Partnerschaft

Wir freuen uns, dass ein neues Zeitalter der Mission angebrochen ist. Die beherrschende Stellung westlicher Missionen schwindet zusehends. Gott hat in den jungen Kirchen eine große Quelle der Weltevangelisation entstehen lassen und zeigt damit, dass die Verantwortung für die Evangelisation dem ganzen Leib Christi zukommt. Jede Gemeinde soll daher Gott und sich selbst fragen, was sie tun muss, um nicht nur in ihrem eigenen Bereich zu wirken, sondern auch Missionare in andere Teile der Welt zu entsenden. Eine neue Überprüfung unserer missionarischen Verantwortung und Aufgabe soll ständig vollzogen werden. Auf diese Weise wächst die Partnerschaft der Gemeinden, und der weltweite Charakter der einen Gemeinde Christi wird deutlicher hervortreten. Wir danken Gott für die Werke, die sich um die Übersetzung der Bibel, um theologische Ausbildung, Massenmedien, christliche Literatur, Evangelisation, Mission, Erneuerung der Gemeinde und andere Aufgabenbereiche bemühen. Auch sie sollen sich in ständiger Überprüfung fragen, ob ihre Wirksamkeit als Bestandteil der Sendung der Gemeinde gelten kann.

(Rö. 1,8; Phil. 1,5; 4,15; Apg. 13,1-3; 1. Thess. 1,6-8)

9. Dringlichkeit der evangelistischen Aufgabe

Über 2,7 Milliarden Menschen, mehr als zwei Drittel der Menschheit, müssen noch mit dem Evangelium bekanntgemacht werden. Wir schämen uns, dass so viele vernachlässigt wurden; das ist ein ständiger Vorwurf gegen uns und die ganze Kirche. Jedoch ist jetzt in vielen Teilen der Welt eine beispiellose Aufnahmebereitschaft für den Herrn Jesus Christus zu erkennen. Wir sind überzeugt, dass jetzt die Zeit für Gemeinden und übergemeindliche Werke gekommen ist, ernsthaft für das Heil der bisher nicht Erreichten zu beten und neue Anstrengungen für Weltevangelisation zu unternehmen. In einem Land, das das Evangelium gehört hat, kann es bisweilen notwendig sein, Missionare und Geld aus dem Ausland zu reduzieren, um den Gemeinden im Land die Möglichkeit zum selbständigen Wachstum zu geben und um Hilfen für Gebiete, die das Evangelium noch nicht gehört haben, freizusetzen. Missionare sollen in zunehmendem Maße von allen Kontinenten in alle Kontinente im Geist demütigen Dienstes ungehindert gehen. Ziel soll sein, alle verfügbaren Mittel zu benutzen, so früh wie möglich jedem die Gelegenheit zu geben, die gute Nachricht zu hören, zu verstehen und anzunehmen. Ohne Opfer werden wir dieses Ziel nicht erreichen. Die Armut von Millionen erschüttert uns alle. Wir sind verstört über die Ungerechtigkeit, die diese Armut verursacht. Wer im Wohlstand lebt, muss einen einfachen Lebensstil entwickeln, um großzügiger zur Hilfe und Evangelisation beizutragen.

(Joh. 9,4; Matth. 9,35-38; Rö. 9-1-3; 1. Kor. 9,19-23; Mk. 16,15; Jes. 58,6-7; Jak. 1,27; 2,1-9; Matth. 25,31-46; Apg. 2,44-45; 4,34-35)

10. Evangelisation und Kultur

Die Entwicklung von Strategien zur Weltevangelisation erfordert bei der Wahl der Methoden Einfallsreichtum. Mit Gottes Hilfe werden Gemeinden entstehen, die in Jesus Christus fest gegründet und eng mit ihrer kulturellen Umwelt verbunden sind. Jede Kultur muss immer wieder von der Schrift her geprüft und beurteilt werden. Weil der Mensch Gottes Geschöpf ist, birgt seine Kultur Schönheit und Güte in reichem Maße. Weil er aber gefallen ist, wurde alles durch Sünde befleckt. Manches geriet unter dämonischen Einfluss. Das Evangelium gibt keiner Kultur den Vorrang, sondern beurteilt alle Kulturen nach seinem eigenen Maßstab der Wahrheit und Gerechtigkeit und erhebt absolute ethische Forderungen gegenüber jeder Kultur. Missionen haben allzu oft mit dem Evangelium eine fremde Kultur exportiert, und Gemeinden waren mitunter mehr an eine Kultur als an die Schrift gebunden. Evangelisten Christi müssen demütig danach trachten, sich selbst zu verleugnen, ohne ihre Persönlichkeit preiszugeben, um Diener anderer werden zu können. Die Gemeinden sollen Kultur umgestalten und bereichern, damit Gott verherrlicht wird.

(Mk. 7,8-9.13; 1. Mo. 4,21-22; 1. Kor. 9,19-23; Phil. 2,5-7; 2. Kor. 4,5)

11. Ausbildung und Gemeindeleitung

Wir bekennen, dass wir manchmal das Wachstum der Gemeinde auf Kosten ihrer Vertiefung betrieben haben und Evangelisation an den Fernstehenden von der geistlichen Stärkung der Gemeinde getrennt haben. Wir geben auch zu, dass einige unserer Missionswerke zu lange gezögert haben, einheimische Führungskräfte zuzurüsten und zu ermutigen, die ihnen zustehende Verantwortung zu übernehmen. Daher bejahen wir den Grundsatz der Eigenständigkeit und streben an, dass jede Gemeinde einheimische Leiter hat, die christlichen Führungsstil verwirklichen, der sich nicht im Herrschen, sondern im Dienen zeigt. Wir erkennen die Notwendigkeit, die theologische Ausbildung insbesondere für diejenigen, die die Gemeinde leiten sollen, zu verbessern. In jedem Volk und in jeder Kultur sollte es ein wirkungsvolles Ausbildungsprogramm für Pastoren und Laien in Glaubenslehre, Nachfolge, Evangelisation, Erbauung und Dienst geben. Ein solches Ausbildungsprogramm sollte sich nicht auf schablonenhafte Methodik verlassen, sondern durch schöpferische, einheimische Initiative nach biblischen Maßstäben entwickelt werden.

(Kol. 1,27-28; Apg. 14,23; Tit. 1,5.9; Mk. 10,42-45; Eph. 4,11- 12)

12. Geistliche Auseinandersetzung

Wir glauben, dass wir uns in einem ständigen geistlichen Kampf mit den Fürsten und Gewaltigen des Bösen befinden, die versuchen, die Gemeinde zu überwältigen und sie an ihrer Aufgabe der Evangelisation der Welt zu hindern. Wir erkennen die Notwendigkeit, uns mit der Waffenrüstung Gottes zu versehen und diesen Kampf mit den geistlichen Waffen der Wahrheit und des Gebetes zu führen. Denn wir entdecken die Aktivität des Feindes nicht allein in falschen Ideologien außerhalb der Gemeinde, sondern gleichermaßen in der Gemeinde durch die Verkündigung eines anderen Evangeliums, das die Schrift verkehrt und den Menschen an die Stelle Gottes setzt. Wir müssen wachsam sein und die Geister unterscheiden, um die biblische Botschaft zu gewährleisten. Wir geben zu, dass wir selber nicht immer gegen die Weltlichkeit in unseren Gedanken und Taten immun sind, so dass wir uns dem Säkularismus ausliefern. Obwohl, um ein Beispiel zu nennen, sorgfältige Untersuchungen über zahlenmäßiges und geistliches Wachstum der Gemeinde richtig und wertvoll sind, haben wir sie manchmal nicht beachtet. Manchmal haben wir unsere Botschaft verwässert und durch Manipulation unsere Zuhörer unter Druck gesetzt, um für das Evangelium einen Erfolg zu erzielen. Wir haben zu großen Wert auf Statistiken gelegt und diese Unterlagen sogar unlauter benutzt. All dies ist weltlich. Die Gemeinde muss in der Welt leben, aber die Welt darf die Gemeinde nicht beherrschen.

(Eph. 6,12; 2. Kor. 4,3-4; Eph. 6,11.13-18; 2. Kor. 10,3-5; 1. Joh. 2,18-26; 4,1-3; Gal. 1,6-9; 2. Kor. 2,17; 4,2; Joh. 17,15)

13. Freiheit und Verfolgung

Es ist Gottes Auftrag für jede Regierung, die Bedingungen für Frieden, Gerechtigkeit und Freiheit zu gewährleisten, unter denen die Gemeinde Gott gehorchen, dem Herrn Christus dienen und das Evangelium ohne Beeinträchtigung verkünden kann. Deshalb beten wir für die, die in den Nationen Verantwortung tragen und appellieren an sie, die Freiheit der Gedanken und des Gewissens zu garantieren und die Freiheit zur Ausübung und Ausbreitung der Religion in Übereinstimmung mit dem Willen Gottes zu gewährleisten, wie dies in der allgemeinen Erklärung der Menschenrechte festgelegt ist. Zugleich bringen wir unsere tiefe Sorge für all diejenigen zum Ausdruck, die unrechtmäßig in Gefangenschaft sind, besonders für unsere Brüder, die wegen ihres Zeugnisses für den Herrn Jesus leiden. Wir geloben, für ihre Freiheit zu beten und zu wirken. Ebenso weigern wir uns, uns durch ihr Schicksal einschüchtern zu lassen. Gott möge uns helfen, dass wir uns gegen Ungerechtigkeit auflehnen und dem Evangelium treu bleiben, was immer es koste. Wir vergessen die Warnung Jesu nicht, dass Verfolgung unausweichlich ist.

(1. Tim. 1,1-4; Apg. 4,19; 5,29; Kol. 3,24; Hebr. 13,1-3; Lk. 4,18; Gal. 5,11; 6,12; Matth. 5,10-12; Joh. 15,18-21)

14. Die Kraft des Heiligen Geistes

Wir glauben an die Kraft des Heiligen Geistes. Der Vater sandte Seinen Geist zum Zeugnis für Seinen Sohn; ohne Sein Zeugnis ist unser Zeugnis vergeblich. Erkenntnis der Sünde, Glaube an Christus, Wiedergeburt und Wachstum im Glauben sind Sein Werk. Der Heilige Geist ist ein missionarischer Geist. Evangelisation soll deshalb aus der geisterfüllten Gemeinde wie von selbst erwachsen. Wenn eine Gemeinde keine missionarische Gemeinde ist, widerspricht sie sich selbst und dämpft den Geist. Weltweite Evangelisation vermag nur dann eine Chance der Verwirklichung zu finden, wenn der Heilige Geist die Gemeinde in Wahrheit und Weisheit, in Glaube und Heiligung, in Liebe und Vollmacht erneuert. Wir rufen deshalb alle Christen auf, um ein gnädiges Kommen des souveränen Geistes Gottes zu beten, dass alle Seine Gaben den Leib Christi bereichern. Nur dann wird die ganze Gemeinde ein taugliches Werkzeug in Seiner Hand sein, damit die ganze Welt Seine Stimme hört.

(1. Kor. 2,4; Joh. 15,26-27; 16,8-11; 1. Kor. 12,3; Joh. 3,6-8; 2. Kor. 3,18; Joh. 7,37-39; 1. Thess. 5,19; Apg. 1,8; Ps. 85,4- 7; 67,1-3; Gal. 5,22-23; 1. Kor. 12,4-31; Rö. 12,3-8)

15. Wiederkunft Christi
Wir glauben, dass Jesus Christus persönlich sichtbar in Macht und Herrlichkeit wiederkommen wird, Heil und Gericht zu vollenden. Die Verheißung Seines Kommens ist ein weiterer Ansporn für unsere Evangelisation, denn wir gedenken Seiner Worte, dass die Botschaft zuerst allen Völkern verkündigt werden muss. Wir glauben, dass die Zeit zwischen Christi Himmelfahrt und Seiner Wiederkunft von der Sendung des Volkes Gottes gefüllt werden muss. Wir haben kein Recht, die Mission vor dem Ende der Zeiten abzubrechen. Wir erinnern uns an Seine Warnungen, dass falsche Christusse und falsche Propheten sich als Vorläufer des Antichristen erheben werden. Deshalb widerstehen wir dem stolzen und selbstsicheren Traum, dass die Menschheit jemals Utopia auf Erden bauen kann. Unser christlicher Glaube ruht darin, dass Gott Sein Reich vollenden wird, und wir blicken erwartungsvoll auf den Tag, an dem ein neuer Himmel und eine neue Erde sein werden, in denen Gerechtigkeit wohnt und Gott für immer regiert. Bis dahin verpflichten wir uns zum Dienst für Christus und die Menschen in freudiger Hingabe an Seine Herrschaft über unser ganzes Leben.

