Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858

15. Frühe europäische Quellen und Quellen aus der Zeit der East India Companies

3. Zum Beispiel: Jan Huygen van Linschoten <1563 - 1611>: Diary of occurrences in the Portuguese settlements in India, 1583-1588 A.D.

hrsg. von Alois Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858. -- 15. Frühe europäische Quellen und Quellen aus der Zeit der East India Companies. -- 3. Zum Beispiel: Linschoten,  Jan Huygen van <1563 - 1611>: Diary of occurrences in the Portuguese settlements in India, 1583-1588 A.D. -- Fassung vom 2008-05-22. -- http://www.payer.de/quellenkunde/quellen1503.htm              

Erstmals publiziert als:

Voyages and travels mainly during the 16th and 17th centuries / with an introduction by C. Raymond Beazley [1868 - 1955]. -- Westminster : Constable, 1903. -- 2 Bde. -- (An English garner ; [9]). -- Bd. 2. -- S. 22 - 51. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/stream/voyagesandtravel02beaziala. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-20. -- "Not in copyright."

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2008-05-22


Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung FS 2008

©opyright: Public domain.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit  von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

1. Über Jan Huygen van Linschoten

"THE second volume of these travels opens with an abridgment of the first part of the celebrated Itinerario of Jan Huygen van Linschoten 'John the son of Hugh' from the village of Linschoten in Utrecht, the probable home of his forefathers, but not his own birthplace. The author was born at Haarlem in or about 1563 ; in 1573, either before or just after the great siege of Haarlem, by the Duke of Alva, the family removed to Enkhuizen in North Holland, a town which escaped the Spanish re-conquest. At the age of sixteen, on December 6, 1576, young Jan started on his travels, and his first objective was remarkable. It was the country with which his countrymen, and especially the city of Enkhuizen and the province of North Holland, were so desperately struggling. Political war co-existed with an active commerce, and Linschoten sailed from the Texel in a fleet of some eighty vessels, bound for San Lucar in Andalusia. After a stay of six years in Spain (as the narrative tells us), mainly in Seville and Lisbon, Jan sought employment in the East Indian fleet, like his half-brother Willem Tin, who went in the same ship as schrevijn or clerk (not purser, as in the English translation, vol. ii. p. 7, etc.). Shortly after Linschoten's arrival at Goa, on September 21, 1583, John Newberie, Ralph Fitch, William Leedes, and James Storey were brought there under arrest from Ormuz, accused of being spies in the pay of Don Antonio, pretender to the crown of Portugal. Drake's voyages in the Pacific and East [S. viii] Indies were of recent occurrence, and Englishmen were now regarded as somewhat of a dubious blessing in the Portuguese East. It was therefore with difficulty that Linschoten, his friend and comrade Bernard Burcherts of Hamburg, and Thomas Stevens the Jesuit, procured the release of Newberie, Fitch, and the other Englishmen. In 1584 Burcherts returned to Europe by the Persian Gulf, the Euphrates, and Aleppo ; but Linschoten remained, hoping vainly for an opportunity of extending his travels to Eastern Asia. China and Japan, he wrote to his parents, were about the same distance as Portugal from the Malabar coast, a three years' journey : a Dutch friend of Linschoten's, one Dirck Gerritsz, had just been to the Far East as a gunner, and had pressed him to go too. In those distant and favoured lands two hundred ducats might easily be turned into six or seven hundred ; but the necessary capital was wanting. Gerritsz, nicknamed 'the Chinaman' from his China voyages, was born at Enkhuizen, and sent in all twenty-six years in the Indies. He returned in the same ship with Linschoten, which sailed from Cochin on January 20, 1589 ; and from him comes most of the information of the Itinerario about the navigation of the China seas. In 1598 he piloted the Dutch fleet on its first voyage by the South-West Passage (of Magellan's Straits) to India. His notes on India are occasionally embedded in Linschoten ; but their only proper edition was in Lucas Jansz Waghenaer's Thresoor der Zeevaert (Leyden, 1592). The Itinerario of Linschoten, as we have suggested, contains the results, not only of Linschoten's own experience, but of that of many other travellers ; and the author, it is clear, was a collector of Hakluytian industry and judgment. He appears to have been hard at work upon it from the time of his return to Enkhuizen (September 3, [S. ix] 1592) until the complete publication of this encyclopaedic survey of 'Cape Commerce' and 'Cape Routes' in the beginning of 1596. On October 8, 1594, the States-General of Holland granted him a formal licence to publish, but the book was not then ready, although parts of it seem to have been informally circulated, and all its chief suggestions were known to and discussed among the leaders of Dutch commerce during 1595.

In compiling his great book Linschoten was greatly helped by the eminent scholar, Bernard ten Broecke, the physician of Enkhuizen, who in the world of letters was known as Paludanus, the Latin equivalent of his surname, for scholars were still ashamed to be known as John Brewer and Jim Baker. Many of the notes and not a few passages interpolated into the text are from the hand of Paludanus, whose comments, though learned enough, are not always as much in touch with fact and nature  as could be desired.

The Itinerario is divided into three principal books or parts, the first containing the narrative of the journey proper, in ninety-nine chapters, running to six hundred and twenty-seven pages in the Hakluyt Society's (1885) reprint of the English translation of 1598. In the second part (the first to be published, in 1595) is a collection of the routes from Europe to East and West Indies alike, in many cases translated from unpublished manuscripts of Portuguese and Spanish pilots ; here is also an abundant mass of notes on the routes of the China seas. This part of Linschoten's work had great political importance ; it served as the chief guide to the Dutch fleets in their early expeditions to the East, and in their first attempts to wrest the mastery of the Indies from Spain and Portugal. In the third part we have [S. x] a brief description of the East and West coasts of Africa and a fuller account of America, mostly taken from earlier writers, such as Lopez on the Congo; Jean de Lery on Brazil ; Peter Martyr and Oviedo on America in general. The Itinerario was originally illustrated by thirty-six maps, plans, and copperplate illustrations; in the Old English version of 1598 there are twenty-one topographical plates and thirty-two portraits and views. The world-map in the Dutch edition professes to be by J. Bapt. Vrient of Antwerp, famous as the publisher who bought the Atlas of Ortelius, and brought out an enlarged edition of the same. In the English edition the mappe-monde has the title Orbis terrarum typus de integro multis in locis emendatus, Auctore Petro Plancio, 1594; and in the left-hand corner, below the figure called Mexicana, is the inscription loannes a Duetecum [i.e. Doetechum] junior fecit. The other maps, in the English edition, include one of South-east Africa and part of the Indian Ocean, one of Western and Southern Asia from Egypt to Aracan (imprinted at London by John Wolfe, graven by Robert Beckit), one of Indo-China and the East Indian Archipelago, one of South Africa (graven by William Rogers), one of all Africa except the western hump, one of South America, one of South-western Africa and the Atlantic, one of Madagascar or St. Lawrence Island, one of Sumatra, one of Java Major, one of the Congo region, four of St. Helena (an engraved map and three profiles), one of Goa by Linschoten himself, one of Angra in Terceira (Azores), one of the two hemispheres (in small scale), and one of Spain. From the resolutions of the States-General of Holland it appears that in 1592 Cornelius [S. xi] Claesz of Amsterdam, the printer and publisher of the Itinerario, aided by Peter Plancius, obtained a collection of sea-charts and routiers from Bartolommeo de Lasso, cosmographer to the King of Spain. The States gave Claesz a patent for printing and publishing not only the aforesaid, but also a mappe-monde or land and sea-chart of the world, drawn by Plancius and engraved by Joannes a Doetechum, as well as a chart of Asia made by an expert in the art of navigation at Goa in East India. The world-map of the Itinerario appears to be a reduced copy of the above-mentioned mappe-monde of Plancius ; and extensive loans from De Lasso's collection are apparent in several of the sea-charts in Linschoten's work.

After his return from the East, Linschoten took part in the Dutch Arctic voyages of 1594 and 1595. In 1595 the first Dutch fleet sailed for the 'Indies of the Orient', and we know from the journals of the expedition that the Itinerario was of the utmost value as a guide and directory. The second part of the same, comprising the Nautical Directory and Routes for the Indian and China seas, was already published (as we have pointed out) in 1595, and was greatly used on board the ships of this fleet ; much also of the most important matter in the first part had been orally communicated to the leaders of the venture; and it is clear that the course of the voyage beyond the Cape of Good Hope and its special direction upon Java was due to the suggestions of Linschoten, who promised his countrymen a practical monopoly of the Java trade, 'for that the Portingales come not thither.'

