Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858. -- 2. Quellen zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte. -- 1. Zum Beispiel: Mehrgarh (مہرگڑھ). -- Fassung vom 2008-02-24. -- http://www.payer.de/quellenkunde/quellen021.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2008-02-24
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung FS 2008
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Zwischen Dezember 1974 und Februar 1985 führte die Mission archéologique française au Pakistan in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Departement of Archaeology of Pakistan elf Grabungsperioden in Mehrgarh (مہرگڑھ), Beluchistan (بلوچستان), Pakistan durch. Die Ergebnisse dieser Grabungen sind zusammenfassend dargestellt in:
Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... - [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X
Ab Mitte der 1990er Jahre bis mindestens 2000 wurden weitere Grabungen durchgeführt, die aber noch nicht entsprechend veröffentlicht sind.
Mehrgarh liegt am Bolan-Fluss am Fuß des Bolan-Passes (درہ بولان). Zusammen mit den Grabungen in Nausharo (1985 - 1996) und Pirak (1968 - 1974) ergeben die Grabungen eine ununterbrochene Besiedlungsfolge über 5000 Jahre von ca. 7000 v. Chr. (360 Generationen bis heute) bis ca. 1900 v. Chr. (155 Generationen bis heute) (in Mehrgarh selbst bis ca. 2.500 v. Chr). Das Fundareal von Mehrgarh umfasst über 250 Hektar (2.500.000 m²). Die Siedlungen von Mehrgarh haben sich im Lauf der Zeit von Norden nach Süden verlagert. Ein großer Teil wurde durch Erosion und Verlagerungen des Flusslaufs des Bolan zerstört.
Mehrgarh scheint heute auf einem Hochplateau zu liegen, das im Norden und Süden durch tiefe Schluchten und im Osten durch den Steilhang des Bolanflusses begrenzt wird. Tatsächlich bildet bildet die jungsteinzeitliche Siedlung einen ca. 7 m hohen künstlichen Hügel. Dieser ist heute ganz unter Sedimenten begraben.
Abb.: Lage von Mehrgarh
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia, Public domain]
Abb.: Lage von Mehrgarh
[Bildquelle: ©Google Earth. -- Zugriff am 2008-02-21]
Abb.: Lage von Mehrgarh, Nausharo, Sibri, Pirak
[Quelle: U.S. Army Map Service, 1955-, India and Pakistan 1 : 250.000, Blatt Sibi, NH 42-10, Series U502. -- http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/india/txu-oclc-6614190-nh42-10.jpg. -- Zugriff am 2008-02-21. -- Public domain]
Mehrgarh: 29° 24' 0" N, 67° 35' 55" E
Pirak: 29° 7' 55" N, 68° 1' 55" E
Man unterscheidet 7 bzw. 8 Perioden mit weiteren Unterperioden:
Periode IA: keramiklose Jungsteinzeit
Periode IB: Keramik-Jungsteinzeit
Periode III: Kupfersteinzeit (Chalkolithikum)
Periode IVff.: Bronzezeit
Abb.: Zeittafel zu Mehrgarh
[Vorlage: Vergessene Städte am Indus : frühe Kulturen in Pakistan vom 8. - 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. -- Mainz : von Zabern, 1987. -- 312 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- Literaturverzeichnis S. 294 - 310. -- ISBN 3-8053-0957-0. -- Beilage]
Die Datierung der ältesten, vorkeramischen jungsteinzeitlichen Besiedlungsschicht mittels der Radiokarbon(14C)-Methode ist schwierig, diese Schicht von dichtem, mehr oder weniger fossilisiertem Wurzelwerk durchzogen ist. Da viele dieser Wurzeln alt sind, erschweren sie die Datierung sehr. So erhielt man für ein ganz offensichtlich zeitgleiches Niveau einmal die Radiokarbon-Datierung 9385±120 BP und eine andere 5530±180 BP, d.h. einen Unterschied von über 3800 Jahren! Trotzdem datieren die Archäologen die Anfänge der jungsteinzeitlichen Besiedlung von Mehrgarh nicht später als 7000 v. Chr.; als Begründung geben sie die Stratigraphie des Fundplatzes sowie Vergleiche mit anderen Regionen an. Man sollte aber immer im Auge behalten, dass die Datierung 7000 v. Chr. offensichtlich nicht naturwissenschaftlich eindeutig abgesichert ist.
In den folgenden Tabellen werden alles kalibrierten Radiokarbondaten zu Mehrgarh aufgezählt, die bis 1995 vorhanden waren (zu weiteren Angaben dazu siehe in der angegebenen Quelle):
v. Chr. (BC)
6925 ± 80
|Periode IB||6110 ± 90
6290 ± 70
13340 ± 125
32650 ± 3000
8440 ± 250
5950 ± 65
6020 ± 80
6090 ± 70
5940 ± 100
5880 ± 100
|Periode IIA||5620 ± 100
5490 ± 70
5400 ± 90
|Periode IIB||7115 ± 120
5240 ± 110
5360 ± 310
|Periode III||6500 ± 80|
|Periode IV||4190 ± 140
3590 ± 60
|Periode V||keine Radiokarbondatierungen|
|Periode VI||3960 ± 140|
|Periode VII||3570 ± 150|
[Quelle der Radiokarbondaten: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... - [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 555f.]
Im Folgenden soll keine vollständige Übersicht über die Grabungsberichte gegen werden -- diese sind in der unten genannten Monographie leicht zugänglich; es soll vielmehr an beispielen ein erster Eindruck von der primären archäologischen Arbeit in Mehrgarh gegeben werden.
Ausgrabungsfläche: ca. 1000 m²
Grabungstiefe: ca. 1,1 m unter der Oberfläche
Die Grabung betrifft die Perioden IV, V, VI, VII (damals noch Perioden I, II, III, IV genannt)
Noch keine Radiokarbondaten; durch Vergleich auf erste Hälfte 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr. oder etwas früher datiert
Als Beispiel der Grabungsreport zu Periode IV (Damals: Periode I):
"THE FIRST PERIOD
Although exposure of the first period was limited to two squares in the northern part of the mound, the architectural remains already uncovered are very interesting, among them being part of a massive mud-brick wall 2.3m wide preserved to a height of 1.6m (fig. 1.1A). Near the edge of the excavated area, the wall stops and we probably have the beginning of an entrance system. In front of this huge wall there is a passage and, farther north, a room probably belonging to a house. This room has walls cut by niches; on its floor stand the lower part of a large storage jar and a huge (broken) basin with parallel ridges inside. In the niches or just in front of them were found small goblets and plates, and from near the storage jar, a grinding stone and a few flints were recovered. We also found in this room a number of bones, mostly ribs of bovids.
From the room and from in front of the massive wall, a large number of sherds, (most of them wheel-turned) were collected (fig. 1.8). The most commonly found sherds come from large open bowls or basins of rather sturdy fabric with reddish or grayish surfaces and painted with concentric registers of patterns characteristic of the Togau IIIB and IIIC styles (fig. 1.8 D-F).6 Similar sherds are also known from Mundigak Period II7 and Amri Period IA.8 Many fragments of fine polychrome pots, recalling those in the Kechi Beg style9 are among the most characteristic finds of the period. They come mostly from large open bowls or basins and from medium-size, usually globular, jars with geometric decorations of cross-hatched triangles or diamonds in black with red painted bands on a pinkish slip. Some pots have red dots between hatched motifs (fig. 1.9E).