(Mk. 14,62; Hebr. 9,28; Mk. 13,10; Apg. 1,8-11; Matth. 28,20; Mk. 13,21-23; Joh. 2,18; 4,1-3; Lk. 12,32; Off. 21,1-5; 2. Petr. 3,13; Matth. 28,18)


Deshalb verpflichten wir uns im Licht dieses unseres Glaubens und unserer Entscheidung feierlich vor Gott und voreinander, für die Evangelisation der ganzen Welt zusammen zu beten, zu planen und zu wirken. Wir rufen andere auf, sich uns anzuschließen. Möge Gott uns durch Seine Gnade helfen, damit wir zu Seiner Ehre dieser unserer Verpflichtung treu bleiben. Amen.


"Die Lausanner Verpflichtung" veröffentlicht von der Lausanner Bewegung für Weltevangelisation

Herausgeber: Lausanner Komitee für Weltevangelisation - Deutscher Zweig - in Verbindung mit der Deutschen Evangelischen Allianz und der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Missionarischer Dienste in der EKD.

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

5. Auswahl der Missionsschwerpunkte

Bei der Auswahl der Missionsschwerpunkte geht man ganz rationell vor: welche Gebiete und Ethnien sind am wenigsten missioniert? Wo ist der Einsatz am dringendsten? Wo erreicht man mit den vorhandenen Mitteln die größte Wirkung?

In Abwägung dieser Fragen legte man den Schwerpunkt auf das 10/40-Fenster und dort wieder auf die Gebiete und Ethnien, die bisher am wenigsten mit christlicher (evangelikaler) Verkündigung in Berührung gekommen sind. Schwerpunkt ist also die Pioniermission.

"Pioneer Mission Work. Work done from the first contact of an unreached area or population until a viable and indigenous local church is established. Frontier mission, a more recently coined term (see Winter), describes pioneer work in which the missionary crosses significant cultural boundaries. The types of activities done as part of pioneering work include such things as Evangelism and Church Planting, Literacy and Translation, Relief and Development, and even establishing institutions (e.g., schools or hospitals). Such activities may be the full-time occupation of the missionary, or may be ancillary to some type of professional occupation (see Tent-Making Mission).

In situations where countries grant missionary visas, missionaries are free to preach the gospel openly as their full-time job. While this was more generally the case in recent centuries (especially when Western missionaries worked under the protection of colonial empires), political autonomy and religious attitudes have today closed the doors of many nations to the traditional full-time pioneer missionary. Therefore, many involved in pioneer work today, especially in Creative Access Countries, can only attain residency as students, researchers, or professionals. When local residency is not possible, a base may be established outside the target country or culture from which periodic trips into the target area as a tourist are made to establish contacts or evangelize.

Since the goal of pioneer mission work is to plant an Indigenous Church, it must always include some form of evangelism. This evangelism, especially in sensitive areas, may be limited to small-scale or even covert work. Once people within the target area have come to Christ, pioneer missionaries need specific skills to gather them together in small fellowships and help them grow toward becoming a church.

While many pioneers have gone out as individuals, most have followed Paul's example of gathering a team to work together {see also Teams in Mission). In prior centuries a team was sometimes necessary simply to ensure survival, as missionaries came to harsh environments without the necessary survival skills or resistance to disease already possessed by the indigenous population. Further, a team approach makes it less imperative that any single individual possess each of the multiple gifts needed for church planting. It also provides a place of encouragement when the work is slow to develop.

The trend in contemporary evangelical missions discussion of pioneer work has been a switch from a focus on geo-political boundaries to ethnolinguistic ones (see Peoples, People Groups) in conceptualizing the church-planting task of missions. The development of the related concepts such as the 10/40 Window, unreached or hidden people groups, and the Adopt-A-People campaigns also reflect that shift. It is estimated today that there are some 12,000 ethnolinguistic people groups, and that some 2,000 of them have no viable witness or church and are therefore in need of pioneering mission work. Most of these groups, it is noted, lie in the 10/40 Window and— in part because they are the hardest to reach physically, politically, and religiously—less than one-tenth of the total missionary effort is actually concentrated on them.

Because frontier missions are focused on crossing significant cultural barriers to plant churches, it is a subset of pioneer mission work, which does not always involve the crossing of significant cultural barriers. The concept of pioneer mission work cannot be limited to settings where there has never been a gospel witness. It also includes evangelism in areas where there once was such a witness that is no longer viable. For example, secularized, post-Christian urban areas where the gospel is no longer proclaimed need missionaries with a pioneering outlook and commitment, and this should not be overlooked in considering the scope of pioneer mission work.

See also Reached and Unreached Mission"

[Quelle: A. Scott Moreau. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

"Reached and Unreached Mission Fields. Since the mid-1970s intense debate has raged over what a mission field is and what it means for a field to be reached. In general, since the Lausanne Congress on World Evangelism of 1974, the concept of a People Group, defined by common language and culture, has displaced the older idea of a nation-state. There continues to be a discussion of whether the people groups to be evangelized should be defined more in terms of language or dialect (with over 12,000 in the world) or of culture (over 20,000). But leaving some latitude for those definitions, the chief eth-nolinguistic groups have been identified.

But how do we determine when a group has been "reached"? In the mid-1980s there were said to be 12,000 unevangelized groups, but by 1990 that estimate was reduced to 6,000. With the advent of the AD 2000 and Beyond Movement, this was reduced to 2,000, then by 1995, to 1,600. Did the missionary enterprise advance that rapidly? No, the definition of "evangelized" or "reached" changed. Does "evangelized" mean that every person would hear with understanding the way to life in Christ as Mark 16:15 and Acts 1:8 seem to indicate? Or, as the objective set by some in recent years, does "evangelized" mean that every person would have access to the gospel? That is, when a church is near enough or there are radio broadcasts or book shops, the Bible has been translated into their language—everyone could hear the gospel if they wanted to. This greatly reduces the number of unevangelized people groups. Others opt to focus on Matthew 28:18-20 and Luke 24:47-48 and the goal of evangelism is said to be discipling the "nations" or people groups. But what is it to "disciple"? Some have said that when there is a witnessing church movement, the missionary task is complete. Others point out that a witnessing church movement in a tribe of 1,000 may mean the group is evangelized or "reached," but what if the group is 40 million in size? So others add the phrase, "capable of reaching its own people." If there is such a church movement, no more outside help would be needed to complete the task of evangelism, however defined. Still others define a reached people as those which are majority Christian. If Christian is used in an evangelical sense, however, no more than a handful of very small ethnic groups could be considered "reached" on that definition.

This debate is not academic nit-picking; it is very pragmatic, defining the task that remains and targeting those areas in which a church or mission should invest precious, limited resources. The consensus that seems to be emerging at the end of the twentieth century is to have a scale from "least reached" to "most reached." On this basis it can be said that there are at least 1,600 people groups larger than 10,000 in size in which there is no witnessing church movement capable of reaching its own people. If smaller groups are included, the number of unreached escalates to at least 6,000, including many with no gospel witness at all.

The majority of the least reached groups fall within the 10/40 Window, a band of ethnic groups stretching east between the 10th and 40th degree latitudes (north) from the Atlantic Ocean to Indonesia in the Pacific. This embraces nations in northern Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East in which the least reached religious groups are concentrated: Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. These are not only the least reached, they are the least reachable, the most resistant. In fact, because of religious, political, and cultural barriers, they are also the least accessible (see Creative Access Countries).

If "Christian" is defined as one who has a personal relationship with God through faith in Jesus Christ, and "mission field" is defined as any ethnolinguistic group in which there is no witnessing church movement capable of evangelizing that group, perhaps half the people groups of the world have been "reached." The other half need outside assistance, commonly called missionaries. If those groups with fewer than 10,000 were excluded from the tally, then the majority of the remaining people groups have been reached. If, on the other hand "reached" focuses on individuals rather than ethnic groups, and "access to the gospel" is the criterion, perhaps more than half the individuals of the world have been reached. If, however, "reached" means they have actually heard the gospel with understanding, far less than half could be considered reached.

The most succinct, reliable, and easily understood data on the reached or unreached status of each nation is found in Operation World. The most sophisticated composite of the efforts of the major research groups is found in Status of Global Evangelization: Model and Database Design, put out by Southern Baptist Convention, FMB and updated periodically."

[Quelle: Robertson McQuilkin. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]
"Unevangelized. The large segment of the worlds population that lives without a viable witness of the gospel or a valid opportunity to accept or reject Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. They have never heard the gospel with sufficient cultural relevance to allow them an informed response to Christ. The unevangelized are those who do not know or hear about Christ; who do not have an indigenous church with the resources to reach them; who do not have meaningful contacts with Christians; who do not have the Bible available to them; who live isolated from the gospel because of cultural, geographical, political, or linguistic barriers; and who will not be evangelized unless someone is sent to cross those barriers with the gospel. Some distinguish between evangelized and unevangelized people groups by insisting that a people group is evangelized when it has an indigenous church with the resources to evangelize the group without outside (cross-cultural) assistance. Other related terms include "the lost" (those outside of Christ, separated from God, and living in spiritual darkness), "heathen" (an older term for those outside Christ, especially in non-Christian countries), "hidden peoples" (those who live places where they are unseen and unreached by Christians). In recent years, one of the terms most commonly used in the context of the un-evangelized is "unreached peoples"—ethnolin-guistic groups with a significant group identity and affinity which do not have their own indigenous witness or church and in which the majority of the members are unevangelized. The Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization uses a scale of terms to identify unevangelized peoples. The scale includes "hidden people" (no known Christians within the group), "initially reached" (less than one percent of the group are Christians), "minimally reached" (one to 10 percent of the group are Christians), "possibly-reached" (10 percent to 20 percent of the group are Christians), and "reached" (over 20 percent of the group are Christians).
Unreached people groups became a serious focus of mission strategy with Ralph Winter's address, "The Highest Priority—Cross-Cultural Evangelism," presented at the Lausanne Congress on World Evangelization (1974). Winter challenged the notion that the gospel had been preached to all the world and drew attention to hidden or unreached peoples who are not culturally near to any Christians.

Winter asserted that these peoples can be reached only by a specialized Cross-Cultural Evangelism. This innovation in thinking about the world in terms of unreached peoples and defining the unfinished task of missions as reaching the unreached profoundly impacted both the concept of missions and strategies of missions (see also Missionary Task, The). It infused the missionary enterprise with a renewed sense of purpose and a new spirit of urgency.

Research organizations such as the U.S. Center for World Missions and World Vision's Mission Advanced Research Center (MARC) with its Unreached People Database were formed for the express purpose of identifying and mapping unreached people groups and motivating a movement of Great Commission agencies, churches, and individuals to focus on reaching the unreached. Organizations such as the AD 2000 and Beyond Movement emerged with the vision of reaching all the people groups of the world as soon as possible. Major missions agencies added divisions or components to focus on the unreached and to develop creative approaches to penetrate them with the gospel. Greater cooperation has resulted between Great Commission missions agencies and organizations in the targeting of specific people groups (see also Peoples, People Groups).

The estimate of the number of unreached people groups varies with the criteria used to identify them. In his Lausanne message, Winter spoke of 16,750 such groups. This number has often been quoted. Patrick Johnstone, compiler of Operation World, projects the number as approximately 12,000. Regardless of the different estimates, seeing the world in terms of unreached people groups accentuates the magnitude of the unfinished task of world evangelization.

