Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858

12. Chinesische Quellen

1. Zum Beispiel: Xuanzang (玄奘) <603 - 664>: Buddhist records of the Western world (大唐西域記), book II.

hrsg. von Alois Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858. -- 12. Chinesische Quellen. -- 1. Zum Beispiel: Xuanzang (玄奘) <603 - 664>: Buddhist records of the Western world (大唐西域記), book II. -- Fassung vom 2008-05-09. -- http://www.payer.de/quellenkunde/quellen121.htm              

Erstmals publiziert als:

Xuánzàng (玄奘) <603 - 664>:  Si-yu-ki : Buddhist records of the Western World. / translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629), by Samuel Beal [1825 - 1889]. -- London : Trübner, 1884. -- 2 vol ; 21 cm. -- (Trübner's Oriental series). -- Vol. 1. -- S. 69 - 118. -- Originaltitel: 大唐西域記. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/siyukibuddhistre01hsuoft ; http://www.archive.org/details/siyukibuddhistre02hsuoft. -- Zugriff am 2005-05-05

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2008-05-09


Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung FS 2008

©opyright: Public domain.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit  von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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Relates to Three Countries, viz., (i) Lan-po, (2) Na-kie lo-ho and (3) Kien-t'o-lo

1. Names of India.

ON examination, we find that the names of India (T'ienchu) are various and perplexing as to their authority. It was anciently called Shin-tu, also Hien-tau; but now, according to the right pronunciation, it is called In-tu. The people of In-tu call their country by different names according to their district. Each country has diverse customs. Aiming at a general name which is the best sounding, we will call the country In-tu.1 In Chinese this name signifies the Moon. The moon has many names, of which this is one. For as it is said that all living things ceaselessly revolve in the wheel (of transmigration) through the long night of ignorance, without a guiding star, their case is like (the world), the sun gone down; as then the torch affords its connecting light, though there be the shining of the stars, how different from the bright (cool) moon; just so the bright connected light of holy men and sages, guiding the world as the shining of the moon, have made this country eminent, so it is called In-tu.

The families of India are divided into castes, the Brāhmaṇs particularly (are noted) on account of their purity and nobility. Tradition has so hallowed the name of this tribe that there is no question as to difference of place, but the people generally speak of India as the country of the Brāhmaṇs (Po-lo-men). [S. 70]

1 See Jour. Asiat. soc. iv. tom. x. p. 91.

2. Extent of India, Climate, &c.

The countries embraced under this term of India are generally spoken of as the five Indies. In circuit this country is about 90,000 li [里] [] ; on three sides it is bordered by the great sea ; on the north it is backed by the Snowy Mountains. The north part is broad, the southern part is narrow. Its shape is like the half-moon. The entire land is divided into seventy countries or so. The seasons are particularly hot; the land is well watered2 and humid. The north is a continuation of mountains and hills, the ground being dry and salt. On the east there are valleys and plains, which being well watered and cultivated, are fruitful and productive. The southern district is wooded and herbaceous ; the western parts are stony and barren. Such is the general account of this country.

2 Has many fountains.

3. Measures of Length.

To give a brief account of matters. In point of measurements, there is first of all the yojana (yu-shen-na) ; this from the time of the holy kings of old has been regarded as a day's march for an army. The old accounts say it is equal to 40 li [里]; according to the common reckoning in India it is 30 li [里], but in the sacred books (of Buddha) the yojana is only 16 li [里].

In the subdivision of distances, a yojana is equal to eight krośas (keu-lu-she) ; a krośa is the distance that the lowing of a cow can be heard ; a krośa is divided into 500 bows (dhanus); a bow is divided into four cubits (hastas) ; a cubit is divided into 24 fingers (aṅgulis); a finger is divided into seven barleycorns (yavas) ; and so on to a louse (yūka), a nit (likshā), a dust grain, a cow's hair, a sheep's hair, a hare's down, copper-water,3 and so on for seven divisions, [S. 71] till we come to a small grain of dust; this is divided sevenfold till we come to an excessively small grain of dust (aṇu) ; this cannot be divided further without arriving at nothingness, and so it is called the infinitely small (paramāṇu).

3 An enumeration corresponding to that in the text will be found in the Lalita Vistara (Foucaux, p. 1 42) and in the Romantic Legend of Buddha (p. 87). The expression copper-water may refer to the size of the small hole made in the tamrī or copper cup for the admission of water.

4. Astronomy, the Calendar, &c.

Although the revolution of the Yin and Yang principles and the successive mansions of the sun and moon be called by names different from ours, yet the seasons are the same ; the names of the months are derived from the position (of the moon in respect) of the asterisms.

The shortest portion of time is called a t'sa-na (kshaṇa) ; 120 kshaṇas make a ta-t'sa-na (takshaṇa) ; 60 of these make a la-fo (lava) ; 30 of these make a mau-hu-li-to (muhūrta) ; five of these make "a period of time" (kāla) ; six of these make a day and night (ahorātra)4 but commonly the day and night are divided into eight kalās.5

4 Three in the day, three in the night. -- Ch. Ed.
Four for the day and four for the night; each of these kalās is again divided into four parts or periods (ehe). Ch. Ed.

The period from the new moon till full moon is called the white division (Śukla-paksha) of the month; the period from the full moon till the disappearance (of the light) is called the dark portion (Kṛishṇa-paksha). The dark portion comprises fourteen or fifteen days, because the month is sometimes long and sometimes short. The preceding dark portion and the following light portion together form a month; six months form a "march" (hing, s. ayaṇa). The sun when it moves within (the equator) is said to be on its northward march;6 when it moves without (the equator) it is on its southern march.7 These two periods form a year (vatsara).

6 Uttarāyaṇa.
7 Dakshiṇāyana.

The year, again, is divided into six seasons. From the 16th day of the 1st month till the 15th day of the 3d month is the season of gradual heat; from the 16th day of [S. 72] the 3d month till the 15th day of the 5th month is called the season of full heat ; from the 16th day of the 5th month till the 15th day of the 7th month is called the rainy season ; from the 16th day of the 7th month till the 15th day of the 9th month is called the season of growth (vegetation) ; from the 16th day of the 9th month to the 15th day of the 11th month is called the season of gradual cold ; from the 16th day of the 11th month to the 15th day of the 1st month is called the season of great (full) cold.8

8 These six seasons (ṛitavas) are respectively (1) Vasanta, including the months of Chaitra and Vaiśākha; (2) Grīshma -- Jyeshṭha and Āshāḍha; (3) Varshās -- Śrāvaṇa and Bhādrapada, (4) Śaradā -- Āśvina and Kārttika; (5) Hemānta -- Mārgaśīrsha and Pushya; (6) Śiśira -- Māgha and Phālguna. In the south they are reckoned as beginning a month later.

According to the holy doctrine of Tathāgata, the year is divided into three seasons. From the 16th day of the 1st month till the 15th day of the 5th month is called the hot season ; from the 16th day of the 5th month till the 15th day of the 9th month is called the wet season ; from the 16th day of the 9th month to the 15th day of the 1st month is called the cold season. Again, there are four seasons, called spring, summer, autumn, winter. The three spring months are called Chi-ta-lo (Chaitra) month, Fei-she-kie (Vaiśāka) month, She-se-ch'a (Jyeshṭha); these correspond with the time from the 16th day of the 1st month to the 15th of the 4th month. The three summer months are called 'An-sha-cha (Āshāḍha) month, Chi-lo-fa-na (Śrāvaṇa) month, Po-ta-lo-pa-to (Bhādrapada) month; these correspond to the time between the 16th day of the 4th month to the 15th day of the 7th month. The three autumn months are called, 'An-shi-fo-ku9-che (Āśvayuja) month, Kia-li-ta-ka (Kārttika) month, Wi-10 kia-chi-lo (Mārgaśīrsha) month; these correspond to the time between the 16th day of the 7th month to the 15th day of the 10th month. The three months of winter are called P'o-sha (Pushya) month, Ma-ku (Māgha) month, and Po-li-kiu-na (Phālguna) month; these correspond [S. 73] with the time between the 16th day of the 10th month to the 15th day of the 1st month in China. In old times in India the priestly fraternity, relying on the holy teaching of Buddha, had a double11 resting-time (during the rains), viz., either the former three months or the latter three months ; these periods were either from the 16th day of the 5th month to the 15th day of the 8th month, or from the 16th day of the 6th month to the 15th day of the 9th month.

9 The symbol ku is for yu. -- Julien in loc.
The symbol wi is for mo. -- Jul.
I have preferred not to alter the text, and to translate the passage literally. The "double period" of rest during the rainy season was an early ordinance, found in the Vinaya. It was so arranged that those who were prevented from arriving at the appointed time might begin their "rest" a month later. If, however, we suppose the symbol liang to be a mistake for yu, then the passage will run thus: "The priestley fraternity retired into fixed dwellings during the rainy season." See Burnouf, Introd., p. 254.

Translators of the Sūtras (king) and the Vinaya (liu) belonging to former generations employed the terms Tso-hia and Tso-la-hia12 to signify the rest during the rainy season ; but this was because the ignorant (common) people of the frontier countries did not understand the right sounds of the language of the middle country (India), or that they translated before they comprehended the local phrases: this was the cause of error. And for the same reason occur the mistakes about the time of Tathāgata's conception, birth, departure from his home, enlightenment, and Nirvāṇa, which we shall notice in the subsequent records.

12 I cannot but think that kia and la in these phrases are intendedto be phonetic equivalents for Varsha, and that the author is pointing out the error of those who adopted such inadequate sounds. M. Julien's explanation, however, may be the correct one (vid. Julien in loc., n. 1)

5. Towns and Buildings.

The towns and villages have inner gates;13 the walls are wide and high ; the streets and lanes are tortuous, and the roads winding. The thoroughfares are dirty and [S. 74] the stalls arranged on both sides of the road with appropriate signs. Butchers, fishers, dancers, executioners, and scavengers, and so on, have their abodes without the city. In coming and going these persons are bound to keep on the left side of the road till they arrive at their homes. Their houses are surrounded by low walls, and form the suburbs. The earth being soft and muddy, the walls of the towns are mostly built of brick or tiles. The towers on the walls are constructed of wood or bamboo ; the houses have balconies and belvederes, which are made of wood, with a coating of lime or mortar, and covered with tiles. The different buildings have the same form as those in China : rushes, or dry branches, or tiles, or boards are used for covering them. The walls are covered with lime and mud, mixed with cow's dung for purity. At different seasons they scatter flowers about. Such are some of their different customs.

13 Such is the meaning generally  assigned to the symbols leu yen. I  do not understand the translation given by Julien; the texts perhaps are different.

The saṅghārāmas are constructed with extraordinary skill. A three-storied tower14 is erected at each of the four angles. The beams and the projecting heads are carved with great skill in different shapes. The doors, windows, and the low walls are painted profusely; the monks' cells are ornamental on the inside and plain on the outside.15 In the very middle16 of the building is the hall, high and wide. There are various storeyed chambers and turrets of different height and shape, without any fixed rule. The doors open towards the east; the royal throne also faces the east. [S. 75]

14 The phrase chung koh means " a storeyed room or pavilion ;" so at least I understand it. M. Julien translates as though it meant a double-storeyed room, or a pavilion with two storeys. The passage literally translated is : "Angle towers rise on the four sides ; there are (or they are) storeyed buildings of three stages."

15  I take li shu to mean "the monks" or "the religious," the dark-clad.

16 The phrase ngau shih may mean "the sleeping apartments,"  as Julien translates ; but I hesitate to give it this meaning, because the  monks slept in their cells, and not in  a dormitory. The hall I take to be the hall for religious worship. The account here given corresponds very closely with the description of the Vihāras in Nepāl at the present day.

6. Seats, Clothing, &c.

When they sit or rest they all use mats ; 17 the royal family and the great personages and assistant officers use mats variously ornamented, but in size they are the same. The throne of the reigning sovereign is large and high, and much adorned with precious gems: it is called  the Lion-throne (siṃhāsana). It is covered with extremely fine drapery ; the footstool is adorned with gems. The nobility use beautifully painted arid enriched seats, according to their taste.

17 The expression here used may  mean "matted beds" or "seats." It is commonly used to denote the nishadyā (Pāli, nisīdanaṃ) or mats used by Buddhists.