Another group of pots displays some very fine decorations with black and red paint and an additional white color. In many cases the white and even the black color were added after firing with the result that we found it difficult to clean the sherds so decorated. One characteristic motif painted in black, red, and white is a system of nested squares that looks like a labyrinth. This decoration seems to be the forerunner of similar patterns found by Fairservis on "Rana Ghundai Red-on-Red Slip" pottery.10 A similar pattern was also found in the Bolan Pass at the site of Takht-i Mir near Kirta, a small mound that has yielded many Harappan sherds from its surface. The same bichrome pattern appears again in the second millennium at Pirak (fig. 1.9G,H,I).
Among the plain wares of this first period, there are fine goblets made of thin, greenish-buff paste that stand on small disc feet and look like champagne glasses (fig. 1.8A,B). Very few sherds of wet ware have been found. Fragments of at least three huge basins display an inner decoration of multiple parallel horizontal ridges topped by a wavy ridge. This type of ridged basin is common in all the later periods of the site, and can also be compared to the lower parts of basins from Amri IC (although the wavy ridge is missing).11
6 de Cardi (1965: 128-134).
7 Casal (1961: fig. 51).
8 Casal (1964: fig. 39).
9 Fairservis (1959: 369 and fig. 67).
10 Fairservis (1959: 419 and fig. 384).
11 Casal (1964: figs. 62 and 201). "
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... - [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 106f. -- Man betrachte dort die Illustrationen!]
Es wurde an 40 Gitternetzen (á 5 x 5 Meter) in vier verschiedenen Arealen gegraben.
Als Beispiel der Bericht über den Fund von Kindergräbern aus Periode V (damals Periode II genannt):
"During the 1974-75 season, changes in the ceramic industries had been noticed in the upper filling of the architecture of the first period, so this season we tried to locate more elements of this cultural phase.
A few walls were uncovered, and we were able to define part of a room or a yard with two intact storage jars surrounded by several grinding stones and pestles. Close to these buildings, a cemetery for children was found on two levels. Children who died between birth and three or four years of age were placed in a flexed position facing south with their heads toward the east and feet toward the west. They were laid in small boxes made of four mud-bricks and filled with dry mud (fig.2.4). In one grave of the lower level, two terracotta beads were found below the neck of one child. A similar infants' cemetery was uncovered in the 1974-75 season built upon deposits almost at the surface of the central part of the site. In our previous report, we noted that we could not ascertain whether or not this cemetery was prehistoric. The mud-brick boxes of the two cemeteries are so similar, however, that we can connect them without any doubt. The cemetery found in 1974-75, however, which must be of a later date (possibly Period III) shows a change in the orientation of the skeletons which here are lying with heads towards the southeast and feet towards the northeast. These infants' cemeteries provide us with interesting information about the burial practices for small children; they were not buried in deep graves but seem to be laid inside small mud-brick boxes on a flat surface near the houses.2
2 The work carried out in this area in the course of later field seasons by C. Jarrige shows that the stratigraphic position of these infant graves is not easy to define. They probably belong to a later phase than reported here, however, and are surely not earlier than Period VII (here Period IV). This is also true for the infants' cemetery found in the first season (1974-1975) in the central part of the mound.
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 134f. -- Man betrachte dort die Illustration!]
Abb.: Mehrgarh: Weibliche Terrakotta (Periode IV)
[Bildquelle: Denis Biette. -- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Statuette_Mehrgarh.jpg?uselang=fr. -- Zugriff am 2008-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen]
Abb.: Archäologische Zonen in Mehrgarh
[Bildvorlage: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... - [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 98]
Aus der Einleitung zum Grabungsbericht:
"One of the main purposes of the third season was to explore the large archaeological area that extends from the main mound toward the north to a cliff overlooking the Bolan River. Over about two hundred hectares, the plain surface is cut by innumerable gullies and covered with potsherds and stone blades. Thus, it was important to dig trial trenches to look for possible occupational layers below the surface of the plain. Having defined the sequence at the main mound, we wanted to look for possible earlier settlements since some potsherds from the surface were quite different from the ones found at the main mound. Our attention was attracted to an area just overlooking the Bolan River that flows ten meters below at the foot of a cliff. Here, instead of the carpet of potsherds found elsewhere on the site, only stone and bone implements were visible. In looking at the ten-meter-high cliff from the river bed, we noticed at least nine meters of occupational layers interbedded with alluvial strata. In the section cut by the river and in the fallen debris, the absence of potsherds was as conspicuous as it was on the surface above. This area, which has been named "MR.3", extends over a few hectares, limited to the east by the Bolan River, to the north and the west by deep gullies. To the south, the area ends where potsherds of an early type start occurring scattered on the surface of an area called by us "MR.4"."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 181.]
Man entwirft eine neue Periodisierung, die später noch etwas modifiziert wird:
6th & 5th millennia B.C.: Area MR.3; Aceramic Neolithic settlement; Parallels: Kili Ghul Mohammad I.
- A- End of the 5th millennium: Area MR.4; first occurrence of potsherds in very limited number; parallels: Kili Ghul Mohammad II.
- B- Beginning of the 4th millennium: Area MR.4 (upper layers); wheel-turned ware painted with geometric motifs, straw-tempered hand-made ware; parallels: Kili Ghul Mohammad III, Mundigak 1,1-3.
First half of the 4th millennium: Area MR.2; wheel-turned ware with painted caprids, birds and geometric motifs;
parallels: Kili Ghul Mohammad III, Mundigak I,3, Togau A.
Middle of the 4th millennium: Area MR.1 (Main Mound); wheel-turned pottery with monochrome and polychrome geometrical decorations, terracotta female figurines;
parallels: Damb Sadaat I, Togau B & C, Amri IA.
Third quarter of the 4th millennium: Area MR.l (Main Mound); pottery with white pigment, monochrome pottery with geometric motifs, human figurines, first gray ware at the end of the period;
parallels: Togau D, Mundigak II.
End of 4th millennium and beginning of the 3rd millennium: Area MR.l (Main Mound); black on gray ware, Quetta ware, Nal polychrome, red ware with painted pipal leaves, human figurines, compartmented stamp seals, lapis lazuli;
parallels: Damb Sadaat II, Mundigak III, Shahr-i Sokhta I, Rahman Dheri I, Amri IIA.
Middle of the 3rd millennium B.C.: Area MR. 1 (Main Mound); black on gray ware, late Quetta style, mass production of female and male figurines; monumental platform; upper layers: so-called Zhob figurines, a few Kot Dijian style sherds;
parallels: Damb Sadaat III, monochrome geometric style of Nal, Mundigak IV, Shahr-i Sokhta II, Kot Diji, Amri IIB.