In 1598 Linschoten (now settled in Enkhuizen for good) published a Dutch version of the great treatise of the Jesuit Acosta on Spanish America (Historia natural y moral de las [S. xii] Indias), a work which he praises as far superior to the American sections of the third part of his own Itinerario ; and in the same year Lucas Jansz Waghenaer in the preface to his new Enkhuizen Zeekaertboek thanks Linschoten for his help in the same, based on material derived from his northern voyages. In 1610 our traveller petitioned the States-General unsuccessfully for a pension ; he did not long survive this rebuff; on the 8th February 1611 he died, at the very early age of forty-eight.

The Itinerario is one of the most valuable travel-records ever published, not only for its own subject-matter, but because it revealed to Holland and to other rivals of Spain and Portugal how weak the Eastern Empire of Philip II. really was. It thus played a most important part in exciting these rivals to active hostility in the East Indies, to the vigorous and persistent carrying out of what Drake had threatened in 1579, and Cavendish in 1587. As its political importance was speedily recognised, it soon met with readers out of the Netherlands. The famous old English translation (as well as a German) was published in 1598; two Latin versions appeared in 1599, and a French translation in 1610.

The English edition, here in part reprinted, is anonymous, but in the title to the second part (The true and perfect description of . . . Guinea . . . ) W. P. (William Phillip?) is styled the translator. The version here given is loose, periphrastic, and super-abundant, constantly introducing words which are not in the original, and are not always warranted by the original. It also misses not infrequently the exact meaning of technical terms. On the whole, nevertheless, it gives a good broad view of all that Linschoten has to say, though it requires checking in details. [S. xiii]

The notes of Paladanus, both in and out of the text, are omitted in the present reprint, which also abridges the text in many places, and omits practically the whole of Linschoten's lengthy description of Indian lands, manners, markets, products, peoples, fauna and flora, extending from chapter v. to chapter xcii., from vol. i. p. 43 to vol. ii. p. 158 in the Hakluyt Society's edition of the complete Old English translation (1596-1885 ; see pp. 1-126 of this volume)."

[Quelle: Voyages and travels mainly during the 16th and 17th centuries / with an introduction by C. Raymond Beazley [1868 - 1955]. -- Westminster : Constable, 1903. -- 2 Bde. -- (An English garner ; [9]). -- Bd. 2. -- S. vii - xiii. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/stream/voyagesandtravel02beaziala. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-20. -- "Not in copyright."

2. IAN HUYGHEN VAN LiNSCHOTEN: Diary of occurrences in the Portuguese settlements in India, 1583-1588 A.D.

[Discourse of Voyages &c. 1598.]

Notice the marvellous security of the Portuguese in India at this time, under their triple protection : the Papal bull of 1494 ; the power of Spain ; and England and Holland, as yet, quiescent and at home.

The exhaustive information which LlNSCHOTEN gave of the East, led the way to the formation of the Dutch, and English East India Companies.

Abb.: Indien

[Bildquelle: Linschoten, Jan Huygen van <1563 - 1611>:  Iohn Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of voyages into ye Easte & West Indies : deuided into foure bookes.  -- London : Wolfe, [1598]. -- Originaltitel: Itinerario, voyage ofte schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien. -- Nach S. 10. -- Online: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/rbc/rbc0001/2007/2007kis1964006000001/2007kis1964006000001.pdf. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-22]


Abb.: Dorf bei Goa

[Bildquelle: Linschoten, Jan Huygen van <1563 - 1611>:  Iohn Huighen van Linschoten his Discours of voyages into ye Easte & West Indies : deuided into foure bookes.  -- London : Wolfe, [1598]. -- Originaltitel: Itinerario, voyage ofte schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien. -- Nach S. 54. -- Online: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/rbc/rbc0001/2007/2007kis1964006000001/2007kis1964006000001.pdf. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-22]

About the same time [i.e., December 1583], there came certain Jesuits to Goa, from the island of Japan; and with them, three Princes (being the children of Kings of that country) wholly apparelled like Jesuits : not one of them was above sixteen years of age. They were minded, by the persuasions of the Jesuits, to travel to Portugal ; and from thence to Rome, to see the Pope : thereby to procure great profit, privileges, and liberties from him for the Jesuits; which was their only intent.

They continued in Goa till the year 1584, and then set sail for Portugal. From thence, they travelled into Spain : where, by the King and all the Spanish nobility, they were received with great honour : and presented with many gifts, which the Jesuits kept for themselves. Out of Spain, they went to see the Pope : from whom they obtained great privileges and liberties. That done, they travelled throughout Italy, as to Venice, Mantua, Florence ; and all places and dominions in Italy : where they were presented with many rich presents, and much honoured ; by means of the great report, the Jesuits made of them

To conclude. They returned again unto Madrid: where, with great honour, they took their leave of the King; with letters of commendation, in their behalf, unto the Viceroy and all the [S. 23] Captains and Governors of India. So they went to Lisbon, and there took shipping, anno 1586, and came in the ship called San Felipe (which, on her return, was taken by Captain DRAKE) ; and after a long and troublesome voyage, arrived at Mozambique.

Where, the ship received her lading [homeward] out of another ship, called the San Lorenzo (ladened in India, and bound for Portugal), that, having lost her masts, had to put in there.

And, because the time was far spent to get into India, the said San Felipe took in the lading of the San Lorenzo ; and was taken, in her way returning home, by the Englishmen: and was the first ship that was taken coming out of the East Indies ; which the Portuguese took for an evil sign, because the ship bore the King's own name.

But returning to our matter. The Princes and the Jesuits of Japan, the next year after [i.e., 1587], arrived at Goa, amidst great rejoicings and gladness : for that it was verily thought they had all been dead. When they came thither, they were all three apparelled in Cloth of Gold, and of Silver, after the Italian manner ; which was the apparel that the Italian Princes and Noblemen had given them. They came thither very lively ; and the Jesuits very proudly, for, by them, their voyage had been performed.

In Goa, they stayed till the monsoon or time of the winds came to sail for China ; at which time, they went from thence, and so to China, and from thence to Japan ; where, with great triumph and wondering of all the people, they were received and welcomed home, to the furtherance and credit of the Jesuits : as the book declareth, which they have written and set forth in the Spanish tongue, concerning their voyage, as well by water as by land, as also of the entertainment that they had in every place.


In the year 1584, in the month of June, there arrived in Goa many ambassadors, as from Persia, Cambaia, and from the Samorin, which is called, the Emperor of the Malabars, and also from the King of Cochin.

Among other things, there was a peace concluded by the Samorin [സാമൂതിരി] and the Malabars with the Portuguese, upon condition [S. 24] that the Portuguese should have a fort upon a certain haven lying on the coast of Malabar, called Panane, ten miles from Calicut ; which was presently begun to be built.

There, with great cost and charges, they raised and erected a fort ; but because the ground is all sandy, they could make no sure foundation. For it sank continually, whereby they found it best to leave it ; after they had spent in making and keeping thereof, at the least, four tons of gold, and reaped no profit thereof : intending thereby, if the Samorin should break his word, and come forth (as oftentimes he had done), that, by means of that haven, they would keep him in; where he should have no place to come abroad, to do them anymore mischief. But seeing that the Malabars had many other havens and places, from whence they might put forth to work them mischief ; and as much as ever they did (although the Samorin protested not to know of them ; as also that he could not let [hinder] it, saying, "They were sea-rovers, and were neither subject unto him, nor any man else ''): they left their fort, and put no great trust in the Malabars, as being one of the most rebellious and traitorous nations in all the Indies ; who make many a travelling merchant poor, by reason the sea coast is made by them, so dangerous and perilous to sail by.

For the which cause, the Portuguese army by sea [i.e., their navy] is yearly sent forth out of Goa, only to clear the coast of them : yet are there many Malabars, in divers places, who, by roving and stealing, do much mischief in the country, both by water and by land. They keep themselves on the seaside, where they have their creeks to come forth ; and to carry their prizes in, to hide them in the country.

They dwell in straw houses upon stony hills, and rocks not inhabited, so that they cannot be overcome ; neither do they care for the Samorin, nor any other man else.