7. Dress, Habits, &c.

Their clothing is not cut or fashioned ; they mostly affect fresh-white garments ; they esteem little those of mixed colour or ornamented. The men wind their garments round their middle, then gather them under the armpits, and let them fall down across the body, hanging to the right. The robes of the women fall down to the ground ; they completely cover their shoulders. They wear a little knot of hair on their crowns, and let the rest of their hair fall loose. Some of the men cut off their moustaches, and have other odd customs. On their heads the people wear caps (crowns), with flower-wreaths and jewelled necklets. Their garments are made of Kiau-she-ye (kauśeya) of cotton. Kiau-she-ye is the product of the wild silkworm. They have garments also of Tso-mo (kshauma), which is a sort of hemp; garments also made of Kien-po-lo (kambala) which is woven from fine goat-hair; garments also made from Ho-la-li (karāla)18 This stuff is made from the fine hair of a wild animal: it is seldom this can be woven, and therefore the stuff is very valuable, and it is regarded as fine clothing.

18 The Japanese equivalents are Ka-ra-tsi.

In North India, where the air is cold, they wear short [S. 76] and close-fitting garments, like the Hu people. The dress and ornaments worn by non-believers are varied and mixed. Some wear peacocks' feathers ; some wear as ornaments necklaces made of skull bones (the Kapāladhārinas) ; some have no clothing, but go naked (Nirgranthas) ; some wear leaf or bark garments ; some pull out their hair and cut off their moustaches ; others have bushy whiskers and their hair braided on the top of their heads. The costume is not uniform, and the colour, whether red or white, not constant.

The Shamans (Śramaṇas) have only three kinds19 of robes, viz., the Sang-kio-ki, the Ni-fo-si-na. The cut of the three robes is not the same, but depends on the school. Some have wide or narrow borders, others have small or large flaps. The Sang-kio-ki covers the left shoulder and conceals the two armpits. It is worn open on the left and closed on the right. It is cut longer than the waist. The Ni-fo-se-na has neither girdle nor tassels. When putting it on, it is plaited in folds and worn round the loins with a cord fastening. The schools differ as to the colour of this garment : both yellow and red are used.

19 There are only two names given in the text. The first, viz., Seng-kia-chi Saṅghāti is omitted. The other two are the Saṅkakshikā and the Nivāsana.

The Kshattriyas and the Brāhmaṇs are cleanly and wholesome in their dress, and they live in a homely and frugal way. The king of the country and the great ministers wear garments and ornaments different in their character. They use flowers for decorating their hair, with gem-decked caps ; they ornament themselves with bracelets and necklaces.

There are rich merchants who deal exclusively20 in gold trinkets, and so on. They mostly go bare-footed ; few wear sandals. They stain their teeth red or black ; they bind up their hair and pierce their ears ; they ornament21 their noses, and have large eyes. Such is their appearance. [S. 77]

20 It may also mean that the great merchants use only bracelets.
This may also mean "they have handsome noses."

8. Cleanliness, Ablutions, &c.

They are very particular in their personal cleanliness, and allow no remissness in this particular. All wash themselves before eating ; they never use that which has been left over (from a former meal) ; they do not pass the dishes. Wooden and stone vessels, when used, must be destroyed; vessels of gold, silver, copper, or iron after each meal must be rubbed and polished. After eating they cleanse their teeth with a willow stick, and wash their hands and mouth.

Until these ablutions are finished they do not touch one another. Every time they perform the functions of nature they wash their bodies and use perfumes of sandal-wood or turmeric.

When the king washes22 they strike the drums and sing hymns to the sound of musical instruments. Before offering their religious services and petitions, they wash and bathe themselves.

22 Julien translates "when the king is going out;" but in my copy it is as in the text.

9. Writing, Language, Books, the Vedas, Study.

The letters of their alphabet were arranged by Brahmādeva, and their forms have been handed down from the first till now. They are forty-seven in number, and are combined so as to form words according to the object, and according to circumstances (of time or place) : there are other forms (inflexions) used. This alphabet has spread in different directions and formed diverse branches, according to circumstances ; therefore there have been slight modifications in the sounds of the words (spoken language) ; but in its great features there has been no change. Middle India preserves the original character of the language in its integrity. Here the pronunciation is soft and able, and like the language of the Devas. The pronunciation of the words is clear and pure, and fit as a [S. 78] model for all men. The people of the frontiers have contracted several erroneous modes of pronunciation ; for according to the licentious habits of the people, so also will be the corrupt nature of their language.

With respect to the records of events, each province has its own official for preserving them in writing. The record of these events in their full character is called Ni-lo-pi-cli a (Nīlapiṭa, blue deposit). In these records are mentioned good and evil events, with calamities and fortunate occurrences.

To educate and encourage the young, they are first taught (led) to study the book of twelve chapters (Siddhavastu).23

23 This work in twelve chapters is that called Siddhavastu (Sih-ti-chang) in the Fan-i-ming-i-isi (book xiv. 17 a). It is called Sih-ti-lo-su-to by I-tsing (Nan hae, iv. 8 a) by mistake for Sih-ti-po-su-to, i.e., Siddhavastu. For some remarks on this subject see Max MÜller's letter to the Academy, Sept. 25, 1880 ; also Indian  Antiq., vol. ix, p. 307.

After arriving at the age of seven years and upwards, the young are instructed in the five Vidyās, Śāstras of great importance.24 The first is called the elucidation of sounds (Śabdavidyā.) This treatise explains and illustrates the agreement (concordance) of words, and it provides an index for derivatives.

24 Or, it may be translated "the great Śāstra, or Śāstras of the five  Vidyās," in Chinese, Ming. See below, Book iii. note 102.

The second vidyā is called Kiau-ming (Śilpasthānaridyā); it treats of the arts, mechanics, explains the principles of the Yin and Yang and the calendar.

The third is called the medicinal treatise (Chikitsāvidyā) ; it embraces formulae for protection, secret charms (the use of) medicinal stones, acupuncture, and mugwort.

The fourth vidyā is called the Hetuvidyā (science of causes) ; its name is derived from the character of the work, which relates to the determination of the true and false, and reduces to their last terms the definition of right and wrong.

The fifth vidyā is called the science of "the interior" [S. 79] (Adhyātmavidyā) ; it relates to the five vehicles,25 their causes and consequences, and the subtle influences of these.

25 The five Vehicles, the five degrees of religious advance amon the Buddhists: (1) The vehicle of Buddha, (2) of the Bodhisattvas, (3) of the Pratyeka Buddha, (4) of the ordained disciple, (5) of the lay disciple.

The Brāhmaṇs study the four Vea Śāstras. The first is called Shau (longevity) ; it relates to the preservation of life and the regulation of the natural condition. The second is called Sse (sacrifice) ; it relates to the (rules of) sacrifice and prayer. The third is called Ping (peace or regulation) ; it relates to decorum, casting of lots, military affairs, and army regulations. The fourth is called Shu (secret mysteries) ; it relates to various branches of science, incantations, medicine.26

26 The four Vedas, in the order they are here spoken of, are the Āyur Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sāma Veda, the Atharva Veda.

The teachers (of these works) must themselves have closely studied the deep and secret principles they contain, and penetrated to their remotest meaning. They then explain their general sense, and guide their pupils in understanding the words which are difficult. They urge them on and skilfully conduct them. They add lustre to their poor knowledge, and stimulate the desponding. If they find that their pupils are satisfied with their acquirements, and so wish to escape to attend to their worldly duties, then they use means to keep them in their power. When they have finished their education, and have attained thirty years of age, then their character is formed and their knowledge ripe. When they have secured an occupation they first of all thank their master for his attention. There are some, deeply versed in antiquity, who devote themselves to elegant studies, and live apart from the world, and retain the simplicity of their character. These rise above mundane presents, and are as insensible to renown as to the contempt of the world. Their name having spread afar, the rulers appreciate them highly, but [S. 80] are unable to draw them to the court. The chief of the country honours them on account of their (mental) gifts, and the people exalt their fame and render them universal homage. This is the reason of their devoting themselves to their studies with ardour and resolution, without any sense of fatigue. They search for wisdom, relying on their own resources. Although they are possessed of large wealth, yet they will wander here and there to seek their subsistence. There are others who, whilst attaching value to letters, will yet without shame consume their fortunes in wandering about for pleasure, neglecting their duties. They squander their substance in costly food and clothing. Having no virtuous principle, and no desire to study, they are brought to disgrace, and their infamy is widely circulated.

So, according to the class they belong to, all gain knowledge of the doctrine of Tathāgata; but, as the time is distant since the holy one lived, his doctrine is presented in a changed form, and so it is understood, rightly or not, according to the intelligence of those who inquire into it.

10. Buddhist Schools, Books, Discussions, Discipline.

The different schools are constantly at variance, and their contending utterances rise like the angry waves of the sea. The different sects have their separate masters, and in various directions aim at one end.

There are Eighteen schools, each claiming pre-eminence. The partisans of the Great and Little Vehicle are content to dwell apart. There are some who give themselves up to quiet contemplation, and devote themselves, whether walking or standing still or sitting down, to the acquirement of wisdom and insight ; others, on the contrary, differ from these in raising noisy contentions about their faith. According to their fraternity, they are governed by distinctive rules and regulations, which we need not name.

The Vinaya (liu), discourses (lun), sūtras (king), are equally Buddhist books. He who can entirely explain one class of these books is exempted from the control of [S. 81] the karmadāna. If he can explain two classes, he receives in addition the equipments of an upper seat (room) ; he who can explain three classes has allotted to him different servants to attend to and obey him ; he who can explain four classes has "pure men" (upāsakas) allotted to him as attendants ; he who can explain five classes of books is then allowed an elephant carriage; he who can explain six classes of books is allowed a surrounding escort. When a man's renown has reached to a high distinction, then at different times he convokes an assembly for discussion. He judges of the superior or inferior talent of those who take part in it ; he distinguishes their good or bad points ; he praises the clever and reproves the faulty ; if one of the assembly distinguishes himself by refined language, subtle investigation, deep penetration, and severe logic, then he is mounted on an elephant covered with precious ornaments, and conducted by a numerous suite to the gates of the convent.

If, on the contrary, one of the members breaks down in his argument, or uses poor and inelegant phrases, or if he violates a rule in logic and adapts his words accordingly, they proceed to disfigure his face with red and white, and cover his body with dirt and dust, and then carry him off to some deserted spot or leave him in a ditch. Thus they distinguish between the meritorious and the worthless, between the wise and the foolish.

The pursuit of pleasure belongs to a worldly life, to follow knowledge to a religious life ; to return to a worldly life from one of religion is considered blameworthy. If one breaks the rules of discipline, the transgressor is publicly reproved: for a slight fault a reprimand is given or a temporary banishment (enforced silence); for a grave fault expulsion is enforced. Those who are thus expelled for life go out to seek some dwelling-place, or, finding no place of refuge, wander about the roads; sometimes they go back to their old occupation (resume lay life). [S. 82]

11. Castes -- Marriage.

With respect to the division of families, there are four classifications. The first is called the Brāhmaṇ (Po-lo-men), men of pure conduct. They guard themselves in religion, live purely, and observe the most correct principles. The second is called Kshattriya (Tsa-ti-li), the royal caste. For ages they have been the governing class : they apply themselves to virtue (humanity) and kindness. The third is called Vaiśyas (fei-she-li), the merchant class : they engage in commercial exchange, and they follow profit at home and abroad, The fourth is called Śūdra (Shu-t'o-lo), the agricultural class : they labour in ploughing and tillage. In these four classes purity or impurity of caste assigns to every one his place. When they marry they rise or fall in position according to their new relationship. They do not allow promiscuous marriages between relations. A woman once married can never take another husband. Besides these there are other classes of many kinds that intermarry according to their several callings. It would be difficult to speak of these in detail.

12. Royal Family, Troops, Weapons.

The succession of kings is confined to the Kshattriya (T'sa-li) caste, who by usurpation and bloodshed have from time to time raised themselves to power. Although a distinct caste, they are regarded as honourable (or lords). The chief soldiers of the country are selected from the bravest of the people, and as the sons follow the profession of their fathers, they soon acquire a knowledge of the art of war. These dwell in garrison around the palace (during peace), but when on an expedition they march in front as an advanced guard. There are four divisions of the army, viz. (1) the infantry, (2) the cavalry, (3) the chariots, (4) the elephants.27 The elephants are covered with strong armour, and their tusks are provided with [S. 83] sharp spurs. A leader in a car gives the command, whilst two attendants on the right and left drive his chariot, which is drawn by four horses abreast. The general of the soldiers remains in his chariot ; he is surrounded by a file of guards, who keep close to his chariot wheels.