This periodization has to be modified for the early periods. Period I has now been divided into IA, IB, and IIA and what is here Period IIA is now IIB. The upper deposits of Period II, IIB as it is defined here, are now assigned to early Period III. See the Introduction."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 186f.]
Man zog Spezialisten herbei für
Neben vielen Ausgrabungsbefunden sind für die Entstehungsgeschichte der Landwirtschaft von besonderem Interesse die paläobotanischen Studien:
L. Costantini has identified date stones (Phoenix dactylifera) from layers of Periods I and II, and jujube (Zizyphus sp.) in layers of Periods IV and VII. In layers of Period VII, he has noted the remains of Gramineae and Leguminosae and identified seeds of wheat, (Triticum dicoccum, T. compactum and possibly T. sphaerococcum) and barley (Hordeum sp.)."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 218.]
Reste von Sicheln (Steinzähne in Bitumen) aus Periode IB werden gefunden.
Als Beispiel der Fund eines Grabes mit Bronzebeigaben:
"THE CEMETERY OF MR.T (BEGINNING OF THE SECOND MILLENNIUM B.C.)
South of the main mound, in what is today the flat cultivated plain, a very important grave was excavated by M. Santoni at the end of the 1977-78 season. This grave, in which were buried an adult and a child in flexed position, contained three vessels in bronze, one large flat spearhead, and small triangles with stepped sides and lunate-shaped pieces in limestone. The bronze vessels, that have now been restored by G. Quivron, and the ringed ladle in bronze seemed to be exceptional finds in the context of Mehrgarh. We therefore decided to extend the excavation in this area in order to see if we could locate more graves which could help us to understand their chronological position.
M. Santoni conducted excavations in a series of new grid-squares in MR.T, MR.N and MR.O covering an area of 500 sq.m. (fig. 5.16). The northern part of the excavated area is crossed obliquely by a wall oriented east-west. This wall is 1.5m wide with two buttresses facing north; it is, however, preserved only to a height of 10 to 20cm. We have here an important structure that has been almost entirely eroded in an area where the deflation seems to have been very severe. In fact, it is very interesting to note that the monumental platform and the pilastered wall that were exposed in the same area in previous seasons have the same orientation. We also know that the western part of the monumental platform built in Period VII was almost entirely eroded. We can therefore assume that some perhaps rather monumental architecture was built to the south of the main mound in the middle of the third millennium B.C. (or probably a little earlier). We unfortunately cannot
learn anything about the function of these remains that, due to the general deflation of the ground, are now only partially visible.
South of the wall, seven graves were found in addition to the one exposed during the previous season. We thus have here a cemetery that is later than the wall. The graves have also been affected by the general deflation of the ground, and since most of the graves are now just below the surface, we can assume that some have disappeared. In addition, all the graves have been disturbed, with the possible exception of Grave 2 that seems to have merely suffered from deflation. In the others, the boxes of the skeletons have been displaced and the pottery broken and piled up in the corners of the tombs. It seems clear that the graves were searched for the ornaments they at one time contained.
All the graves are oriented east-west. The skeletons where complete or almost complete (in only three graves) are in flexed positions, their heads to the west (except in the grave excavated in the 1977-78 season), and facing either south or north. In Grave 2 (fig. 5.17), the skeleton is well preserved and is adorned with two circular copper/bronze earrings, one copper/bronze bangle, a necklace made of beads of lapis lazuli, agate, carnelian, jasper and other stones, and copper/ bronze (one bead). Near the head of the skeleton had been placed four pottery vessels. In Grave 6 (fig. 5.18), that measures 3 x 1.5m, two copper/bronze objects (one bangle and one broken pin with a flower-shaped head) were found along with a few beads in lapis lazuli and other stones, five pots, and thirty-four small pieces, mostly stepped triangles in mother-of-pearl (fig. 5.19A). In the nearby Grave 5, that has the same dimensions, seventeen pots were found; they were clearly not in their original positions and half the skeleton was missing. Grave 7 is delimited by four brick walls (2 x 1.25m) but the pots and the skeleton inside were found to have been disturbed. In Grave 8, only a few bones were still visible, these associated with thirty-six stepped triangles and fifty-six lunates in limestone. The pottery associated with the graves is wheel-thrown in a buff or pinkish ware. With the exception of two globular pots with collared rims and burnished red surfaces, the shapes are limited to pedestaled vessels and truncated conical bowls with carinated rims (fig. 5.19B). The pedestaled cups and bowls and the truncated conical bowls belong to a type of pottery well known in Central Asia. In particular, they are strikingly similar to vessels made in Margiana during the Namazga VI phase, (for instance in the Auchin Oasis), in South Uzbekistan (at Sapalli-tepe) in Bactria in the Dashly Oasis, and in the many cemeteries that are presently being illegally excavated in northern Afghanistan. Connections with Central Asia can also be seen in the case of the copper/bronze objects, e.g., the metal vessels found in Grave 1 (during the 1977-78 season), the pin with a stamp seal head, the earrings, and the bangles.
The only elements in these graves that have no Central Asian parallels are the small pieces in mother-of-pearl or limestone that possibly were inlaid into some perishable substance. In our report of the fourth season we noted the discovery in Grave 1 (the only one found at that time) of twenty-four small stepped (ziggurat-shaped) and fourteen lunate-shaped pieces in white limestone. We referred to the recent discovery made by the Italian Mission at Shahr-i Sokhta in Iranian Seistan of similar "ziggurat-shaped" pieces that were associated in a grave with a gaming board sculpted in wood having the shape of a coiled snake. By comparison with finds from Mesopotamia, the Italian archaeologists identified this object as a board for a divination game. We cannot exclude the possibility that we have something similar at Mehrgarh, the board being of a perishable nature. The grave at Shahr-i Sokhta, however, is older by a few centuries at least and we have, so far, no other parallels to help support such a comparison. On the other side, we have to consider the fact that many similar triangles and lunates in white limestone have been found at Mohenjo-daro and other Harappan sites. Six similar triangles in white limestone were found in the MR.2 excavation in a Period III stratum. Thus, it is quite possible that these small stone or mother-of-pearl pieces are locally made objects. This contrasts to pottery, copper/bronze vessels, and metal objects and ornaments that are so similar to finds from graves in Bactria3 and so homogeneous that we can conclude that we have here the burial ground of a population with strong cultural ties to other groups living in southern Central Asia.
Explorations around the site did not lead to the discovery of deposits that could correspond to the settlement of a "Bactrian" population. But, we have to consider the fact that the modern ground surface is only about 10 to 20cm above the bases of the graves, and it is therefore not unlikely that remains of later occupations have been destroyed. For instance, we have noted that, south and south-west of the graves so far excavated, the ground is strewn with plain pottery in a fabric different from that of the pottery of the main mound. Some of these sherds have shapes that seem similar to Harappan types, but they are too weathered to allow precise comparisons. Other sherds seem to belong to the type of pottery found in the "Bactrian" graves. These sherds may be the remains of destroyed graves or possibly of a deflated settlement. Considering the great interest of the graves so far excavated, there is little doubt that the whole area south of the main mound deserves more investigation. In particular, a line of small tumuli along the southern side of this area requires study."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 251ff. -- Man betrachte dort die Illustrationen!]