There are general implications of the unreached peoples approach to missions strategy. It helps clarify the demands of world evangelization. It moves the focus of missions away from the geographic borders of nation-states. A church may be planted in a nation but not be indigenous to all the peoples of that nation. People groups transcend the borders of nations, and multiple groups live within a nation. It is reasonable, therefore, to see the task of world evangelization not as reaching nations but as reaching those unevangelized people groups wherein individuals have their primary identity.

The unreached peoples approach helps target those specific groups that are still to be evangelized. The concept of the 10/40 Window, for example, has helped focus personnel, planning, and praying on that area of the world where the majority of the unevangelized live.

The unreached peoples approach helps communicate that the goal of world evangelization is achievable. The number of people groups is not infinite. The challenge is not to win every individual. It is instead to plant Indigenous Churches within each people group which, in turn, are able to evangelize the group. Thus, this approach provides a standard to measure progress in the task.

The unreached peoples approach underscores the growing need for specialized cross-cultural missionaries. The unevangelized peoples will not hear the gospel or have a church unless such workers penetrate their group with the gospel. A majority of the unevangelized live in either closed or Creative Access Countries. Traditional missionaries cannot gain entry in most of these situations. To reach them requires a force of missionaries with specialized training and specialized skills that are both relevant and necessary to the people group and will provide the means for residency (see also Tent-Making Mission).

The unreached people approach has stimulated strategic innovations in missions planning and methods for accomplishing world evangelization. Among these are creative access strategies, the Nonresidential Missionary, targeting of people clusters, missionary specialists who utilize a vocation to establish residence, the increased number of Third World missionaries comprising the global missionary force (see Non-Western Mission Boards and Societies), culturally sensitive models of church planting, specialized missionary training, reaching students and other members of particular groups abroad and training them to return to evangelize their group (see Student Mission Work), utilizing development projects as points of entry and bridges to evangelism, and coordination and cooperation among Great Commission organizations to maximize spiritual, human, financial, and technical resources."

[Quelle: Donald R. Dunavant. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

5.1. Window 10/40 — 10/40-Fenster

Abb.: Window 10/40
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-27]

Da das Ende der Welt nicht eintreten kann, bevor nicht alle Völker zumindest vom Evangelium etwas gehört haben, geht man ganz systematisch vor und überlegt sich, welche Länder bisher am wenigsten erreicht wurden. ["Und dieses Evangelium vom Reich wird auf dem ganzen Erdkreis verkündigt werden als Zeichen für alle Völker, und dann wird das Ende kommen." Matthäus, 24,10 - Zürcher Bibel 2007]

Wichtig an den Überlegungen sind die Volksgruppen, die durch ihre jeweilige Sprache identifiziert werden. Die Volksgruppen, die bisher am wenigsten bzw. gar nichts vom Evangelium gehört haben, leben zwischen dem 10 und dem 40 Breitengrad nördlich: es geht um den Norden Afrikas, Vorderasien, Süd-, Südost- und Ostasien (etwa 60 Länder). Dieses sogenannte 10/40-Fenster wurde von den Evangelikalen weltweit 1989 (Lausanne Congress II in Manila) als wichtigstes Missionsgebiet benannt. Dabei werden drei Hauptgründe aufgeführt:

  1. Region der großen nicht-christlichen Religionen: Islam, Hinduismus, Buddhismus. Die Mehrheit der Menschheit ohne Kontakt zum Evangelium leben in der Region. Die Menschen sind "nicht evangelisiert" d.h. sie haben höchstens eine minimale Kenntnis des Evangeliums, aber haben keine Möglichkeit zu reagieren.

  2. Die Ärmsten der Menschheit leben hier (unter den Staaten sind die 50 ärmsten Länder der Welt zu finden). Während des Lausanne Kongresses II in Manila wurde noch mal ausdrücklich darauf hingewiesen, dass man verpflichtet ist den Armen zu helfen.

  3. Eine Mission findet fast nicht statt. Nur etwa 8 % der missionarischen Tätigkeiten finden sich in dieser Zone, wobei die drei nicht-christlichen Religionen sehr resistent gegenüber dem Christentum sind. Daher spricht man auch von "The Resistant Belt".

Aus den genannten Gründen schließt man, dass Satan in dieser Region ein starkes Bollwerk gegen das Evangelium aufgebaut hat. Also muss die Mehrheit der missionarischen Kräfte in dieser Zone gebündelt werden.

Luis Bush nennt weitere Günde für die Auswahl des 10/40-Fensters:

The 10/40 Window is located from 10 degrees to 40 degrees north of the equator, which includes Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

  • Nearly 4 billion people live here, including 90 percent of the world's poorest of the poor. It is estimated that 1.6 billion of these people have never had the chance to hear the Gospel of Jesus Christ - not even once!
  • The seat of every major non-Christian religion - Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Animism, Atheism, and Sikhism - is headquartered in the 10/40 Window.
  • In many of the 67 countries represented in the 10/40 Window, witnessing the Christian Gospel means death. Truly, the 10/40 Window remains the darkest and most inhospitable territory to the cause of Christ and represents the greatest remaining stronghold of Satan.
  • Two-thirds of the world’s population (4 billion) live in the 67 nations of the 10/40 Window.
  • 95% of the people are unevangelized.
  • 90% of the people are the poorest of the poor, averaging $250 per family annually.
  • 43 of the 50 worst countries in the world for persecution of Christians are here.
  • Five pennies out of every $100 spent on missions goes to this desperately needy area of the world.
  • Illiteracy is widespread.
  • Terrorist organizations and child prostitution run rampant in many of these nations.
  • Horrific abuse of women and children remains unchecked.
  • Children as young as 18 months old are trained to be Jihad soldiers.
  • It is estimated that 1.6 billion people have not heard the Gospel one time.

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-26]

" Luis Bush, the international director of the AD 2000 and Beyond Movement, sums it up well: "If we are to be faithful to Scripture, obedient to the mandate of Christ, and if we want to see the establishment of a mission-minded church planting movement within every unreached people and city ... so that all peoples might have a valid opportunity to experience the love, truth and saving power of Jesus Christ, we must get down to the core of the unreached—the 10/40 Window."

[Quelle: Love, Richard D.: 10/40 Window. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]
"Getting to the Core of the Core

[nach der Beschreibung der Gründe zur Auswahl des 10/40-Fensters folgt:]

"We must not view this situation with a fatalistic attitude, for we have been granted power to intervene. In a later passage of the same letter, the Apostle Paul declares: "For though we live in the world, we do not wage war as the world does. The weapons we fight with are not weapons of the world. On the contrary, the have divine power to demolish strongholds" (2 Corinthians 10:3-4). Although Satan has established a territorial stronghold in The 10/40 Window, we must not concede one parcel of land nor one person. The gospel must advance!

Looking back across the pages of history we discover a heartening story about spiritual warfare in the writings of the prophet Daniel. A fervent man of prayer, Daniel was highly esteemed by God and by the people of his generation. On one occasion, while waiting on God in prayer, Daniel fasted on bread and water for three weeks. Finally, a majestic angel whose appearance was as lighting brought an answer to his prayer. He assured Daniel with the promise that "...your words were heard, and I have come in response to your words" (Daniel 10:12). However, the angel then went on to explain how, en route to answer Daniel's prayer, he was detained for 21 days by the demon assigned to the Persian king (Daniel 10:13). It was only when the archangel Michael arrived to help that he was able to free himself from the battle to go to Daniel.

This fascinating passage unveils the reality and territorial nature of the spiritual battle in the heavenlies. The angel who visited Daniel announced that he would have to return to the battle over the Persian kingdom. Apparently, that battle still rages, for ancient Persia is now modern-day Iran. Still a stronghold zealously held by Satan, Iran is situated at the center of the The 10/40 Window.

George Otis, Jr., has concluded that two powerful demonic forces, with great biblical significance, stand at the epicenter of the unreached world - the prince of Persia (Iran) and the spirit of Babylon (Iraq) - and both must be penetrated with the gospel before the Great Commission can be completed. Otis observes that this will occur in the region of the Garden of Eden, where the command to "subdue the earth" was originally given.

It is evident that the forces of Satan have great power and will resist all attempts to be overcome. If we are to storm the enemy's territory, we must put on the full armor of God and fight with the weapons of spiritual warfare described in Ephesians 6. To depend on anything less is utter foolishness.

The focus of the concerned Christian community 200 years ago was for the coastlands of the world. A century later, the success of the coastlands effort motivated a new generation to reach the interior regions of the continents. Within the past decades, the success of the inland thrust has led to a major focus on people groups. More recently, the world's burgeoning megacities have also become focal points of concern. Today, rapidly approaching the third millennium since Christ, we are wise to concentrate our efforts on The 10/40 Window.

Of course, this calls for some of us to reevaluate priorities. We must find the most innovative ways to reach billions of people within The 10/40 Window with the love and truth of Jesus Christ. We must mobilize for a massive prayer focus on The 10/40 Window with the body of Christ worldwide.

However, it must be clearly understood that concentration on The 10/40 Window does not mean a curtailing of Christ's work going on elsewhere around the globe. Missionary endeavors, in evangelism, training, relief, development, church planting, and mobilization for cross cultural missions should go on unhindered.

If we are faithful to the Scriptures, obedient to the mandate of Christ, and unwavering in our commitment to plant churches within every people and city, then we will get to the core of the core - The 10/40 Window. May God grant each of us boldness and wisdom and energy to do our part in taking on this great and eternally significant challenge.

By all means, get involved!

This article was written by Luis Bush, International Director of the AD 2000 & Beyond Movement. "

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-26]

5.2. Joshua Project

Abb.: Unreached People of the 10/40 Window
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-279

Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-27

Um die Frage nach den am wenigsten vom Evangelium erreichten Völkern korrekt beantworten zu können, wurde das Joshua Project gegründet. Ursprünglich war AD2000 and Beyond Movement verantwortlich. Man begann mit den von missionarischen Gruppen gemeldeten größten unerreichten Volksgruppen, wobei die Volksgruppe durch ihre Sprache identifiziert wird. Außerdem wurde angegeben, wieweit bei den Volksgruppen eventuell schon missionarische Bemühungen laufen.

Inzwischen umfasst das Projekt möglichst alle Volksgruppen der Welt, wobei alle nicht erreichten oder wenig erreichten Volksgruppen der Welt besonders hervorgehoben sind, da Informationen über diese ethnischen Gruppen wichtig sind um die Anstrengungen von missionarischen Gruppen zu koordinieren und zu stützen. Jeder Volksgruppe wird eine bestimmter Status zugeteilt von überhaupt noch nicht erreicht bis zu der Anzahl der Evangelisierten.

Das Joshua Project bietet für alle Missionsagenturen, Kirchen und einzelnen Missionaren eine Datenbank an, die enthält

"Mission - The purpose of Joshua Project" [...]

"Distinctives - What makes Joshua Project unique

  • Strategic - We help mission strategists who ask, "Where is the greatest need?" Our desire is to help focus the Church on the most spiritually needy ethnic people groups.
  • Effective - We seek to leverage and maximize the effectiveness of other Kingdom resources by helping identify and reduce duplication of effort between ministries through information sharing.
  • Comprehensive - Our emphasis is on comprehensiveness, to see that the Church is initially established in all the world's ethnic people groups. Our methodology has been “when in doubt include a people group on the list” to insure that no groups are overlooked.
  • Neutral - We are a neutral, low profile ministry, serving the global missions community.
  • Grassroots - We support grass-roots initiatives, seeking involvement with those laborers actually doing the work. Continual updating is most accurately done by local and national researchers.
  • Openhanded - We provide all data and services at no charge, making it possible for individuals and agencies in all parts of the world to have access."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-27]

6. Methoden der Bekehrung

Die Tätigkeiten zur Bekehrung des 10/40-Fensters umfassen das ganze Spektrum von Gebet bis zu hauptamtlichen Missionaren:

Die nicht-traditionellen ("kreativen") Methoden der Missionierung sind vor allem in "Creative Access Countries" nötig. Das sind Länder, die die Tätigkeit von christlichen Missionaren entweder stark einschränken oder nicht erlauben, insbesondere verbieten, dass ausländische Missionare sich länger im Land aufhalten. In diesen Ländern gibt es eine oder mehrere Volksgruppen, die resistent gegenüber dem Christentum sind. Unterschiedliche Gründe der Ablehnung sind u.a. die traditionelle Religion, die traditionelle ethnische Identität, die meist mit einer Religion verknüpft ist, und die Reaktion auf den westlichen Kolonialismus.