27 i.e., the pattakāya, aśvakāya, rathakāya, and hastikāya divisions.

The cavalry spread themselves in front to resist an attack, and in case of defeat they carry orders hither and thither. The infantry by their quick movements contribute to the defence. These men are chosen for their courage and strength. They carry a long spear and a great shield; sometimes they hold a sword or sabre, and advance to the front with impetuosity. All their weapons of war are sharp and pointed. Some of them are these spears, shields, bows, arrows, swords, sabres, battle-axes, lances, halberds, long javelins, and various kinds of slings.28 All these they have used for ages.

28 Compare the weapons in the hands of soldiers represented in the Ajanta frescoes. Burgess, Notes on the Buddhist Rock-Temples of Ajanta, &c., pp. 11, 20, 51, 67, 68, 72, 73, &c.

13. Manners, Administration of Law, Ordeals.

With respect to the ordinary people, although they are naturally light-minded, yet they are upright and honourable. In money matters they are without craft, and in administering justice they are considerate. They dread the retribution of another state of existence, and make light of the things of the present world. They are not deceitful or treacherous in their conduct, and are faithful to their oaths and promises. In their rules of government there is remarkable rectitude, whilst in their behaviour there is much gentleness and sweetness. With respect to criminals or rebels, these are few in number, and only occasionally troublesome. When the laws are broken or the power of the ruler violated, then the matter is clearly sifted and the offenders imprisoned. There is no infliction of corporal punishment ; they are simply left to live or die, and are not counted among men. When the rules of propriety or [S. 84] justice are violated, or when a man fails in fidelity or filial piety, then they cut his nose or his ears off, or his hands and feet, or expel him from the country or drive him out into the desert wilds. For other faults, except these, a small payment of money will redeem the punishment. In the investigation of criminal cases there is no use of rod or staff to obtain proofs (of guilt). In questioning an accused person, if he replies with frankness the punishment is proportioned accordingly; but if the accused obstinately denies his fault, or in despite of it attempts to excuse himself, then in searching out the truth to the bottom, when it is necessary to pass sentence, there are four kinds of ordeal used (1) by water, (2) by force, (3) by weighing, (4) by poison.

When the ordeal is by water, then the accused is placed in a sack connected with a stone vessel and thrown into deep water. They then judge of his innocence (truth) or guilt in this way if the man sinks and the stone floats he is guilty ; but if the man floats and the stone sinks then he is pronounced innocent.

Secondly, by fire. They heat a plate of iron and make the accused sit on it, and again place his feet on it, and apply it to the palms of his hands ; moreover, he is made to pass his tongue over it; if no scars result, he is innocent ; if there are scars, his guilt is proved. In case of weak and timid persons who cannot endure such ordeal, they take a flower-bud and cast it towards the fire ; if it opens, he is innocent ; if the flower is burnt, he is guilty.

Ordeal by weight is this : A man and a stone are placed in a balance evenly, then they judge according to lightness or weight. If the accused is innocent, then the man weighs down the stone, which rises in the balance ; if he is guilty, the man rises and the stone falls.

Ordeal by poison is this : They take a ram and make an incision in its right thigh, then mixing all sorts of poison with a portion of the food of the accused man, they place it in the incision made in the thigh (of the animal) [S. 85] ; if the man is guilty, then the poison takes effect and the creature dies ; if he is innocent, then the poison has no effect, and he survives.

By these four methods of trial the way of crime is stopped.

14. Forms of Politeness.

There are nine methods of showing outward respect

  1. by selecting words of a soothing character in making requests ;

  2. by bowing the head to show respect ;

  3. by raising the hands and bowing ;

  4. by joining the hands and bowing low ;

  5. by bending the knee;

  6. by a prostration ;29

  7. by a prostration on hands and knees ;

  8. by touching the ground with the five circles ;

  9. by stretching the five parts of the body on the ground.

Of these nine methods the most respectful is to make one prostration on the ground and then to kneel and laud the virtues of the one addressed. When at a distance it is usual to bow low ;30 when near, then it is customary to kiss the feet and rub the ankles (of the person addressed).

29 To kneel on all-fours. -- Wells Willliams.
K'i sang, to bow to the ground. W. W.

Whenever orders are received at the hands of a superior, the person lifts the skirts of his robes and makes a prostration. The superior or honourable person who is thus reverenced must speak gently (to the inferior), either touching his head or patting his back, and addressing him with good words of direction or advice to show his affection.

When a Śramaṇa, or one who has entered on the religious life, has been thus respectfully addressed, he simply replies by expressing a good wish (vow).

Not only do they prostrate themselves to show reverence, but they also turn round towards the thing reverenced in many ways, sometimes with one turn, sometimes with three: if from some long-cherished feeling there is a call for marked reverence, then according to the desire of the person. [S. 86]

15. Medicines, Funeral Customs, &c.

Every one who falls sick fasts for seven days. During this interval many recover, but if the sickness lasts they take medicine. The character of these medicines is different, and their names also. The doctors differ in their modes of examination and treatment.

When a person dies, those who attend the funeral raise lamentable cries and weep together. They rend their garments and loosen their hair ; they strike their heads and beat their breasts. There are no regulations as to dress for mourning, nor any fixed time for observing it.

There are three methods of paying the last tribute to the dead:

  1. by cremation wood being made into a pyre, the body is burnt ;

  2. by water the body is thrown into deep flowing water and abandoned ;

  3. by desertion the body is cast into some forest-wild, to be devoured by beasts.

When the king dies, his successor is first appointed, that he may preside at the funeral rites and fix the different points of precedence. Whilst living they give (their rulers) titles according to their character (virtue) when dead there are no posthumous titles.

In a house where there has been a death there is no eating allowed ; but after the funeral they resume their usual (habits). There are no anniversaries (of the death) observed. Those who have attended a death they consider unclean ; they all bathe outside the town and then enter their houses.

The old and infirm who come near to death, and those entangled in a severe sickness, who fear to linger to the end of their days, and through disgust wish to escape the troubles of life, or those who desire release from the trifling affairs of the world and its concerns (the concerns of life), these, after receiving a farewell meal at the hands of their relatives or friends, they place, amid the sounds of music, on a boat which they propel into the midst of [S. 87] the Ganges, where such persons drown themselves. They think thus to secure a birth among the Devas. Rarely one of these may be seen not yet dead on the borders (of the river).

The priests are not allowed to lament or cry for the dead; when a father or mother of a priest dies they recite their prayers, recounting (pledging) their obligations to them ; reflecting on the past, they carefully attend to them now dead. They expect by this to increase the mysterious character of their religious merit.

16. Civil Administration, Revenues, &c.

As the administration of the government is founded on benign principles, the executive is simple. The families are not entered on registers, and the people are not subject to forced labour (conscription). The private demesnes of the crown are divided into four principal parts;

  1. the first is for carrying out the affairs of state and providing sacrificial offerings ;

  2. the second is for providing subsidies for the ministers and chief officers of state ;

  3. the third is for rewarding men of distinguished ability ;

  4. and the fourth is for charity to religious bodies, whereby the field of merit is cultivated (planted).

In this way the taxes on the people are light, and the personal service required of them is moderate. Each one keeps his own worldly  goods in peace, and all till the ground for their subsistence. These who cultivate the royal estates pay a sixth part of the produce as tribute. The merchants who engage in commerce come and go in carrying out their transactions. The river-passages and the road-barriers are open on payment of a small toll. When the public works require it, labour is exacted but paid for. The payment is in strict proportion to the work done.

The military guard the frontiers, or go out to punish the refractory. They also mount guard at night round the palace. The soldiers are levied according to the requirements of the service ; they are promised certain payments [S. 88] and are publicly enrolled. The governors, ministers, magistrates, and officials have each a portion of land consigned to them for their personal support.

17. Plants and Trees, Agriculture, Food, Drink, Cookery.

The climate and the quality of the soil being different according to situation, the produce of the land is various in its character. The flowers and plants, the fruits and trees are of different kinds, and have distinct names. There is, for instance, the Amala fruit (Ngān-mo-lo), the Āmla fruit (Ngān-mi-lo), the Madhuka fruit (Mo-tu-kia), the Bhadra fruit (po-ta-lo), the Kapittha fruit (kie-pi-ta), the Amalā fruit (O-mo-lo), the Tinduka fruit (Chin-tu-kia), the Udumbara fruit (Wu-tan-po-lo), the Mocha fruit (Mau-che), the Nārikela fruit (Na-li-ki-lo), the Panasa fruit (Pan-na-so). It would be difficult to enumerate all the kinds of fruit ; we have briefly named those most esteemed by the people. As for the date (Tsau) the chestnut (Lih), the loquat (P'i), and the persimmon (TJii), they are not known.

The pear (Li), the wild plum (Nai), the peach (T'au), the apricot (Hang or Mui), the grape (Po-tau), &c., these all have been brought from the country of Kaśmīr, and are found growing on every side. Pomegranates and sweet oranges are grown everywhere.

In cultivating the land, those whose duty it is sow and reap, plough and harrow (weed), and plant according to the season ; and after their labour they rest awhile. Among the products of the ground, rice and corn are most plentiful. With respect to edible herbs and plants, we may name ginger and mustard, melons and pumpkins, the Heun-to (Kaṇḍu ?) plant, and others. Onions and garlic are little grown ; and few persons eat them ; if any one uses them for food, they are expelled beyond the walls of the town. The most usual food is milk, butter, cream, soft sugar, sugar-candy, the oil of the mustard-seed, and all sorts of cakes made of corn are used as food. Fish, [S. 89] mutton, gazelle, and deer they eat generally fresh, sometimes salted; they are forbidden to eat the flesh of the ox, the ass, the elephant, the horse, the pig, the dog, the fox, the wolf, the lion, the monkey, and all the hairy kind. Those who eat them are despised and scorned, and are universally reprobated ; they live outside the walls, and are seldom seen among men.

With respect to the different kinds of wine and liquors, there are various sorts. The juice of the grape and sugarcane, these are used by the Kshattriyas as drink ; the Vaiśyas use strong fermented drinks ;31 the Śramaṇs and Brāhmaṇs drink a sort of syrup made from the grape or sugarcane, but not of the nature of fermented wine.32

31 Shun lo, high-flavoured spirits.
32 Called, theregore, "not-wine-body," i.e., non-alcoholic.

The mixed classes and base-born differ in no way (as to food or drink) from the rest, except in respect of the vessels they use, which are very different both as to value and material. There is no lack of suitable things for household use. Although they have saucepans and stew-pans, yet they do not know the steamer used for cooking rice. They have many vessels made of dried clay ; they seldom use red copper vessels : they eat from one vessel, mixing all sorts of condiments together, which they take up with their fingers. They have no spoons or cups, and in short no sort of chopstick. When sick, however, they use copper drinking cups.

18. Commercial Transactions.

Gold and silver, teou-shih (native copper), white jade, fire pearls,33 are the natural products of the country ; there are besides these abundance of rare gems and various kinds of precious stones of different names, which are collected from the islands of the sea. These they exchange for goods ; and in fact they always barter in their commercial [S. 90] transactions, for they have no gold or silver coins, pearl shells, or little pearls.34

33 If fo is a mistake for kiang, as it probably is, the substance would be "amber."
34 This translation differs from Julien's. The text is probably corrupt.

The boundaries of India and the neighbouring countries are herein fully described ; the differences of climate and soil are briefly alluded to. Details referring to these points are grouped together, and are stated succinctly; and in referring to the different countries, the various customs and modes of administration are fully detailed.

LAN-PO [LAMGHĀN] [heute Laghmān / لغمان].