Als Beispiel zu dieser Grabungsperiode die paläobotanischen und paläozoologischen Analysen:
"2.3. EARLY NEOLITHIC PLANT REMAINS FROM MEHRGARH (MR.3T)
(preliminary report by L. Costantini)
The material upon which this short note is based includes imprints in bricks, plasters, and floors. The analysis of the imprints allowed us to identify the following species:
- Hordeum vulgare (6-row barley): imprints or spikelets, rachis fragments and seeds;
- Hordeum vulgare var. nudum (naked 6-row barley): 3 carbonized and damaged seeds;
- Triticum monococcum/dicoccum (einkorn-emmer): imprint of one forklet and one fragmentary spikelet;
- Triticum dicoccum (emmer): imprints of spikelets;
- Triticum durum/aestivum (free-threshing wheat): imprints of rachis fragments;
- Phragmites sp.: imprints of reeds in mud plaster.
The first and best documented information for barley cultivation come from Beidha (Jordan) and Ali Kosh (Iran) dated to c.7000 B.C. The materials from these sites have been identified as Hordeum spontaneum (cultivated wild 2-row barley) because there is no evidence for conjoint internodes such as found in domesticated barleys.
Among the Mehrgarh imprints, in addition to isolated triplets, have been found rachis fragments with multiple articulated internodes. This could suggest that the hulled 6-rowed form was already present in Pakistan in the sixth millennium in contrast to Mesopotamia where it appears only after 5000 B.C. From these considerations, it can easily be understood why the imprints of MR.3T are identified as cultivated/domesticated barley and why it is of particular importance to extend the study of the barley remains to further samples in order to carry out detailed morphological and biometrical analyses.
Some imprints have been identified as Triticum monococcum/ dicoccum and Triticum dicoccum on the basis of morphological and dimensional characteristics that do not allow them to be referred to the wild species. These imprints of spikelets and forklets, however, because of the limited amount of the material, do not permit testing of Dennell's hypothesis that there existed a brittle-rachis Triticum dicoccum. If the imprints from Mehrgarh could be identified as Triticum aestivum, the presence of free-threshing wheat could suggest hybridization between Triticum dicoccum and Aegilops squarrosa. But as van Zeist rightly stresses, carbonized rachis fragments of free-threshing wheat should be evaluated also in terms of the possible presence of tetraploid free-threshing Triticum durum.
2.4. MEHRGARH 1979-80: FAUNAL ANALYSIS
(preliminary report by R. H. Meadow)
During January of 1980, analysis of the faunal material from the deep sounding of MR.3T was completed together with all of the material excavated this season from MR.3 up until the time of departure of the analyst. The findings reported in the paper prepared for SOUTH ASIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 1979 were largely confirmed but additional taxa were identified. During the early part of the aceramic at Mehrgarh (Period I), the following wild ungulates (hoofed animals) were hunted (listed in approximate order of increasing size):
- gazelle (Gazella ?bennetti)
- blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)
- wild sheep (Ovis ?orientalis)
- wild goat (Capra ?aegagrus)
- chital (Axis axis)
- pig (Sus scrofa)
- hemione (Equus hemionus)
- nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus)
- barasingha (Cervus duvauceli)
- aurochs (Bos ?namadicus)
- water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
- elephant (Elephas maximus).
Although the data has yet to be tabulated, the increasing proportion of sheep, goat, and cattle over time in the later part of the aceramic seems confirmed by finds from the main area of excavation at MR.3 as does the decrease in size of the animals represented. The presence of blackbuck, tentatively identified in 1979, was confirmed by a horn core. Elephant was identified on the basis of a portion of the shaft of a long bone that is too large and thick to have been anything else. Bird, fish, and rodent bones continue to be few and far between even in water sieved samples. A number of bone tools were examined and even in periods later than the aceramic, identifiable elements seem principally to come from wild sheep and gazelle."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 277f.]
In Area MR.3S wurden 130 Werkzeuge aus Knochen geborgen:
[a.a.O., S. 280]
Außer in Mehrgarh wurde auch in Sibri (Periode VIII) gegraben.
In Area MR.3 (Periode I) wurden geborgen:
eine große Anzahl sonstiger Bruchstücke von Mahlsteinen, ein kleiner Mörser, zwei kleine Meißel aus Kalkstein, eine kleine Steinschüssel
81 Artefakte aus Knochen
zwei Steinperlen und fünf Perlen aus Muschelschalen/Schneckenschalen.
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 316.]
Isometrischer Rekonstruktionsversuch einer ausgegrabenen Struktur in Area MR.3 (Periode IA):
[Quelle der Abb.: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 335.]
In dieser Periode wurden vor allem in früheren Grabungsperioden begonnene Projekte zu Ende geführt.
Als Beispiel der Fund einer großen Töpferzone in Area MR.2 (Periode III):
"3. AREA MR.2: PERIOD III
(by A. Samzun)
During the sixth and seventh seasons, work in Area MR.2 was concentrated in Sector X of the grid plan. Here, five compartmented or cell-unit buildings were exposed. The pottery associated with this complex of buildings representing three buildings phases belongs to the so-called "Togau A - Kili Ghul Mohammad III" style. We have tentatively proposed a date of about4000 B.C. for this period, although the only C-14 determinations for one of these layers has provided a date of about 4700 B.C. which seems a bit too early.
In previous reports, the importance of Period III for the development of craft activities has been emphasized. In order to better understand the organization of a settlement so far known only from its storeroom systems and craft areas, we decided to explore more of the 50 hectare area covered by the pottery characteristic of this period. We selected for excavation a small mound, the surface of which was littered by sherds of Period III, located some 300 meters to the southwest of the storeroom complex exposed in 1979-80 and 1980-81. Squares Rl OA, QIOJ, Ql Ol, V1I, V1J, V2I,V2J, V3J, WlA of the grid-plan of MR.2 were excavated, representing a total surface of 225 sq.m.
In square RlOA, a sounding of 25 sq.m was carried down to a depth of 6m below the surface at which point natural alluvium was reached. Some 40 or 50cm below the surface were found the lower parts of three circular or oval shaped pottery kilns built of brick and preserved to a height of one or two courses (fig. 8.13). They were all apparently constructed on a burnt surface sloping from west to east and were spaced from two to three meters apart. Each kiln measured about 1.2m in diameter and had three small openings (possibly for ventilation) filled by nearly vitrified ash. The fill of the kilns was powdery earth baked by the heat and the internal walls were coated with a thick clay wash also baked by the heat. Both inside and outside the kilns sherds were found in great quantities.