Am Beginn der Missionsära gab es kaum Einschränkungen von Seiten der Völker, zumal die Missionen ja eher die Verbündeten der Kolonialherren waren. So ist es verständlich, dass seit dem Ende des 2. Weltkriegs viele betroffene Länder keine ausländischen  Missionare mehr zulassen. Nur dort, wo schon eine starke christliche Präsenz vorhanden war, konnten missionarische Tätigkeiten weitergeführt werden. Dort, wo nur schwache christlichen Kirchen existierten, haben die traditionellen religiösen Gruppen ihren Einfluss auf die jeweiligen Regierungen so ausgeübt, dass das Wachsen der christlichen Kirchen eher unmöglich gemacht wurde, indem z.B. keine Ausländer mehr helfen durften. Man gibt einfach keine Visa bzw. Aufenthaltsgenehmigungen mehr.

So muss man neue kreative Strategien entwickeln. Dazu gehört z.B. das Nonresidential Missionary Model, das vor allem genutzt wird, um in die Länder des Islam, Hinduismus und Buddhismus und auch des Kommunismus (z.B. China)  einzudringen. 

[vgl.: Eitel, Keith E.: Creative Access Countries. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

6.1. Gebet

Abb.: Einbandtitel: Missions Prayer Tools for Children
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

"Prayer. Recently God has been awakening the church to the need for less talk about prayer and more actual prayer. Mission and denominational agencies have appointed full-time prayer coordinators whose sole job is to pray and organize prayer. Prayer and praise rallies have been held in urban centers around the world. Annual pilgrimages of praying through cities in the 10/40 Window have been organized, with millions participating. The practice of walking through a target area and praying as prompted by the Spirit (known as prayer-walking) is being developed. More controversially, some advocate the engagement of Territorial Spirits in what has been called strategic-level warfare prayer as a new key to world evangelization. As signs of greater emphasis on prayer, all these efforts are welcomed in the missionary work of the church. At the same time, they must be evaluated not simply on the basis of reported effectiveness, but on fidelity to the scriptural picture of the prayer life of the church.

True prayer begins with God. It is the Lord who invited his disciples to pray (Matt. 7:7-11). It is also a command of God that people pray continually (1 Thess. 5:17). Prayer is the primary means that God uses to accomplish his work. God places prayer burdens on the hearts of his people in order to prompt prayer, through which he works. Historian J. Edwin Orr, after decades of researching revivals around the world, concluded that they both began and were sustained in movements of prayer. The missionary's prayer is not limited to the revival itself; Jesus commanded us to pray for the very laborers to work the fields that were ripe for harvest (Matt. 9:36-38).

Every individual Christian and every local church lives under the command to be devoted to prayer (Col. 4:2). As missionaries pray to the Lord of the harvest, we open ourselves to any at-titudinal or behavioral adjustment that God wants us to make. Confessing sin is one important aspect of prayer (Ps. 66:18; Prov. 21:13; 28:9; 1 Peter 3:7). Our humility before God underscores that the purpose of prayer is not ultimately to achieve our agenda but the accomplishment of God's purposes in a way that honors his name (James 4:2). His ultimate purpose is the gathering of those who worship him at least in part in response to the missionary prayers and through the missionary efforts of his church.

Jesus' life was characterized by prayer. He prayed before and after the significant events in his life. He prayed when he was overwhelmed with the needs of people. He prayed when his life was unusually busy. His prayer aimed toward the Father's glory (John 17:1, 5), emphasized in the honoring of God's name as the first petition of the Lord's Prayer (Matt. 6:9). All of mission is to be driven by this supreme goal.

Characteristics of Prayer. Any activity that is stamped with God's full approval is to be motivated by love (1 Cor. 13:1). This will certainly include following Jesus' example by submitting our will to God's will (Matt. 26:39, 42, 44). It also involves imitating his fervency in prayer, and continually dealing with the anger and bitterness in our life and replacing it with forgiveness. This was taught by Christ in his instruction and by his example. It is for this reason that true prayer extends even to our enemies (Matt. 5:44). This type of loving prayer is foundational to the mission of the church, for through it our enemies may be won to Christ.

Of particular importance for the missionary's personal prayer life is the fact that prayer was never intended to be a mechanical discipline. It is an expression of an abiding relationship and of a life of communion with God undergirded by a heart of faith. This faith is placed in the revealed character of God, whose omniscience (Matt. 6:7-8") and goodness (Matt. 7:9-11) enable us to pray with confident expectancy in God's ability to accomplish his missionary purposes. Prayer is to be continual (1 Thess. 5:18) and to pervade all of our missionary work. The trials the missionary faces are not to hinder prayer life but to be used of God to deepen it (Acts 16:25).

Prayer and missions are inextricably intertwined in the Book of Acts. Prayer preceded the Spirit setting aside Paul and Barnabas as missionary candidates (13:2-3) and the missionary journeys themselves. Elders in newly established churches were prayed for and committed to God The missionary trial of saying good-bye to loved ones is aided by committing them to the care of I God in prayer (20:32).

Dynamics of Prayer. Missionaries and mission agencies have emphasized prayer throughout church history. At the same time, however, there is always a temptation to talk about prayer and state that it is important but not to actually pray. Mission agencies can fall into the trap of planning, organizing, leading, and then remembering to pray. Such prayer is really only asking God's blessing on our human efforts rather than seeking to align our organizational identity and plans with his ongoing work in the world and his call in our lives.

On the personal level, God aids the missionary in sustaining our prayer life through the crises we face. True prayer is exemplified by an attitude of helplessness and faith. God uses Culture Shock, Language Learning difficulties, relational Conflicts, Spiritual Warfare, lack of Receptivity, and seemingly insurmountable obstacles to draw us to himself in prayer. He also has given us the Holy Spirit to motivate, guide, and empower our prayer. In times of weakness the Holy Spirit prays for us (Rom. 8:26-27).

God ordained that our prayer be persevering to accomplish his sovereign work (Luke 11:5-8; I 18:1-8). God uses persevering prayer to purify his church, prepare it for his answers, develop the lives of his people, defeat spiritual enemies, and give to his church the answer—intimacy with himself. This is especially important for missionaries working where the response to the gospel is limited."

[Quelle: William D. Thrasher . -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

6.1.1. Praying through the Window

Abb.: Praying through the Window Calendar 2005

Abb.: Praying through the Window Calendar 2005

Abb.: Praying through the Window Calendar 2005

Abb.: Praying through the Window Calendar 2005: An jedem Tag des Monats betet man für ein anderes Land

[Quelle der Abbildungen: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-27]

Beispiele von Gebetsanliegen für einzelne Länder:

"Laos, neighbor of Vietnam and Cambodia, is one of the last communist regimes in Asia. One of the root causes of the continuing poverty is the presence of unexploded bombs from the Indochina war (1964-73). Over 2 million tons of bombs were dropped, and it is estimated that up to 30% of these failed to explode. The presence of these impedes the utilization of agricultural land. A typical experience: At the beginning of planting season, 18 year old Miss Chanthaly's hoe hit a bomb. The explosion burned her body, permanently blinding her and killed her sister who was working at her side.

Thousands of girls are lured by false promises of good wages and smuggled across the Thai border to be enslaved in Thailand as domestic slaves or in the sex industry.

The communistic government uses harsh measures to stop the progress of the gospel. But the gospel is not bound. Several recently converted young people have brought new life into the church in the capital city.

Prayer points:

  •  Thank GOD for opening doors to the gospel
  •  Pray that the girls feel uneasy and refuse to be smuggled into Thailand
  •  Pray for an awareness of where the unexploded bombs lay buried

Thank YOU for opening doors to the gospel in Laos. We know it is YOU because humanly speaking it should not be happening. May the joy and peace of these new converts spill over to the unsaved so that they may be lured into the freedom of salvation.

We ask for sensitivity to the people. Make them aware and feel uneasy when approaching unexploded bombs. We ask for the same uneasiness to settle on the young ones as the gangs entice them with lies so that the young ones will not be smuggled into Thailand. Use that uneasiness to keep them from bondage we ask in the name of JESUS CHRIST. "

"Myanmar (Burma)

The Burmese feel strongly against causing another trouble, loss of face, or hurt which leads to "white lies" and "beating around the bush." Earning merit is a constant thing for the Burmese and they diligently try to find solutions so everyone is satisfied. This may be the key to their unique ability to remain cheerful even during times of great hardships.

Where heavy drugs and alcohol are used children are sold, given away, or driven into prostitution. Women and girls are trafficked abroad to be factory workers, domestic servants, and sex exploitations.

Although the men have a higher status religiously as Buddhists, in the homes a husband usually turns the budget management to the wife. Many wives also run their own small businesses as well.

Prayer points:

  •  Pray for the Buddhist monks' salvation and their teachings to others
  •  Pray for deliverance of those bound to drugs, alcohol, or enslaved in prostitution
  •  Pray for AIDS victims and orphans

Thank YOU LORD for the Burmese's concern for others. But LORD, show them JESUS CHRIST and free them from the constant striving to earn merit. Thank YOU LORD that YOU have revealed YOURSELF to many Buddhist monks through miracles and love. Thank YOU for their teaching others. Use them mightily to spread the Gospel through Myanmar.

We cry out for the women and girls who are trafficked into slavery, and the pain of the AIDS victims and their orphans and the pain of those enslaved to addictions. LORD, go to them. Show them YOURSELF as YOU have shown the Buddhist monks. Comfort and free them. You tell us in Job 22:30 that YOU will deliver one who is not innocent by the purity of our hands. We ask first that YOU cleanse us from dependence on anything but YOU. We ask for deliverance for those bound to drugs, alcohol, or enslaved in prostitution. We pray in the name of JESUS CHRIST. "

"78% of India is Hindu. A female is either subject to her father, her husband or to her sons. "No woman deserves freedom" is the last line of a Sanskrit law. According to the Indian value system, the girl child is a liability not an asset.

Prayer points:

  • Pray against the sale of the girl child to be "married to the gods" and as a temple prostitute made available to the men who frequent the temples.
  • Pray against killing girls babies, child marriages, Dowry tortures and deaths.
  • Pray that the women and girl child find their value in finding JESUS.

Almighty GOD nothing is too difficult for THEE and so we find courage to cry out for the girls of India. We have seen how YOU sent Amy Carmichael to expose use of the temple girl and deliver some. Thank YOU LORD. But with the temple girls, the child marriages, Dowry deaths and killing of girls babies more deliverers are needed. Send them LORD. If all were delivered still without YOU they are nothing. Send forth laborers into YOUR harvest so that the women and girls can find life by finding JESUS. "

"Indonesia is a land of islands, volcanoes, 300 cultures, ethnic strife, religious hatred, and economic landslide. Many Chinese women are raped in Indonesia. Due to the spiraling economy, 46% of the children have been taken out of school and either turned out into the streets or outright sold into prostitution by their parents. There are now over 20,000 street children in prostitution. There is increasing trafficking of children. Evidence show that the military and police officials are involved in the trafficking.

Eighty-five percent of the population are registered Muslims. Many of these Muslims have been persuaded by fundamentalists to be against Christians. These women and girls have many harsh restrictions on them.

Prayer points:

  • Pray that the Muslim women and girls have dreams and visions to counter the lies they are being told
  • Pray for the girls on the streets and / or enslaved in prostitution and drugs
  • Pray for GOD ideas for the women to feed their children

FATHER GOD, this land of islands is so beautiful on the surface but under the surface hurt, anger, hatred, and fear are festering. Before we cry out to YOU for the Indonesians, we must first confess. We confess that there have been times we have felt hatred and fear towards those who are not like us. Forgive us and change our hearts. We want to confess for the Indonesians who hate and fear those who differ in religion or culture from them. We ask for YOUR healing.