Abb.: Lage von Laghmān / لغمان, Afghanistan
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia, GNU FDLicense]

The kingdom of Lan-po35 is about 1000 li [里] in circuit, and on the north is backed by the Snowy Mountains ; on three sides it is surrounded by the Black-ridge Mountains. The capital of the country is about 10 li [里] in circuit. As for some centuries the royal family has been extinct, the chiefs have disputed for power among themselves, without the acknowledged superiority of any one in particular. Lately it has become tributary to Kapiśa [کاپيسا‎]. The country is adapted for the production of rice, and there are many forests of sugar-cane. The trees, though they produce many fruits, yet few are ripened. The climate is backward; the hoar-frosts are plenty, but not much snow. In common there is abundance and contentment. The men (people) are given to music. Naturally they are untrustworthy and thievish ; their disposition is exacting one over the other, and they never give another the preference over themselves. In respect of stature they are little, but they are active and impetuous. Their garments are made of white linen for the most part, and what they [S. 91] wear is well appointed. There are about ten saṅghārāmas, with few followers (priests). The greater portion study the Great Vehicle. There are several scores of different Deva temples. There are few heretics. Going southeast from this country 100 li [里] or so, we cross a great mountain (ridge), pass a wide river, and so come to Na-kie-lo-ho [the frontiers of North India].

35 Lan-po corresponds with the present Lamghān, a small country lying along the northern Bank of the Kābul river, bounded on the west aand east by the Alingar and Kunar rivers. -- Cunningham. The Sanskrit name of the district is Lampaka, and the Lampākas are said to be also called Muraṇḍas (Mahābh. vii, 4847; Reinaud, Mém s, l'Inde, p. 353 ; and Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. ii. p. 877, vol. iii. p.136f.) Ptolemy (lib. vii. c. 1, 42) places a tribe called Λαμπαται, Λαμβαται, or Λαμπαγαι in this district. The modern name is vulgarly pronounced Laghmān. See Barber's Memoirs, pp. 133, 136, 140ff. ; Cunningham, Anc. Geog. Ind. p. 43.

NA-KIE-LO-HO [NAGARAHĀRA] [heute: Nangarhar / ننګرهار].

Abb.: Lage von Nangarhar / ننګرهار, Afghanistan
Bildquelle: Wikipedia, GNU FDLicense]

The country of Nagarahāra (Xa-kie-lo-ho) is about 600 li [里] from east to west, and 250 or 260 li [里] from north to south. It is surrounded on four sides by overhanging precipices and natural barriers. The capital is 20 li [里] or so in circuit.36 It has no chief ruler ; the commandant and his subordinates come from Kapiśa [کاپيسا‎]. The country is rich in cereals, and produces a great quantity of flowers and fruits. The climate is moist and warm. Their manners are simple and honest, their disposition ardent and courageous. They think lightly of wealth and love learning. They cultivate the religion of Buddha, and few believe in other doctrines. The saṅghārāmas are many, but yet the priests are few; the stūpas are desolate and ruined. There are five Deva temples, with about one hundred worshippers.37 [S. 92]

36 The situation of the town of Nagarahāra (the old capital of the Jalālābād district) has been satisfactorily determined by Mr. W. Simpson (J. R. A. S.t N.S., vol. xiii. p. 183).  He places the site of the town in the angle formed by the junction of the Surkhar and Kābul rivers, on their right banks. Both the direction and the distance from Lamghān (about twenty miles south-east) would place us on this spot. The mountains crossed by the pilgrim were the Siāh Kōh, and the river would be probably the Kābul river at Darunta. The Sanskrit name -- Nagarahāra -- occurs in an inscription which was discovered by Major Kittoe in the ruined mound if Ghosrāwā in the district of Bihār (J.A.S.B., vol xvii. pt. i. pp. 492, 494, 498f.) The district corresponds with the Ναγαρα Διονυσοπολις of Ptolemy (lib. vii. c. #1, 43). It is called the city of Dīpaṅkara by Hwui-lih (Jul. Vie, p. 78), just as he calls Hiḍḍa the city of "the skull-bone" (l.c.) Conf. Lassen I.A., vol. iii. p. 137.

37 Worshippers or "men of different religious faith." The usual term for "non-believer" in Chinese is wai-tau, an "outside-religion man." This term correpsonds with the Pāli bāhiro, used in the same way. The BUddhists are now spoken of by the Muhammadans as Kaffir log, "infidel people" (Simpson, u. s., p. 186.  

Three li [里] to the east of the city there is a stūpa in height about 300 feet, which was built by Aśoka Rāja. It is wonderfully constructed38 of stone beautifully adorned and carved. Śākya, when a Bodhisattva, here met Dīpaṅkara39 Buddha (Jen-tang-fo), and spreading out his deerskin doublet, and unbinding his hair and covering with it the muddy road, received a predictive assurance. Though the passed kalpa brought the overthrow of the world, the trace of this event was not destroyed; on religious (fast) days the sky rains down all sorts of flowers, which excite a religious frame of mind in the people, who also offer up religious offerings.

38 The Chinese expression seems to refer to the successive layers of checkered stones peculiar to these topes. See W. Simpson's and also Mr. Swinnerton's account.—Ind. Antiq., vol. viii. pp. 198 & 227 f.

39 The incident referred to in the text, viz., the interview between Dīpaṅkara Buddha and the Bodhisattva Sumedha, is a popular one in Buddhist sculpture and mythology. There is a representation of it among fragments in the Lahor Museum ; another representation is among the sculptures of the Kanheri caves (Achaeol. Sur. W. Ind, Rep. vol. iv. p. 66). The legend I translated from the Chinese (J.R.A. Soc, N.S., vol. vi. pp. 377 ff). Fa-hien also refers to it (Buddhist Pilgrims, p. 43). See also some remarks on this legend, Ind. Antiq., vol. xi. p. 146 ; and conf. Rhys David's Buddh. Birth-Stories, pp. 3 f.

To the west of this place is a Kia-lan (saṅghārāma) with a few priests. To the south is a small stūpa : this was the place where, in old time, Bodhisattva covered the mud (with his hair). Aśoa-rāja built (this stūpa) away from the road.40

40 This is a difficult passage, and is probably corrupt. The phrase "ts'ui-pi," towards the end, may mean "in an out-of-the-way place." The reference is to the spot where predictive assurance was given to Sumedha that he should become a Buddha.

Within the city is the ruined foundation of a great stūpa. Tradition says that it once contained a tooth of Buddha, and that it was high and of great magnificence. Now it has no tooth, but only the ancient foundations remain. By its side is a stūpa 30 feet or so in height ; the old stories of the place know nothing of the origin of this fabric ; they say only that it fell from heaven and placed itself here. Being no work of man's art, it is clearly a spiritual prodigy. [S. 93]

To the south-west of the city about 10 li [里] is a stūpa. Here Tathāgata, when living in the world, alighted, having left Mid-India and passed through the air for the sake of converting men. The people, moved by reverence, erected this building. Not far to the east is a stūpa ; it was here Bodhisattva met Dīpaṅkara Buddha and bought the flowers.41

41 He bought the flowers of a girl, who consented to sell them only on condition that she should ever hereafter be born as his wife. See the account in the "Legend of Dīpaṅkara Buddha" (J.R.A.S., N.S., vol. vi. pp. 377 ff.) The incident of the flowers remaining over the head as a "baldachin" is represented in the Lahor sculpture referred to above, note 39. See Fergusson, Tree and Serp. Worship. pl. L.

About 20 li [里] to the south-west of the city we come to a small stone ridge, where there is a saṅghārāma with a high hall and a storied tower made of piled-up stone. It is now silent and deserted, with no priests. In the middle is a stūpa 200 feet or so in height, built by Aśoka-rāja.

To the south-west of this saṅghārāma a deep torrent rushes from a high point of the hill and scatters its waters in leaping cascades. The mountain sides are like walls ; on the eastern side of one is a great cavern, deep and profound, the abode of the Nāga Gopāla. The gate (or entrance) leading to it is narrow ; the cavern is dark ; the precipitous rock causes the water to find its way in various rivulets into this cavern. In old days there was a shadow of Buddha to be seen here, bright as the true form, with all its characteristic marks.42 In later days men have not seen it so much. What does appear is only a feeble likeness. But whoever prays with fervent faith, he is mysteriously endowed, and he sees it clearly before him, though not for long.

42 See note 5 p.1, and p. 145, note 76.

In old times, when Tathāgata was in the world, this dragon was a shepherd who provided the king with milk and cream. Having on one occasion failed to do so, and having received a reprimand, he proceeded in an angry temper to the stūpa of "the predictive assurance," and [S. 94] there made an offering of flowers, with the prayer that he might become a destructive dragon for the purpose of afflicting the country and destroying the king. Then ascending the rocky side of the hill, he threw himself down and was killed. Forthwith he became a great dragon and occupied this cavern, and then he purposed to go forth and accomplish his original wicked purpose. When this intention had risen within him, Tathāgata, having examined what was his object, was moved with pity for the country and the people about to be destroyed by the dragon. By his spiritual power he came from Mid-India to where the dragon was. The dragon seeing Tathāgata, his murderous purpose was stayed, and he accepted the precept against killing, and vowed to defend the true law ; he requested Tathāgata to occupy this cavern evermore, that his holy disciples might ever receive his (the dragon's) religious offerings.43

43 This is evidently the meaning of the passage : the request was, not that the dragon might dwell in the cavern, but that Tathāgata would live there with his disciples. Fa-hian refers to this cave.

Tathāgata replied, "When I am about to die; I will leave you my shadow, and I will send five Arhats to receive from you continual offerings. When the true law is destroyed,44 this service of yours shall still go on ; if an evil heart rises in you, you must look at my shadow, and because of its power of love and virtue your evil purpose will be stopped. The Buddhas who will appear throughout this Bhadra-kalpa45 will all, from a motive of pity, intrust to you their shadows as a bequest." Outside the gate of the Cavern of the Shadow there are two square stones; on one is the impression of the foot of Tathāgata, with a wheel-circle (lun-siang) beautifully clear, which shines with a brilliant light from time to time.

44 the "true law" was to last 500 years ; the "law of images" 1000 years.

45 This period is that in which we now are, during which 1000 Buddhas are to appear.

On either side of the Cavern of the Shadow there are [S. 95] several stone chambers ; in these the holy disciples of Tathāgata reposed in meditation.

At the north-west corner of the cave of the shadow is a stūpa where Buddha walked up and down. Beside this is a stūpa which contains some of the hair and the nail-parings of Tathāgata.

Not far from this is a stūpa where Tathāgata, making manifest the secret principles of his true doctrine, declared the Skandha-dhātu-āyatanas (Yun-kiai-king).46

46 The symbol "chu" (āyatana) in this passage must be connected with the previous "yun kial" The yun kial chu are the eighteen dhātus, for which see Childers' Pali Dict. (sub voc). Vide also the Śuraṅgama Sūtra (Catena of Buddhist Scrip., p. 297 n. 2). There is no word in my text for king, given by Julien.

At the west of the Cave of the Shadow is a vast rock, on which Tathāgata in old time spread out his kashāya47 robe after washing it; the marks of the tissue still exist.

47 Kashāya refers to the colour of the Buddhist upper robe, which was of brick-red or yellow colour (kashaya).

To the south-east of the city 30 li [里] or so is the town of Hi-lo (Hidda) ;48 it is about 4 or 5 li [里] in circuit ; it is high in situation and strong by natural declivities. It has flowers and woods, and lakes whose waters are bright as a mirror. The people of this city are simple, honest, and upright. There is here a two-storied tower ; the beams are painted and the columns coloured red. [S. 96] In the second storey is a little stūpa, made of the seven precious substances ; it contains the skull-bone of Tathāgata; it is 1 foot 2 inches round; the hair orifices are distinct; its colour is a whitish-yellow. It is enclosed in a precious receptacle, which is placed in the middle of the stūpa. Those who wish to make lucky or unlucky presages (marks') make a paste of scented earth, and impress it on the skull-bone ; then, according to their merit, is the impression made.

48 The city of Hi-lo or Hiḍḍa (concerning which restoration, see V. de St. Martin's Mém., u. s., p. 304), about six miles south-east of Nagarahāra, is described by Fa-hian (cap. xiii) The Vihāra of the skull-bone is there said to be placed within a square enclosure, and it is added, "though the heavens should quake and the earth open, this place would remain unmoved." Compare with this the remark of Hiuen Tsiang respecting Śvetavāras (sup. p. 61) and its name of Τετραγωνις. It is curious, too, that this place (the neighbourhood of Hiḍḍa) is called Begrām, and so also is Śvetavāras (i.e., Karsana or Tetragonis). Both Begrām and Nagara appear to mean "the city." This town or Nagarahāra may be the Nyssa or Nysa of Arrian (lib. v. cap. i.) and Curtius (lib. viii. cap. x. 7), in which case there would be no need to derive Dionysopolis— the Nagara of Ptolemy—from Udyānapura, although, as General Cunningham remarks (Anc. Geog. of Ind. p. 46), the name Ajūna, given to Nagarahāra (according to Masson) might well be corrupted from Ujjāna or Udyāna. Compare with the text the account found in Hwui-lih ( Vie, p. 76). Conf. Nouv. Jour. Asiatique, tom. vii. pp. 338 f.; Masson, Var. Jour., voL: iii. pp. 254 ff.; Wilson, Ariana Ant. pp. 43, 105 f.