The east-west slope that was evident even on the surface of this area remained clearly visible throughout the six-meter-deep sounding dug from the floor on which the kilns were built down to sterile alluvium. The multiple parallel sloping layers of trash were found to contain hundreds of thousands of sherds (many overfired), fragments of walls of kilns, ashes, and charcoal. In view of the slope of the layers, it is evident that several additional meters of deposits also connected with potters' activities must have been shaved by erosion. Since the pottery from the bottom to the top of this sounding was found to be homogeneous, it is also evident that this thick deposit of stratified trash accumulated in a rather short span of time during which potters worked intensively in this area. Kilns, wasters, and ashes accumulated to form a ridge oriented north-south and rising several meters above what was then the surface of the plain. This ridge of deposits connected with ceramic manufacturing activities can be followed north to Sector MR.2A (see reports of third and fourth seasons) where a few squares were excavated that yielded thick accumulations of sherds, kiln wasters, and ashes. Thus the total length of the ridge could have been more than 300 meters, all resulting from pottery manufacture.
The kiln area apparently belonged to a final stage of Period III. The painted pottery is of a style similar to that from the upper level of the storeroom complex (fig. 8.15,8.16, 8.17, 8.18). Realistic representations of caprids are less abundant than in earlier deposits. In most cases, the caprids are stylized in rows and sometimes form a swastika motif inside bowls (fig. 8.15A,G-H, 8.16B, 817B,D) Among the more exceptional motifs is a row of dancing figures decorating a pot (fig. 8.15B). Such a motif (already described by B. de Cardi on Togau ware) has with reason been compared to motifs on Sialk III pottery. About 80 or 90 percent of the painted pottery from the kiln area bears geometric motifs in the "Kili Ghul Mohammad III" style, but there are an increasing number of motifs that are evolving towards styles prevalent in Period IV. Basket-marked sherds that are present in the sector of the storeroom complex are not found in these levels, while "proto-wet ware" (rows of finger impressions made while the paste was still wet) is more abundant than in those earlier deposits. Some sherds are also of a wet ware nearly comparable to that of Period IV. While the bowls and the basins still predominate, plates (rarely found earlier) are not uncommon, nor are miniature vessels. In three cases, incised potters' marks have been identified on vessels.
An exceptional find from the Period III kiln area was a terracotta conch-shell-shaped object (of "Askos" type) decorated with painted stripes (fig. 8.14B, 8.17A). Most of the other finds from this area were of terracotta and included numerous fragments of animal figurines (mostly humped bulls and a few caprids) (fig. 8.19A,B,C), and cylindrical or pear-shaped beads that, in the cases of the larger ones, were possibly spindle-whorls. Some bone tools, flints of types already described in the previous reports, a few beads (two in lapis), a stone mace-head, grinding stones, and four pestles were also found."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 373f. -- Man betrachte dort die Illustrationen!]
Besonders beachtenswert ist der Fund von eine Rollsiegel in Sibri (Periode VIII) (siehe Abbildung in a.a.O., S. 411)
Bei den Grabungen waren besonders beachtlich die Zahlreichen Funde von menschlichen Skelettresten:
"7. PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
(by P. Sellier)
The several excavations undertaken this season at Mehrgarh yielded a considerable amount of human skeletal remains and have led us to build up a large anthropological project, the objectives and first results of which will be briefly presented below.
7.2. THE SKELETAL FINDS
In five excavated areas, a total of 130 buried individuals have been exposed and some 30 more were located. All of
the burials recovered from the western part of the MR.3 graveyard were properly excavated, registered, and fully studied in the field as were most of the remains from MR.27 Due to the shortage of time and archaeological exigencies a number of other burials could not be treated so carefully. In total, remains from 90 individuals, some very incomplete, were recovered for study.
7 Because of their poor state of preservation due to high soil salinity, the study of the MR 2 material was necessarily less complete.
7.2.2. MR.3 FD
The cliff cut by the Bolan River (MR.3D-Bolan excavated by G. Quivron) yielded forty-five buried individuals distributed in several levels in the six meters of aceramic neolithic deposits. Except for two of them, the graves were individual ones in simple shafts sometimes including (for the upper ones) a small mud-brick wall like those found in the western part of the main MR.3 graveyard. The only double graves were MR3F. 19A/19B: an articulated skeleton, the skull of which was found leaning on a heap of disconnected bones belonging to a second individual and MR3F.39/42: two children, about five and nine years old, buried simultaneously. The intermingling of the bones of the two individuals in the latter grave indicates simultaneous burial.
7.2.3. MR.3 WESTERN GRAVEYARD
This part of the neolithic settlement (excavated in previous years by G. Quivron) provided the best-preserved skeletons (excavated by P. Sellier) in Squares C6H, C6I, C7H, and C7I. The eleven individuals all lay east-west, each along a small mud-brick wall (even the three children MR.3.154: new born and MR.3.155 and 159: 5-6 years old and the disarticulated adults: MR.3.103, 105, and 151). The articulated skeletons always were buried individually (lower limbs flexed, upper limbs near the face or the pelvis, covered with red ocher) while the disarticulated bones sometimes represent a single individual (MR.3.105) or several individuals in the same grave (two in MR.3.103 and three in MR.3.151). The grave goods found (usually with articulated skeletons) included a few stone axes (fig. 9.4C), a stone vessel, an unfired clay vessel, a bone tool, a bitumen-coated basket, some flints, and a few ornaments (necklace, bangle, belt, pendant) mostly made of sea shells and sometimes of turquoise beads (fig. 9.4B).
Two burials were found near the compartmented buildings of Period IIA excavated by J.-F. Jarrige. One (MR.3/4.402) was complete but entirely dislocated and deposited in a small area. The other (MR.3/4.420), probably a male, was in the usual flexed position. To what period these graves belong is unknown and neither was associated with any grave goods. They could be much later than the Period IIA levels into which they were dug.
7.2.5. MR.2 (PERIOD III)
In addition to the three burials near the F1 compartmented structure (MR.2 F1.1: adult, probably male, with antemortem loss of four right lower teeth (P2, Ml, M2, and M3) and total alveolar resorption and filling; MR.2 Fl .2: infant less than one year old, disarticulated; MR.2 F1.3: adult, partly beneath the building), the MR.2 area excavated by A. Samzun yielded fifty-three individuals in an area (85 sq.m) that is doubtless only a small portion of a much larger graveyard. Preliminary cultural and anthropological conclusions on this newly discovered cemetery (in a period for which we previously had no actual burial ground at Mehrgarh) provided the topics for a paper by A. Samzun and P. Sellier given at the 7th International Conference of South Asian Archaeologists in Brussels and will be summarized at the end of this report.8
8 Samzun and Sellier (1985).
7.2.6. MR.1 (MAIN MOUND)
As in previous years, among the structures of the last periods, C. Jarrige exposed a seventeen infant burials. This graveyard contained only skeletons of newborn infants/foetuses, and infants under 1-2 years old. Burials of older children and adults for this period have not yet been discovered.
7.3. THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROJECT
7.3.1. POTENTIAL OF DATA TO BE STUDIED
Added to the few human bones preserved from previous campaigns, the numerous skeletal remains exposed this season will provide, through a complete anthropological analysis, important information for each period of Mehrgarh and will permit comparison with material from sites in Pakistan, eastern Iran, southern Turkmenia, and Afghanistan.
Morphology: A large set of cranial and post-cranial metric features and indices ("classical physical anthropology") can serve to characterize the morphological pattern and reveal the degree of homogeneity for the population of each period.