We cry out for the hungry. YOU are the Lord who provides. Lord, we ask that YOU send the truth that they may find the Bread of Life, our LORD JESUS CHRIST. We cry out for the young girls living in the streets and drawn into the sex industry. Send forth rescuers. Comfort and heal them LORD. "

"The Monsoon rains devastation has caused great poverty and water contamination in Bangladesh. This Muslim country with a lady Prime Minister declares religious freedom. But on the village level, Christians are persecuted. Rights, such as use of the communal well for drinking or washing, are often taken away upon conversion. Many Bangladeshis believe the active spirit world is largely associated with women so they restrict women's movements due to fear of possession and contamination.

Prayer Points:

  • Pray against the mindset against girls and women
  • Pray for a thirst for the Living Water
  • Pray that the Christians in Bangladesh are strengthened in the inner man

Sovereign LORD, YOU say that there is a time to tear and a time to build. There has been such destruction from rains, death from contaminated water and persecution for believers by denying water. Now we plead for a time of healing. They need YOUR Living Water to heal all that the polluted waters brought. Water that will spring up in those who believe in JESUS. But how can they believe if they have not heard? Thank YOU for making provision for their hearing using their very poverty, the provision of opened doors for Christians relief workers to move freely in the land. Give theses workers an "early church" boldness to tell the gospel. Let YOUR light shine in Bangladesh so that the lies of the mindset against girls will be exposed. We ask in the name of JESUS. "

"The UAE (United Arab Emirates)  holds 10% of the world's oil and natural gas reserves and can boast that it is one of the most developed countries In the Middle East. Much money is spent on drugs, prostitution, and pornography, which have resulted in an increase of AIDS. Men live totally separate lives from their wives, and the women don't know what is going on. Many women spend their days watching TV and have their servants who usually don't speak Arabic watch their children.

Although things are favorable to foreign Christians, evangelism to Muslims is prohibited and converts choose to emigrate rather than face the persecution or death sure to come.

Prayer points:

  • Pray for courage and boldness for the UAE believers at home and abroad to stay in UAE and witness through their lives the meaning and purpose JESUS CHRIST can bring
  • Pray that the women wake up from their lethargy and the men and teens from their wild seeking of pleasure to see that they are living empty lives
  • Pray for protection of the girls and women who are trafficked and become domestic slaves and sexually exploited

Almighty GOD, we lift up this financially rich nation up to YOU. For in fact they are desperately needy. As they have chased pleasure they have stripped their lives of meaning and purpose. Bring back their brothers and sisters who know YOU and show them through believers that real abundant meaningful life comes from knowing JESUS.

Alle Texte: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29

6.2. Spenden und Betteln: Fund raising

Abb.: Lehrmittel für Fundraising
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

We are but a band of children,
We are few, and weak and small,
But we want to work for Jesus,
And there’s work enough for all.


We are a missionary band,
Missionary band, missionary band;
We are a missionary band,
Doing all we can.

There are many little children,
Far away across the sea,
Who have never heard of Jesus,
But to idols bend the knee.


So we want to send them teachers,
Who will teach them how to pray,
To the dear and loving Savior,
Who will wash their sins away.


It was Jesus died to save them,
’Twas for this to earth He came;
He will make them pure and happy,
When they learn to love His Name.


’Tis the Bible that will lead them
From the darkness into light,
And we all are glad to help them
Break away from heathen night.


Cheerfully we give our pennies,
And we like to give and plan,
For we are young missionaries,
Doing all the good we can.


Text: Mary Irene McLean, 1897
Melodie: A. F. Myers

 Klicken Sie hier, um "We are .." zu hören

Quelle der midi-Datei: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-19

"Fund Raising. Missionary enterprises require adequate financial underwriting. Missions attached to mainline denominations may use special offerings (Southern Baptists) or assessments per church member (Presbyterian Church [U.S.A.]) to supply the needs. The missionary may have little to do in this process or may have only a catalytic role (Christian and Missionary Alliance) speaking at district missions conferences. For a growing number of evangelical denominational missions (Evangelical Free) and for all independent societies (AIM, SIM), fund raising is a task shared by the agency and the individual missionary. Churches may partner with a mission agency to help in underwriting the support of individuals, mission-run institutions, and special projects. These funds may (Overseas Missionary Fellowship) or may not (The Evangelical Alliance Mission) be pooled by the agency to underwrite the general needs of the mission.

The mission may provide significant help, training, and guidance for those raising funds, but many agencies rely on the individual to follow up contacts and raise one's own support. The administrative cost of fund raising varies a great deal. In some cases there is practically no overhead because of volunteers in the home office (World Prayer League); in other cases it is a fixed percentage of all income (e.g., CBInternational—15 percent). Missions with a higher cost may often have greater benefits for their missionaries than do those with little or no administrative costs."

[Quelle: John Easterling. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

6.3. Itinerant Mission

Die Itinerant Mission ("Wandermission") zeichnet sich durch kurze Perioden und häufigen Wechsel der Vorgehensweise aus. Ein Wandermissionar kann in der gewünschten Volksgruppe nur kurz arbeiten, da dann die Regierung des zu missionierenden Landes eingreift. Vorbild ist der Apostel Paulus, der von einem Ort zum nächsten gezogen ist, jeweils dort das Evangelium verkündigt und neue Kirchen gegründet hat. Er hat entsprechende Personen ausgewählt, die vor Ort die Aufgabe erfüllt haben.

Itinerant Mission geschah auch in anderen Zeiten, z.B. durch gläubige Pioniere während der Westwanderung in den USA. Solche Art Mission wurde auch durchgeführt, als gläubige Pioniere in das Innere von Lateinamerika, Afrika und Asien kamen.

Nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg wurde die Wandermission aus politischen Gründen eingeführt, da viele unabhängig gewordene Nationen Gesetze gegen missionierende christliche Ausländer erlassen haben. D.h. man muss mit Touristenvisum oder unter einem anderen Vorwand z.B. als Katastrophenhilfe oder in internationalen kommerziellen Geschäften die betroffenen Länder einreisen.

[vgl.: Eitel, Keith E.: Itinerant Mission. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

6.4. Tent-Making Mission

Auch der Begriff Tent-Making Mission geht zurück auf den Apostel Paulus, von dem überliefert ist, dass er in der Stadt Korinth seinen Lebensunterhalt mit dem Herstellen von Zelten verdiente, um die Möglichkeit zum Missionieren zu haben. Moderne "Zelthersteller" nutzen ihr berufliches Können, um möglichst dadurch einen Daueraufenthalt im gewünschten Land zu erhalten. Dass sie ihren Lebensunterhalt aus dem weltlichen Beruf beziehen, gehört nicht unbedingt zu den Erfordernissen dieser Art von Mission. Tent-Making Mission wird vor allem in Ländern eingesetzt, in die christliche Missionare nicht offiziell einreisen dürfen (also vor allem islamische Staaten, aber auch Indien und China).

Moderne Mission setzt solche Leute als Ärzte, Sozialarbeiter, Lehrer und Landwirtschaftsberater ein. Sie missionieren während sie ihren Beruf ausüben. Diese Missionare sollen sich auf die neue Kultur gut vorbereiten, z.B. die Sprache lernen. Sie werden als "cross-cultural workers" bezeichnet.

Ein solcher Wandermissionar muss eine Reihe von Problemen bewältigen - und die Erfahrung zeigt, dass nicht alle das schaffen:

Abb.: The Lausanne Tentmaker Statement
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

"Who, then, are these tent-makers? They may be defined as cross-cultural workers with a secular identity called to make disciples within "closed" countries. This understanding is more exclusive than other definitions. They are "cross-cultural workers," not mono-cultural workers. Christian witnessing to people of the same cultural background is the duty of all believers, and not to be categorized as something extraordinary. "With secular identity" refers to one's witnessing through one's occupation. "Called to make disciples" refers to one's sense of calling as a tent-maker with the intentionality to make disciples. Finally, tent-makers as defined here serve "within closed countries" (see Creative Access Countries).

There are two main areas of dispute among those favoring the tent-making strategy. First, the matter of tent-makers serving "within closed countries." The preference here for exclusivity is one of strategic concern. It is imperative that tent-makers receive special training with a focus on a special people group. Reaching those behind closed doors stipulates special preparation. Learning the language and culture of the people requires time and discipline. The success of their ministry depends on it. Their service as tent-makers may be prolonged rather than shortlived. Obviously tent-making is applicable in "open" countries. Second is the issue of support methods. We should not make this an issue to divide those who are advocates of the tent-making strategy." [...]

"What are the qualifications of tent-makers? The tent-makers must be (1) physically, emotionally, and spiritually self-reliant; (2) adaptable; (3) biblically literate; (4) alert to the emerging mission context; (5) trained in meeting needs vital to the people group they seek to penetrate; (6) trained in long-term and low-profile evangelistic skills; (7) equipped with broad new strategic thinking; and (8) prepared with a special strategy for responding to opportunities presented by need.

How does one go about finding a tent-making job across cultures? One must be creative and persistent in job hunting like anyone else. One may consult sources such as InterCristo, the International Placement Network, and the International Employment Gazette. One may look for international employment on the Internet. One may inquire regarding job availability through one's professional association or examine the job listing in a professional journal. Possibilities abound in high-tech fields. Foreign embassies are worth checking. Potential tent-makers may latch on to government or intergovernmental assignments. They may go to work with humanitarian relief and development organizations. Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) is in high demand all over the world. One can serve as a teacher in most fields and at all levels, as a medical doctor, as a nurse, as an engineer, as a farmer, and as a "professional" student." [...]

[Quelle:  Yamamori, Tetsunao: Tent-Making Mission. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

6.5. Short-term Mission

Abb.: Einbandtitel

Die Short-term Mission (Kurzzeitmission) zeichnet sich vor allem dadurch aus, dass sie zeitlich begrenzt ist. Es geht um wenige Wochen bis zu meist zwei Jahren, die man in einem fremden Land verbringt. Man kann die Kurzzeitmission vergleichen mit dem säkularen Entwicklungsdienst, der aber verknüpft wird mit der Missionierung.

Die Bewegung der Short-term Mission ist stark angewachsen: während der letzten Jahre des letzten Jahrhunderts gab es jährlich mehr als 30 Tausend Personen, die sich beteiligten. Um die Qualität dieser Mission zu wahren, bemüht man sich die Auszusendenden gut vorzubereiten. Man hat ein Gütesiegel für diese Missionare eingeführt.

Die Bewegung ist inzwischen ein wesentlicher Faktor in der modernen Mission.

"Short-term Missions. A term typically used to describe missionary service, normally involving cross-cultural immersion, that is intentionally designed to last from a few weeks to less than two years.

Short-term missions finds its roots in the Scriptures and, in a broad sense, can be understood through the words of Jesus in the Great Commandment (Matt. 22:37-39) and the Great Commission (Matt. 28:18-20). In a sense Jesus establishes the guidelines for the early short-term mission experiences and demonstrates what is at the core of short-term missions in the sending out of the twelve (Matt. 10:1^42) and the seventy-two (Luke 10:1-20). He states quite clearly that those who are sent must love the Lord their God with all their heart, soul, and mind and then love their neighbor as themselves. From that posture, they must recognize that all authority has been given to him; therefore, they should go and make disciples of all nations.

Scope. As a modern-day phenomenon, the short-term missions movement has spanned the globe and has provided opportunities for thousands of individuals to experience, for a brief time, the world of missions. The length of service often varies from a week to several years. Mission agencies, churches, high schools, colleges and universities, parachurch ministries, families, and individuals are increasingly exploring and promoting short-term missions. The wide variety of people taking advantage of these opportunities include youth, college and university students, single adults, families, and seniors. The kinds of work that individuals and teams engage in include, but are not limited to, construction projects, teaching English, athletics and sports, drama and the arts, medical and health care, evangelism and discipleship, church planting, youth ministries, camp work, prayer and research, and general assistance.