Again there is another little stūpa, made of the seven precious substances, which encloses the skull-bone of Tuthāgata. Its shape is like a lotus leaf;49 its colour is the same as that of the other, and it is also contained in a precious casket, sealed up and fastened.

49 The ho hwa is the water-lily, but it is also a general name for mallows (Medhurst, s. v.) This bone is that of the ushṇisha or top of the skull.

Again, there is another little stūpa, made of the seven precious substances, in which is deposited the eyeball of Tathāgata, large as an Āmra fruit and bright and clear throughout; this also is deposited in a precious casket sealed up and fastened. The Sanghāti robe of Tathāgata, which is made of fine cotton stuff of a yellow-red colour,50 is also enclosed in a precious box. Since many months and years have passed, it is a little damaged. The staff51 of Tathāgata, of which the rings are white iron (tin ?) and the stick of sandalwood, is contained in a precious case (a case made of a precious substance). Lately, a king, hearing of these various articles that they formerly belonged to Tathāgata as his own private property, took them away by force to his own country and placed them in his palace. After a short time,52 going to look at them, they were gone; [S. 97] and after further inquiries he found they had returned to their original place. These five sacred objects (relics) often work miracles.

50 Such seems to be the meaning. Julien has taken it as though kia-sha referred to another garment, but it seems merely to denote the robe called Sanghāti.

51 The religious staff, khakkharam or hikkala, was so called from the noise it made when shaken. Conf. hikk; Ch. sek ; Sek cheung, an abbot's crosier or staff (Wells Williams). It is described in the Sha-men-yih-yung (fol. 14 a). See p. 47, ante.

52 Scarcely had an hour elapsed.

The king of Kapiśa has commanded five pure-conduct men (Brāhmaṇs) to offer continually scents and flowers to these objects. These pure persons, observing the crowds who came to worship incessantly, wishing to devote themselves to quiet meditation, have established a scale of fixed charges, with a view to secure order, by means of that wealth which is so much esteemed by men. Their plan, in brief, is this : All who wish to see the skull-bone of Tathāgata have to pay one gold piece ; those who wish to take an impression pay five pieces. The other objects53 in their several order, have a fixed price ; and yet, though the charges are heavy, the worshippers are numerous.

53 The phrase tsze chu, which is of frequent occurence in Buddhist composition, seems to mean "moreover" ore "besides this."

To the north-west of the double-storied pavilion is a stūpa, not very high or large, but yet one which possesses many spiritual (miraculous) qualities. If men only touch it with a finger, it shakes and trembles to the foundation, and the bells and the jingles moving together give out a pleasant sound.

Going south-east from this, crossing mountains and valleys for 500 li [里] or so, we arrive at the kingdom of Kien-t'o-lo (Gandhāra).


Abb.: Gandhāra

[Quelle der Abb.: Cunningham, Alexander <1814 - 1893>: The ancient geography of India / ed. with introduction ande notes by Surendranath Majumdar Sastri. -- New. ed. -- Calcutta : Chuckervertty, Chatterjee & Co., 1924. -- 770 S. : Ill. -- S. Nach S. 54.]

The kingdom of Gandhāra is about 1000 li [里] from east to west, and about 800 li [里] from north to south. On the east it borders on the river Sin (Sindh). The capital of the country is called Po-lu-sha-pu-lo ;54 it is about 40 li [里] [S. 98] in circuit. The royal family is extinct, and the kingdom is governed by deputies from Kapiśa. The towns and villages are deserted, and there are but few inhabitants. At one corner of the royal residence55 there are about 1000 families The country is rich in cereals, and produces a variety of flowers and fruits ; it abounds also in sugar-cane, from the juice of which they prepare "the solid sugar." The climate is warm and moist, and in general without ice or snow. The disposition of the people is timid and soft: they love literature; most of them belong to heretical schools ; a few believe in the true law. From old time till now this border-land of India has produced many authors of śāstras ; for example, Nārāyaṇadeva,66 Asaṅga Bodhisattva, Vasubandhu Bodhisattva, Dharmatrāta, Manorhita, Parśva the noble, and so on. There are about 1000 saṅghārmas, which are deserted and in ruins. They are filled with wild shrubs,57 and solitary to the last degree. The stūpas are mostly decayed. The heretical temples, to the number of about 100, are occupied pell-mell by heretics.

54 The country of Gandhāra is that of the lower Kābul valley, lying along the Kābul river between the Khoaspes (Kunar) and the Indus. It is the country of the Gandarae of Ptolemy (geog, lib. vi. c. 1,7). The capital was Purushapura now Peshāwar. The Gandarii are mentioned by Hekataios (Fr. 178, 179) and Herodotos (lib. iii. c. 91, lib vii. c. 66), and the district of Gandaritis by Strabo (Geog., lib. xv. c. I, 26). See Wilson, Ariana Ant., pp. 125, 131 ; J. R. As. Soc., vol. v. p. 117; Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. i. pp. 502 f., vol. ii. pp. 150, 854 ; Pentapot, pp. 15 f., 105 ; Asiat. Res., vol. xv. pp. 103, 106 f.; Vishṇu-pur., vol. ii. pp. 169, 174, vol. iii. p. 319, vol. iv. p. 118; Mahābh, viii. 2055 f.; Troyer's Rāja-Taraṅginī, tom. ii. pp. 316-321; Elliot, Hist. Ind., vol i. p. 48 n.; Bunbury, Hist. Anc Geog., vol. i. p. 142, 238 ; Reinaud, Mém. sur l'Inde, pp. 106 f. Pāṇini (iv. 2, 133) mentions the Gandhāra in the group Kachchhādi.

55 The Kung shing is the fortified or walled portion of the town, in which the royal palace stood.

56 There is a symbol puh before this name, which, as Julien has remarked, is inserted by mistake. The Chinese equivalents for the names of these writers are as follows: Na-lo-yen-tin (Nārāyaṇadeva), Wu-ch'o-p'u-sa (Asaṅgha Bodhisattva), Shi-shin-p'u-sa (Vasubandhu Bodhisattva), Fa-kiu (Dharmatrāta), Ju-i (Manorhita), Hie-tsun (Arya Pārśvika). All these, the text says, were born in Gandhāra

57 Julien has pointed out the error in the text and supplied this meaning.

Inside the royal city, towards the north-east,58 is an old foundation (or a ruinous foundation). Formerly this was the precious tower of the pātra of Buddha. After the Nirvāṇa of Buddha, his pātra coming to this country, was [S. 99] worshipped during many centuries. In traversing different countries it has come now to Persia.59

58 Julien has north-west.

59 For the wanderings of the Pātra of Buddha (called in Chinese "the measure vessel," compare graduale and grail), see Fa-hian, pp. 36 f., 161 f.; Köppen, Die Rel. des Buddha, vol. i. p. 526; J.R.A.S. vol. xi. p. 127; also consult Yule's Marco Polo vol ii. pp. 301. 310f.

Outside the city, about 8 or 9 li [里] to the south-east, there is a pipala tree about 100 feet or so in height. Its branches are thick and the shade beneath sombre and deep. The four past Buddhas have sat beneath this tree, and at the present time there are four sitting figures of the Buddhas to be seen here. During the Bhadrakalpa, the 996 other Buddhas will all sit here. Secret spiritual influences guard the precincts of the tree and exert a protecting virtue in its continuance. Śākya Tathāgata sat beneath this tree with his face to the south and addressed Ānanda thus :

"Four hundred years after my departure from the world, there will be a king who shall rule it called Kanishka (Kia-ni-se-kia) ; not far to the south of this spot he will raise a stūpa which will contain many various relics of my bones and flesh."

To the south of the Pippala tree is a stūpa built by King Kanishka ; this king ascended the throne four hundred years after the Nirvāṇa60 and governed the whole of Jambudvīpa. He had no faith either in wrong or right (crime or religious merit), and he lightly esteemed the law of Buddha. One day when traversing a swampy grove (bushy swamp) he saw a white hare, which he followed as far as this spot, when suddenly it disappeared. He then saw a young shepherd-boy, who was building in the wood hard by a little stūpa about three feet high. The king said, "What are you doing ?" The shepherd-boy answered and said, "Formerly Śākya Buddha, by his divine wisdom, delivered this prophecy: 'There shall be a king in this victorious (superior) land who shall erect a stūpa, which shall contain a great portion of my bodily relics.' The sacred merits of the great king (Kanishka) [S. 100] in former births (suh), with his increasing fame, have made the present occasion a proper one for the fulfilment of the old prophecy relating to the divine merit and the religious superiority of the person concerned. And now I am engaged for the purpose of directing you to these former predictions."61 Having said these words he disappeared.

60 See ante, p. 56, note 200, and inf. p 151, note 97.
61 Or, to arouse you to a sense of your destiny (your previous forecast).

The king hearing this explanation, was overjoyed. Flattering himself that he was referred to in the prophecy of the great saint, he believed with all his heart and paid reverence to the law of Buddha. Surrounding the site of the little stūpa he built a stone stūpa, wishing to surpass it in height, to prove the power of his religious merit. But in proportion as his stūpa increased the other always exceeded it by three feet, and so he went on till his reached 400 feet, and the circumference of the base was a li [里] and a half. The storeys having reached to five, each 150 feet in height, then he succeeded in covering the other. The king, overjoyed, raised on the top of this stūpa twenty-five circlets of gilded copper on a staff, and he placed in the middle of the stūpa a peck of the Śarīras of Tathāgata, and offered to them religious offerings. Scarcely had he finished his work when he saw the little stūpa take its place at the south-east of the great foundation, and project from its side about half-way up.62 The king was disturbed [S. 101] at this, and ordered the stūpa to be destroyed. When they had got down to the bottom of the second storey, through which the other projected, immediately that one removed to its former place, and once more it surpassed in height the<other. The king retiring said, "It is easy to commit errors in human affairs,63 but when there is divine influence at work it is difficult to counteract it. When a matter is directed by spiritual power, what can human resentment effect ?" Having confessed his fault, therefore, he retired.

62 Julien translates this differently —" he saw the little stūpa raise itself by the side of the other and exceed it by one-half." The passage is undoubtedly a difficult one, and rendered more so by a faulty text. To understand it, we must observe that the building was a tower of five storeys, each 150 feet in height. The small stūpa or tower was enclosed in the middle of the lower basement. Suddenly, when the large tower was finished, the smaller one changed its position, and came to the south-east angle of the great foundation—i.e., of the lowest division or storey—and pierced through the wall of the larger building about half way up. Kanishka, ill at ease in the presence of this portent, ordered the greater building to be destroyed down to the second stage. On this being done the little tower again went back to the middle of the space enclosed by the basement of the larger one, and there overtopped it as before. So I understand the passage; and if this be so, the only alteration required in the text is in the last clause, where instead of siu, "little," I would substitute ta, "great," "it came out of, i.e., towered above, the great stūpa."

63 Or, human affairs are changeable and deceptive.

These two stūpas are still visible. In aggravated64 sickness, if a cure is sought, people burn incense and offer flowers, and with a sincere faith pay their devotions. In many cases a remedy is found.

64 The sense of ying in thin passage is doubtful; it may mean "complicated" or "threatening (sickness)," or it may refer to complaints peculiar to children.

On the southern side of the steps, on the eastern face of the great stūpa, there are engraved (or carved) two stūpas,65 one three feet high, the other five feet. They are the same shape and proportion as the great stūpa. Again, there are two full-sized figures of Buddha, one four feet, the other six feet in height. They resemble him as he sat cross-legged beneath the Bodhi tree. When the full rays of the sun shine on them they appear of a brilliant gold colour, and as the light decreases the hues of the stone seem to assume a reddish-blue colour. The old people say, "Several centuries ago, in a fissure of the stone foundation, there were some gold-coloured ants, the greatest about the size of the finger, the longest about a barleycorn in size. Those of the same species consorted together ; by gnawing the stone steps they have left lines and marks as if engraved on the surface, and by the gold sand which they left (as deposits) they have caused the figures of Buddha to assume their present appearence. [S. 102]

65 The expression lo c'ho would seem to mean that the stūpas were engraved, not built. The particular named as to steps leading up to the stūpa is significant, as illustrating the architectural appearance and character of these buildings.

