Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858

15. Frühe europäische Quellen und Quellen aus der Zeit der East India Companies

7. Zum Beispiel: William Finch, 1608 - 1611

hrsg. von Alois Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858. -- 15. Frühe europäische Quellen und Quellen aus der Zeit der East India Companies. --7. Zum Beispiel: William Finch, 1608 - 1611. -- Fassung vom 2008-06-10. -- http://www.payer.de/quellenkunde/quellen1507.htm                  

Erstmals publiziert als:

Early travels in India 1583 - 1619 / ed. by William Foster [1863 - 1951]. -- London [u.a.] :  Milford, Oxford university press, 1921. -- xiv, 351 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 122 - 187. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/earlytravelsinin00fostuoft. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-19. -- "Not in copyright."

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2008-06-03

Überarbeitungen: 2008-06-10 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung FS 2008

©opyright: Public domain.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit  von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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1. Über William Finch


Much of what has been already said concerning Captain Hawkins and his experiences will serve also as an introduction to the narrative of his colleague, William Finch. Not that the latter account is in any way a repetition of the same story in other words ; on the contrary, it deals principally with experiences in which Hawkins had no share, and its chief feature is the topographical information gleaned by the writer either in his own journeyings or by diligent inquiry from others. Its interest in this respect it would be difficult to exaggerate. Purchas says of it that it is 'supplied in substance with more accurate observations of men, beasts, plants, cities, deserts, castles, buildings, regions, religions, then almost any other; as also of waies, wares, warres'. Based upon a carefully kept journal and giving a detailed description of a large extent of the country, it is a most valuable contribution to our knowledge of the dominions of the Great Mogul in the early years of the seventeenth century. It has, however, to a large extent been lost sight of in the mass of Purchas's unwieldy collection, and much of the information it contains is known chiefly at secondhand from the works of two slightly later authors, viz. Johannes de Laet, who, in his De Imperio Magni Mogolis (1631), availed himself freely of the materials provided by Finch, and Thomas Herbert, who copied De Laet in the second edition (1638) of his account of his own travels. The fact that Herbert had actually made a voyage to India and Persia has perhaps assisted to give the impression that his descriptions of the former country were from his own observation ; but in reality he saw scarcely anything of India outside the immediate vicinity of Surat, and the bulk of his work is a medley of information gathered from previous writers.

Of Finch himself, previous to our finding him among the merchants on board the Hector in the outward voyage, we know only that he had been 'servant to Master Johnson in Cheapside'—a detail we owe to Robert Covert, the author of A True and Almost Incredible Report ; but of the rest of his short career we have a fairly full account, mainly from his own pen. He landed with Hawkins at Surat in August 1608, and remained there in charge of a small stock of goods when the [S. 123] Captain himself proceeded to Agra. Finch's experiences while at the port are fully related in his Journal, supplemented by a letter from him to Hawkins in July 1609, printed at p. 23 of vol. i of Letters Received by the East India Company.1 In January 1610, in obedience to a summons from Hawkins, he left Surat for Agra, where he arrived early in April. Towards the close of the year he was dispatched on a short expedition to Bayanā [बयना] for the purpose of buying a stock of indigo. Here, according to Jourdain (Journal, p. 156), an incident happened which gave some offence at court. The Emperor's mother, or others acting under her protection, carried on extensive trading operations, and at this time a vessel belonging to her was being laden for a voyage to Mokha [Mocha / المخا]. A merchant had accordingly been sent to Bayanā to buy indigo, and he had nearly concluded his bargain when Finch arrived. No Indian would have dared to compete in such a case, but the Englishman did not scruple to bid against the Queen-Mother's agent and so 'had awaie the indico ', with the result that the aggrieved lady complained to the Emperor, and Hawkins's position at court suffered accordingly.

1 The document printed at p. 28 of the same volume, without any name attached, is undoubtedly by Finch.

Finch's return to Agra was quickly followed by his departure for Lahore to make sale on the Company's behalf of the indigo he had purchased at Bayanā. Travelling by way of Delhi, Ambāla, and Sultānpur, he reached his destination early in February 1611. Lahore was at that time second only to Agra in importance (it will be remembered that Milton couples them together as the chief seats of the Great Mogul) ; and our author's description of the palace, before it was altered by Shāh Jahān, is of great interest. In this city Finch remained until at least August 18 of the same year, which is the last date given in his narrative. Its sudden breaking off suggests that at this point he found that he had filled up the last blank sheet of his note-book, and was consequently obliged to make his further jottings in a second book or on loose paper, unfortunately lost or destroyed at the time of his death. The rest of our text is occupied with notes which Finch had doubtless inserted from time to time on the back pages of his journal—a common practice among the factors. Purchas printed them in the order in which he found them ; but in all probability they were entered in the reverse order. Thus the account of routes from Agra to places lying to the eastwards (p. 175), and the descriptions of that city and of Sikandra, were doubtless written during Finch's stay in the capital. Next he inserted the details obtained from Nicholas Ufflet of the route from Agra to Surat by way of Ajmer (p. 170). These must have [S. 124] been communicated when the two were together at Lahore in 1611. Finally, while at Lahore, he gathered the information entered at p. 107 concerning the routes from that city to Kābul and to Srīnagar.

Hawkins had instructed Finch to return to Agra as soon as he had disposed of his goods ; but the latter had come to the conclusion that the prospects of English trade in India were hopeless ;1 and, learning that a caravan was about to set out from Lahore for Aleppo, he resolved to take the opportunity to go home by that route. Accordingly he wrote to Hawkins, acquainting him with his intention, and asking either to be allowed to go as the Company's servant, carrying with him for sale the indigo in his charge, or to be paid his wages and released from the service. Hawkins conceived the idea that Finch might abscond with the indigo, and so he dispatched secretly a power of attorney to a Jesuit at Lahore, authorizing him, in the event of Finch attempting to leave with the caravan, to seize him and his goods. Nicholas Ufflet was then sent to Lahore to take over the indigo. The implied distrust of his honesty cut Finch to the quick, and when the secret of the power of attorney leaked out, the breach between him and Hawkins was complete. Jourdain wrote to Finch, telling him that an English fleet was on its way to India, and urging him to come to Agra in order that they might journey down to Surat in company ; but Finch replied that 'he knewe well the Companie would never send more shipps for Suratt . . .exclaymeinge very much on Captaine Hawkins and his disconfidence, sayinge that he would not come to Agra because he would not see the face of him' (Journal of John Jourdain, p. 158).