Non-metric (discrete) traits: Slight anatomical modifications (non-pathological) of the bones reflect both genetic and environmental factors. They can provide a basis for comparing near populations and may even permit kinship and social interpretations.
Paleo-demography: Determination of sex (for adults only; based on measurements and secondary sexual features of the pelvis and cranium) and age (for children: tooth eruption and growth of the bones; for adults: facies symphyseos, spongy structure of caput humeri and caput femoris, and fusion of cranial sutures) provides data on life span, mortality, growth in childhood, and also funerary practices (in the case of a non-natural demographic structure).
Biological analysis: Data on blood group systems and polymorphism of proteins may be able to be obtained from the samples. Trace element analyses can be made to investigate paleonutrition.
Paleo-pathology: Diseases reflected on bones (malnutrition, trauma, arthrosis, malformations, tumors...) can be determined through observation and microscopic or radiographic study.
Taphonomy: Original position of the bodies, postmortem movements, secondary inhumations, conditions of decomposition, and associations of skeletons will be studied.
Funerary practices: Association of anthropological (sex, age, discrete traits, morphology,...) and biological (including nutritional) and cultural data (grave-goods, arrangement within the graveyard, social status,...) will be analyzed to provide a paleoethnobiological perspective.
7.3.2. FIRST RESULTS: THE MR.2 GRAVEYARD
Examination of the fifty-three individuals exposed in the newly discovered graveyard of Period III permits interesting preliminary conclusions.
Anatomical connection and position: thirty-seven skeletons were fully articulated (six more were too poorly preserved to tell). The tight flexion of their lower limbs denotes the use of a system of wedging or fastening the dead bodies. They were usually placed on the left side (left lateral decubitus), but sometimes on the right or, uncommonly, in a ventral (Homo 32) or a half-seated position (Homo 21, 24, and 43). Six individuals were represented only by isolated bones (skull or part of it) associated with another burial (Homo 4B, 13, 15, 19C, 24B, and 25B). Four burials were heaps of completely disarticulated bones (Homo 4A, 9, 19AB, and 40) representing only part of a skeleton and with all the small bones (hands, feet, patellae) always missing. This supports an hypothesis of true secondary burial, i.e., a process of reinhumation and not merely disturbance of a primary inhumation.
Associations: most of the burials were clearly individual interments, isolated (Homo 30A, 36, 43,...) or surrounded by the marks of a pit (Homo 3) or mud-bricks (Homo 11, 10, 14,...).9 Some others clearly revealed two individuals buried together (Homo 9: disarticulated 9-10 year old child lying on the feet of male Homo 7; and disarticulated woman Homo 4A over the skull 4B of a 6-10 year old child). One clear collective sepulture (only partially excavated so far) was surrounded by a mud-brick wall and included six skeletons (Homo 26, 27, 28, 31 A, 32 and 34). This is the first evidence for a collective burial at Mehrgarh.
9 See plans included with the Report of the Tenth Season (1983-1984).
Demography: The population seems to have been in equilibrium with relation to the sex ratio and the number of immature individuals except for a remarkable absence of infants under two years (not even dental germs found by sifting the earth). Thus, the separation of foetuses-new born-from children-adolescents-adults (cf., the cemetery of newborn infants in MR. 1) was already a cultural feature of the MR.2 population.10
10 See table included with the Report of the Tenth Season (1983-1984).
Stature: Stature for men and women estimated from the long bones is presented in Figure 17.
Funerary practices: Secondary burial was used principally for children (children: 38 percent; women: 14 percent; men: 0 percent). If, however, we consider steatite beads as "standard" grave goods (Class 2), the more privileged burials (Class 1) as having semi-precious stones, seas shells, pottery, or copper, and the less privileged (Class 3) as having nothing at all, we can see that an apparently higher social status characterizes the women whereas a lack of grave goods is characteristic principally of children.11
11 See figure included with the Report of the Tenth Season (1983-1984).
Of course, we have to be cautious about such interpretations for we do not yet know to what degree the excavated area may represent the whole graveyard and to what extent the burials reflect the actual living population. In any event, what we have documented is a first step toward providing a picture of the Mehrgarh population and its funerary practices."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 428ff. -- Man betrachte dort die Illustrationen!]
Neben Grabungen wurde u.a. eine Analyse der Sedimente am Kliff des Bolan-Flusses durchgeführt:
"In Paris, Michelle Drin completed an analysis of the sediments taken from the cliff cut by the Bolan River (see report of the ninth season). She is writing a general report including sedimentological analyses carried out in the C.E.A. in Saclay. From her work it appears that the alluviation process that is visible in the section cut by the Bolan River between the aceramic period at the bottom of the cliff and the fifth millennium levels at the top of the cliff can be divided in three major phases.1 The first episode was rather short (only a few centuries at the most), the second one was longer (perhaps a millennium), and the third one was short. As far as chronology is concerned, it is obvious that the neolithic occupation, in particular Periods IB and IIA, must have lasted for a considerable span of time. On the basis of this sedimentological analysis, the samples that provided dates in the range of the seventh and even eighth millennium B.C. seem to provide a more reliable reflection of reality than do other samples coming from contexts disturbed by ancient root activity that yielded results too late to be consistent with the general sequence of the site and, in particular, with the dates of the following chalcolithic periods at Mehrgarh.
1 To be published in Mehrgarh Paleoenvironmental Studies (in preparation)."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 452.]
Auch wurden an Feuerstein-Artefakten Gebrauchspuren analysiert:
"9. USE-WEAR ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES OF FLINTS FROM PERIODS I-VII
(by P. C. Vaughan)
A microscopic study of possible traces of utilization was undertaken during the tenth season at Mehrgarh on a sample of retouched flint tools as well as on ordinary blades and flakes from contexts dated to Periods I-VII. The analytical method employed permits determination of the portions of a tool used, the kind of motion involved, and the category of material worked. The micropolishes, striations, edge rounding, and edge scarring found on archaeological specimens are compared to those resulting from experimental tool use on different kinds of material. Samples of flints from Mehrgarh were chosen to permit investigation of stone-tool usage as related to: (1) morphology and typology, (2) change or continuity in function through time, and (3) activity areas distinguished on the basis of non-lithic features noted during excavation. In all, a total of 1100 pieces were analyzed using the microscope (227 glossed flints, 1 32 microliths, 56 borers, 19 flints from Burial 114, 500 blades and flakes from the aceramic neolithic MR.3T sounding, and 166 flints from the Period IIA ocher-stained area in MR.3/4).
The microliths, blade fragments, and bladelets of Periods I-VII that exhibit readily visible gloss along their edges were compared in size and function with the flint elements set into bitumen that have been recovered from Periods I-V. These sickle fragments permit identification and reconstruction of three types of sickles, the wooden handles of which are attested only by indirect evidence. The Type I or "robust" sickle is known from bitumen fragments only from neolithic contexts (Periods I-II). Loose sickle elements from Periods III-VII, however, indicate that the "robust" sickle must have been made also during Periods III-VII. Although a few Type II or "intermediate" sickle fragments are available from Period III contexts, the diagnostic long blade elements of this sickle also have been found in Periods IIB and V-VII. Similarly, the Type III or "gracile" form of sickle, well known from several Period IV-VII finds, may have been manufactured during Periods I-III to judge from the glossed bladelets typical of the "gracile" sickle.