On the southern side of the stone steps of the great stūpa66 there is a painted figure of Buddha about sixteen feet high. From the middle upward there are two bodies, below the middle, only one. The old tradition says : In the beginning, there was a poor man who hired himself out to get a living ; having obtained a gold coin, he vowed to make a figure of Buddha. Coming to the stūpa, he spoke to a painter and said, "I wish now to get a figure of Tathāgata painted, with its beautiful points of excellence;67 but I only have one gold coin; this is little enough to repay an artist. I am sorry to be so hampered by poverty in carrying out my cherished aim."

66 This is the literal translation ; it may mean "on the southern side of the steps," as though there were steps only on the eastern side of the stūpa ; or it may, by license, mean "on the steps of the stūpa, its southern face," as though the steps referred to were on the southern face. But the literal translation is preferable, in which case we may assume that a flight of steps on the eastern side led up to the platform on which the tower (stūpa) was built, and that the figures referred to were engraved between the pilasters of the terrace on the north and south sides of the steps.

67 Or, "a beautifully marked figure of Tathāgata." The marks (siang or lakshaṇa) of Buddha are well known.—See Burnouf, Lotus, p. 616, and ante, p. 1, note 5.

Then the painter, observing his simple truth, said nothing about the price, but promised to set to work to furnish the picture.

Again there was a man, similarly circumstanced, with one gold coin, who also sought to have a picture of Buddha painted. The painter having received thus a gold piece from each, procured some excellent colours (blue and vermilion) and painted a picture. Then both men came the same day to pay reverence to the picture they had had done, and the artist pointed each to the same figure, telling them, "This is the figure of Buddha which you ordered to be done." The two men looking at one another in perplexity, the mind of the artist understanding their doubts, said, "What are you thinking about so long ? If you are thinking about the money, I have not defrauded you of any part. To show that it is so there must be some spiritual indication on the part of the picture." [S. 103] Scarcely had he finished when the picture, by some spiritual power, divided itself (from the middle upwards), and both parts emitted a glory alike. The two men with joy believed and exulted.

To the south-west of the great, stūpa 100 paces or so, there is a figure of Buddha in white stone about eighteen feet high. It is a standing figure, and looks to the north. It has many spiritual powers, and diffuses a brilliant light. Sometimes there are people who see the image come out of an evening and go round68 the great stūpa. Lately a band of robbers wished to go in and steal. The image immediately came forth and went before the robbers. Affrighted, they ran away ; the image then returned to its own place, and remained fixed as before. The robbers, affected by what they had seen, began a new life, and went about through towns and villages telling what had happened.

68 That is, circumambulate it, or perform the pradakshiṇa.

To the left and right of the great stūpa are a hundred little stūpas standing closely together,69 executed with consummate art. Exquisite perfumes and different musical sounds at times are perceived, the work of Ṛishis, saints, and eminent sages ; these also at times are seen walking round the stūpas.

69 The expression means, as M. Julien explains, arranged in order like the scales of a fish, that is, with regularity.

According to the prediction of Tathāgata, after this stūpa has been seven times burnt down and seven times rebuilt, then the religion of Buddha will disappear. The record of old worthies says this building has already been destroyed and restored three times. When (I) first arrived in this country it had just been destroyed by a fire calamity. Steps are being taken for its restoration, but they are not yet complete.

To the west of the great stūpa there is an old saṅghārāma which was built by King Kanishka. Its double towers, connected terraces, storeyed piles, and deep chambers [S. 104] bear testimony to the eminence of the great priests who have here formed their illustrious religious characters (gained distinction). Although now somewhat decayed, it yet gives evidence of its wonderful construction. The priests living in it are few ; they study the Little Vehicle. From the time it was built many authors of śāstras have lived herein and gained the supreme fruit (of Arhatship). Their pure fame is wide-spread, and their exemplary religious character still survives.

In the third tower (double-storeyed tower) is the chamber of the honourable Pārśvika (Pi-lo-shi-po), but it has long been in ruins ; but they have placed here a commemorative tablet to him. He was at first a master of the Brāhmaṇs (or a Brāhmaṇ doctor), but when eighty years of age he left his home and assumed the soiled robes (of a Buddhist disciple). The boys of the town ridiculed him, saying, " Foolish old man ! you have no wisdom, surely ! Don't you know that they who become disciples of Buddha have two tasks to perform, viz., to give themselves to meditation and to recite the Scriptures ? And now you are old and infirm, what progress can you make as a disciple ?70 Doubtless you know how to eat (and that is all) !" Then Pārśvika, hearing such railing speeches, gave up the world71 and made this vow, "Until I thoroughly penetrate72 the wisdom of the three Piṭakas and get rid of the evil desire of the three worlds, till I obtain the six miraculous powers73 and reach the eight deliverances (vimokshas), I will not lie down to rest (my side shall not touch the sleeping mat)." From that day forth the day was not enough for him to walk in meditation or to sit upright in deep thought. In the daytime he studied incessantly the doctrine of the [S. 105] sublime principles (of Buddhism), and at night he sat silently meditating in unbroken thought. After three years he obtained insight into the three piṭakas, and shook off all worldly desires,74 and obtained the threefold knowledge.75 Then people called him the honourable Pārśvika76 and paid him reverence.

70 Lit., in the pure streams of the high calling (traces).

71 Withdrew from "time and men." It may be, withdrew for a time from men.

72 Whilst I do not understand, &c.

73 The six miraculous or spiritual powers are the abhijñās, so called ; for which see Eitel's Handbook, s. v., or Childers, Pali Dict., s. v. abhiññā. Five are enumerated in the Lotus, cap. v. see pp. 291, 345, 372, 379, 820; Introd., p. 263. For the vimokshas see Lotus, pp. 347, 824; Childers, Pali Dict., s. v. vimokho. See note 88, p 149, inf.

74 Desire of the three worlds.

75 The trividyās, the threefold knowledge, viz., of the impermanence of all things (anitya), of sorrow (duḥkha), and of unreality (anātmā).

76 Pārśvika, Chin. Hie-ts'un, so named from parśva (Chin. hie), "the side," from his vow, here related, not to lie on his side. He is reckoned the ninth or tenth Buddhist patriarch (according as Vasumitra, the seventh, is excluded or not); Edkins, Chin. Buddh., p. 74 ; Lassen, I. A., vol. ii. p. 1202 ; Vassilief, pp. 48, 75 f. 203 f. 211; Ind. Ant., vol. iv. p. 141.

To the east of Pārśvika's chamber is an old building in which Vasubandhu77 Bodhisattva prepared the '0-pi-tamo-ku-slie-lun (Abhidhamakośa śāstra) ;78 men, out of respect to him, have placed here a commemorative tablet to this effect.

77 Vasubandhu (Fo-siu-fan-tho) translated Thien-sin and Shi-sin, according to northern accounts, the twenty-first patriarch of the Buddhist church, and younger brother of Asaṅga. But this succession of patriarchs is more than doubtful, for Budhidharma, who is represented as the twenty-eighth patriarch, arrived in China A.D. 520 ; but according to Max Müller, Vasubandhu flourished in India in the second half of the sixth century (India, p. 306). If this date can be established, many of the statements of dates found in the Chinese Buddhist books will have to be discredited (inf. p. 119, n. 1). Lassen, I. A., vol. ii. p. 1205 ; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., pp. 169, 278; Vassilief, pp. 214 ff., or Ind. Ant, vol. iv. pp. I42 f.

78 This is a work frequently named in these records. It was written by Vasubandhu to refute the errors of the Vaibhāshikas, and was translated into Chinese by Paramārtha, A.D. 557-589. For an account of its origin see the Life of Buddha by Wong Pūh, § 195, in J. R. A. S., vol. xx. p. 211 ; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., p. 120; Vassilief, pp. 77 f. 108, 130, 220.

To the south of Vasubandhu's house, about fifty paces or so, is a second storied-pavilion in which Manorhita,79 a master of śāstras, composed the Vibhāshā śāstra. This learned doctor flourished in the midst of the thousand [S. 106]  years80 after the Nirvāṇa of Buddha. In his youth he was devoted to study and had distinguished talent. His fame was wide spread with the religious, and laymen sought to do him hearty reverence. At that time Vikramāditya,81 king of the country of Śrāvastī, was of wide renown. He ordered his ministers to distribute daily throughout India82 five lakhs of gold coin ; he largely (everywhere) supplied the wants of the poor, the orphan, and the bereaved. His treasurer, fearing that the resources of the kingdom would be exhausted, represented the case to the king, and said, "Mahārāja ! your fame has reached to the very lowest of your subjects, and extends to the brute creation. You bid me add (to your expenditure) five lakhs of gold to succour the poor throughout the world. Your treasury will thus be emptied, and then fresh imposts will have to be laid (on [S. 107] the land cultivators), until the resources of the land be also exhausted ; then the voice of complaint will be heard and hostility be provoked. Your majesty, indeed, will get credit for charity, but your minister83 will lose the respect of all." The king answered, "But of my own surplus I (wish to) relieve the poor. I would on no account, for my own advantage, thoughtlessly burthen (grind down) the country." Accordingly he added five lakhs for the good of the poor. Some time after this the king was engaged chasing a boar. Having lost the track, he gave a man a lakh for putting him on the scent again. Now Manorhita, the doctor of śāstras, once engaged a man to shave his head, and gave him offhand a lakh of gold for so doing.84 This munificent act was recorded in the annals by the chief historian. The king reading of it, was filled with shame, and his proud heart continually fretted about it,85 and so he desired to bring some fault against Manorhita and punish him. So he summoned an assembly of different religious persons whose talents were most noted,86 to the number of one hundred, and issued the following decree : "I wish to put a check to the various opinions (wanderings) and to settle the true limits (of inquiry) ; the opinions of different religious sects are so various that the mind knows not what to believe. Exert your utmost ability, therefore, to-day in following out my directions." On meeting for discussion he made a second decree: "The doctors of law belonging to the heretics87 are distinguished [S. 108] for their ability. The Shamans and the followers of the law (of Buddha) ought to look well to the principles of their sect ; if they prevail, then they will bring reverence to the law of Buddha; but if they fail, then they shall be exterminated."88 On this, Manorhita questioned the heretics and silenced89 ninety-nine of them. And now a man was placed (sat on the mat to dispute with him) of no ability whatever,90 and for the sake of a trifling discussion (Manorhita) proposed the subject of fire and smoke. On this the king and the heretics cried out, saying, "Manorhita, the doctor of śāstras, has lost the sense of right connection (mistaken the order or sense of the phrase) ; he should have named smoke first and fire afterwards : this order of things is constant." Manorhita wishing to explain the difficulty, was not allowed a hearing ; on which, ashamed to see himself thus treated by the people, he bit out his tongue and wrote a warning to his disciple Vasubandhu, saying, "In the multitude of partisans there is no justice ; among persons deceived there is no discernment." Having written this, he died.

79 Manorhita, otherwise written Manorata, Manorhata, or Manoratha (Jul., Vie, p. 405), also Manura. This is explained by the Chinese Ju-i, an expression used for the Kalpavṛiksha or "wishingtree," denoting power to produce whatever was wished ; literally, "conformable (hita) to thought (mana, mind)." He is probably the same as Maṇirata (Vassilief, Bouddhisme, p. 219). He is reckoned the twenty-second patriarch.—Lassen, I. A., vol. ii. p. 1206 ; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., pp. 82-84 ; M. Müller, India, pp. 289, 302; and note 77 ante.

80 This expression, "in the midst of, or during, the thousand years," has a particular reference to the period of 1000 years which succeeded the period of 500 years after Buddha's death. The 500 years is called the period of the "true law," the 1000 years "the period of images," image-worship ; after that came the period of "no law." The phrase "during the 1000 years," therefore, in these records, means that the person referred to lived during the middle portion of the second period, that is, about a thousand years after Buddha. There is a useful note in Wong Pūh's life of Buddha (§ 204, J. R. A. S., vol. xx. p. 215) relating to this point, from which it appears that the accepted date of the Nirvana in China at this time was 850 B. C. The period of 1000 years, therefore, would extend from 350 B. C. to 650 A.D. Wong Pūh uses the expression ke-shi "the latter age," for "the thousand years." Manorhita is placed under Vikramāditya Harsha of Ujjain, and therefore lived about the middle of the 6th century A.D., according to M. Müller, India, p. 290.