Growth. The short-term missions movement has grown dramatically over the past several decades. Mission agencies, church denominations, and parachurch organizations as well as independent teams continue to contribute to the large numbers involved in the short-term missions enterprise. During the late 1990s, more than thirty thousand individuals joined forces each year with career missionaries and nationals to serve in urban centers, towns, and countries around the world. This rapid growth is due in part to modern travel that allows individuals to journey to the remotest areas of the world in a relatively short time. There continues to be a desire on the part of those who go to make themselves available in service without committing their entire lives to a missions career. There has been an overwhelming acknowledgment of short-term missions in recent years, and, though there is much discussion about the practice, it is obvious that short-term missions is a powerful and effective force in the modern missions movement.

The Critics. Many have been critical of short-term missions for numerous reasons. One of the main criticisms focuses on the motivation of those who go. Many career missionaries feel that short-term missionaries lack real commitment and endurance. Often the national church questions the presence of the short-term worker in their culture because it appears that the motivation of the short-termer is unclear. Some feel that the short-term workers provide a distraction for career missionaries. Other concerns focus on the perception that the results from short-term ministry are unreliable and there is little lasting fruit produced from the work of the short-term workers. Many suggest that the financial costs are too high and possibly take money away from career missionaries.

The Value. Despite the many criticisms, short-term missions is moving forward. The short-term missions movement definitely has been a key factor in the mobilization of world mission globally. The present generation of missionary candidates tends to make their decisions and commitments based on the knowledge gained through firsthand experience. As a result of short-term service a world vision can be developed that in turn affects the mobilization efforts of the church at large. In addition, many feel that short-term missions provides valuable respite for career missionaries, brings a fresh enthusiasm from the outside, and accomplishes practical projects as well as significant ministry. Obviously, many who serve in short-term missions are likely candidates for long-term service, and in fact, a significant number of career missionaries today have had a short-term mission experience. Those who return without making a commitment to long-term service are able to impact the churches that they are a part of with a global awareness and an expanded vision of God's work in the world. As a result, the prayer efforts and the giving patterns for missions are enhanced.

Needs. The short-term missions experience is valid, but there are some important components that must be put into place to ensure its effectiveness. A careful selection process should be established so that those who are sent know the purpose for which they are being sent and are willing to go as learners and servants. Clear communication channels should be established with churches, nationals, and missionaries on the field in order to clarify expectations. Thorough preparation for those on the field, as well as the short-term workers, is essential. A clear understanding developed through training in the areas of spiritual formation, cultural issues, and interpersonal dynamics is necessary. Short-term workers should also understand the biblical basis of their service. Realistic expectations for the short-term worker must be explored. Those expectations should assume a posture of learning and a desire to serve with the national leaders and career missionaries in a supportive partnership. One of the most important dimensions of any short-term mission is careful reflection at the end of the experience. Short-term workers must debrief and process their experience so that they can be responsible with what they have been allowed to experience. This will not only enable short-term workers to understand their mission experience better, but it will allow them to communicate their vision to others.

Conclusion. The short-term mission movement is rooted in the Scriptures and will continue to be a driving force for the advancement of I the global cause of Jesus Christ. Short-term missions must continue to be tied to long-term missions. Partnerships must be forged between the ones who go, the national hosts, the career missionaries, the sending church, and those with whom the short-term workers serve. Training, preparation, and careful follow-up will be vital elements to the effectiveness of the work. As these areas intersect, short-term missions will fulfill its intended goals and will continue to enable people to develop a global missionary vision and make an impact for the cause of Christ."

[Quelle: Dennis Massaro. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

"Short Termers and the Future of American Missions : A mobilization strategy for the local church in the 21st century / by DR. MONROE BREWER

During the 1980s and '90s in the United States, due to the maturing of the Baby Boomer population, it has been observed that a polarization of sorts has developed, in which more missiologically conservative local churches have tended to take a missions-as-process approach, whereas more methodologically progressive local churches have tended to take a missions-as-project approach.

This apparent polarization may describe reality, but both approaches have obvious inherent strengths and limitations. The missions-as-project approach capitalizes on directing present Boomer energy into vision trips, vacations with a purpose, major designated projects and offerings, short-termers, and ministry teams. But this approach admittedly has no long-term track record or guarantee of success. The missions-as-process approach draws upon over 200 years of Protestant missions history worldwide. But that approach has demonstrated a lack of flexibility, vision, strategic focus, entrepreneurial freedom, and networking capability.

Missions-as-process churches should not look with disdain on missions-as-project churches, which focus on vision trips, major projects, and short-termers. Nor should the missions-as-project churches be frustrated with the missions-as-process churches, which are concerned about church planting, strategies, track records, doctrinal statements, and long-term associations. The fact is, there is a strategy which I have used as a missions pastor in three local churches in over 28 years of ministry which synthesizes the strengths of both approaches. This strategy makes the short-termer (one who serves for one to two years) the cornerstone of its "game plan," satisfying the missions-as-project crowd, while at the same time having as its most obvious long-term feature the placement of career workers (those who serve for two to four terms) in the most strategic overseas assignments, satisfying the missions-as-process crowd. This strategy can work for any kind of evangelical church, whether it is new or old, large or small, experienced or inexperienced, urban, suburban, or rural. Let me explain, step by step, how I have implemented this strategy in my own church. Here are the ten steps you should follow:

  1. First, make the short-term experience the centerpiece of your church's missions program. Switch; don't fight. The short-term movement is here to stay and is an obvious grassroots movement that is still growing every year. Go where God is working. But make the short-term experience work for you, rather than at cross-purposes to your church's program.
  2. Second, establish a clear vision statement and work out a strategic and tactical plan for your church's missions program. This will take some time, but it is the single most important thing you can do. Make it clear enough that any 8th grader can understand it.
  3. Third, infuse your missions budget (whether it is "faith promise" or "unified") with a onetime cash allocation. It could be $25,000 or $250,000. The amount doesn't matter. It only needs to be large enough to fully support at least one missionary unit for one year.
  4. Fourth, set up a candidate training program that begins to sort your potential candidates into your "class of '98," your "class of '99," and so on. This way you are already thinking 2-4 years ahead as to who may get sent. It helps the planning process tremendously.
  5. Fifth, in sending out your first short-termer, (assuming he/she is fully prepared for the assignment), pick up everything that that missionary unit lacks in support to get to the field. The figure could be 30 percent, 60, or even 100 percent of the total support needed. Why do I say this? Most churches and individuals are hesitant to support someone only going as a missionary for one or two years. Also, Boomers hate to ask for money--many would rather not go than ask for funds. So make it easy for everyone involved--just take responsibility yourself and get them to the field as fast as possible. (Not that much money is needed since short-termers usually don't raise money for cars, retirement, and other large-ticket items.) Use the money in the new account to get them to the field quickly since it doesn't make sense to force Boomers to spend 22 months raising support to go on a short-term assignment.
  6. Sixth, send your short-termer to an area that is at least compatible with your long-term strategic plan or even a direct extension of it. Try to send them to the place and with the organization they might go with long-term. That way, whether your short-termers go long-term or not, they still will be forwarding key ministries that you church feels very strongly about. It's a win-win situation for everyone.
  7. Seventh, when your short-termers return home, use their experiences to assess their call to the ministry, their personal vision, ministry skills, theological depth, language-learning aptitudes, organizational compatibility, and cross-cultural adjustments. Only a short-term experience can provide you with that kind of assessment. Vision trips and summer ministries don't allow the participants to experience culture shock--they don't have to set up house, learn a language, shop, renew visas--like short-termers do, since the shock doesn't hit until 6 months to 18 months into the experience. (One of the main reasons for missionary attrition during or at the end of the first term is the unrealistic expectations that the vision trip or summer ministry set up in the new missionary's mind that the short-term experience would have tempered or balanced). Don't underestimate the value of the two-year short-term experience.
  8. Eighth, some short-termers will not go back to the field as long-term missionaries. Put their annual budget allocation back into next year's budget. Others will want to go back, but not immediately. They first may need to get more schooling, pay off debts, get married, or get more ministry experience or training. Put their annual budget allocation back into next year's budget, too. Use those funds for supporting those in your "class of '99."
  9. Ninth, those short-termers who desire to return long-term immediately (within the next six months) now have fire in their belly. They can speak articulately and with passion. They have the war stories and the video footage. They now don't mind so much raising support, and others view them as returning veterans, not untried rookies. They can now go to other churches to raise support and can raise it relatively easily. Your church can now reduce the monthly allotment you were giving them, since other support is coming in - put the unneeded funds back into your "starter fund" for next year's short-termers. I have never seen a situation in over 25 years where a church, following this plan, gave more monthly support to long-termers than was given to them as short-termers.
  10. Tenth, about half of your short-termers will not go back long-term; about a fourth will go back long-term, but not immediately; and about a fourth will go back long-term immediately. You will be able to use most of the funds from last year's short-term account to send out new candidates next year. You may need to add $5,000 or $10,000 more each year, but not much (this could be viewed as your budget's inflation-adjusted 5% annual increase). Every year those same funds are there to keep your church's missions vision expanding and maturing.

In conclusion, in this paradigm synthesis, the short-term missionary, the cornerstone-feature of the missions-as-project approach, becomes the single greatest driving force in mobilizing the local church for world missions. At the same time, the short-termer stream becomes the single greatest conduit for flooding the world with field-tested, strategic thinking, and adequately supported long-term missionaries, the hallmark of the missions-as-process approach. Don't allow your church to become artificially polarized by one valid approach alone. Use them both in tandem, minimizing the limitations of both by maximizing the strengths of both. That way your church can stay missiologically conservative and still be methodologically progressive. The future of the role of American churches in the cause of world missions in the 21st century is bright if short-termers are viewed with these bifocal lenses.

Dr. Monroe Brewer has served as the Global Ministries Pastor at Crystal Evangelical Free Church in New Hope, Minnesota since 1994. He is also adjunct professor at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, and the academic dean for the Center of Biblical Training at Crystal Free Church. He has taught at 11 Bible colleges and seminaries, traveled to over 100 countries and has a doctorate in missiology and adult education."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

Für Short Term Missionare gibt es ein Gütesiegel: Seven Standards of Excellence in Short-Term Mission

Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29

Zum Beispiel: STEM Int’l: "STEM Int'l was founded in December 1984 for the purpose of sending volunteer mission Teams from various churches, schools, and other organizations to work in developing and disaster-stricken nations." [Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

Webpräsenz: -- Zugrif am 2005-03-29

"What Do Teams Do?

Three-fold Ministry

Every STEM Team participates in a "Giving and Learning Field Strategy." Each Team member will be giving through the following strategic activities —Construction; Mercy, Service, & Creative Ministry; Evangelism — and learning from them.

1.  Evangelism

  • Friendship evangelism
  • Jesus film, Backyard Bible Clubs, crusades, preaching, teaching
  • Door-to-Door Visitation, Bible & tract distribution, on-site prayer

2.  Construction

  • Building, maintenance, hauling, painting, excavating, projects providing long-term benefits to the national community
  • Project sites: churches, medical clinics, community buildings, fresh drinking water systems, roads, orphanages
  • All ages can help in some way!

3.  Mercy / Service / Creative Ministries

  • Visitation, hands-on assistance within orphanages, infirmaries, hospitals, homes for dying, prisons
  • Ministry through the arts — music, drama, mime, skits, puppetry
  • Ministry through sports — basketball, soccer, football, cricket"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-29]

6.6. Nonresidential Mission

Nonresidential Mission wird dort genutzt, wo Staaten christliche Mission verbieten insbesondere in den für das Evangelium nicht erreichten Volksgruppen. 1986 haben Forscher des Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board den Begriff "nonresidential missionary" als eine neue Missionsmethode eingeführt. Diese Missionare beginnen ihr Amt außerhalb der gewünschten Volksgruppe. Sie machen sich kundig, lernen die Sprache und erforschen die Möglichkeiten Kontakt mit wichtigen Personen der Volksgruppe zu bekommen. Dazu nützen sie nicht nur die Quellen und Möglichkeiten ihrer eigenen entsendenden Organisation, sondern koordinieren die Interessen verschiedener christlicher Organisationen um eine legale humanitäre Basis zu bekommen, in die gewünschte Gegend zu gelangen.