1 Sir Henry Middleton notes (Purchas His Pilgrimes, part i, bk. ix, chap, xi) that in October 1611 he received a letter written by Finch at Lahore, addressed to the commander of any of the Company's ships arriving off 8urat, and announcing that he was going home overland, as there was no hope of the establishment of English trade in India.

The rest of the story is contained in a letter written to the East India Company by Bartholomew Haggatt, the English consul at Aleppo, in August 1613.1 Travelling in company with a Captain Boys and their respective servants, Thomas Styles and Laurence Pigot, Finch made his way overland to Bagdad. There the whole party were seized with sickness, due, it is said, to their having drunk some infected water ; and all but Styles died soon after their arrival. Finch's goods were at once confiscated by the Bāsha, who also imprisoned the survivor in the hope of making him disclose the hiding place of further articles ; but with the aid of the Venetian vice-consul [S. 125]

1 Printed in Letters Received, vol. i (p. 273). See also Kerridge's letter at p. 286 of the same volume.

consul, Styles effected his escape, and after a dangerous journey succeeded in reaching Aleppo at the beginning of October 1612. The friendly vice-consul at Bagdad did his best to induce the Bāsha to disgorge his prey, and with much trouble managed to get from him a portion of it, which seems, however, to have been scarcely more than sufficient to defray the expenses of the suit and the claims of certain creditors. Finch's apparel and the bulk at least of his papers were also saved and delivered to Haggatt, who forwarded them to the East India Company. This explains how the Rev. Samuel Purchas, when searching the Company's archives for materials, came across Finch's 'large journall' and, recognizing its value, printed it almost in full, as the fourth chapter of the fourth book of part one of the Pilgrimes. The subsequent fate of the manuscript is unknown.

Finch's narrative is here printed as given by Purchas, except that the voluminous account of the outward voyage is omitted, as having no bearing upon India. It may be added that the portion relating to the Punjab has been reproduced by Sir Edward Maclagan in the Journal of the Punjab Historical Society (vol. i, no. 2), accompanied by some useful notes ; while (as mentioned in the text) still more recently Sir Aurel Stein has examined in the same periodical Finch's references to Kashmīr and Central Asia.

Mr. W. H. Moreland, C.S.I., C.I.E., has been good enough to read this section and make some useful suggestions for its annotation."

[Quelle: Early travels in India 1583 - 1619 / ed. by William Foster [1863 - 1951]. -- London [u.a.] :  Milford, Oxford university press, 1921. -- xiv, 351 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 122 - 125. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/earlytravelsinin00fostuoft. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-19. -- "Not in copyright."

2. Text von William Finch

Abb.: Karte von Surat und Umgebung

[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. (John George) <1860-1920>: A literary and historical atlas of Asia. -- London :  [1912] -- xi, 226 S.  ; Ill. : 18 cm. -- S. 67. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/literaryhistoric00bartrich. -- Zugriff am 2008-06-10. -- "Not in copyright".]

The eight and twentieth of August, 1608, Captaine Hawkins with the merchants and certaine others landed at Surat, where the Captaine was received in a coach and carryed before the Dawne [Diwān]. Wee had poore lodging alloted us, the porters lodge of the custome house ; whither the next morning came the Customers, who searched and tumbled our trunkes to our great dislike, which had yet brought ashore only necessaries. We were invited to dinner to a merchant, where wee had great cheere, but in the midst of our banquet sowre sawce, for hee was the man that had sustayned almost all the losse in a ship that Sir Edward Michelborne tooke. The captaine also of that ship dined with us. Which when it was there told us, the Captaine [Hawkins] answered that hee never heard of such a matter, and rather judged it done by Flemmings [S. 126] ; but they said that they knew certainely that they were English, deploring their hard fortunes and affirming that there were theeves in all countries, nor would they impute that fault to honest merchants. This speech somewhat revived us. The day after, Mede Colee [Mahdi Kuli], the captaine of that ship aforesaid, invited us to supper.

The second of October wee imbarqued our goods and provisions, gave Shek Abdelreheime [see p. 72] a present, and got dispatch to depart ; the Customers denying leave, till they had searched the ship whether she had discharged all her goods, to ship any new ; but meeting with frigats, they, supposing them Malabars,1 durst not adventure their own river. These frigats were Portugals, which desired one to come talke with them, and Master Bucke rashly doing it, they detayned him, and after (I and Nicholas Ufflet being ashoare) Master Marlow and the rest beganne to flee. The cockson would have fought, which he would not permit ; but running aground through ignorance of the channell, they were taken going on the sandie iland by Portugall treacherie, and the fault of some of themselves, nineteene with Master Bucke. But the ginne [i.e. ging or crew] put off the pinnace and, notwithstanding the Portugall bullets, rowed her to Surat. Foure escaped by swimming and got that night to Surat, besides Nicholas Ufflet and my selfe, neere twentie miles from the place. Yet had we resisted we wanted shot, and in number and armour they very much exceeded us. The fourth, the captaine of the frigats sent a reviling letter to the Governour of the towne, calling us Lutherans and theeves, and said we were Flemmings and not English ; charging him (on continuance of their friendship) to send aboord the Captaine with the rest of us ; which Abdelreheime not only denied, but in the Mogols name commanded him to render the goods and men. Tine fifth, came a captaine of one of the frigats, which used peremptorie words and before the Governour stood upon it that the King of Spaine was lord of those seas, and that they had in commission from him to take all that came in those parts without his passe. [S. 127]

1 The pirates of the Malabar Coast, whose widespread depredations were a trouble to commerce down to the middle of the eighteenth century.

The thirteenth, the Governour called all the chiefe merchants of the towne upon their conscience to value our cloth (before carryed to his house), which they did at a farre under rate ; the Governour affirming that hee must and would have it, the Captaine [Hawkins] denying his consent. On the sixteenth, we were forced to accept, for some of our cloth in their hands, promise of a little more, and were permitted to carrie away the rest, causing us to leave fiftie pieces and fourteene Devonshire kersies for the King, with nine and twentie other kersies, and fifteene clothes for Shek Ferred [Shaikh Farīd], keeping also the foure clothes which wee reserved for presents for the King. We were otherwise molested by a contention betwixt Shek Ferred and Mocrow Bowcan (or Moereb Can) about the custome-house, that wee could not get our goods from thence. Wee heard that the Portugals sold our goods for halfe that they cost. Our men were sent to Goa.