From careful examination of the loose sickle elements it also was seen that the proximal ends of the flints were usually inserted into the bitumen mass that was set into a groove in a wooden handle, while the distal ends of blade and bladelet insets were nearly always broken or retouched in order to even off the protruding "teeth" of the sickle. While samples from all periods show that sickle elements were sometimes reused twice within their haft, only the Period IV-VII sickle blades show signs of having been recycled for use in other activities. This is not surprising in view of the relative paucity of flints recovered from these later contexts at the site.
Not all blades exhibiting a macroscopic sheen proved to have been sickle elements involved in cutting soft plants such as cereals. A variety of materials was found to have produced visible gloss including bone/antler, wood, hard plants (reeds, palm branches), leather, and clay. The analysis of samples of microliths from Periods I-VII revealed that lunates and triangles seem to have been used only as sickle elements while regular and concave-backed trapezes were used both in sickles and as elements hafted on the sides of hunting projectiles (arrows). Due to the very small sample of Period III-VII microliths available for study, however, it was not possible to conclude whether the absence of sure hunting traces as opposed to the frequent presence of plant polishes can be taken to imply that microliths were no longer used in hunting projectiles during those periods at Mehrgarh.
A sample of flint borers from Periods I-II showed use traces not only on the retouched distal ends (from boring bone/antler and also hard materials such as stones or shell with an added abrasive) but also along their lateral edges (from working principally bone, antler, and leather). An examination of incomplete or split beads and pendants in stone and shell revealed that during the neolithic they were drilled with borer tips in conjunction with an abrasive such as fine sand. The scarcity of boring traces on the few flint borers from Period III, together with the abundance of small heavily worn cylinder-shaped drill tips of green jasper, implies that the bow-drill was used virtually exclusively for drilling during that period along with the addition of an abrasive.
Some 500 undiagnostically retouched and plain blades, bladelets, and flakes were chosen from the sequence of levels in the MR.3T trench in the aceramic neolithic mound to study the use of "typologically insignificant" flints over a period of time represented by six meters of deposits. A total of 173, or 35 percent, of the analyzed flints displayed traces of intentional utilization. But the proportion of used pieces varied greatly among the four general classes into which the sample was divided: retouched and/or scarred flakes (average 77 percent with use traces), plain blades (13 percent used), retouched/scarred flakes (34 percent), and plain flakes (only 3 percent). Furthermore, the use-ratios were somewhat different between samples from the upper unit group (top two meters, units 501 to 536) and the flints from the lower unit group (remaining four meters, units 537-554). This division is based on the consistent technological difference in the proportion of flakes in the sampled excavation units (35 percent in the lower unit group, 15 percent in the upper unit group). A correlation of length and width of the blades and bladelets with the presence or absence of use traces revealed that those under 7mm in width or shorter than 15mm rarely bear microwear polishes, whereas those over 14mm in width or longer than 55mm were usually quite intensively used. The use-wear polishes found on the 173 flints attest to a very wide range of activities, principally on dry hide (leather), hard plants, bone/antler, and unspecifiable hard materials but also in butchering, on fresh hides, wood, and soft plants. Such a diversity of uses would be expected from a generalized sample of flints from levels of architectural fill, trash deposits, and fill lenses.
Finally, of a sample of 166 analyzed flints from a heavily ocher-stained area in MR.3/4 (Period IIA), 28 percent of the blades and flakes were found to have been used. The retouched and/or scarred flints again included a much greater percentage of pieces with use traces (61 percent) than did the plain blades and flakes (5 percent). The use polishes seen on ail flints clearly showed a predominance of traces of working animal products (dry hide, bone/antler, butchering, fresh hide) with only a few exceptions in the form of plant polishes. Given the presence of ocher within the retouch scars of a blade used to scrape bone or antler with an abrasive and the evidence for an abrasive having been worked into the dry hides, it can be concluded that the ocher-stained area was a place where animal products were processed partly with the addition of ocher."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 463f.]
U.A. gräbt man aus Periode IA viele angebrannte Kieselsteine zusammen mit einigen Tierknochen, die R. Meadow identifiziert:
TABLE 1: MR.3/4 Sounding, Unit 819 Bone (Meadow locus code 075819)
- 3 large-mammal long bone shaft fragments
- 1 medium-mammal femur shaft fragment
- 2 medium-mammal rib fragments
- 1 medium/large-mammal rib fragment
- 1 Ovis/Capra upper molar fragment
- 1 Bos proximal right metatarsal
- 1 large-mammal right proximal femur shaft
- * 1 Ovis/Capra left distal scapula, unfused
- * 1 Capra female right ilium, unfused
- * 1 Ovis/Capra left distal tibia shaft
- * 1 Capra left astragalus
- * 1 Capra left calcaneum, unfused
- * 1 Ovis/Capra right proximal metatarsal
- 1 Capra left calcaneum, fused
- 1 Cervus duvauceli right astragalus
- 1 Bos left astragalus
- 1 Bos left internal anterior phalanx, fused
- 1 Antilope cervicapra adult male right horncore
- 1 Bos right mandible fragment
- 1 Bos mandible fragment (large individual)
+ 5 small mammal bones cemented in a block
* nos. 8-13 could all have come from the same animal"
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 507.]
Zahn-anthropologische Untersuchungen durchgeführt:
"7. DENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY AT MEHRGARH: A CURRENT ASSESSMENT
(by J. R. Lukacs)
During the course of two field seasons at Mehrgarh (1983- the ninth season, and 1 985 - the eleventh season) I had the opportunity to study the teeth and jaws of ninety-two individuals, making up a total of 1383 teeth (an average of 15 teeth per specimen). This dental sample is derived from different excavation areas and includes both deciduous (primary) and permanent teeth as indicated in Table 1 below. It is clear from Table 1 that the bulk of the dental sample (80.8 percent) studied so far is derived from neolithic levels in Area MR.3 (Periods I and II).
The dentition of each specimen listed in Table 1 was subjected to three main types of analyses:
- odontometric - measurement of maximum crown length (mesio-distal diameter) and bucco-lingual diameter or maximum crown breadth;
- morphologic - twenty anatomical traits of the dental crown and roots were observed (e.g., shovel-shape of maxillary incisors, Carabelli's trait of maxillary molars, accessory cusps of lower molar teeth, etc.);
- pathologic - the occurrence of eight kinds of dental disease were recorded (e.g., dental caries, gross enamel hypoplasia, calculus, etc.).
Analysis of the dental data has been restricted to the MR.3 sample due to the small sample size of teeth (specimens) studied from the MR.l and MR.2 excavations. Consequently, the research results outlined below apply only to the neolithic (MR.3) dental sample. (See Table 1)
Analysis of the dental data has been restricted to the MR. 3 sample due to the small numbers of teeth studied from Areas MR.l and MR.2. Consequently, the research results outlined below apply only to the neolithic (MR.3) dental sample.
