Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858

14. Quellen auf Arabisch, Persisch und in Turksprachen

3. Zum Beispiel: Abū 'l-Faẓl ibn Mubārak <1551 - 1602> (ابو الفضل): Ā’īn-i-Akbarī  (آئین اکبری), I.31-32

hrsg. von Alois Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858. -- 14. Quellen auf Arabisch, Persisch und in Turksprachen. -- 3. Zum Beispiel: Abū 'l-Faẓl ibn Mubārak <1551 - 1602> (ابو الفضل): Ā’īn-i-Akbarī  (آئین اکبری), I.31-32. -- Fassung vom 2008-05-16. -- http://www.payer.de/quellenkunde/quellen143.htm                

Erstmals publiziert als:

Abū 'l-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak <1551-1602>: The Ā'īn- Akbarī / [by] Abū 'l-Faẓl 'Allāmī; translated into English by H. Blochmann [1838 - 1878]. -- 2nd ed. / revised and ed. by D. C. Phillott. -- Calcutta : Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1927-1949. -- 3 Bde : Ill.  ; 25 cm. -- (Bibliotheca Indica ; work no. 61,270,271). -- Vol. 2-3: translated into English by H. S. Jarrett [1839 - 1919]; corrected by Jadu-Nath Sarkar. -- Bd. I, S. 93 - 102. -- Online: http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-15

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2008-05-15


Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung FS 2008

©opyright: Public domain.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit  von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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His Majesty pays much attention to various stuffs; hence Īrānī, European, and Mongolian articles of wear are in abundance. Skilful masters and workmen have settled in this country, to teach people an improved system of manufacture. The Imperial workshops, the towns of Lāhor, Āgra, Fatḥpūr, Aḥmadābād, Gujrāt, turn out many master-pieces of workmanship; and the figures and patterns, knots, and variety [S. 94] of fashions which now prevail, astonish experienced travellers. His Majesty himself acquired in a short time a theoretical and practical knowledge of the whole trade; and on account of the care bestowed upon them, the intelligent workmen of this country soon improved. All kinds of hair-weaving and silk-spinning were brought to perfection; and the imperial workshops furnish all those stuffs which are made in other countries. A taste for fine material has since become general, and the drapery used at feasts surpasses every description.

All articles which have been bought, or woven to order, or received as tribute or presents, are carefully preserved; and according to the order in which they were preserved, they are again taken out for inspection, or given out to be cut and to be made up, or given away as presents. Articles which arrive at the same time, are arranged according to their prices. Experienced people inquire continually into the prices of articles used both formerly and at present, as a knowledge of the exact prices is conducive to the increase of the stock. Even the prices became generally lower. Thus a piece woven by the famous Ghiās i Naqshband may now be obtained for fifty muhrs, whilst it had formerly been sold for twice that sum; and most other articles have got cheaper at the rate of thirty to ten, or even forty to ten. His Majesty also ordered that people of certain ranks should wear certain articles; and this was done in order to regulate the demand.

I shall not say much on this subject, though a few particulars regarding the articles worn by his Majesty may be of interest.

  1. The Takauchiyah is a coat without lining, of the Indian form. Formerly it had slits in the skirt, and was tied on the left side; his Majesty has ordered it to be made with a round skirt, and to be tied on the right side. It requires seven yards and seven girihs, and five girihs for the binding. The price for making a plain one varies from one rupee to three rupees; but if the coat be adorned with ornamental stitching, from one to four and three quarters rupees. Besides a misqāl of silk is required.
  2. The Peshwāz (a coat open in front) is of the same form, but ties in front. It is sometimes made without strings.
  3. The Dutāhī (a coat with lining) requires six yards and four girihs for the outside, six yards lining, four girihs for the binding, nine girihs for the border. The price of making one varies from one to three rupees. One misqāl of silk is required.
  4. The Shāh-ājīda (or the royal stitch coat) is also called Shaṣt-khaṭ (or sixty rows), as it has sixty ornamental stitches per girih. It has generally a double lining, and is sometimes wadded and quilted. The cost of making is two rupees per yard.
  5. The Sūzanī requires a quarter of a ser of cotton and two dāms of silk. If sewed with bakhyah stitches, the price of making one is eight rupees; one with ājidah stitches costs four rupees.
  6. The Qalamī requires 3/8 s. cotton, and one dām silk. Cost of making, two rupees.
  7. The Qabā, which is at present generally called jāma-yi pumba-dār, is a wadded coat. It requires 1 s. of cotton, and 2 m. silk. Price, one rupee to a quarter rupee.
  8. The Gadar is a coat wider and longer than the qabā, and contains more wadding. In Hindustan, it takes the place of a fur-coat. It requires seven yards of stuff, six yards of lining, four girihs binding, nine for bordering, 2½ s. cotton, 3 m. silk. Price, from one-half to one and one-half rupees.
  9. The Farjī has no binding, and is open in front. Some put buttons to it. It is worn over the jāma (coat), and requires 5 gaz 12 girih stuff; 5 gaz 5 girih lining; 14 girih bordering; 1 s. cotton; 1 m. silk. Price, from a quarter to one rupee.
  10. The Fargul resembles the yāpanjī, but is more comfortable and becoming. It was brought from Europe; but every one now-a-days wears it. They make it of various stuffs. It requires 9 gaz 6½ gaz stuff, the same quantity of lining, 6 m. silk, 1 s. cotton. It is made both single and double. Price, from ½ to 2 rupees. [S. 96]
  11. The Chakman is made of broadcloth, or woollen stuff, or wax cloth. His Majesty has it made of Dārā'ī wax cloth, which is very light and pretty. The rain cannot go through it. It requires 6 gaz stuff, 5 girih binding, and 2 m. silk. The price of making one of broadcloth is 2 R.; of wool, 1½ R.; of wax cloth, ½ R.
  12. The Shalwār (drawers) is made of all kinds of stuff, single and double, and wadded. It requires 3 gaz 11 girih cloth, 6 girih for the hem through which the string runs, 3 gaz 5 girih lining, 1¼ m. silk, ½ s. cotton. Price, from ¼ to ½ rupee.