The fifteenth of December, came Mo. Bowcan with a Jesuite, Padre Peniero. To this our captaine shewed kindnesse, for hope of his men ; to the other he gave presents. Both dealt treacherously in requitall, the Jesuite (as it was reported by Mo. Bowcan himselfe) offering a jewell, which he said was worth two hundred thousand rials, to betray us. This day came to us R. Carelesse, an Englishman, who had long lived amongst the Portugals, from whom hee now fledde for fear of punishment for earring necessaries to the Dutch at Muselpatan ; desiring to bee entertayned, which we did with much circumspection.1

1 Jourdain mentions this man and says that 'there was greate doubt of his honestie '.

The seven and twentieth. Mo. Bowcan desired great abatements upon our cloth, or else hee would returne it, and (will wee nill wee) abated two thousand seven hundred and fiftie mamudies before hee would give us licence to fetch up the rest of our goods to make sales. My selfe was very ill of the bloudy fluxe (whereof Master Dorchester1 dyed), of which that Englishman Carelesse (next under God) recovered me. I learned of him many matters, as namely of the great [S. 128] spoile done the last yeere2 to the Porlugals by the Hollanders, who lying before Malacca with sixteene ships, inclosing the towne with helpe of other kings by sea and land, newes was carryeed lo the Vice-Roy3, then before Achen, accompanied with all the gallants of India, having with him a very great fleet of ships, gallies and frigats, and foure thousand souldiers, being commanded by the King to take Achen, and there to build a castle and appoint an Alphandira,4 and thence to goe and spoile Jor [Johor] and chastise the Molucas for giving the Hollanders traffique, being minded to roote out the Holland name in those parts, for which purpose came two thousand Castilians from the Manillas. Andrew Hurtado5 then governed within Malacca, and sent word of their present distresse ; upon which the Vice-Roy weighed from Achen (which otherwise had beene spoyled) ; whereof the Dutch Generall advertised, got his men and artillery aboord, and went forth to meete him ; where after a long and bloudie fight, with much losse on both sides, the Dutch departed, enforced to stop the leakes of their admirall, likely otherwise to perish. The Portugals let slip this opportunitie, and fell to merriments and bragges of their victorie, not looking any more for the Hollanders, who, having stopped their leakes at Jor, new rigged and returned upon the Portugals, whom they found disordered and feasting ashoare ; where they sunke and burned the whole fleet, making a cruell execution ; and had not the Vice-Roy before sent sixe shippes on some other service, they had beene all heere utterly extinguished. After this fell such sicknesse in the city that most of them dyed, amongst which the Vice-Roy was one, and shortly after the Governour of the Spaniards in the Moluccas ; so that their strength was laid in the dust, and the Archbishoppe [Aleixo de Menezes] made and yet remayneth Vice-Roy.

1 John Dorchester, a merchant who had come out in the Hector.

2 Most of the events here related took place in 1606.

3 Dom Martini Affonso de Castro.

4 'Alphandica' is meant, i. e. 'a customhouse' (Port, alfandega).

5 André Furtado de Mendonça.

This last yeere the Malabarres vexed the Portugals and tooke or sunke of them at times sixtie saile1 or more. This yeere [S. 129] also was expected a Vice-Roy to come with a strong fleet to drive the Hollanders out of India. This fleet consisted of nine shippes of warre, and sixe for the voyage ; they were separated in the calme of Guinea, and never met together after. Two of them came to Mosambique, where they were fired of the Hollanders, who also much distressed the castle but could not take it, and the time of the yeere requiring their departure, they set sayle for Goa, to the number of fifteene shippes and one pinnasse, where they rode at the barre challenging the great captaine Andrew Hurtado, who durst not visit them. Another of that voyage having advise that the Hollanders rode at the barre, put to the northward, where they presently landed their money and goods and set fire of their shippe to save the Dutch a labour ; and lastly, the souldiers fell together by the eares for the sharing of the money. This fleet departing from Goa sailed alongst the coast of Malabar, spoyling and burning all they could meet with. There was report of leave given them by the Samorine [see p. 45], to build a castle at Chaul [sic].

1 These were, of course, small vessels (see note on p. 63).

This moneth here was also newes of an Ormus ship taken by the Malabarres, and three frigats ; and shortly after of a fleet of twentie five frigats from Cochen, whereof sixteene were taken and burnt by the Malabars, which the rest escaped, if miserable spoile be an escape ; also of fiftie frigats and galiots of the Malabars spoiling on their coast. In January [1609] came other newes of thirtie frigats, which put for Diu richly laden, taken by the Malabars, beeing at this time masters of these seas. They are good souldiers and carry in each frigat one hundred souldiers, and in their galiots two hundred.

The first of February, the Captaine [Hawkins] departed with fiftie peons1 and certaine horsemen. About this time was great stirre touching the Queene Mothers ship, which was to be laden for Mocha. The Portugals then riding at the barre, with two and twentie frigats, threatned to carry her to Diu. At length they fell to compounding, the Portugals demanding an hundred thousand mamudies for her cartas [Port, cartaz ; cf. p. 135] or passe, and after twentie thousand ; at last taking one thousand rialls and odde money, with divers presents [S. 30] which the Mogolls were faine to give them. Mo. Bowean gave me faire words, but the divell was in his heart ; he minded nothing lesse indeed then paiment of his debts, seeking also to deduct some, others imbeselled, striking off by new accounts seventeene thousand of one and fortie thousand. I thought he meant to shift if bee could and pay nothing, secretly departing the towne, owing much to certaine Banians, who must get it when they can. At last I got his cheet [order : Hind. chitthi] for some, though with great abatements ; esteeming halfe better secured then to endanger all.