Ist es gelungen eine lebensfähige Arbeitsgrundlage in der gewünschten Gegend zu errichten, geht man davon aus, dass die entsprechende Regierung einen langen Aufenthalt genehmigt. Man kann dann Teams mit humanitären Aufgaben beschäftigen, die sich indirekt in Missionierung und Kirchenaufbau engagieren, indem sie ein Netzwerk sozialer Beziehungen mit Angehörigen des Volkes aufbauen.

Ist das Ziel einer dauerhaften christlichen Einrichtung erreicht, kann man allerdings nicht mehr von nonresidential mission sprechen.

"It is at this point that the term "nonresidential" may lose its meaning because of an indefinite presence in the targeted area. Because of this frequent occurrence, some mission agencies relabel the model to reflect more accurately the function a nonresidential missionary performs, namely, the coordination of various strategic initiatives among Christians aimed at reaching an un-reached area or people with the gospel and establishing a viable Christian presence."

[Quelle: Eitel, Keith E.: Nonresidential mission. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

6.7. Traditionelle Mission

Abb.: Baptisten-Missionarsfamilie, Elfenbeinküste
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-19]

Mit hauptamtlichen Missionaren, die im Missionsfeld leben und offen verkündigen.

6.8. Sozialarbeit

Come over and help us!

A voice comes o’er the waters,
A voice both loud and clear,
“Come over here and help us,
We’re bound in slavish fear!
Our chains do now confine us
In darkness and in doubt,
No light to shine upon us,
No hand to bring us out.”


Come over and help us!
Come over and help us!
Come over and help us!
Come over and help us today.

“Our idols cannot help us;
We only deeper fall;
And dimmer grows our vision,
When on their names we call,
We look and wait and wonder
If someone o’er the sea
Will hasten to relieve us,
Will come and set us free.”


“We hear that o’er the waters
A glorious light doth shine,
A light sent down from heaven,
Oh, send that light divine!
We hear that one called Jesus
Can save us from our sin;
We want to hear his footsteps,
We want to let Him in.”


Text und Melodie: A. F. Myers, 1897

Klicken Sie hier, um "Come over ..." zu hören

Quelle der midi-Datei: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-27

"Evangelism and Social Responsibility. Over the past two centuries the modern Protestant movement has planted vibrant churches around the world. Today, the center of Christianity is moving to these younger churches. But this growth is not without its problems. One area of deep concern in many evangelical circles is the division between evangelism and social concerns. Despite many efforts to present a whole gospel, the effects of this dualism in missions and churches are still apparent.

The roots of this division go back to medieval Europe, where churches and monasteries were centers of worship, evangelism, literacy, relief, medicine, and agriculture. The Worldview of the Middle Ages, rooted in biblical thought, divided reality between the Creator and the creation. In this view God was intimately involved in all of his creation, and all creation, including both heavenly and earthly concerns, was one. That same unity is evident in the ministry of Jesus, which reflects a wholism that does not seem natural today.

By the eighteenth century, the church felt called to worship and to mission, but education, medicine, and agriculture became the domains of science and the modern nation-state. The shift was due mainly to the rediscovery of Greek thought, especially Greek dualism, which separated spirit and matter, supernatural and natural, and heavenly and earthly affairs. The absorption of dualism theologically was formalized by Thomas Aquinas. The result was the increasingly sharp distinction between religion and science, or between eternal and earthly needs.

On the surface, the modern mission movement began in the nineteenth century with a whole gospel. Missionaries planted churches, and established schools, hospitals, handicraft projects, and agricultural centers. They cared for the starving during times of famine, and called for social justice. Underneath these activities, however, the dualistic perspective persisted. It did not help that missionaries often cooperated with the colonial agenda, the goal of which was "civilizing" their new territories. Evangelism and church planting were seen as the marks of Christianity. Education, medicine, and agriculture were signs of civilization. In many cases, however, people accepted science, technology, and other manifestations of modern rational thought introduced by the missionaries, but rejected the gospel they proclaimed. That is why some observers conclude that Christian missionaries have unwittingly been a force for Secularization worldwide.

A second consequence of this dualism was that missions organized schools, hospitals, and agricultural projects based on Western models that did not fit local contexts. The operation of these institutions reflected the division between evangelism and social concern. Specialists provided services in a compartmentalized way that communicated something less than an integrated gospel. Furthermore, these institutions required large amounts of money and Western-style organizational skill, most of which had to be imported from outside. Later, when missions began handing over the administration of the institutions to local churches, local leaders often saw them as heavy burdens which their churches could not easily sustain.

The division between evangelism and social concern reached its peak in the early twentieth century in the battles between liberals and fundamentalists over the emerging Social Gospel movement. Liberal churches virtually abandoned aggressive evangelism in favor of relief and development ministries of all kinds. Conservative churches increasingly focused their attention on evangelism and church planting, and left relief and development tasks to parachurch agencies. That emphasis has created the impression in many parts of the world that the church deals with ultimate concerns, but has little to contribute to the urgent needs of the contemporary world.

In recent years there have been efforts in evangelical circles to restore a holistic understanding of the gospel. In 1966 the Congress on the Church's Worldwide Mission was held at Wheaton, Illinois, sponsored by the Evangelical Foreign Mission Association (now the Evangelical Fellowship of Mission Agencies) and the Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association, agencies that represented at that time 102 mission boards and 30,000 missionaries. The congress, which was comprised of nearly 1,000 delegates from 71 countries, wrote The Wheaton Declaration, in which they called on the church to address contemporary issues such as racism, war, the population explosion, poverty, and the disintegration of the family. This growing concern for a Christian response to social problems was due, in part, to the influence of the large number of participants from outside the United States whose churches could not ignore the social evils around them. Also in 1966, the World Congress on Evangelism gathered in Berlin, sponsored by Christianity Today. That congress reaffirmed the importance of proclaiming the gospel, but in the closing statement condemned racism and called for repentance and unity among Christians in addressing the world's desperate needs. In the regional congresses that followed (Singapore, Minneapolis, Bogota), the involvement of the church in social issues was a recurring theme. In 1973, the Workshop on Evangelicals and Social Concern drafted the Chicago Declaration of Evangelical Social Concern which represented another attempt to transcend the traditional dichotomy between evangelism and social responsibility.

The Lausanne Congress on World Evangelization (1974) took a major step toward resolving the tension between these two concerns by affirming that both evangelism and social responsibility are essential to the mission of the church. The Lausanne Covenant stated that "The message of salvation also implies a message of judgment upon every form of alienation, oppression, and discrimination, and we should not be afraid to denounce evil and injustice wherever they exist" (section 5). The plea to keep evangelism and social concerns together was strengthened by a statement of support that was signed by some five hundred Lausanne participants. This effort to bring evangelism and social responsibility together generated sharp criticisms on the part of some mission leaders in North America. But, particularly for those in the Two-Thirds World, it was an invitation to proclaim a whole gospel. That conviction was validated again at the All India Conference on Evangelical Social Action (1979), the Second Latin American Congress on Evangelism (1979), and the Consultation on Simple Lifestyle (1980) sponsored by the Lausanne Committee and the World Evangelical Fellowship. Although attempts were made at the World Consultation on World Evangelization (Pattaya, 1980) to focus exclusively on world evangelism, many delegates called for the inclusion of social issues in the conference statement.

The need to clarify the relationship between evangelism and social responsibility led to the Consultation on the Relationship between Evangelism and Social Responsibility (Grand Rapids, 1982) sponsored by the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, and the Consultation on the Church in Response to Human Need (Wheaton, 1983) sponsored by the World Evangelical Fellowship. Both affirmed that evangelism cannot be divorced from meaningful involvement with people in all their needs. In recent years, Christian agencies such as World Vision International, Food for the Hungry, the Mennonite Central Committee, and the Adventist Development and Relief Agency have initiated theological and administrative reflections on how to implement the proclamation of the whole gospel (see also Holism, Biblical).

It is clear that as long as evangelism and social concern are seen as two separate entities that need to be integrated, the dualism that has weakened missions will remain. Some will reduce one to the other: conservatives will see social ministries as means to evangelistic ends and liberals will see social ministries as ends in themselves. Others will try to balance the two by claiming that one is more important than the other, with many conservatives arguing that evangelism is the top priority while liberals counter that the church must concentrate on other, more pressing needs. Both approaches fail to integrate the different strands of the gospel into a single whole.

We will proclaim a whole gospel only when we reject the dualism between supernatural and natural realities, religion and science, and evangelism and social concerns. Many young churches in other cultures have taken a step in this direction by making no distinction between the spiritual and the material, or between supernatural and natural realms. Many of them model integrated ministries to whole persons and societies. Evangelical mission agencies and churches are catching on as well. In partnership with younger churches, they are beginning to focus on people more than tasks, on holistic development more than relief, on transformation more than the simple delivery of services (see also Transformational Development), and on the formation of living communities of faith rather than bureaucratic institutions. Some agencies are backing away from the overspecialization that characterizes Western approaches to life and are offering a more generalized sort of training with holistic ministry in mind (see also Holistic Mission).

The push for holism draws strength from the rediscovery of the church as a healing community where Christians gather to Worship, to bear Witness to the world, and to minister healing, in the fullest sense of the term, to people. It is also fueled by a renewed emphasis on a theology of the kingdom of God, within which evangelism, church, ministry, and prophetic witness are parts of the whole. This kingdom, however, cannot be defined by theories of modern Utopias, as in Marxism and capitalism. It is defined by Christ, its King. He and his incarnation as a human unite God's concerns for all creation, now and for eternity. His salvation includes not only eternal life in the presence of God, but also a new earth characterized by righteousness, peace, justice, and fullness of life. In a word, Shalom is the ideal to which individual Christians as well as the corporate church aspires. As Dan Fountain points out, "God's plan for the world is this: that all persons everywhere, in every nation, know God's saving health and be delivered from disobedience, disruption, despair, disease and all that would destroy our wholeness."

[Quelle: Pall G. Hiebert and Monte B. Cox. -- In: Evangelical dictionary of world missions / general editor, A. Scott Moreau ; associate editors, Harold Netland and Charles van Engen ; consulting editors, David Burnett ... [et al.].  -- Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books ; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK : Paternoster Press, ©2000. -- 1068 S. ; 27 cm.  -- ISBN 0801020743. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

7. USAID und die Fundamentalisten

Abb.: ®Logo USAID

Webpräsenz von World Vision USA: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-27

"A third, more subtle shift in US aid policy has been the emphasis on faith-centred aid. Evangelical Christians are increasingly active in foreign humanitarian assistance, and are represented heavily in the current government. In the late 1990s they drove such pieces of legislation as the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, which passed over Clinton administration objections, and the withholding of funding for the UN Population Fund for anti-abortion reasons. During this period, the faith-based agency World Vision overtook CARE as the largest US NGO, with annual revenues exceeding $700m, mostly from private sources. The widespread practice among evangelicals of tithing (giving 10% of income to church-sponsored charity) makes them a potentially much more lucrative source of private relief and development funding than the average US private donor, who directs only roughly one percent of donations to foreign causes. Although USAID has long funded many faith-based NGOs, the new emphasis on them is another sign of the scale of the threat to the agency. Talk of abolishing or radically reforming USAID has been around for decades, but in recent years, especially with the Bush administration, it has taken on decidedly religious overtones. Shortly after Bush took office in 2001, long-time aid critic Senator Jesse Helms came out in favour of increasing foreign assistance – on the condition that USAID was abolished and future US contributions were funnelled directly through ‘charities and religious groups’. The five organisations Helms cited as potential grant recipients all happened to be religious, save one (the five were World Vision, Save the Children, Hadassah, Catholic Relief Services and Samaritan’s Purse). Helms said that he had modelled his proposal on Bush’s private charity and faith-based initiative promoted during the election campaign. Neither this nor past proposals has got through the legislative process, but there is chronic pressure on USAID. Under Clinton, the agency was restructured to come under the more direct control of the Secretary of State, and staff numbers were cut from 10,000 to 7,300. "

[Quelle: With us or Against us? : NGO Neutrality on the Line / By Abby Stoddard. -- Humanitarian Practice Network. -- December 2003. -- -- Zugriff am 2005-03-28]

"Helms Urges Foreign Aid Be Handled by Charities / By Eric Schmitt. -- New York Times. -- January 12, 2001

Senator Jesse Helms [US Senator 1973 - 2003], the most powerful critic of foreign aid in Congress, said today that he would champion an increase in international assistance — but only if all future United States aid was funneled to the needy through private charities and religious groups instead of a government agency.