7.2. ODONTOMETRIC RESULTS
The size of the teeth from neolithic levels at Mehrgarh, as expressed by total crown area, is 1257 sq.mm.6 This average figure is larger than crown area figures reported expressed by total crown area, is 1257 sq.mm.6 This average figure is larger than crown area figures reported for seven other Asian neolithic populations and much larger than figures for other prehistoric South Asian populations with more complex technologies. Tooth size among the neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh is justifiable labeled MEGADONT.7
6 Lukacs (1983), Lukacs, Retief, and Jarrige (1985).
7 Lukacs (1983), Lukacs, Retief, and Jarrige (1985).
Additional odontometric studies are required at Mehrgarh to determine the tooth size of the chalcolithic inhabitants of MR.2 and MR.1 so that diachronic comparisons of tooth size can be made within the context of one archaeological site.
7.3. MORPHOLOGIC RESULTS
Statistical analysis of dental traits has not been completed for any of the Mehrgarh dental samples since observations on additional specimens are desirable. Preliminary perusal of the data suggest the existence of an association of dental features that may be diagnostic for the neolithic people of Mehrgarh. These trait associations, which are briefly explained below, could facilitate determining the degree of genetic continuity between the people of MR.3 and MR.2 and assessing the genetic relationship of the Mehrgarh samples to living and prehistoric populations of South Asia.
Anterior maxillary dental complex: The maxillary incisors and canines of the neolithic sample are structurally complicated and include several independent traits often found together in one specimen. These structures include:
- shovel-shaped incisor and canine teeth;
- prominent basal tubercle in incisor (lateral) and canine;
- lingual extensions in incisor teeth;
- marginal interruptions in incisor teeth.
Molar tooth trait complex: Molar teeth at Mehrgarh also display certain morphological complexities. These include: frequent accessory cusps (metaconulid, entoconulid, protostylid) and cuspules (protoconule, metaconule). The low frequency of Carabelli's trait in the MR.3 dental sample is an important part of the molar tooth complex but requires further confirmation.
This preliminary impression of the morphological pattern of the Mehrgarh dentition is incomplete and must remain tentative for the present. Additional specimens and rigorous statistical analysis are necessary to validate these impressions.
The prime focus for future research in dental morphology at Mehrgarh includes detailed documentation of the dental complexes for specimens from MR.2 and MR.1. If genetic continuity between the people of MR.2 and MR.3 can be proven by high concordance of dental trait frequencies, then diachronic analysis of tooth size change can be attributed to evolution rather than to population replacement.
7.4. PATHOLOGIC RESULTS
Initially the goal of dental pathology research at Mehrgarh was to correlate changes in dental disease with changing subsistence from Period I to Period III. This goal remains to be achieved and has been somewhat disrupted by the discovery of dental fluorosis in specimens from MR.2 and MR.3.8 Since increased fluoride intake reduces the susceptibility to caries, caries incidence is unlikely to increase with increased reliance on agriculture, as predicted. However, changes in the incidence of other dental pathologies should occur with the subsistence change from Period I to Period III.
8 Lukacs (1983), Lukacs, Retief, and Jarrige (1985).
Pathological lesions that occur in low frequency at Mehrgarh (MR.3) include dental abscesses and dental caries. Ante-mortem tooth loss occurs with moderate frequency, and gross enamel hypoplasia and dental calculus are very common. Further documentation of the dental health of MR.3 and especially of MR.2 individuals is essential so that diachronic comparisons of dental diseases in populations with different subsistence bases can be made.
A reasonably clear picture of tooth size and pathology of the neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh is now available, but additional samples are required to permit statistically valid inferences about dental disease and genetic affinity."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 522f.]
Erste Resultate der anthracologischen Analyse wurden erhalten:
"(by S. Thiébault)
8.2. ANTHRACOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Anthracological analysis involves the identification of charcoal from archaeological deposits. We have analyzed 600 samples from the newly excavated kiln at Lal Shah (excavated by S. Pracchia, late third millennium B.C.), 400 from MR. 1, Period VII (middle of the third millennium B.C.) and about 80 from MR. 1, Period VI (beginning of the third millennium B.C.).
Among the more than 1000 specimens, the prevalent species is the tamarisk (Tamarix sp.). At Lal Shah, it makes
up all of the wood, except in two samples from one locus. In the first sample, tamarisk represents 90 percent, in the second, 60 percent. In this latter sample, we discovered a single specimen of juniper (possibly Juniperus macropoda ) and seven from poplar (Populus ?euphratica). In MR.l, Period VII, tamarisk also predominates and constitutes 70 percent of the samples. Tamarisk there is associated with Zizyphus sp., poplar, and grape (Vitis vinifera). In MR. 1, Period VI, tamarisk represents 55 percent of the specimens. The remainder of the Period VI specimens have not yet been identified.
Observations that we can make at the present time are three.
- First, the use of tamarisk seems to increase in the later periods. This species is found in the riverine-forest of the semi-desertic zone.
- Second, the presence of juniper is exceptional. This species is found today at high altitude (2000m). The single sample, however, does not permit us to make climatic assumptions since it could have come from a burned tool.
- Finally, the discovery of Zizyphus and Vitis corroborates the fruit identifications made by L. Costantini who has identified grape pips from as early as Period III and Zizyphus from Period I at Mehrgarh. The identification of some rather large pieces of charcoal from Vitis indicates that some grapes must have been grown in the Mehrgarh area at least by Period VII. Costantini has excluded, on the basis of plant geography, the presence of wild grapes in the north Kachi plain. My identification of large pieces of grape vine indicates the growing of domestic grapes at Mehrgarh and replaces the need to suggest that grapes were imported during that period."
[Quelle: Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... -- [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X. -- S. 524.]
Die angeführten, teilweise willkürlich ausgewählten Beispiele sollen anregen, die Original-Grabungsdokumentation durchzuarbeiten. Sie gibt einen ausgezeichneten Einblick in die Quellen, die bis heute noch ausgewertet werden. Auch Nichtarchäologen sollten immer wieder auf die archäologischen Quellendokumentationen zurückgreifen, um zumindest ein Plausibilitätsurteil über das fällen zu können, was in den Darstellungen behauptet wird.
Mehrgarh : field reports 1974 - 1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus civilization ; the reports of eleven seasons of excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan by the French Archaelogical Mission to Pakistan / edited by Catherine Jarrige .... - [Karachi] : Dep. of Culture and Tourism, Gov. of Sindh, . -- XIII, 688 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 969-81011-13-X
Vergessene Städte am Indus : frühe Kulturen in Pakistan vom 8. - 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. -- Mainz : von Zabern, 1987. -- 312 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- Literaturverzeichnis S. 294 - 310. -- ISBN 3-8053-0957-0. -- Besonders S. 52 - 111
Chakrabarti, Dilip K. <1941 - >: The Oxford companion to Indian archaeology : the archaeological foundations of ancient India Stone Age to AD 13th century. -- New Delhi : New York : Oxford University Press, 2006. -- xvi, 570 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 978-0-19-56734. -- S. 104 - 115
Zu 2. Discovery of Stone Implements in India / by W. Blanford and others (1876)