1 Foot-men (Port. peão). As Hawkins tells us (p. 78), these were foot-soldiers hired for purposes of defence.

The six and twentieth of March, 1609, it was here reported that Malacca was besieged with thirtie ships of Holland ; in succour of which the Vice-Roy assembled all these his northerne Indian forces, appointing Andrew Hurtado generall, being the more cranke by newes of a new Vice-Roy [see p. 131] with fourteene saile to winter at Mosambique. Meane while a ship of Cambaya, which had been at Queda, came for Goga, which the Portugalls finding without cartas made prize of. The customers at that time by new prices and reckonings sought to make prize in great part of us. I was also in the beginning of Aprill taken with a burning fever, which drew from me much blood, besides ten dayes fasting with a little rice ; and after my fever miserable stitches tormented me. The next moneth I was visited againe with a burning fever.

The twelfth of May came newes that Melik Amber, King of Decan, had besieged the citie of Aurdanagar1 (which had been the metropolitan of that kingdome, conquered by the Acabar) with two and twentie thousand horse, and that after divers assaults the Mogolls made shew to deliver up the citie, upon condition that hee would withdraw his armie some foure or five cose [kos : see p. 18] from thence, that they might passe with more assurance with bagge and baggage ; which being done, they suddenly issued forth with all their forces upon the unprovided enemie and made a great slaughter ; but feared [S. 131] hee would bee revenged on those parts which were lesse able to resist. The Canchanna gathered great forces, and demanded of Surat three hundred thousand m[ahmudis] towards the charge, sending also for the Governour, an expert Decan souldier.

1 Finch no doubt wrote 'Amedanagar', i. e. Ahmadnagar. Malik Ambar (an Abyssinian by birth) was not the King but the chief minister and generalissimo. Akbar had subdued Ahmadnagar in the year 1600. For an account of the capitulation mentioned in the text see the Tūzuk, vol. i, p. 181.

The twentieth of June came newes of the arrivall of five shippes at Goa, and of the Vice-Royes death ;1 whereupon Andrew Hurtado  was chosen Vice-Roy, being the only stay left of all those parts, and reported a brave souldier. He presently gave order for shipping to be built, intending after the breaking up of winter to make a bolt or shaft with the Hollanders, which were now reported to lye before Malacca with eighteene ships. The Portugall ships in the way had met with one of this towne and, finding her without cartas, brought her with them as prize for Goa, where on the barre shee was cast away ; whereupon the Governour for Can-Channa, and the Customer for Mo. Bowean, seised on Tappidas the owner, a Banian, for money owing to them ; whereby also we lost his debt to us, for which we may thanke the Portugall.

1 The Conde de Feyra, who was coming out as Viceroy, died on his way.

2 See Finch's letter to Hawkins mentioned on p. 123.

The twentieth of July, Sha Selim commanded Can Channa and Manisengo,1 two great commanders of his, to invade all the kingdomes from hence to the south, even to Cape Comori ; for which a huge armie was assembling. In resistance of whom, three great kings were combined, the King of Decan [Ahmadnagar] (whose chiefe citie is Genefro2), the King of Visapor [Bījapur], and the King of Golcunda (whose chiefe citie is Braganadar3), who also gathered great forces, making head neare Bramport [Burhānpur], upon the Mogolls frontiers, expecting the breaking up of winter [i. c. the rainy season], both armies lying abroad in tents.

1 Rāja Mān Singh. Prince Parwīz was nominally in command.

2 This seems to be intended either for Junnar (in Poona District) or for Jālnapur (see p. 137).

3 Bhāgnagar, the original name of the city of Hyderābād, the present capital of the Nizām's dominions.

In August I received flying newes of an English pinnasse at Gandove,1 which, departing thence, was againe forced [S. 132] thither by three Portugall frigats. I supposed that it might belong to some of our shipping which, standing for Socatora, might not be able to fetch in, and so be forced to fall on this coast ; which proved accordingly, it being the Ascensions pinnasse, wanting water, wood, and victual!, the master John Elmer, with five men and two boyes. The master and foure of the company came hither on the eight and twentieth, but I had no small adoe with the townsmen of Surat for bringing them into the towne, they taking them from me, pretending we were but allowed trade (indeed fearing the Portugalls), till I should send to the Nobob2 foure course [kos : see p. 18] off, fearing force. To which evill was added a worse of the Portugalls comming into the river with five frigats and carrying away the pinnasse, weighing also the two falcons3 which they had cast by the boord. And yet a worse report came the fifth of September, of the casting away of the Ascension, the company (about seventie persons) being saved ; which the next day came to Surat, but were forced by the towne to lye without amongst the trees and tombes, I being not able to procure leave for the Generall4 himselfe (notwithstanding divers letters of recommendation which hee brought from Mocha, besides letters from the King himselfe) into the towne ; such is their slavish awe of the Portugalls, two Jesuits threatning fire, faggot, and utter desolation, if they received any more English thither. That which I could doe was to send them refreshing and carry them to the Tanke,5 where they were conveniently lodged, yet amongst tombes, till the Governor appointed them a more convenient place at a small aldea6 two course off ; and with much adoe got leave for Master Rivet,7 Master Jordan [Jourdain] and the surgion to come hither to provide necessaries for the rest. I had other trouble by the disorder and riot committed by some of them, [S. 133] especially one Thomas Tucker, which in drinke had killed a calfe (a slaughter more then murther in India), which made mee glad of their departure, fifteene staying behind sicke, or unwilling to goe for Agra ; and some returned againe.

1 Gandevi, about twelve miles up the Ambika River,'and twenty-eight miles south-east of Surat.

2 The Nawāb, i. e. Mukarrab Khān.

3 A small cannon.

4 Alexander Sharpeigh. For all this see the Journal of John Jourdain, pp. 127 et seq.

5 The Gopi Talāo, near the Nausāri gate of Surat. 'Tank' is commonly applied in India to a pool or reservoir.

6 Portuguese for a village.

7 William Revett, one of the merchants of the Ascension.

The sixt of October, came letters from Captaine Hawkins, importing his mariage with the daughter of an Armenian ; and others in the latter end of the next moneth, for my comming to Agra. In December we stood much in feare of Badur [see p. 100] his comming upon Surat, he lying within two dayes journey with sixe hundred horse and many foote ; for which cause the Governour cessed all men with the entertainment of souldiers, setting upon my head ten men. I went to him and told him that I had twentie English at his command ; for which hee thanked mee, and freed mee of further charge. During this time the Banians were forced to labour to barricado all the streets of the citie, great watches were appointed at the gates, certaine peeces drawne from the castle, and from Carode [see p. 136] garrison fiftie horse ; which had not sufficed, had not the Governour of Amadavar [Ahmadābād] sent one thousand horse and two thousand foot to our succour ; upon newes of which forces Badur withdrew to his holds. Two yeeres before our comming had this man sacked Cambaya, whereof his grandfather had been king.