There is a haven belonging to these rovers, about twelve miles distant from Goa, called Sanguisceu; where many of them dwell, and do so much mischief: that no man can pass by, but that they receive some wrong by them. So that there came, daily, complaints unto the Viceroy, who then was named Don FRANCISCO DE MASCHARENHAS, Earl of VILLA DORTA ; who, to remedy the same, sent unto the Samorin, to will him to punish them : who returned the messenger again, [S. 25] with answer that "He had no power over them, neither yet could command them, as being subject to no man ;" and gave the Viceroy free liberty to punish them at his pleasure, promising that he should have his aid therein.

Which the Viceroy understanding, prepared an army [i.e. 9 squadron] of fifteen foists, over which he made chief Captain, his nephew, a gentleman called Don JuLiANEs MASCHARENHAS ; giving him express commandment first to go unto the haven of Sanguisceu, and utterly to raze the same down to the ground.

This fleet being at sea, and coming to the said haven, the Admiral of the fleet asked counsel what was best to be done : because Sanguisceu is an island, lying with the coast, a river running about it, and many cliffs [rocks] and shallows in the entrance ; so that, at low water, men can hardly enter in.

At the last, they appointed that the Admiral with half the fleet, should put in on the one side ; and the Vice-Admiral, called JOAN BARRIGA, with the other half, should enter on the other side. Which being concluded, the Admiral, commanding the rest to follow, entered first, and rowed even to the firm land; thinking they were coming after : but the other Captains, who were all young and inexperienced gentlemen, began to quarrel among themselves, who should be first or last ? whereby the fleet was separated. Some lay in one place, some in another, upon the banks and shallows, and could not stir; so that they could not come to help the Admiral, nor yet stir backwards or forwards. And when the Vice-Admiral should have put in on the other side; the Captains that were with him would not obey him, saying "He was no gentleman, and that they were his betters." Upon these, and such like points, most of the Portuguese enterprises do stand, and are taken in hand ; whereby, most commonly, they receive the overthrow. By the same means, this fleet was likewise spoiled, and could not help themselves.

Which those of Sanguisceu, having forsaken their houses and being on the tops of the hills, seeing that the foists lay about, one separated from the other, upon the rocks and shallows, not able to put off; and that the Admiral lay alone upon the strand, and could not stir : they took courage, and, in great number, set upon the Admiral's foist ; and put all to [S. 26] the sword, except such as saved themselves by swimming. And although the Admiral might well have saved himself, for a slave offered to bear him on his back ; yet he would not, saying that "He had rather die honourably fighting against the enemy, than to save his life with dishonour." So that he defended himself most valiantly, but when so many came upon him that he could no longer resist them, they slew him; and cut off his head in presence of all the other foists. Which done, they stuck the head upon a pike, crying, in mocking, unto the other Portuguese, "Come and fetch your Captain again !" to their no little shame and dishonour, that in the meantime, looked one upon another, like owls.

In the end, they departed from thence with the fleet, every man severally by himself, like sheep without a shepherd ; and so returned again to Goa with that great victory. The Captains were presently [at once] committed to prison, but, each man excusing himself, were all discharged again : great sorrow being made for the Admiral, especially by the Viceroy, because he was his brother's son ; who was also much lamented by every man, as a man very well beloved for his courteous and gentle behaviour. The other Captains, on the contrary, were much blamed ; as they well deserved.

Presently thereupon, they made ready another army, with other Captains, whereof Don JERONIMO MASCHARENHAS, who was cousin to the aforesaid one deceased, was Admiral, to revenge his death. This fleet set foot on land, and, with all their power, entered among the houses ; but the Sangueseans that purposely watched for them, perceiving them to come, fled into the mountains, leaving their straw houses empty, whither they could not be followed by reason of the wildness of the place : whereupon the Portuguese burnt down their houses and cut down their trees, razing all things to the ground. With which destruction, they departed thence ; no man resisting them.

At the same time, the [Portuguese] Rulers of Cochin [കൊച്ചി] began, by the commandment of the Viceroy, to set up a Custom House in the town ; which till that time, had never been there. For which, the inhabitants rose up, and would have slain them that went about it. Whereupon they left off till [S. 27] such time as the new Viceroy, called Don DUARTE DE MENESES came out of Portugal ; who, with the old Viceroy, assembled a Council at Cochin, where the Government was delivered unto him : where he used such means, that by fair words and entreaty, they erected their Custom House; and got the townsmen's goodwill, but more by compulsion than otherwise. Which custom is a great profit to the King, by means of the traffic therein used : for there the Portuguese ships do make themselves ready with their full lading, to sail from thence to Portugal.

The same year [1584], in the month of September, there arrived in Goa, a Portuguese ship, called the Dom Jesus de Carania, that brought news of four ships more that were on the way, with a new Viceroy called Don DUARTE DE MENESES : which caused great joy throughout the city, all the bells being rung, as the manner is, when the first ship of every Fleet arriveth in Goa, out of Portugal. In that ship came certain canoniers [gunners], Netherlanders ; that brought me letters out of Holland, which was no small comfort to me.

Not long after, in the same month, there arrived another ship, called Boa Viagen [p. 38], wherein were many gentlemen, and Knights of the Cross that came to serve the King in India : among whom, was one of my Lord Archbishop's brethren, called ROQUE DA FONSECA [p. 37]. The other lords were Don JORGIE TUBALDE MENESES, Chief Standard Bearer to the King of Portugal, newly chosen Captain of Soffala and Mozambique, in regard of certain service that he had, in times past, done for the King in India; JOAN GOMES DA SILVA, the new Captain of Ormus: and Don FRANCISCO MASCHARENHAS, brother of Don JULIANES MASCHARENHAS that was slain in Sanguisceu, as I said before, who was to have had the Captain's place of Ormus ; but, by means of his death, it was given unto his brother Don FRANCISCO, for the term of three years, after he that is in it, had served his full time.

In November after, the other three ships arrived in Cochin. They had sailed outside of Saint Lawrence's Island [Madagascar], not putting into Mozambique. The ships' names were Santa Maria, Arreliquias ; and the admiral [flag ship] Las cinque chagas or "The Five Wounds" [i.e., of our Saviour, usually called, the Stigmata]. In her, came the Viceroy Don DUARTE DE MENESES, that had been Captain of [S. 28] Tangier in Barbary : and there were in this ship, nine hundred soldiers and gentlemen that came to safe conduct the Viceroy, besides above a hundred sailors. They had been above seven months upon the way, without taking [touching] land, before they arrived at Cochin : where the Viceroy was received with great solemnity.

Being landed, he presently sent to the old Viceroy, to certify him of his arrival; and that he should commit the Government of the country unto the Archbishop, to govern it in his absence (especially because the Archbishop and he were very good friends and old acquaintance ; having been prisoners together in Barbary, when Don SEBASTIAN King of Portugal was slain) : which the old Viceroy presently did, and went by sea to Cochin ; that he might return to Portugal with the same ship, as the Viceroys use to do. For after their time of Government is out, they may not stay any longer in India.

The 10th of November, anno 1584, the ship called Carania went from Goa to Cochin ; there to take in pepper and other wares. Then do all the Factors go to Cochin to lade their wares ; and when the ships are laden and ready to depart, they return again to Goa: where they still remain. In that ship, the old Viceroy, with many gentlemen, sailed to Cochin.


The 5th of February 1585, the Viceroy, Don DUARTE DE MENESES, arrived in Goa ; where he was received with great triumph and feasting.

In the month of April, the same year, my fellow, and servant to the Archbishop (called BARNARD BURCHERTS, and born in Hamburg [vol. I. p. 318]), travelled from Goa unto Ormus, and from thence, to Balsora ; and from thence, by land, through Babylon, Jerusalem, Damascus, to Aleppo, from whence he sent me two letters, by an Armenian: wherein he certified me of all his voyage; which he performed with small charges and less danger, in good fellowship, and very merry in the company of the Caffilas. From Aleppo he went to Tripolis; and there he found certain ships for England, wherein he sailed to London; and from thence to Hamburg: which I understood by letters from him, written from thence.

In the month of August, there came letters from Venice [S. 29] by land, that brought news of the murder of the Prince of ORANGE, a man of honourable memory; as also the death of the Duke of ALENÇON or ANJOU ; with the marriage of the Duke of SAVOY to the King of Spain's daughter.