81 This is supposed to be the same as Vikramāditya or Harsha of Ujjayinī, according to Dr. J. Fergusson and Prof. M. Müller, the founder of the usual Saṃvat era, 56 B.C. The Chinese equivalent for his name is chaou jih, or "leaping above the sun," or "the upspringing light," "the dawn." As to the mode in which this era of Vikramāditya might have been contrived, see Fergusson (J. R. A. S., N. S., vol xii. p. 273). The starting-point from which these writers suppose it came into use is 544 a. D. The expression Vikramāditya of Śrāvastī, is the same as Vikramāditya of Ayodhya (Oudh), where we are told (Vassilief, p. 219) he held his court. The town of Śrāvastī was in ruins even in Fa-hian's time (cap. xx.)

82 "Throughout all the Indies." This passage may also be translated thus: "An envoy (shi shan) coming to India, he daily," &c. Julien refers it to one of his own envoys, but in any case the passage is obscure. Judging from the context, I think the meaning is, "he ordered his minister, in the next sentence called "his treasurer." to give throughout India on one day five lakhs for the poor."

83 Such is plainly the meaning; the treasurer is speaking of himself. The Antithesis requires it, "kun shang, shan hia" M. Julien translates it as referring to all the subjects.

84 M. Julien translates as follows; "Un jour le maitre des śastras Jou-i (Manorhita) ayant envoyé un homme pour couper les cheveux au roi;" but in my text there is no word for "king," and the whole context seems to require another rendering. I translate the passage as referring to Manorhita himself, who, although a writer of śāstras, was also a prince (vid. Eitel, s.v.)

85 i.e., that Manorhita should have equalled him in munificence, and that he should be held up as an example.

86 "Whose virtuous deeds (good qualities) were high and profound." I find nothing about Brahmans in the text
87 Or it may be, "the unbelievers and the doctors of sastras are both eminent," &c.

88 It ought probably to be rendered thus : "If they prevail, then I will reverence the law of Buddha; if they are defeated, I will utterly exterminate the priests."

89 Made to retire.

90 Or, who looked at him with a dispirited (downcast) air.

A little afterwards Vikramāditya-rāja lost his kingdom and was succeeded by a monarch who widely patronised those distinguished for literary merit.91 Vasubandhu, wishing to wash out the former disgrace, came to the king and said, "Mahārāja, by your sacred qualities you rule the empire and govern with wisdom. My old master, Manorhita, was deeply versed in the mysterious doctrine. The former king, from an old resentment, deprived him of his high renown. I now wish to avenge the injury done to my master." The king, knowing that Manorhita was a man of superior intelligence, approved of the noble project of Vasubandhu; he summoned the heretics who had discussed with Manorhita. Vasubandhu having exhibited [S. 109] afresh the former conclusions of his master, the heretics were abashed and retired.

91 This would appear to be Śīlāditya of Ujjain, spoken of by Hiuen Tsiang (Book xi.) as having lived about sixty years before his own time.

To the north-east of the saṅghārāma of Kanishka-rāja about 50 li [里], we cross a great river and arrive at the town of Pushkalāvatī (Po-shi-kie-lo-fa-ti).92 It is about 14 or 15 li [里] in circuit ; the population is large ; the inner gates are connected by a hollow (tunnel ?).93

92 Or Pushkarāvatī, the old capital of Gandhāra, said to have been founded by Pushkara or Pushkala, the son of Bharata and nephew of Rāma (Wilson, Vishṇu-pur., vol. iii. p. 319). The district is called Πευκελαωτις and Πευκελαιητις by Arrian (Anab., lib. iv. c. 22, s. 9 ; Ind., c. 4, s. 11), and the capital Πεθκελαιητις or Πευκελα (Ind., c. 1, a. 8), while Strabo calls the city
Πευκελαιτις (lib. XV. c. 21 8. 27). Pliny has Peucolais (lib. vi. c. 21, s. 62) and the people Peucolaitae (c. 23, s. 78). Dionysius Perigetis has Πευκαλαις (v. 1143), and the author of the Periplus Mar. Aeryth. (s. 47) and Ptolemy Προκλαις (lib. vii. c. I, s. 44 ; v. l. Ποκλαις). Alexander the Great besieged and took it from Astes (Hasti) and appointed Sangaeus (Sañjaya) as his successor. It was probably at Hashṭanagara, 18 miles north of Peshāwar, on the Svāt (Suastos), near its junction with the Kābul (Kophen or Kophes), the great river which the traveller here crossed. See Babers Mem., pp. 136, 141, 251; Cunningham, Anc. Geog., pp. 49 f. ; St. Martin, Géog. de l'Inde, p. 37; Bunbury, Hist. Anc. Geog., voL i. p. 498 ; Wilson, Ariana Ant., pp. 185 f. ; Ind. Ant., vol. v. pp. 85 f., 330; Lassen, I. A., vol. i. p. 501, vol. iii. p. 139; Reinaud, Mém. s. l'Inde, p. 65.

93 The phrase leu yen means the inner gates of a town or village (Medhurst, s. v. Yen), and tung lin means "deeply connected," or "are deep and connected." Julien translates it, "the houses rise in thick lines." The readings must be different.

Outside the western gate is a Deva temple. The image of the god is imposing and works constant miracles. To the east of the city is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja. This is the place where the four former Buddhas delivered the law (preached). Among former saints and sages many have come (descended spiritually) from Mid-India to this place to instruct all creatures (things). For example, Vasumitra,94 doctor of śāstras, who composed the Chung-sse-fen-opi-ta-mo (Abhidharmaprakaraṇa-pāda) śāstra in this place.

94 Vasumitra, in Chinese Shi Yu, friend of the world.—Ch. Ed. He was one of the chief of the 500 great Arhats who formed the council convoked by Kanishka. Vassilief, PP. 49f,. 58f., 78, 107, 113. 222 f. ; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., pp. 72 f., 283 ; Burnouf, Int., pp. 399, 505f.

To the north of the town 4 or 5 li [里] is an old saṅghārāma, of which the halls are deserted and cold. There are very few priests in it, and all of them follow the teaching of [S. 110] the Little Vehicle. Dharmatrāta, master of śāstras, here composed the Ts'a-o-pi-ta-ma-lun (Saṃyuktābhidharma śāstra).95

95 According to the Ch'uh-yau-king (Udānavarga), Dharmatrāta was uncle of Vasumitra. (See Beal, Texts from the Buddhist Canon (Dharmapada), p. 8; Rockhill's Udānavarga, p. xi.) There was another Dharmatrāta, according to Tāranātha (Rockhill, p. xi.), who was one of the leaders of the Vaibbāshika school, and also another Vasumitra, who commented on the Abhidharma Kosha written by Vasubandhu, who lived probably in the fifth century A.D. But as the Chinese versions of the Dharmapada were made before Vasubandhu's time, and the second Vasumitra lived after Vasubandhu, for he commented on his work, it is highly probable that the Dharmatrāta alluded to in the text was the compiler of the Northern versions of the " Verses of the Law " (Dharmapada) known both in China and Tibet. Dharmatrāta, according to a note in the text, was erroneously called Dharmatara.

By the side of the saṅghārāma is a stūpa several hundred feet high, which was built by Aśoka-rāja. It is made of carved wood and veined stone, the work of various artists. Śākya Buddha, in old time when king of this country, prepared himself as a Bodhisattva (for becoming a Buddha). He gave up all he had at the request of those who asked, and spared not to sacrifice his own body as a bequeathed gift (a testamentary gift). Having been born in this country a thousand times as king, he gave during each of those thousands births in this excellent country, his eyes as an offering.

Going not far east from this, there are two stone stūpas, each about 100 feet in height. The right-hand one was built by Brahmā Deva, that on the left by Śakra (king of Devas). They were both adorned with jewels and gems. After Buddha's death these jewels changed themselves into ordinary stones. Although the buildings are in a ruinous condition, still they are of a considerable height and grandeur.

Going north-west about 50 li [里] from these stūpas, there is another stūpa. Here Śākya Tathāgata converted the Mother of the demons96 and caused her to refrain from [S. 111] hurting men. It is for this reason the common folk of this country offer sacrifices to obtain children from her.

96 The mother of the demons was, according to I-tsing (K. i. § 9), called Hāritī (Ko-li-ti), and was venerated by the Buddhists. "She had made a vow in a former birth to devour the children of Rajagriha, and was accordingly born as a Yaksha, and became the mother of 500 children. To nourish these she each day took a child (boy or girl) of Rājagṛiha. People having told Buddha of it, he hid one of the Yaksha's children called "the loved one." The mother, having searched everywhere, at last found it by Buddha's side. On this the Lord addressed her as follows: "Do you so tenderly love your child? but you possess 500 such. How much more would persons with only one or two love theirs?" On this she was converted and became a Upāsikā, or lay disciple. She then inquired how she was to feed her 500 children. On this Buddha said, "The Bhikshus who live in their monasteries shall every day offer you food out of their portion for nourishment." Therefore in the convents of the western world, either within the porch of the gates or by the side of the kitchen, they paint on the wall a figure of the mother holding a child, and below sometimes five, sometimes three others in the foreground. Every day they place before this image a dish of food for her portion of nourishment. She is the most powerful among the followers (retinue) of the four heavenly kings (Deva-rājas). The sick and those without children offer her food to obtain their wishes. In China she is called Kwei-tseu-mu.— Julien, Mémoires, tom. i. p. 120 n. My translation of I-tsing, however, differs from Julien's. The Chālukyas and other royal families of the Dekhan claim to be descendants of Hāritī (Hāritīputra). The above account from I-tsing relates to the figure of Hāritī in the Varāha temple at Tāmralipti. Possibly this temple may have been a Chālukya foundation, for the Varāha (boar) was one of their principal insignia.

Going north 50 li [里] or so from this, there is another stūpa. It was here Sāmaka Bodhisattva97 (Shang-mu-kia), walking piously, nourished as a boy his blind father and mother. One day when gathering fruits for them, he encountered the king as he was hunting, who wounded him by mistake with a poisoned arrow. By means of the spiritual power of his great faith he was restored to health through some medicaments which Indra (Tien-ti), moved by his holy conduct, applied to the wound.

97 This refers to Sāma, the son of Dukhula, in the Sāmajātaka. He is called in Fa-hian Shen (for Shen-ma), and this equivalent is also given in the text. See Trans. Int. Cong. Orient. (1874)f p. 135. The Jātaka is represented among the Sāñchi sculptures (Tree and Serp. Worship, pl. xxxvi, fig. 1). For an account of it see Spence Hardy's Eastern Monachism, p. 275; conf, Man. Budh., p. 460. The story is also a Brahmanical one, occurring in the Rāmāyana.—Ind. Ant., vol. i. pp. 37-39.

To the south-east of this place98 about 200 li [里], we arrive at the town Po-lu-sha.99 On the north of this town is [S. 112] a stūpa; here it was Sudāna100 the prince, having given in charity to some Brāhmaṇs the great elephant of his father the king, was blamed and banished. In leaving his friends, having gone out of the gate of the wall, it was here he paid adieu. Beside this is a saṅghārāma101 with about fifty priests or so, who all study the Little Vehicle. Formerly Īśvara, master of śāstras, in this place composed the O-pi-ta-mo-ming-ching-lun.102

98 That is, south-cast from the stūpa of Sāmaka Bodhisattva. I have not repeated the name of the place in this and other passages.

99 Following the route described In the text, we are taken first 4 or 5 li to the north of Pushkalāvatī, next a little way to the east, then 50 li to the north-west, then 50 li to the north. It is from this point we are to reckon 200 li to the south-west to Po-lu-sha. M. V. de St. Martin (Mémoire, p. 309) substitutes 250 li for 200, and he then reckons from Pushkalāvatī. General Cunningham falls into the same mistake (Anc. Geog., p. 52), and identifies Po-lu-sha with Palodheri, or the village of Pali, situated on a dheri or mound of ruins (op. cit., p. 52). This would agree with Hiuen Tsiang's distance and bearing, that is, from the stūpa of Sāmaka, which was some 90 to 100 li to the north-north-east of Pushkalāvatī.