The eighteenth of January [1610], I departed out of Surat towards Agra, willing yet to leave some notice thereof before I leave it. The citie is of good quantitie, with many faire merchants houses therein, standing twentie miles within the land up a faire river. Some three miles from the mouth of the river (where on the south side lyeth a small low island over-flowed in time of raine) is the barre, where ships trade and unlade, whereon at a spring tide is three fathome water. Over this the channell is faire to the citie side, able to beare vessels of fiftie tunnes laden. This river runneth to Bramport, and from thence, as some say, to Musselpatan.1 As you come up the river, on the right hand stands the castle, well walled, ditched, reasonable great and faire, with a number of faire peeces [pieces of ordnance], whereof some of exceeding greatnesse. [S. 131] It hath one gate to the green-ward, with a draw-bridge and a small port [i.e. gate] on the river side. The Captaine hath in command two hundred horse. Before this lyeth the medon [Hind, maidān, an open space], which is a pleasant greene, in the middest whereof is a may-pole to hang a light on, and for other pastimes on great festivalls. On this side the citie lyeth open to the greene, but on all other parts is ditched and fenced with thicke hedges, having three gates, of which one leadeth to Variaw,2 a small village, where is the ford to passe over for Cambaya way. Neare this village on the left hand lieth a small aldea on the rivers banke very pleasant, where stands a great pagod, much resorted to by the Indians. Another gate leadeth to Bramport ; the third to Nonsary,3 a towne ten cose off, where is made great store of calico, having a faire river comming to it. Some ten cose further lyeth Gondoree [Gandevi : see p. 131], and a little further Belsaca,4 the frontire towne upon Daman. Hard without Nonsary gate is a fair tanke sixteene square,5 inclosed on all sides with stone steppes, three quarters of an English mile in compasse, with a small house in the middest. On the further side are divers faire tombes, with a goodly paved court pleasant to behold, behind which groweth a small grove of manga [mango] trees, whither the citizens goe forth to banquet. Some halfe cose behind this place is a great tree much worshipped by the Banians, where they affirme a dew [Hind, deo, a spirit] to keepe [i. e. dwell], and that it hath beene oftentimes cut downe and stocked up by the rootes at the Moores command, and yet hath sprung up againe.6 Neare to the castle is the alphandica [see p. 128], where is a paire of staires for lading and unlading of goods ; within are roomes for keeping goods till they be cleared, the custome being two and an halfe for goods, three for victualls, and two for money. [S. 135] Without this gate is the great gondoree7 or bazar. Right before this gate stands a tree with an arbour, whereon the fokeers [fakīrs] (which are Indian holy men) sit in state. Betwixt this and the castle, on the entrance of the greene, is the market for horse and cattell. A little lower on the right hand over the river is a little pleasant towne, Ranele,8 inhabited by a people called Naites, speaking another language, and for the most part sea-men. The houses are faire therein, with high steps to each mans doore, the streets narrow. They are very friendly to the English. Heere are many pleasant gardens, which attract many to passe there their time ; and on the trees are infinite number of those great bats which wee saw at Saint Augustines [in Madagascar], hanging by the clawes on the boughes, making a shrill noise. This fowle, the people say, ingendreth in the care ; on each wing it hath a hooke and giveth the yong sucke.

1 Masulipatam. The statement was of course absurd.

2 Variāo, on the Tāpti, two miles north of Surat.

3 Nausāri, on the Purna, about twenty miles south of Surat.

4 Here, as elsewhere, Purchas has mistaken Finch's 'r' for a 'c'. Bulsār, forty miles south of Surat, is meant.

5 The Gopi Talāo (see p. 132). Mundy (vol. ii, p. 31) describes it as 'made into sixteen squares'.

6 See The Travels of Peter Mundy, vol. ii, p. 34, for an account of this tree ; also Fryer's New Account, p. 105.

7 Mr. Motiram Advani explains this as gojri, the Gujarāti word for a bazar. It is possible that Finch wrote 'goudoree '.

8 Rānder, two miles above Surat, on the other side of the river. For an account of the Nāyatas, a body of Arab merchants and sailors who settled there early in the twelfth century, see the Bombay Gazetteer : Surat, p. 299.

The winter heere beginneth about the first of June and dureth till the twentieth of September ; but not with continuall raines, as at Goa, but for some sixe or seven dayes every change and full, with much wind, thunder, and raine. But at the breaking up commeth alway a cruell storme, which they call the tuffon,1 fearefull even to men on land ; which is not alike extreame every yeare, but in two or three at the most. Monsons [i.e. monsoon winds] heere for the south serve in Aprill and September, and for Mocha in February and March. From the south ships come hither in December, January, and February, and from Mocha about the fifth of September, after the raines ; from Ormus for the coast of India in November. But none may passe without the Portugalls passe, for what, how much, and whither they please to give licence, erecting a custome on the sea, with confiscation of shippe and [S. 136] goods not shewing it in the full quantitie to the taker and examiner.

1 Our 'typhoon ', which comes (through the Portuguese) from the Arabic tūfān. For the periodic storm mentioned in the text and known locally as 'the Elephant', see Roe's Journal (vol. i, p. 247).