The 20th of October, there arrived in Goa, the ship called the San Francisco, that came out of Portugal. In it, came some Dutch cannoneers, that brought me letters out of my country ; with the news of the death of my father, HUYGHEN JOOSTEN of Harlem,

The 1st of November after [1585], arrived at Cochin, the Sant Alberto that came from Portugal. And the 1st of December, that year, there arrived at Cananor, upon the Malabar coast, the ship called the San Lorenzo ; and from thence, came to Goa : most of her men being sick, and about ninety of them dead ; they having endured great misery, and not having once put to land. At that time, there wanted [but] two of the Fleet that came from Lisbon in company with her : and they were the San Salvador, and the admiral [flag ship] , San Jago ; whereof they could hear no news.

At the same time, there arrived certain Italians, overland, in Goa, and brought news of the death of Pope GREGORY XIII., and of the election of the new Pope, called SIXTUS VI.

At that time, also, the ships that came from Portugal, sailed to Cochin, to take in their lading; which done, in the month of January 1586, they sailed for Portugal.

In the month of May 1586, letters were brought to theViceroy and Archbishop at Goa, from the Captain of Soffala and Mozambique, to certify them of the casting away [in the previous August] of the admiral San Jago, that set out of Portugal, the year before, anno 1585.

She was cast away in this manner. The ship having come, with a good speedy wind and weather, from the Cape of Good Hope to Mozambique : they had passed, as they thought, all dangers ; so that they needed not to fear anything. Yet it is good for the Master and others to be careful and keep good watch, and not to stand too much upon their own cunning and conceits, as these did ; which was the principal cause of their casting away.

Between the Island of St. Lawrence and the firm land, in 22½ S., there are certain shallows [shoals] called the "India," ninety miles from the Mozambique. Those shallows [S. 30] are mostly of clear coral of black, white, and green colours, which is very dangerous. Therefore it is good reason they should shun them; and surely the Pilots ought to have great care, especially such as are in the Indian ships, because  the whole ship and safety thereof lieth in their hands and is only ruled by them ; and that, by express commandment from the King, so that no man may contrary them.

They being thus between the lands, and by all the sailors' judgements hard by the "Shoals of India" [p. 15], the Pilot took the height of the sun, and made his account that they were past the Shallows; commanding the Master to make all the sail he could, and freely to sail to Mozambique, without any let or stay. And although there were divers sailors in the ship, that likewise had their "cards," some to learn, others for their pleasure ; as divers officers, the Master, and the Chief Boatswain, that said it was better to keep aloof, specially by night, and that it would be good to hold good watch because they found that they had not, as then, passed the Shallows : yet the Pilot said the contrary, and would needs show that he only had skill and power to command ; as commonly the Portuguese, by pride, do cast themselves away; because they will follow no man's counsel, and be under no man's subjection, specially when they have authority. As it happened to this Pilot, that would hear no man speak, nor take any counsel but his own ; and therefore commanded that they should do, as he appointed them.

Whereupon, they hoisted all their sails, and sailed in that sort till it was midnight, both with a good wind and fair weather; but the moon not shining, they fell full upon the Shallows, being of clear white coral, and so sharp that, with the force of wind and water that drave the ship upon them, it cut the ship in two pieces as if it had been sawn in sunder : so that the keel and two orlops [i.e., decks] lay still upon the ground, and the upper part, being driven somewhat further, at the last, stuck fast ; the mast being also broken.

Wherewith, you might have heard so great a cry that all the air did sound therewith : for that in the ship, being admiral [flag ship], there were at the least five hundred persons : among the which were thirty women, with many Jesuits and friars. So that, as then, there was nothing else to be done, but every man to shrift, bidding each other farewell [S. 31], and asking of all men forgiveness ; with weeping and crying, as it may well be thought.

The Admiral, called FERNANDO DE MENDOZA, the Master, the Pilot, and ten or twelve more, presently entered into the small boat, keeping it with naked rapiers, that no more should enter, saying they "would go and see if there were any dry place in the Shallows ; whereon they might work to make a boat of the pieces of the broken ship, therein to sail unto the shore, and so to save their lives." Wherewith, they put them that were behind in some small comfort ; but not much. But when they had rowed about, and finding no dry place, they durst not return again unto the ship : lest the boat should have been overladen and so drowned ; and in the ship, they looked for no help. Wherefore, in fine, they concluded to row to land ; having about twelve boxes of marmalade, with a pipe of wine and some biscuit, which, in haste, they had thrown into the boat ; which they dealt among them, as need required. So commending themselves to GOD, they rowed forwards towards the coast ; and after they had been seventeen days upon the sea, with great hunger, thirst, and labour, they fell on the land : where they saved themselves.

The rest that stayed in the ship, seeing the boat came not again ; it may well be thought what case they were in. At the last, one side of the upper part of the ship, between both the upper orlops, where the great boat lay, burst out; and the boat being half burst, began to come forth : but, because there was small hope to be had, and few of them had little will to prove masteries, no man laid hand thereon, but every man sate looking one upon another. At the last, an Italian, called CYPRIAN GRIMOALDO, rose up, and taking courage unto him, said, "Why are we thus abashed ? Let us seek to help ourselves, and see if there be any remedy to save our lives !" Wherewith presently, he leaped into the boat, with an instrument in his hand, and began to make it clean ; whereat some others began to take courage, and to help him as well as they could, with such things as first came to their hands. So that in the end, there leaped, at the least, fourscore and ten persons into it, and many hung by the hands upon the boat swimming after it, among the which were some women : but because they would not sink the boat, they were forced to cut off the fingers, hands, and arms of such as held thereon, and [S. 32] let them fall into the sea; and they threw many overboard, being such as had not wherewith to defend themselves.

Which done, they set forward, committing themselves to GOD ; with the greatest cry and pitifullest noise that ever was heard, as though heaven and earth had gone together : when they took their leave of such as stayed in the ship. In which manner, having rowed certain days, and having but small store of victuals ; for that they were so many in the boat that it was ready to sink, it being likewise very leaky and not able to hold out. In the end, they agreed among themselves to chose a captain, to whom they would obey and do as he commanded : and among the rest, they chose a gentleman, a Mestizo [halfcaste] of India ; and swore to obey him. He presently commanded to throw some of them overboard, such as, at that time, had least means or strength to help themselves. Among the which, there was a carpenter that had, not long before, helped to dress the boat : who seeing that the lot fell upon him, desired them to give him a piece of marmalade and a cup of wine ; which when they had done, he willingly suffered himself to be thrown overboard in the sea, and so was drowned.

There was another of those, that in Portugal are called New Christians. He being allotted to be cast overboard in the sea, had a younger brother in the same boat, that suddenlyrose up and desired the Captain that he would pardon and "make free his brother, and let him supply his place, saying, My brother is older, and of better knowledge in the world than I, and therefore more fit to live in the world, and to help my sisters and friends in their need : so that I had rather die for him, then to live without him." At which request, they let the elder brother loose, and threw the younger at his own request into the sea ; who swam at the least six hours after the boat. And although they held up their hands with naked rapiers willing him that he should not once come to touch the boat : yet laying hold thereon, and having his hand half cut in two, he would not let go ; so that in the end, they were constrained to take him in again. Both the which brethren, I knew, and have been in company with them.

In this misery and pain, they were twenty days at sea ; and in the end got to land : where they found the Admiral and those that were in the other boat. [S. 33]

Such as stayed in the ship, some took boards, deals, and other pieces of wood ; and bound them together, which the Portuguese call Jangadas [rafts] ; every man what they could catch, all hoping to save their lives : but of all those, there came but two men safe to shore.

They that had before landed out of the boats, having escaped that danger, fell into another ; for they had no sooner set foot on shore, but they were spoiled by the inhabitants of that country, called Kaffirs, of all their clothes : whereby they endured great hunger and misery, with many other mischiefs, which it would be over tedious to rehearse; In the end, they came unto a place where they found a Factor of the Captains of Soffala and Mozambique, and he helped them as he might ; and made means to send them unto Mozambique : and from thence, they went into India; where I knew many of them, and have often spoken with them.

Of those that were come safe to shore, some of them died before they got to Mozambique. So that in all, there were about sixty persons that saved themselves. All the rest were drowned or smothered in the ship ; and there was never other news of the ship than as you have heard.

Hereby, you may consider the pride of this Pilot ; who, because he would be counselled by no man, cast away that ship with so many men : wherefore a Pilot ought not to have so great authority, that, in time of need, he should reject and not hear the counsel of such as are most skilful.