There are various kinds of each of these garments. It would take me too long to describe the chīrahs, fawṭahs, and dupaṭṭas, or the costly dresses worn at feasts or presented to the grandees of the present time. Every season, there are made one thousand complete suits for the imperial wardrobe, and one hundred and twenty, made up in twelve bundles, are always kept in readiness. From his indifference to every thing that is worldly, His Majesty prefers and wears woollen stuffs, especially shawls; and I must mention, as a most curious sign of auspiciousness, that His Majesty's clothes becomingly fit every one whether he be tall or short, a fact which has hitherto puzzled many.

His Majesty has changed the names of several garments, and invented new and pleasing terms. Instead of jāma (coat), he says sarbgātī, i. e., covering the whole body; for izār (drawers), he says yār-pīrāhan (the companion of the coat); for nīmtana (a jacket), tanzeb; for fauṭa, patgat; for burqa (a veil), chitragupita; for kulāh (a cap), sīs sobhā; for mūy-bāf (a hair ribbon,) kēsghan; for paṭkā (a cloth for the loins), katzēb; for shāl (shawl), parmnarm; for…., parmgarm; for kapārdhūr, a Tibetan stuff, kapūrnūr; for pāy-afzār (shoes), charndharn; and similarly for other names.


His Majesty improved this department in four ways. The improvement is visible,

  1. first, in the Ṭūs shawls, which are made of the wool of an animal of that name; its natural colours are black, white, and red, but chiefly black. Sometimes the colour is a pure white. This kind of shawl is unrivalled for its lightness, warmth, and softness. People generally wear it without altering its natural colour; his Majesty has had it dyed. It is curious that it will not take a red dye.
  2. Secondly, in the Safīd Alchas, also called Ṭarhdārs, in their natural colours. The wool is either white or black. These stuffs may be had in three colours, white, black, or mixed. The first or white kind, was formerly dyed in three ways; his Majesty has given the order to dye it in various ways.
  3. hirdly, in stuffs as Zardōzī, Kalābatūn, Kashīdah, Qālgha'ī, Bāndhnūn, Chhīnṭ, Alcha, Purzdār, to which His Majesty pays much attention.
  4. Fourthly, an improvement was made in the width of all stuffs; His Majesty had the pieces made large enough to yield the making of a full dress.

The garments stored in the Imperial wardrobe are arranged according to the days, months, and years, of their entries, and according to their colour, price, and weight. Such an arrangement is now-a-days called mil, a set. The clerks fix accordingly the degree of every article of wear, which they write on a strip of cloth, and tack it to the end of the pieces. Whatever pieces of the same kind arrive for the Imperial wardrobe on the Urmuzd day (first day) of the month of Farwardīn, provided they be of a good quality, have a higher rank assigned to them than pieces arriving on other days; and if pieces are equal in value, their precedence, or otherwise, is determined by the character of the day of their entry; and if pieces are equal as far as the character of the day is concerned, they put the lighter stuff higher in rank; and if pieces have the same weight, they arrange them according to their colour. The following is the order of colours:

In former times shawls were often brought from Kashmīr. People folded them up in four folds, and wore them for a very long time. Nowadays they are generally worn without folds, and merely thrown over the shoulder. His Majesty has commenced to wear them double, which looks very well.

His Majesty encourages, in every possible way, the manufacture of shawls in Kashmīr. In Lāhor also there are more than a thousand work­shops. A kind of shawl, called māyān, is chiefly woven there; it consists of silk and wool mixed. Both are used for chīras (turbans), foṭas (loin bands), &c.

I subjoin the following tabular particulars.

Zu: 4. Zum Beispiel: Abū 'l-Faẓl ibn Mubārak <1551 - 1602> (ابو الفضل): Ā’īn-i-Akbarī  (آئین اکبری), I.34 <Auszug>.