The seeond1 of January [1610] I departed from Comvariaw [Khumbāria] (a small village three cose from Surat) to Mutta [Mota], a great aldea, seven c[os]. [January] 21, eight c. to Carode [Karod], a great countrey towne, by which on the north runneth Surat river ; it hath a castle with two hundred horse, Patans, good souldiers. [January] twentie two, to Curka2 12 c. ; it is a great village, with a river on the south side. In the way (7 c.) is Beca [Viāra], a castle with a great tanke and a pleasant grove. [January] 23, ten c. to Naeampore [Nārāyanpur], a great towne under the Pectopshaw.3 In this way on the right hand beginneth a great ridge of mountaines which come from Amadavar-wards, neare which Badur keepeth, holding divers strong holds thereon, that the King with all his force cannot hurt him. These mountaines runne to Bramport ; on them are bred many wilde elephants. [January] 24, to Dayta [Dhaita], 8 c., a great towne ; in the mid-way you passe a stony troublesome river. This towne hath a castle, and is almost encompassed with a river, seated in a fertile soyle. [January] 25, to Badur [Bhadwar], 10 c., a filthy towne and full of theeves ; heere is made much wine of a sweete fruit called mewa,4 but I found it not wholesome except it be burnt. This towne is the last of note in Pectopshaws land, who is a small king or rajaw, a Gentile, keeping on the top of inaccessible mountaines, which beginne at Curka and extend many courses. He holdeth two faire cities, Salere, and the other Muliere,5 where the mamudees are coyned ; each having two mightie castles, which have way to them but for [S. 137]

1 This date is clearly wrong. Perhaps the 20th is intended. The route from Surat to Burhanpur is described by Roe, Jourdain, Mundy, Tavernier, and other travellers, to whose narratives the reader is referred for details.

2 On this place see a note in The Journal of John Jourdain, p. 142.

3 Partab Shāh, ruler of Bāglān (see p. 78).

4 The Mhowa or Mahua tree (Bassia latifolia), from the flowers of which a spirit is distilled.

5 Mulher (already mentioned on p. 79 h.) and Sālher are both hill forts in the Bāglān district. The latter is about 16 miles NNW. of Kalvan ; and Mulher is about twelve miles east of Sālher, for a description of which see the Bombay Gazetteer, vol. vii, p. 585.

two men abrest, or for an elephant at most to get up ; having also in the way eightie small fortresses dispersed on the mountaines to guard the way. Upon the top of these mountaines is good pasture and abundance of graine, fountaines running thence into the plaines. The Acabar besieged him seven yeeres, and in the end was forced to compound with him, giving him Narampore, Dayta, and Badur, with divers other aldeas, for the safe conducting of his merchants alongst this plaine ; so that he now remaineth this kings friend, sends presents yeerely, leaves one of his sonnes at Bramport, for pledge of his fealtie. He is said to have alway in readinesse foure thousand mares of a strange breed and excellent, and one hundred elephants. [January] 26, seven c. to Nonderbar [Nandurbār], a citie, short of which are many tombes and houses of pleasure, with a castle and a faire tanke. [January] seven and twentie, to Lingull [Nimgul], 10 c., a beastly towne, with theevish inhabitants and a dirtie castle ; a deepe sandie way neare the towne. [January] 28, ten c. to Sindkerry [Sindkhera], a great dirtie towne. In the way the Governour of Lingull (with others as honest as himselfe) would have borrowed some money of me ; but, seeing it prove powder and shot, gave over, and wee drew on our carts without trouble. On the further side of Sindkerry runneth a river of brackish water [the Buray], with drinking whereof I got the bloody fluxe, which accompanied me to Bramport. [January] 29, ten c. to Taulneere [Thālner], a theevish way, the towne faire, with a castle and a river, in time of raine not passable without boat. [January] 80, fifteen c. to Chupra [Chopra], a great towne. I rested two dayes by reason of raine ; in which time came the Governour of Nonderbar with foure hundred horse, without whose company I could not have proceeded without danger, Can-Canna having been beaten and retired to Bramport, after the losse of the strong and rich towne of Joulnapoure ;1 whereupon the Decanes grew so insolent that they made roades [i. e. raids] into this way and spoyled many passengers. The second of February, 6 c. to Rawd [Arāvad], a countrey village. [S. 138] The unseasonable thunder, wind, and raine, with my disease, almost made an end of me ; which made us make mukom [makām, a halt] the third and fourth. The fifth, to Beawle [Byāval], 10 c., a great towne with a faire castle. [February] 6 : stayed by foule weather. [February] 7, sixteen c. to Ravere [Rāver], a great towne. [February] 8, ten c. to Bramport [Burhānpur], where I pitched my tent in the Armenians yard, not being able for money to get an house, the towne was so full of souldiers. Some 2 c. short of this citie lyeth Badurpore [Bahādurpur], a faire citie, and betwixt these two cities the campe of Can-Canna under tents, 2 c. in length (having some fifteene thousand horse, two hundred faire elephants, an hundred peeces of ordnance of all sizes) on the north side. On the other side, within twentie or thirtie course, lay Amberchapon, an Abashed [Arabic Habashi, an Abyssinian : see p. 130] and generall of the King of Decans forces, with some ten thousand of his owne cost,2 all brave souldiers, and som forty thousand Decanees ; in so much that the citie of Bramport had certainly been lost, had not the Prince Sultan Pervis and Rajaw Manisengo come instantly downe with great forces. For at this time he had sent to the Can-Canna to yeeld up the citie upon composition, deeming him not able to hold it against him. This citie is very great, but beastly, situate in a low, unholsome aire, a very sickly place, caused especially by the bad water. On the north-east is the castle on the rivers bank (comming from Surat), large and well fortified. By the castles side in the river lyeth an elephant of stone, so lively [i.e. lifelike] that a living elephant, comming one day to drinke, ranne against it with all his force and brake both his teeth. The head is painted red in the fore-head, and many simple Indians worship it.3 Some two cose forth of the citie is Can Cannas garden, called Loll bage,4 the whole way thereto being under shadie trees, very pleasant. Within it are divers faire walkes, with a stately small tanke standing square betweene [S. 139] foure trees, all shaded and inclosed with a wall ; at the entrance without, a faire banketting house built aloft betweene foure trees.

1 Probably the Jālna of to-day, about thirty-five miles east of Aurangābād. It appears to be the 'Jenaport' of Purchas His Pilgrimes, part i, bk. iii, chap. ix.