100 That is, Viśvāntara, Viśvaṃtara, or Vessantara, the prince. His history is a popular one among Buddhists. See Spence Hardy's Man. of Budhism,, p. 118; Fergusson, Tree and Serp. Worship, pl. xxxii. ; Beal's Fah-hian, p. 194 n. 2; Burnouf, Lotus, p. 411; conf. Kathāsarit., 113,9; Aitar. Brāhm., vii. 27, 34. The particulars given in the text and in Fa-hian led to the identification of pl. xxxii. in Tree and Serp. Worship with this history. The same Jātaka is also found amongst the Amarāvatī sculptures, op. cit., pl. lxv. fig. 1. With respect to the name Sudāna, the Chinese explanation (good teeth) is erroneous, as M. Julien has pointed out (p. 122 n.) Sudānta is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned in the Trikandasesha, i. 1, 13.

101 So I translate the passage. M. Julien understands the number fifty to refer to the saṅghārāmas. But it would be an unusual circumstance to find fifty or more convents near one spot, nor does the text necessarily require it.

102 Restored doubtfully by Julien to Abhidharmaprakāśa-sādhana śāstra. It was perhaps the Saṃyukta-abhidharmahṛidaya śāstra, which Īśvara is said to have translated in 426 A.D. Īśvara's name is given in Chinese as Tsu-tsai, "master," "lord," "self-existent."

Outside the eastern gate of the town of Po-lu-sha is a saṅghārāma with about fifty priests, who all study the Great Vehicle. Here is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja. In old times Sudāna the prince, having been banished from his home, dwelt in Mount Dantaloka.103 Here a Brāhmaṇ begged his son and daughter, and he sold them to him.

103 Tan-ta-lo-kia, which might also be restored to Dandarika. The Japanese equivalent given in the text for lo is ra. General Cunningham identifies this mountain with the Montes Daedali of Justin (op. cit., p. 52.)

To the north-east of Po-lu-sha city about 20 li [里] or so we come to Mount Dantaloka. Above a ridge of that mountain is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja ; it was here the prince [S. 113] Sudāna dwelt in solitude. By the side of this place, and close by, is a stūpa. It was here the prince gave his son and daughter to the Brāhmaṇ, who, on his part, beat them till the blood flowed out on the ground. At the present time the shrubs and trees are all of a deep red colour. Between the crags (of the mountain) there is a stone chamber, where the prince and his wife dwelt and practised meditation. In the midst of the valley the trees droop down their branches like curtains. Here it was the prince in old time wandered forth and rested.

By the side of this wood, and not far from it, is a rocky cell in which an old Ṛishi dwelt.

Going north-west from the stone cell about 100 li [里] or so, we cross a small hill and come to a large mountain. To the south of the mountain is a saṅghārāma, with a few priests as occupants, who study the Great Vehicle. By the side of it is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja. This is the place which in old time was occupied by Ekaśṛiṅga Ṛishi.104 This Ṛishi being deceived by a pleasure-woman, lost his spiritual faculties. The woman, mounting his shoulders, returned to the city.

104 This story of Ekaśṛiṅga seems to be connected with the episode of Śṛiṅga in the Rāmāyana. It is constantly referred to in Buddhist books. See Eitel's Handbook, s. v. ; Catena of Buddh. Scrip., p. 260; Romantic Legend, p. 124; and compare the notice in Yule's Marco Polo, vol. ii. P. 233; Ind. Ant., vol. i. p. 244, vol. ii. pp. 69, 140 f.

To the north-east of the city of Po-lu-sha 50 li [里] or so, we come to a high mountain, on which is a figure of the wife of Īśvaxa Deva carved out of green (bluish) stone. This is Bhīmā Devī.105 All the people of the better class, and the lower orders too, declare that this figure was self-wrought. It has the reputation of working numerous miracles, and therefore is venerated (worshipped) by all, so that from every part of India men come to pay their vows and seek prosperity thereby. Both poor and rich assemble here from every part, near and distant. Those who wish to see the form of the divine spirit, bring filled [S. 114]

105 Bhīmā in a form of Durgā, probably = Si-wang-mu of the Chinese.

with faith and free from doubt, after fasting seven days are privileged to behold it, and obtain for the most part their prayers.106 Below the mountain is the temple of Maheśvara Deva ; the heretics who cover themselves with ashes107 come here to offer sacrifice.

106 The same thing is said about Kwan-yin (Avalokiteśvara). For some account of the worship of Durgā or Pārvatī, and of Kwan-yin or Avalokiteśvara, as mountain deities, see J. R. A. S., N.S., vol. xv. p. 333.

107 That is, the Pāśupatas. Compare what Hiuen Tsiang says in reference to Kwan-yin or Avalokiteśvara, viz., when he reveals himself on Mount Potaraka, he sometimes takes the form of Īśvara and sometimes that of a Pāśupata (book x. fol. 30). See also p. 60, n. 210 ante.

Going south-east from the temple of Bhīmā 150 li [里], we come to U-to-kia-h'an-ch'a.108 This town is about 20 li [里] in circuit; on the south it borders on the river Sindh (Sin-to). The inhabitants are rich and prosperous. Here is amassed a supply of valuable merchandise, and mixed goods from all quarters.

108 Restored by Julien to Uḍakhāṇḍa ; identified by V. St Martin with Ohind. Its south side rests on the Indus. The distance is 150 li from the temple of Bhīmā. If we actually project 150 li (30 miles) north-west from Ohind, it would bring us near Jamālgarhi. About 50 li or 8 miles E.S.E. from it is Takht-i-Bhaï, standing on an isolated hill 650 feet above the plain. The vast quantities of ruins found in this place indicate that it was once a centre of religious worship. Is this the site of Po-lu-sha? Kapurdagarhi is 20 miles north-west from Ohind, and Takht-i-Bhaï 13 miles E.N.E. from Kapurdagarhi. See p.

To the north-west of U-to-kia-h'an-c'ha 20 li [里] or so we come to the town of P'o-lo-tu-lo.109 This is the place where the Ṛishi Pāṇini, who composed the Chingming-lun110 was born.

109 The symbol p'o is for so (Jul.) The town is Salātura, the birthplace of Pāṇini, who is known by the name of Sālāturīya (Pāṇini, iv. 3, 94). Cunningham identifies it with the village of Lahor, which he says is four miles north-west of Ohind.— Geog., p. 57. Conf. Weber, Sansk. Lit., p. 218, n.

110 The Vyākaraṇam.

Referring to the most ancient times, letters were very numerous ; but when, in the process of ages, the world was destroyed and remained as a void, the Devas of long life111 descended spiritually to guide the people. Such was the origin of the ancient112 letters and composition. [S. 115] From this time and after it the source (of language) spread and passed its (former) bounds. Brahmā Deva and Śakra (Devendra)  established rules (forms or examples) according to the requirements. Ṛishis belonging to different schools each drew up forms of letters. Men in their successive generations put into use what had been delivered to them; but nevertheless students without ability (religious ability) were unable to make use (of these characters). And now men's lives were reduced to the length of a hundred years, when the Ṛishi Pāṇini was born; he was from his birth extensively informed about things (men and things). The times being dull and careless, he wished to reform the vague and false rules (of writing and speaking) to fix the rules and correct improprieties. As he wandered about asking for  right ways,113 he encountered Īśvara Deva, and recounted to him the plan of his undertaking. Īśvara Deva said, "Wonderful! I will assist you in this." The Ṛishi, having received instruction, retired. He then laboured incessantly and put forth all his power of mind. He collected a multitude of words, and made a book on letters which contained a thousand ślokas ; each śloka was of thirty-two syllables. It contained everything known from the first till then, without exception, respecting letters and words. He then closed it and sent it to the king (supreme ruler), who exceedingly prized it, and issued an edict that throughout the kingdom it should be used and taught to others ; and he added that whoever should learn it from beginning to end should receive as his reward a thousand pieces of gold. And so from that time masters have received it and handed it down in its completeness for the good of the world. Hence the Brāhmaṇs of this town are well grounded in their literary work, and are of high renown for their talents, well informed as to things (men and things), and of a vigorous understanding (memory).

111 Or, the Devas who possessed long life.

112 I understand the symbol ku in this passage to mean "old" or "ancient."

113 Or, asking for wisdom or knowledge.

In the town of So-lo-tu-lo is a stūpa. This is the [S. 116] spot where an Arhat converted a disciple of Pāṇini. Tathāgata had left the world some five hundred years, when there was a great Arhat who came to the country of Kaśmīr, and went about converting men. Coming to this place, he saw a Brahmachārin occupied in chastising a boy whom he was instructing in letters. Then the Arhat spake to the Brāhmaṇ thus : "Why do you cause pain to this child ?" The Brāhmaṇ replied, "I am teaching him the Shing-ming (śabdavidyā)y but he makes no proper progress." The Arhat smiled significantly,114 on which the Brāhmaṇ said, "Shamans are of a pitiful and loving disposition, and well disposed to men and creatures generally ; why did you smile, honoured sir ? Pray let me know !"

114 The symbol yew, according to Medhurst, means "to put forth vital energy;" yew ne, therefore, I take to denote "significance" or "meaning," The smile of Buddha or an Arhat was supposed to indicate prophetic insight or vision. The same meaning is attached to "a smile" in many of our own mediaeval legends (vid. Romantic History of Buddha, p. 12 n.) Julien's "se derida" hardly meets the idea of the original.

The Arhat replied, "Light words are not becoming,115 and I fear to cause in you incredulous thoughts and unbelief. No doubt you have heard of the Ṛishi Pāṇini, who compiled the Śabdavidyā Śāstra, which he has left for the instruction of the world." The Brāhmaṇ replied, "The children of this town, who are his disciples, revere his eminent qualities, and a statue erected to his memory still exists." The Arhat continued : "This little boy whom you are instructing was that very (Pāṇini) Ṛishi. As he devoted his vigorous mind to investigate worldly literature, he only produced heretical treatises without any power of true reason in them. His spirit and  his wisdom were dispersed, and he has run through the cycles of continued birth from then till now. Thanks to some remnant of true virtue, he has been now born as your attached child; but the literature of the world and these treatises on letters are only cause of useless [S. 117]

115 "Light words," in the, sense of trifling or unmeaning words, or words spoken lightly.

efforts to him, and are as nothing compared to the holy teaching of Tathāgata, which, by its mysterious influences, procures both happiness and wisdom. On the shores of the southern sea there was an old decayed tree, in the hollows of which five hundred bats had taken up their abodes. Once some merchants took their seats beneath this tree, and as a cold wind was blowing, these men, cold and hungry, gathered together a heap of fuel and lit a fire at the tree-foot. The flames catching hold of the tree, by degrees it was burnt down. At this time amongst the merchant troop there was one who, after the turn of the night, began to recite a portion of the Abhidharma Piṭaka. The bats, notwithstanding the flames, because of the beauty of the sound of the law patiently endured the pain, and did not come forth. After this they died, and, according to their works, they all received birth as men. They became ascetics, practised wisdom, and by the power of the sounds of the law they had heard they grew in wisdom and became Arhats as the result of merit acquired in the world. Lately the king, Kanishka, with the honourable Pārśvika, summoning a council of five hundred saints and sages in the country of Kaśmīr, they drew up the Vibāshā Śāstra. These were the five hundred bats who formerly dwelt in that decayed tree. I myself, though of poor ability, am one of the number. It is thus men differ in their superior or inferior abilities. Some rise, others live in obscurity. But now, virtuous one ! permit your pupil (attached child) to leave his home. Becoming a disciple of Buddha, the merits we secure are not to be told."

The Arhat having spoken thus, proved his spiritual capabilities by instantly disappearing. The Brāhmān, deeply affected by what he saw, and moved to believe. He noised abroad through the town and neighbourhood what had happened, and permitted the child to become a disciple of Buddha and acquire wisdom. Moreover, he [S. 118] himself changed his belief, and mightily reverenced the three precious ones. The people of the village, following his example, became disciples, and till now they have remained earnest in their profession.

From U-to-kia-han-ch'a, going north, we pass over some mountains, cross a river, and travelling 600 li [里] or so, we arrive at the kingdom of U-chang-na (Udyāna).


Zu: 2. Zum Beispiel: Xuanzang (玄奘) <603 - 664>: Buddhist records of the Western world (大唐西域記), book VIII/IX.