Mr. Helms, a North Carolina Republican who will return to lead the Foreign Relations Committee on Jan. 20, said he modeled his proposal after President-elect George W. Bush's campaign theme of empowering private relief groups to help the poor. If adopted by the administration and Congress, Mr. Helms's plan would mark the most decisive shift in 40 years in how America helps the world's downtrodden.

"The time has come to reject what President Bush correctly labels the `failed compassion of towering, distant bureaucracies' and, instead, empower private and faith-based groups who care most about those in need," Mr. Helms said in a speech at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative research group.

Gen. Colin L. Powell, Mr. Bush's choice for secretary of state, met with Mr. Helms earlier this week, and while General Powell expressed support for increasing foreign aid, an aide said he was not briefed on details of the senator's proposal.

A spokesman for General Powell, F. William Smullen, was noncommittal tonight: "We've now seen the senator's comments, and we welcome his ideas and his contribution to the debate. We obviously need to study a variety of different issues."

In his wide-ranging speech, Mr. Helms called on Mr. Bush to isolate and weaken Fidel Castro's government in Cuba, equip Taiwan's military with more advanced weapons, ratchet up pressure on President Saddam Hussein of Iraq, and ensure that Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are invited to join NATO.

But his most provocative proposal was to abolish the Agency for International Development and shift responsibility for overseeing $7 billion a year in economic and humanitarian aid to a quasi-governmental foundation, which would deliver grants to private and community relief groups.

The plan envisions replacing the aid agency and its 7,300 employees with a smaller, streamlined International Development Foundation with lower expenses. The secretary of state as well as relief groups would oversee the foundation's activities, Mr. Helms's aides said, to provide oversight and coordination with American foreign policy goals.

"If we can reform the way in which we deliver aid to the needy," Mr. Helms said, "I will be willing to take the lead in the Senate in supporting increased U.S. investment."

Relief groups voiced mixed reactions to the proposal, from cautious skepticism to stunned disbelief to enthusiastic support. Mr. Helms has long been a searing critic of American foreign aid, complaining, as he did today, that government-organized assistance has only "lined the pockets of corrupt dictators, while funding the salaries of a growing, bloated bureaucracy."

But in the past several months, Mr. Helms has shown a new zeal for helping the world's poor, particularly in Africa. The 79-year-old senator has attributed his conversion of sorts to conversations with the Rev. Franklin Graham — the son of the Rev. Billy Graham — who runs a relief organization in North Carolina called Samaritan's Purse.

Under his plan, Mr. Helms said, the groups that could receive grants include

  • World Vision,

  • Save the Children,

  • Hadassah,

  • Catholic Relief Services and

  • Samaritan's Purse.

"I'm delighted to hear Senator Helms call for dramatically improving and increasing foreign aid to poor and hungry people," said the Rev. David Beckmann, president of Bread for the World, the nation's largest grass-roots anti-hunger lobbying group.

But Bruce Wilkinson, a senior vice president for World Vision, which distributes $900 million in aid a year, 10 percent from A.I.D., to 100 countries, expressed concern that the long partnership between the government and private relief groups could be disrupted. "I really do applaud the moral commitment that Helms is demonstrating," said Mr. Wilkinson, "but at this point, the International Development Foundation is a very sketchy idea."

Mr. Helms is resurrecting a proposal he made five years ago that ran into opposition and died in committee. Other lawmakers have proposed alternatives. Senator Mitch McConnell, a Kentucky Republican who heads the Appropriations subcommittee that oversees A.I.D., has favored integrating the agency into the State Department.

An A.I.D. spokesman said 37 percent of its bilateral development assistance goes through non-governmental groups, including faith-based ones. Since President Clinton took office, it has slashed its staff to 7,300 people from 10,000. "

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-03-28]

8. World Vision

Abb.: WORLD VISION-Helfer verteilen Kondome, Zambia / Foto: Ursula Meissner
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-16]

Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-16

"World Vision International World Vision International is the largest and most well-known evangelical relief organization. With a paid staff of more than seventy-seven hundred workers and an annual budget of more than $300 million, World Vision operates nearly five thousand programs in more than one hundred countries, including eight hundred projects in the United States alone.

World Vision was founded in 1950 by Bob Pierce, an evangelist who originally served as a rally leader for Youth for Christ in the 1940s. Pierce was also a filmmaker and served as a United Nations war correspondent. His experience covering the war in Korea inspired him to found a relief agency for Korean war orphans. In 1953 Pierces organization established one of the first child sponsorship programs; within ten years, this endeavor had expanded to serve nineteen thousand orphans in eighteen countries, The child sponsorship program is the project for which World Vision has become most famous; it enrolled 1.1 million children in 1995. Yet World Vision also offers disaster relief and wartime emergency aid, and sponsors numerous community development projects. The organization, however, sees itself as having a dual purpose: to fulfill the Great Commandment and the Great Commission. By providing food, medicine, and economic assistance, World Vision sees itself as carrying out Christ's injunction to love one's neighbor; in its Christian outreach, World Vision seeks to carry out the mandate to "make disciples of all people." For this reason, the organization does "strategic Christian outreach," which includes Bible distribution, church planting, and missions research. Thus, while World Vision may rival secular relief agencies like Save the Children and CARE in the size of its budget or the number of people served, the organization has maintained its evangelical character.

World Vision was located in Monrovia, California until 1995. At that time, however, under the leadership of Robert A. Seiple, the organization moved its headquarters to Federal Way, Washington, thereby saving several million dollars a year in overhead costs."

[Quelle: Balmer, Randall Herbert <1954 - >: Encyclopedia of evangelicalism. -- Rev. and expanded ed.  -- Waco, TX : Baylor University Press, ©2004.  -- viii, 781 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN: 193279204X. -- s.v. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei bestellen}]

Abb.: So kennt man WORLD VISION: Mädchen in Cebu City/Philippinen / Foto: Rainer Unkel
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-16]

"Who We Are

World Vision International is a Christian relief and development organisation working for the well being of all people, especially children. Through emergency relief, education, health care, economic development and promotion of justice, World Vision helps communities help themselves.

Established in 1950 to care for orphans in Asia, World Vision has grown to embrace the larger issues of community development and advocacy for the poor in its mission to help children and their families build sustainable futures.

Working on six continents, World Vision is one of the largest Christian relief and development organisations in the world.

The heart of World Vision's work is in helping communities build stronger and healthier relationships. The absence of such relationships impoverishes communities.

World Vision focuses on children because they are the best indicator of a community's social health. When children are fed, sheltered, schooled, protected, valued, and loved a community thrives.

Vision Statement

Our vision for every child, life in all its fullness;
Our prayer for every heart, the will to make it so.

Mission Statement

World Vision is an international partnership of Christians whose mission is to follow our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ in working with the poor and oppressed to promote human transformation, seek justice and bear witness to the good news of the Kingdom of God.

Core Values

The World Vision Partnership shares a common understanding bound together by six core values. These core values are the fundamental and guiding principles that determine World Vision's actions. The core values are our aim, a challenge that we seek to live and work to.

  •   We are Christian.
  •   We are committed to the poor.
  •   We value people.
  •   We are stewards.
  •   We are partners.
  •   We are responsive.

We are Christian

We acknowledge one God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. In Jesus the love, mercy and grace of God are made known to us and all people.

We seek to follow Jesus - in his identification with the poor, the powerless, the afflicted, the oppressed, and the marginalised; in his special concern for children; in his respect for the dignity bestowed equally on women and men; in his challenge to unjust attitudes and systems; in his call to share resources with each other; in his love for all people without discrimination or conditions; in his offer of new life through faith in him.

We hear his call to servant hood, and to humility.

We maintain our Christian identity while being sensitive to the diverse contexts in which we express that identity.

We are committed to the poor

We are called to serve the neediest people of the earth; to relieve their suffering and to promote the transformation of their wellbeing. We stand in solidarity in a common search for justice. We seek to understand the situation of the poor and work alongside them.

We seek to facilitate an engagement between the poor and the affluent that opens both to transformation. We respect the poor as active participants, not passive recipients, in this relationship. They are people from whom others may learn and receive, as well as give. The need for transformation is common to all. Together we share a quest for justice, peace, reconciliation, and healing in a broken world.

We value people

We regard all people as created and loved by God. We give priority to people before money, structure, systems, and other institutional machinery. We act in ways tht respect dignity, uniqueness, and intrinsic worth of every person - the poor, the donors, our staff and their families, boards, and volunteers. We celebrate the richness of diversity in human personality, culture and contribution. 

We practice a participative, open, enabling style in working relationships. We encourage the professional, personal, and spiritual development of our staff.

We are stewards

The resources at our disposal are not our own. They are a trust from God through donors on behalf of the poor. We speak and act honestly. We are open and factual in our dealings with donors, project communities, governments and the public at large.

We demand of ourselves high standards of professional competence and financial accountability.

We are stewards of God's creation. We care for the earth and act in ways that will restore and protect the environment. We ensure that our development activities are ecologically sound.

We are partners

We are partners with the poor and with donors in a shared ministry. We are members of an international World Vision partnership that transcends legal, structural, and cultural boundaries.

We pursue relationships with all churches and desire mutual participation in ministry. We maintain a cooperative stance and a spirit of openness towards other humanitarian organisations.

We are responsive

We are responsive to life-threatening emergencies where our involvement is needed and appropriate. We are willing to take intelligent risks and act quickly.

We do this from a foundation of experience and sensitivity to what the situation requires. We also recognise that even in the midst of crisis the destitute have a contribution to make.

We are responsive in a different sense where deep seated and often complex economic and social deprivation calls for sustainable, long-term development.

The World Vision Partnership

World Vision functions as a partnership of interdependent national offices, overseen by their own boards or advisory councils. A common mission statement and shared core values bind the Partnership. By signing the Covenant of Partnership, each partner agrees to abide by common policies and standards. Partners hold each other accountable through an ongoing system of peer review.

The Partnership Offices, located in Geneva, Bangkok, Nairobi, Cyprus, Los Angeles, and San Jose, Costa Rica, co-ordinate the strategic operations of the organisation and represent World Vision in the international arena. Each national office, regardless of how big its programmes are, enjoys equal voice in Partnership governance, erasing the usual distinctions between the developed and developing world.

International Board

An international board of directors oversees the World Vision Partnership. The full board, which meets twice a year, appoints the Partnership's senior officers, approves strategic plans and budgets, and determines international policy. 

The chairperson of the international board is Denis St. Amour of Canada. The international president and chief executive officer is Dr. Dean R. Hirsch. There are 25 international board members, from 19 countries.

National Boards

As much as possible, operational decisions are made at the local or national level. National directors approve more than 90 percent of all projects within previously approved budgets. National boards, comprised of business, church, and social service leaders exercise responsibility for governance at the national level.

Funding for World Vision's work

Almost 80 percent of World Vision's funding comes from private sources, including individuals, corporations and foundations. The remainder comes from governments and multilateral agencies. Aside from cash contributions, World Vision accepts gifts-in-kind, typically food commodities, medicine, and clothing donated through corporations or government agencies.

Approximately half of World Vision's programmes are funded through child sponsorship. Individuals, families, churches and groups are linked with specific children or specific community projects in their own country or abroad. Sponsors pledge a certain amount each month to the support of these children or projects. Child sponsorship seeks to address the root causes of poverty and suffering so a child can enjoy as full a life as possible."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-16]

Abb.: Eine Gruppe von Geburtshelferinnen im Projekt Beissa, Tschad / Foto: WORLD VISION
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2005-04-16]

Zu Kapitel 7.: Was hat Gott mit den USA vor?