2 Probably 'cast' in the manuscript. This word was often used in the sense of 'race'.

3 Several travellers have described this figure : see Mundy, vol. ii, p. 51, and the works there cited.

4 The Lāl Bāg, now a public garden.

I rested to the twelfth [February] for recovery (which God sent) under my tent. Two dayes after my comming came newes of the sacking of Ravere by fifteene hundred Decan horse, with other places neere thereto, we blessing God for our safe arrivall, the way now not passable with one thousand horse. I was here certified also by an Armenians letters of a great overthrow given to the Portugall armada upon the Mallabar coast, consisting of fiftie frigats and two gallies, which being dispersed with foule weather were sudainly out of divers creekes assailed by the Malabars ; which was attended with spoile, fire, taking, the rest fleeing. On the twelfth I rode to visit the Prince [Parwīz] ; and on the thirteenth gave him a present, found him courteous, promising what I desired. The Prince had with him twentie thousand horse and three hundred faire elephants, and with him Asaph Can1 with some three thousand, and Emersee Rastein,2 late King of Candhar, with some thousand old souldiers. And during my abode in the campe came also Rāja Manisengo with ten thousand horse, all Resboots [Rājputs], and neere a thousand elephants ; so that all the plaines for a great distance were covered with tents very brave to behold. With the armie came divers great boats for the transportation of forces over waters. The Prince removing, I returned to Bramport, and on the sixe and twentieth, hee being advanced 3 c. towards the enemie, I went to him to take my leave ; where newes came of the overthrow of certaine of Manisengos forces.

1 Āsaf Khān (Jafar Beg).

2 Mīrza Rustam, a Persian prince who with his brother at one time controlled Kandahār and the neighbouring districts. Finding their position precarious, they made over their territory to Akbar and entered his service.

The first of March, the Governour of Bramport departed for Agra, and I with him 12 c. to Barre,1 a great village, stonie and steepe way, being the passage over the great ridge of [S. 140] mountaines which come from Amadavarwards. About some 4 c. of this way lyeth the strong and invincible castle of Hassere,2 seated on the top of a high mountaine, large and strong, able to receive (as is reported) fortie or fiftie thousand horse ; and on the top are many faire tankes and good pasture grounds. It hath had in the dayes of Badur Sha, late king thereof, some sixe hundred peeccs of ordnance. The Acabar besieged it a long time, circling it on all sides, and at length tooke it by composition ; for it is said that there bred such an innumerable sort of emmets [i. e. ants] or other small worms in all the waters that the people swelled and burst with drinking thereof ; which mortalitie caused him to compound and deliver it, being by meere humane force invincible. The third [March], 11 c. to Camla, a small aldea ; stonie, troublesome way. The fourth, to Magergom [Mogargāon] 4 c., a great aldea ; bad way. The fifth, 10 c. to Kergom [Khargon], a great village ; steepe way. The sixth, 13 c. to Berkul [Balkhar], a small village. The seventh, 8 c. to Taxapore [Tarapur], a small towne. At 2 c. on the way you passe a faire river called Nervor [Narbada], which comes from Baroche [Broach] ; upon the banke is a prettie towne [Akbarpur] and faire castle, and under it the ferrie place. To passe over with camels is a way a c. lower on the left hand, where is an overfall and not above three foot in the passage, but neere a mile over. The eight, 5 c. to Mandow [Māndu ; see p. 17], 3 c., whereof is up a steepe, stonie mountaine, having way but for a coach at most. This ridge of mountaines extendeth north-east and south-west. On the top at the edge of the mountaine standeth the gate or entrance of the citie, over which is built a faire fort and house of pleasure, the walls extending all along the mountaines side for many coses. On the left hand at the entrance, some two or three miles distant, on the toppe of a picked [peaked] mountaine standeth a strong fort, and in other places dispersed some ten or twelve more. For 2 c. or better within this gate the citie is ruined all save only tombes and meskites [mosques], [S. 141] which remayne in great numbers to this day, with some tottered walls of great houses. The olde citie is from gate to gate 4 c. long north and south, but east and west ten or twelve coses ;3 and yet to the east-ward of all lyeth good pasture ground for many courses. Aloft on this mountaine are some sixteene faire tankes here and there dispersed about the citie. That which is now standing is very faire, but small in comparison of the former, with divers goodly buildings all of firme stone, and faire high gates, that I suppose the like not to be in all Christendome. At the entrance on the south within the gate of the city now inhabited, as you passe along on the left hand, stands a goodly meskite, and over against it a faire palace, wherein are interred the bodies of foure kings, with exceeding rich tombes.4 By the side thereof standeth a high turret5 of one hundred and seventie steps high, built round with galleries and windowes to every roome, all exceeding for goodly ports [i. e. gates], arches, pillars ; the walls also all interlayed with a greene stone much beautifying. On the north side where I came forth lyeth a piece [of ordnance], of a foot and an halfe bore in the mouth, but the breech was in the ground. The gate is very strong, with a steepe descent ; and without this sixe other, all very strong, with great walled places for courts of guard betweene gate and gate. On this side is also a small port, but the way thereto is exceeding steepe. All alongst on the side also runneth the wall, with flankers ever here and there among ; and yet is the hill so steepe of it selfe, that it is not almost possible for a man to climbe up on all foure to any part of it. So that to mans judgement it is altogether invincible ; and yet was taken, partly by force, partly by treason, by Hamawne, this mans grandfather, forcing Seic Sha Selim, whose ancestors had conquered it from the Indians some foure hundred yeeres agoe.6 [S. 142] This Sha Selim was a very powerfull king of Dely, and once forced Hamawne to flyc into Persia for ayde ; from whence returning with Persian forces, he put him againe to the worst ; who yet held out against him all his life time, as also a long time of Ecabars raigne, flying from one mountaine to another. Without the wals of the city on this side the suburbs entred [extend ?] 4 c. long, but all ruinate, save certaine tombes, meskits, and goodly seraies,7 no man remayning in them.

1 Borgāon, about twenty miles north-west of Burhānpur. For the rest of the journey to Agra the notes on Jourdain's and Mundy's routes will be found useful.

2 Asīr (Asīrgarh), the famous fortress which was taken by Akbar in 1600 from Bahādur Khān, the last of the Fāruki kings of Khāndesh. For accounts of the siege see Du Jarrie, vol. ill, p. 43, and the Nīmār District Gazetteer, p. 202.

3 These figures are exaggerated. The ruins are 3¾ miles from north to south and 5½ from east to west.

4 The mosque is the Jāma Masjid, built by Hoshang Shāh. The tombs are those of the Khalji kings. See the reports of the Archaeological Survey for 1902-3 and subsequent years.