This Pilot, when he came into Portugal, was committed to prison ; but, by gifts and presents, he was let loose : and another ship [San Thomas], being the best of the Fleet that went for India, anno 1588, was committed unto him ; not without great curses and evil words of the mothers, sisters, wives, and children of those that perished in the ship, which all cried "Vengeance on him !"

And coming with the ship, called the San Thomas, wherein he then was placed, he had almost laid her on the same place, where the other was cast away; but day coming on, they room themselves off [gave it a wide berth], and so escaped.

Yet in their voyage homeward to Portugal, the same ship was cast away by the Cape of Good Hope [pp. 70, 78], [S. 34] with the Pilot and all her men : whereby much speech arose, saying "It was a just judgement of GOD against him, for making so many widows and fatherless children."

This I thought good to set down at large, because men might see that many a ship is cast away by the headiness of the Governors, and the unskilfulness of the Pilots : wherefore it were good to examine the persons before a ship be committed unto them ; especially a ship of such a charge, and wherein consisteth the welfare or undoing of so many men, together with their lives ; and impoverishing of so many a poor wife and child.

This loss happened in the month of August, anno 1585.


In May, anno 1586, two ships, laden with ware, set sail out of the haven of Chaul in India, that belonged unto certain Portuguese inhabitants of Chaul ; the owners being in them. Those ships should have sailed to the Straits of Mecca or the Red Sea, where the said merchants used to traffic ; but they were taken by two Turkish galleys that had been made in the innermost parts of the Red Sea, in a town called Suez. The said galleys began to do great mischief ; and put all the Indian merchants in great fear.

The same month, there was a great army prepared in Goa, both of foists and galleys, such as had not been seen in many years ; and was appointed to sail to the Red Sea, to drive the Turkish galleys away, or else fight with them if they could. They were also commanded by the Viceroy to winter their ships in Ormus : and then to enter into the Straits of Persia [Persian Gulf], lying behind Ormus ; and to offer their services to XATAMAS [ABBAS l.], King [Shah] of Persia, against the Turk, their common enemy. Thereby to trouble him on all sides, if they had brought their purpose to effect ; but it fell out otherwise, as you shall hear.

For Chief of this army, there was appointed a gentleman named RUY GONSALVES DA CAMARA, who had once been Captain of Ormus ; being a very fat and gross man, which was one of the chief occasions of their evil fortune. With him, went the principal soldiers and gentlemen of all India ; thinking to win great honour thereby.

This army being ready, and minding to sail to the Red [S. 35] Sea ; they found many calms upon the way, so that they endured much misery, and began to die like dogs, as well for want of drink as other necessaries. For they had not made their account to stay so long upon the way ; which is always their excuse, if anything falleth out contrary to their minds. This was their good beginning, and as it is thought a preparative to further mischief. For coming to the Red Sea, at the mouth thereof, they met the Turkish galleys ; where they had a long fight : but, in the end, the Portuguese had the overthrow ; and escaped, as well as they might, with great dishonour and no little loss.

The Turks being victorious, sailed to the coast of Melinde, where they took certain towns, as Pate and Brava, that, then, were in league with the Portuguese: there to strengthen themselves, and thereby to reap a greater benefit, by damaging the Portuguese, and lying under their noses.

The Portuguese army having sped in this manner, went to Ormus, to winter themselves there ; and, in the meantime, to repair their army, and to heal their sick soldiers, whereof they had many.

When the time served to fulfil the Viceroy's commandment, in helping XATAMAS, having repaired their foists ; the General, by reason of his fatness and corpulent body, stayed in Ormus : and appointed as Lieutenant in his place, one called PEDRO HOMEN PEREIRA (who, although he was but a mean gentleman, yet was he a very good soldier, and of great experience) : commanding them to obey him in all things, as if he were there in person himself.

He gave them also in charge to land, as they sailed along the coast of Arabia, to punish certain pirates that held a place called Nicolu [? Nackiloo] ; and spoiled such as passed to and fro upon the seas ; doing great hurt to the ships and merchants of Bussorah that trafficed to Ormus : whereby the traffic to the said town of Ormus was much hindered, to the great loss and undoing of many a merchant.

With this commission, they set forward with their Lieutenant ; and being come to Nicolu; they ran their foists on shore, so that they lay half dry upon the sand. Every man in general leaped on land, without any order of battle; as in all their actions they use to do : which the Lieutenant perceiving, would have used his authority, and have [S. 36] placed them in order as is requisite to be done in warlike affairs. But they, on the contrary, would not obey him, saying, "He was but a boor ! and that they were better gentleman and soldiers than he !" With these, and such like presumptuous speeches, they went on their course; scattering here and there in all disorder, like sheep without a shepherd: thinking all the world not sufficient to contain them, and every Portuguese to be a HERCULES, and so strong that they could bear the whole world upon their shoulders.

Which the Arabs, being within the land and mostly on horseback, perceiving (and seeing their great disorder ; and knowing most of the foists to lie dry on the strand, and that, without great pain and much labour, they could not hastily set them afloat), presently compassed them about, and being ringed in manner of a half moon, they fell upon them ; and, in that sort, drave them away, killing them as they listed, till they came unto their foists: and because they could not presently [at once] get their foists into the water, they were compelled, through fear and shame, to fight; where likewise many of them were slain, and not above fifty of them escaped that had set foot on land. So having got into their foists, they rowed away.

In this overthrow, there were slain about eight hundred Portuguese, of the oldest and best soldiers in all India. Among them was a trumpeter, being a Netherlander; who, being in the thickest of the fight, not far from the Portuguese Ensign, and seeing the Ensign-bearer throw down his Ensign (the easier to escape and save his life), and that one of the Arabs had taken it up : casting his trumpet at his back, he ran with great fury, and with his rapier killed the Arab that held it, and brought it again among the Portuguese, saying, "It was a great shame for them to suffer it to be carried away." In that manner, he held it, at the least, a whole hour, and spoiled many of the Arabs that sought to take it from him, in such manner, that he stood compassed about with dead men : and although he might have saved himself if he would have left the Ensign, yet he would not do it ; till, in the end, there came so many upon him that they killed him, where he yielded up the ghost with the Ensign in his arms. And so ended his days with honour ; which the Portuguese themselves did confess, and often acknowledged it ; commending [S. 37] his valour : which I thought good to set down in this place, for a perpetual memory of his valiant mind.

The Lieutenant, perceiving their disorder and how it would fall out, wisely saved himself, and got into the foists, where he beheld the overthrow; and in the end, with empty vessels, he turned again to Ormus, without doing anything else : to the great grief and shame of all the Indian soldiers ; being the greatest overthrow that ever the Portuguese had in those countries, or wherein they lost so many Portuguese together. Among the which, was the Archbishop's brother [p. 27], and many other young and lusty gentlemen, of the principal [families] in all Portugal.

At the same time [i.e., in the spring 0/1587], the Queen of Ormus came to Goa, being of MAHOMET'S religion, as all her ancestors had been before her ; and as then, contributory [subject] to the Portuguese. She caused herself to be christened, and was brought, with great solemnity, unto the town ; where the Viceroy was her godfather, and named her Donna PHILLIPPA, after the King of Spain's name : being a fair white woman, very tall and comely. With her, likewise, a brother of hers, being very young: and, then, with one MATTHIAS D'ALBUQUERQUE, that had been Captain of Ormus, she sailed to Portugal [in the Nostra Señora da Sancao ; see pp. 40-51; which arrived in Portugal on 12th of August 1587, see p. 51] to present herself to the King.

She had [or rather, afterwards] married with a Portuguese gentleman, called ANTONIO DAZEVEDO COUTINHO ; to whom, the King, in regard of his marriage, gave the Captainship of Ormus, which is worth [in the three years] about 200,000 ducats [= about 50,000 then = 300,000 now].

[The following occurrence must have been after LINSCHOTEN's departure from India, in November 1588.]

This gentleman, after he had been married to the Queen about half a year, living very friendly and lovingly with her, he caused a ship to be made, therewith to sail to Ormus ; to take order there for the rents and revenues belonging to the Queen, his wife. But his departure was so grievous unto her, that she desired him to take her with him ; saying that "she could not live without him !" but, because he thought it not then convenient, he desired her to be content ; promising [S. 38] to return again with all the speed he might. Whereupon, he went to Bardes, which is the uttermost part of the river entering into Goa, about three miles off. While he continued there, staying for wind and weather; the Queen, as it is said, took so great grief for his departure, that she died the same day that her husband set sail and put to sea : to the great admiration [wonder] of all the country ; and no less sorrow, because she was the first Queen, in those countries, that had been christened, forsaking her kingdom and high Estate, rather to die a Christian, and be married to a mean [private] gentleman than to live like a Queen under law of MAHOMET. And so was buried with great honour, according to her estate.

In the month of August 1586, there arrived a man of Mozambique in Goa, that came from Portugal in the ship that should sail to Malacca [usually leaving Lisbon about February : in this instance, about February 1585] that brought news unto the Viceroy, how the ship, called the Boa Viagen, that, in the year before [i.e., January 1585 see p. 27], sailed from India towards Portugal, was cast away by the Cape of Good Hope : where it burst in pieces, being overladen (for they do commonly overlade most of their ships), and affirmed that the ship had, at the least, nine handsful height of water within it, before it departed from Cochin ; although, before their ships set sail, they put the Master and other Officers to their oaths, thereby to make them confess "If the ship be strong and sufficient to perform the voyage, or to let them know the faults !" Which, upon their said oaths, is certified by a Protestation, whereunto the Officers set their hands. Yet, though the ship have so many faults, they will never confess them, because they will not lose their places and the profit of the voyage; yea, although they do assuredly know the ship is not able to continue the voyage: for covetousness, overthrowing wisdom and policy, maketh them reject all fear; but when they fall into danger, then they can speak fair, and promise many things.

In that sort, most of the ships depart from Cochin, so that if any of them come safely to Portugal, it is only by the will of GOD ; for, otherwise, it were impossible to escape, because they overlade them, and the ships are, otherwise, so badly [S. 39]provided, and with little order among their men: so that not one ship cometh home but can show of their great dangers by overlading, want of necessaries, and reparations of the ship, together with unskilful sailors ; yet for all these daily and continual dangers, there is no amendment, but they daily grow worse and worse.

In this ship, called the Boa Viagen, were many gentlemen of the best and principal, that had served a long time in India; travelling then into Portugal, with their certificates, to get some reward for their service, as the manner is. Because it was one of the best and greatest ships of that fleet, the Ambassador of XATAMAS [ABBAS I.], King [Shah] of Persia, went therein, to procure a league with the King of Spain, to join with him against the Turk, their common enemy : but he being drowned, the Persian would send no more Ambassadors ; and yet he is still in league and good friendship with the Portuguese.

The worst ship that saileth from Cochin to Portugal, is worth, at the least, a million of gold [i.e., of ducats = about 300,000 then=about 1,800,000 now], and this was one of the best ships ; whereby it may be considered what great loss cometh by the casting away of one of their ships, besides the men. For there never passeth a year ; but one or two of they are cast away, either in going or coming.

In the month of September, the same year, 1586; there arrived four ships out of Portugal, in Goa, called the San Thomas, San Salvador [p. 44], the Arreliquias, the Dom Jesus de Carania : but of their admiral, the San Felipe, they had no news since their departure from Lisbon.

On the last of November, the same ships departed from Goa : some along the coast of Malabar, to take in their lading of pepper, and from thence to Cochin ; others direct to Cochin, where commonly one or two of them are laden with pepper, and where, alone, all other kind of wares are laden.

At the same time, there was a ship called the Ascention, that lay in Goa, and had made certain voyages to China and Japan : which ship was bought by the Factors for Pepper, because the ship Carania, by reason of her oldness, was broken in Cochin, and set upon the stocks there, to be new made ; but was not finished, by reason of a certain controversy that fell among the Factors. [S. 40]

In this ship, [newly] called Nostra Señora da Sancao, my Lord the Archbishop sailed to Portugal, by reason of certain quarrels newly begun between the Viceroy with other Councillors, and the Archbishop. And although he was entreated by the Viceroy, all the Council, gentlemen and communalty of Goa, not to leave them ; yet he would not be dissuaded from his purpose, but went to ride unto the King, of whom he was well beloved : which the Viceroy and others liked not very well, fearing he should give some information to the King, which would be smally to their profit.

In that mind, he undertook his voyage, discharging all his servants ; saving some that he kept about him for his service : and leaving no man in his house, but only his Steward and myself, to receive his rents, and keep his house. And because, as then, the Golden Jubilee or Pardon of Rome, called La Santa Crusada, was newly brought into the Indies (being granted to the end that, with the money that should be gathered by virtue thereof, the Captains and prisoners in Africa or Barbary, that had been taken prisoners in the battle wherein Don SEBASTIAN, King of Portugal, was slain, should be redeemed) ; the Golden Jubilee was sent unto the Archbishop : who, being appointed the Roman Apostolic Commissary, &c., for the same, made me the General Clerk throughout all India, to keep account of the said receipts ; and gave me one of the keys of the chest wherein the money lay, with a good stipend, and other profits belonging to the same, during the time of his absence. Thereby the rather to bind me, that I should remain in his house, and keep the same till his return again ; as I had promised unto him.


So he set sail from Cochin, in the month of January, anno 1587 ; his Pilot being the same man that cast the San Jago away upon the "Flats of India," as it is said before [pp. 30-33].

The ships, at that time, being ready to set sail, one some four or five days after the other, as they were laden (for hey observe a certain order therein, the better to register all their wares and merchandise), it so fell out that all the other ships being despatched ; the Arreliquias only was the last that laded. Which ship having taken in her whole lading, the [S. 41] Officers, and some of the Factors, being bribed, suffered some of the ballast to be taken out, and in place thereof laded cinnamon : for, at that time, cinnamon was risen, and at a very high price in Portugal ; and therefore the Officers and Factors, by gifts aforesaid, suffered it to be laden in that manner, having no other place to lade it in.

You must understand that when the time cometh to set sail, the ships lying at anchor about a mile within the sea, where they received their lading (the reason why they lie so far is because it is summer time ; and there the sea is as calm and still, as if it were within the land), a trumpet is sounded throughout all the town of Cochin to call them all on board : wherewith, all that will sail, do presently come down, accompanied with their friends, which, in small boats called Tones and Pallenges, bring them aboard ; with great store of bread, and such like victuals. So that you shall, many times, see the ships hung round about with boats, at the least three or four hundred ; with such a noise and rejoicing, as it is wonderful to hear.

Sometimes the ships are so ladened that the cables touch the water, and besides that, the hatches are covered with divers chests, seven or eight one above another ; they having no other place to set them in : for that under the hatches they are so stuffed, that there is not any empty room. So that when they set sail, they know not where to begin, nor how to rule the ship ; neither can they well, for a month after, tell how to place all things in order.

So it was with this ship, which being thus prepared, the Viador da Fazenda, or the King's Officers, came aboard, asking "If the ship were ready to set sail, and depart?" They say, "It was ready." And he having made a Protestation or Certificate thereof, the Officers set to their hands, as some say ; but others deny it. Presently he commanded them to wind up their cables and hoisted anchor, as the manner is. So they let their sails fall, with a great cry of Boa Viagen ! "GOD send them good fortune, and a merry voyage !" all the boats being still aboard [attached] ; which commonly do hang at her at least a mile or half a mile within the sea ; because it is calm.

This ship, called the Arreliquias, beginning in this manner to sail, among other romage [lumber] that stood on the [S. 42] hatches, there were certain hens' cages ; from whence, certain hens flew out : whereupon every man claimed them for his own, and, upon a Sunday, as in such cases it is commonly seen, they ran all on a heap upon one side ; whereby the ship (being light of ballast, and laden with many chests above the hatches, as I said before) swayed so much on the one side that, by little and little, it sank clean under the water, so that not above a handful of the mast could be seen above the water.

The people leaped into the boats that, as yet, were hanging above the ship, which was good fortune for them ; otherwise, there had not one escaped alive : but, by that means, they were all saved ; excepting only the slaves, that were bound with iron chains and could not stir, and so were drowned.

GOD knoweth what riches were lost in her ! For nothing was saved, but some few chests that stood above the hatches ; which the duckers [divers] got up, and yet the goods in them were, in a manner, spoiled : the rest was utterly lost.

By this, it may be considered what manner the Portuguese use in lading of their ships ; and that it is to be thought that the many ships that are cast away, whereof there hath been heard no news or tidings, are only lost by means of evil order and government.

This being so unluckily fallen out, the Merchants used all the speed and means they could, by witnesses, to make Protestation against the Officers and Factors of the pepper, that they might be punished for taking out the ballast : but they kept themselves out of the way ; and, by prolonging of time, it was forgotten, and nothing done therein. So the Merchants, that had received all the loss, were glad to put it up.

In the same month [January 1587], came news out of Malacca, that it was in great danger, and that many died there for hunger ; as also that the ship that went from Portugal thither, was forced to stay there, because they had no victuals to despatch it away [pp. 43, 46]: and likewise, that the Strait of Sumatra was kept by the enemy, so that there no ships could pass that way to China or Japan. This was done by the kings [chiefs] of Sumatra, that is to say, the kings of Achen [Achin] and Jor, lying by Malacca upon the firm [S. 43] land ; who rebelled against the Portuguese in Malacca, upon a certain injury done unto them by the Captain there.

This news put Goa in a great alteration, for their principal traffic is to Malacca, China, and Japan, and the islands bordering on the same : which, by reason of these wars, was wholly hindered. Whereupon a great number of foists, galleys, and ships were prepared in Goa to relieve Malacca, and all the townsmen tasked [taxed], every one at a certain sum of money, besides the money that was brought from other places ; and men taken up to serve in ships, for by means of their late overthrows, [the Portuguese] India was, at that time, very weak of men.

In the month of May, anno 1587, there came a ship or galley of Mozambique unto Goa, brings news that the ship, the San Felipe, had been there, and taken in the lading of pepper that was in the ship called the San Lorenzo [p. 29] that had arrived there in her voyage towards Portugal, and was all open above the hatches and without masts, most of her goods being thrown into the sea : whereby, miraculously, they saved their lives, and, by fortune, put into Mozambique. In this ship, called the San Felipe, were the young princes, the Kings' children of Japan, as is before declared [at p. 22-3].

The same galley which brought this news from Mozambique to Goa, likewise brought news of the army that sailed out of Goa, in December 1586, being the year before, unto the coast of Melinde, to revenge the injury which they had received in the fleet whereof RUY GONSALVES DA CAMARA was Captain, as I said before ; as also to punish the towns that, at the same time, had united themselves with the Turk, and broken league with the Portuguese [p. 34-7]. Of this army was General, a gentleman called MARTIN ALONZO DE MELLO.

Wherewith, coming upon the coast of Abex or Melinde, which lyeth between Mozambique and the Red Sea, they went on land ; and, because the Turks whom they sought for, were gone home through the Red Sea, they determined to punish and plague the towns that favoured the Turks, and broken their alliance with them. To this end, they entered into the country as far as the towns of Pate and Brava, that little thought of them, and easily overran them ; for the most part of the people fled to save themselves, and left their towns. Whereby the Portuguese did what pleased them, burning the [S. 44] towns with others that lay about them, and razing them to the ground : and among those that fled, they took the King [chief] of Pate, whose head, in great fury, they caused to be stricken off, and brought it to Goa ; where, for certain days, it stood on a mast in the middle of the town, for an example to all others, as also in sign of victory.

Wherewith, the Portuguese began to be somewhat encouraged. So they went from thence to Ormus ; and from Ormus they were to go to help the King of Persia, as the Viceroy had commanded them. But being at Ormus, many of their men fell sick and died : among the which the General, MARTIN ALFONSO DE MELLO was one. Whereupon they returned unto Goa; without doing any other thing.

The same army sailing to the coast of Abex, and falling on the island of Zanzibar (which lieth 6 S. about seventy miles from Pate towards Mozambique, about eighteen miles from the firm land), they found there the San Salvador [p. 39] that came from Cochin, sailing towards Portugal : which was all open, having thrown all her goods overboard, saving only some pepper which they could not come at ; and was in great danger, holding themselves, by force of pumping, above the water. They were upon the point to leave, being all weary and ready to sink : which they certainly had done, if, by great good fortune, they had not met with the army ; which they little thought to find in those parts.

The army took the ship with them to Ormus, where the rest of the pepper and goods remaining in her were unladen, and the ship broken in pieces : and of the boards, they made a lesser ship, wherein the men that were in the great ship, with the rest of the goods that were saved in her, sailed to Portugal : and, after a long and wearisome voyage [p.82], arrived there in safety.

The I7th of September, 1587, a galliot of Mozambique arrived at Goa, bringing news of the arrival of four ships in Mozambique, that came out of Portugal. Their names were the Sant Antonio, Sant Francisco, Nostra Señora da Nazareth, and the Sant Alberto : but of the Santa Maria that came in company with them from Portugal, they had no news. Afterwards they heard, that she put back again to Portugal, by reason of some defaults in her, and of the foul weather.

Eight days after [25th of September], the said four ships arrived in Goa, where they were received with great joy. [S. 45]

At the same time, the fort called Colombo, which the Portuguese hold in the island of Ceylon, was besieged by the King of Ceylon, called Raju [? Rajah] and in great danger of being lost : to deliver which, there was an army of foists and galleys sent from Goa ; whereof BERNARDINE DE CARVALHO was General.

And at the same time, departed another army of many ships, foists, and galleys, with a great number of soldiers, munition, victuals, and other warlike provisions ; wherewith to deliver Malacca : which as then was besieged and in great misery, as I said before. The General thereof was Don PAULO DE LIMA PEREIRA, a valiant gentleman, who, not long before, had been Captain of Chaul ; and being very fortunate in all his enterprises, was therefore chosen to be General of that fleet.

The last of November, the four ships aforesaid, departed from Goa ; to lade at Cochin, and from thence to sail to Portugal.

The December after, while the fort of Colombo, in the island of Ceylon, was still besieged ; the town of Goa made out another great fleet of ships and galleys : for the which they took up many men within the city, and compelled them to go in the ships, because they wanted men ; with a great contribution of money raised upon the merchants and other inhabitants, to furnish the same. Of which army was appointed General, MANUEL DE SOUSA COUTINHO, a brave gentleman and soldier, who, in times past, had been Captain of the said fort of Colombo, and had withstood a former besieging : whereupon the King put him in great credit, and advanced him much ; and, after the Viceroy's death, he was Viceroy of [Portuguese] India, as in time and place we shall declare [p. 50].

He arrived, with his army, in the isle of Ceylon, where he joined with the other army that went before ; and placed themselves in order to give battle to RAGIU : who, perceiving the great number of his enemies, brake up his siege, and forsook the fort, to the great rejoicing of the Portuguese. Having strengthened the fort with men and victuals, they returned again to Goa ; where, in the month of March, anno 1588, they were received with great joy.

In the month of April, the same year [1588], the army of [S. 46] Don PAULO DE LIMA PEREIRA that went to Malacca, arrived in Goa with victory : having freed Malacca, and opened the passage again to China and other places.

The manner whereof was thus. In their way, as they passed the Straits of Malacca, they met with a ship belonging to the King of Achen [Achin] in Sumatra; who was a deadly enemy to the Portuguese, and the principal cause of the besieging of Malacca.

In the same ship was the daughter of the said King of Achen ; which he sent to be married to the King of Jor, thereby to make a new alliance with him against the Portuguese : and, for a present, he also sent him a goodly piece of ordnance, whereof the like was not to be found in all India.

Therefore it was, afterwards, sent to Portugal as a present to the King of Spain, in a ship of Malacca; which, after, was cast away in the island of Terceira, one of the Flemish Isles [Azores, see pp. 97-101]: where the same piece, with much labour, was weighed up, and laid within the fortress of the same isle ; because it is so heavy that it can hardly be carried into Portugal.

But to the matter. They took the ship with the King's daughter, and made it all good prize. By it, they were advertised what had passed between the Kings of Achen and Jor : so that presently [at once] they sent certain soldiers on land, and marching in order of battle, they set upon the town of Jor, that was sconced [pallisadoed] and compassed about with wooden stakes, most of the houses being of straw. Which, when the people of the town perceived, and saw the great number of men, and also their resolution, they were in great fear; and, as many as could, fled, and saved themselves in the country.

To conclude. The Portuguese entered the town and set it on fire, utterly spoiling and destroying it, razing it even with the ground, slaying all they found; but taking some prisoners, whom they led away captives. They found within the town, at the least, 2,500 brass pieces, great and small, which were all brought into India [i.e., Goa]. You must understand that some of them were no greater than muskets; some greater; and some very great, being very cunningly wrought with figures and flowers, which the Italians and Portuguese that have denied [renounced] their faith, and [S. 47] become Mahometists have taught them : whereof there are many in India, and are those indeed that do most hurt. When they have done any murder or other villany ; fearing to be punished for the same, to save their lives, they run over by the firm land among the heathens and Moors : and there they have great stipends and wages of the Indian kings and captains of the land.

Seven or eight years before my coming into India [i.e., 1575 or 1576], there were in Goa, certain Trumpeters and Cannoneers, being Dutchmen and Netherlander ; and because they were rejected and scorned by the Portuguese in India (as they scorn all other nations in the world) ; as also because they could get no pay ; and when they asked for it, they were presently abused and cast into the galleys, and there compelled to serve : in the end, they took counsel together, and seeing they could not get out of the country, they secretly got unto the firm [main] land of Balagate and went unto Hildalcan [? the Deccan] ; where they were gladly received, and very well entertained with great pay, living like Lords. And there, being in despair, denied [renounced] their faith ; although it is thought by some, that they remain still in their own religion : but it is most sure that they are married there, in those countries, with heathen women ; and were living when I came from thence.

By this means are the Portuguese the cause of their own mischief, only through their pride and hardiness ; and make rods to scourge themselves withal : which I have only showed in respect to those cast pieces and other martial weapons, which the Indians have learnt of the Portuguese and Christians ; whereof in times past, they had no understanding. And although they [of Jor] had placed all those pieces in very good order; yet it should seem they knew not how to shoot them off or to use them as they should : as it appeared hereby, for that they presently forsook them, and left them for the Portuguese.

With this victory, the Portuguese were very proud ; and, with great glory, entered into Malacca : wherein they were received with great triumph ; as it may well be thought, being delivered by them from great misery wherein they had long continued. Which the King of Achen hearing, and that his daughter was taken prisoner, he sent his Ambassador to [S. 48] Don PAULO DE LIMA PEREIRA, with great presents, desiring to make peace with him : which was presently granted, and all the ways to Malacca were opened, and all kinds of merchandise and victuals brought thither, which before had been kept from them ; whereat was much rejoicing.

This done, and order being taken for all things in Malacca ; they returned again to Goa : where they arrived in safety (as I said before) in the month of April [1588] ; and there, were received with great triumph; the people singing Te DEUM laudamus ; and many of the soldiers bringing good prizes with them.

In the month of May [1588] following, upon the 15th of the same month, the Viceroy Don DUARTE DE MENESES died in Goa ; having been sick but four days, of a burning fever, which is the common sickness of India, and is very dangerous : but it is thought it was for grief, because he had received letters from the Captain of Ormus, wherein he was advertised that they had received news, over land, from Venice, that the Archbishop was safely arrived at Lisbon, and well received by the King; and because they were not friends at his departure (as I said before), they said, "He was so much grieved thereat, that fearing to fall into the displeasure of the King, by information from the Bishop, he died of grief."

But that was contrary [to the facts] as, hereafter, by the ships, we understood; for the Bishop died in the ship [on the 4th August 1587], eight days before it arrived in Portugal. So they kept company together ; for they lived not long one after the other, whereby their quarrel was ended with their lives.

The Viceroy's funerals were observed, with great solemnity, in this manner.

The place appointed for the Viceroys' burial is a Cloister called Reis Magos or "The Three Kings of Cologne," being of the Order of Saint Francis, which standeth in the land of Bardes, at the mouth of the river of Goa.

Thither was his body conveyed, being sent in the Royal Galley, all hanged over with black pennons, and covered with black cloth; and accompanied with all the nobility and gentlemen of the country.

Approaching near the Cloister of Reis Magos, being three [S. 49] miles from Goa down the river towards the sea ; the friars came out to receive him, and brought his body into the church, where they placed it upon a hearse ; and so, with great solemnity, sang Mass.

Which done, there were certain letters, called Vias, brought forth ; which are always sealed, and, by the King's appointment, kept by the Jesuits : and are never opened, but in the absence or at the death of the Viceroy.

These Vias are sent yearly by the King, and are marked with the figures i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so forth. When there wanteth a Viceroy, then the first number or Via is opened ; wherein is written, that in the absence or after the death of the Viceroy, such a man shall be Viceroy. If the man that is named in the first Via be not there ; then they open the second Via, and look whose name is therein ; being in place, he is presently [immediately] received and obeyed as Governor. If he be likewise absent ; they open the rest, orderly, as they are numbered, until the Governor be found : which, being known, they need open no more. The rest of the Vias that are remaining are presently shut up, and kept in the cloister of the Jesuits : but before the Vias are opened, there is no man that knoweth who it shall be, or whose name is written therein.

These Vias are opened, with great solemnity, by the Jesuits, and read in open audience, before all the nobles, Captains, Governors, and others that are present. If the man that is named in the Vias, be in any place of India or the East countries, as Soffala, Mozambique, Ormus, Malacca, or any other place of those countries, as sometimes it happeneth ; he is presently sent for : and must leave all other offices, to receive that place, until the King sendeth another out of Portugal. But if the man named in the Vias be in Portugal, China, or Japan, or the Cape of Good Hope; then, they open other Vias, as I said before.

The Mass being finished, the Jesuits came with the King's packets of Vias, which are sealed with the King's own signet, and are always opened before the other Viceroy's body is laid in the earth. And there, they opened the first Via, and, with great devotion, staying to know who it should be; at the last, was named for Viceroy, one MATTHIAS D'ALBUQUERQUE, that had been Captain of Ormus, and, the year before [i.e., [S. 50] January 1587, see vol. I pp. 312, 325 ; vol. ii. p. 37], had gone, in company with the Archbishop, to Portugal, because he had broken one of his legs, thinking to heal it : but if he had known as much, he would have stayed in India. [He was appointed Viceroy in 1590, see pp. 114-5].

He, being absent, the second Via was opened, with the like solemnity, and herein they found named for Viceroy, MANUEL DE SOUSA COUTINHO (of whom I made mention before, [p. 45] and who was the man that raised the siege in the island of Ceylon), to the great admiration [wonderment] of every man: because he was but a mean [poor] gentleman; yet very well esteemed, as he had well deserved by his long service.

Although there were many rich gentlemen in that place, whom they thought rather should have been preferred thereto : yet they must content themselves, and show no dislike. Thereupon they presently saluted him kissing his hand, and honoured him as Viceroy.

Presently, they left the dead body of the old Viceroy, and departed in the galley, with the new Viceroy ; taking away all the mourning cloths and standards, and covering it with others of divers colours and silks.

And so entered into Goa, sounding both shalms and trumpets ; wherein he was received with great triumph, and led to the great Church, where they sang Te DEUM laudamus, &c., and there gave him his oath to hold and observe all privileges and customs, according to the order in that case provided.

From thence, they led him to the Viceroy's Palace, which was presently all unfurnished by the dead Viceroy's servants; and furnished again by the new Viceroy, as the manner is, in all such changes and alterations.

The body of the dead Viceroy being left in the Church, was buried by his servants, without any more memory of him ; saving only touching his own particular affairs.

In the months of June, July, and August of the same year, anno 1588, there happened the greatest winter that had, of long time, been seen in those countries. Although it raineth every winter, never holding up, all the winter long ; but not in such quantity and abundance as it did in those three months, for it rained continually and in so great abundance, [S. 51] from the 10th of June till the 1st of September, that it could not be judged that it ever held up from raining, one half hour together, either night or day ; whereby many houses, by reason of the great moisture, fell down to the ground ; as also because the stone wherewith they are built is very soft, and the greater part of their mortar is more than half earth.

The 16th of September 1588, there arrived in Goa, a ship of Portugal, called the San Thomas, bringing news of four ships that were in Mozambique, all come from Portugal : which, not long after, came likewise to Goa. Their names were San Christopher, being admiral ; Santa Maria, Sant Antonio, and Nostra Señora de Consepcao.

By these ships, we received news of the death of my Lord the Archbishop, Don Frey VINCENTE DA FONSECA, who died in his voyage to Portugal, upon the 4th day of August, anno 1587, between the Flemish Isles [Azores] and Portugal ; eight days before the ship came to land.

It was thought that he died of some poison that he brought [in himself] out of India, or else of some impostume that suddenly brake within him. For an hour before his death, he seemed to be as well as ever he was in all his life : and suddenly he was taken so sick that he had not the leisure to make his will, but died presently : and voided at the least a quart of poison out of his body.

To be short. He was clothed in his Bishop's apparel, with his mitre on his head, and rings upon his ringers, and put into a coffin : and so thrown into the sea.

Zu: 4. Zum Beispiel: Ralph Fitch, 1583 - 1591