5 The Tower of Victory, erected by Sultān Mahmūd I in 1443 to commemorate his defeat of the Rāna of Chitor.

6 'The first of name that took it was Can John, a Potan, who built the turret, and lyeth buried in the palace adjoyning, with three of his successors. This citie was built by an Indian some thousand yeeres agoe' (marginal note). The Mogul Emperor Humāyūn took Māndu in 1534 from Bahādur Shāh of Gujarāt, who had captured it eight years before from the last of the Khalji kings. When the revolt of Sher Shāh forced Humāyūn to flee to Persia, Māndu passed under the rule of the rebel ; but the latter had no personal connexion with the city. Finch has mixed up Sher Shāh and his son Salīm Shāh ; also Khān Jahān and his father, Mahmūd I.

The way exceeding stony and bad. At 4 c. end lyeth Luneheira [Lunera], a small saray, where wee pitched [March] the ninth. Betweene this and the mines, about 3 c. of the way, is a goodly tanke inclosed with stone, and a banketting house in the middest ; on the south whereof are faire houses of pleasure, now ruinated, from whence goeth an arched bridge to the banketting house in the tanke. Some halfe a cose beyond Luneheira, on the right hand are foure or five faire tankes with a great pagode, a very pleasant place. The tenth, to Dupalpore [Dipālpur], 14 c. good way ; a small towne. The eleventh, to Ouglue [Ujjain], a faire city, twelve long coses. This countrey is called Malva [Mālwa], a fertile soile, abounding with opium. Here the cose or course is two miles English. The twelfth, wee made mukom [see p. 138]. The thirteenth, to Conoseia [Kanasia], 11 c. good way ; a little village. I enquired the price of opium. They give the head three scratches, from whence issue small teares, at the first white, which with the cold of the night turneth reddish ; which they daily scrape, not without infinite trouble, the head beeing very small and yeelding little. The fourteenth, to Sunenarra [Sunera], 8 c. way much stony and theevish, a people called [S. 143] Graciae2 inhabiting the hils on the left hand, which often ungraciously entertayn caravans. A hundred of them had done the like to a caffila [kāfila, a caravan] now, had not our comming prevented. It is a small towne, short of which is a great tanke full of wilde fowle. The fifteenth, 10 c. to Pimpelgom [Pipliagāon], a ragged aldea. At 4 c. end of this way lyeth Sarampore [Sarangpur], a great towne with a castle on the south-west side, with a faire towne-house. Here are made faire turbants and good linnen. Short of this towne we met Caun John,3 a great minion [i. e. favourite] of the Kings, with ten thousand horse, many elephants, and boats carryed on carts, going for Bramport. On the way also we passed divers of Manisengos men, hee having in all some twenty thousand ; so that it was deemed there were one hundred thousand horse assembled.

1 A shortened form of karwānsarāi, a building for the reception of caravans.

2 Grās was a kind of blackmail levied by Rājputs and Kolis, and grassia was the term given to the person who received this toll. It thus came to mean a robber.

3 The dispatch of Khān Jahān to the Deccan is described at p. 161 of the Tūzuk (vol. i).

The sixteenth, 7 c. to Cuckra,1 a great countrey towne abounding with all sorts of graine, victuall, and Mewa wine ; at 4 c. lyeth Berroul [Bora], a great aldea. The seventeenth, 12 c. to Delout, a great aldea ; the way for the five last coses theevish, hilly, stony ; the other pleasant plaines. The eighteenth, 7 c. to Burrow [Barrai], a small towne, but plentifull of victuall, except flesh, which is scarse all this way; the way dangerous. The nineteenth, 7 c. to Sukesera, a small ragged towne. The twentieth, to Syrange [Sironj] 9 c., a very great towne, where are many betele2 gardens. The one and twentieth and two and twentieth, wee make mukom. The three and twentieth, to Cuchenary Saray [Kachner Sarāi] 8 c. The foure and twentieth, to Sadura [Shāhdaura] 5 c. The five and twentieth, to Collebage [Kālabāg] 7 c. The sixe and twentieth, 12 c. to Qualeres [Kulhāras], a pretty small towne [S. 144] encompassed with tamarind and manga trees. The seven and twentieth, to Cipry [Sipri], seven of Surat couses (a mile and an halfe) ; way theevish, stony, full of trees, a desart passage ; a walled towne, faire houses covered with slate. Two nights before, some sixtie or seventie theeves (mistaking for a late passed caravan) assayled in a darke night one hundred and fiftie Potan souldiers, and fell into the pit they digged for others, ten being slaine and as many taken, the rest fled. The eight and twentieth, to Norwar [Narwar] 12 c., a desart rascally way full of theeves. In the woods sate divers chuckees3 to prevent robbing, but the foxe is often made the goose-heard. One pretty neat meskite, and in one place at the foot of the gate a few poore inhabitants, wee saw in this dayes journey, and nineteene faire saraies ruinated. The towne at the foot of the hill hath a castle on the top of a stony steepe mountaine, with a narrow stone causey leading to the top, some mile or better in ascent. In the way stand three gates very strong, with places for corps du guard. At the top of all is the fourth gate, which leads into the castle, where stands a guard, not permitting any stranger to enter without order from the King. The towne within is faire and great, with a descent thereto, being situate in a valley on the top of a mountaine very strangely. As it is reported, this cliffe is in circle some 5 or 6 c., and walled round with towers and flankers here and there dispersed, without treason invincible. This hath been the gate or border of the kingdome of Mandow, and hath been beautifull, and stored with ordnance, but now is much gone to mine. The twenty ninth to Palacha [Paraich] 7 c. The thirtieth, to Antro [Antri], a great towne, 12 c. The thirty one, to Gualere [Gwalior] 6 c., a pleasant citie with a castle. On the east side is on the top of a steepe piked hill a ruinous building, where divers great men have been interred. On the west side is the castle, which is a steep craggy cliffe of 6 c. compasse at least (divers say eleven), all inclosed with a strong wall. At the going up to the castle, adjoyning to the citie is a faire court enclosed with high walls and shut in with strong gates, where keeps a strong guard, not permitting any to enter without publike order. From hence to the top leads a stone [S. 145] narrow cawsey, walled on both sides ; in the way are three gates to be passed, all exceeding strong, with courts of guard to each. At the top of all, at the entrance of the last gate, standeth a mightie elephant of stone very curiously wrought. This gate is also exceeding stately to behold, with a goodly house adjoyning,4 whose wals are all set with greene and blue stone, with divers gilded turrets on the top. This is the Governours lodging, where is place to keepe nobles that offend. He [i.e. the Great Mogul] is said to have three such noble-prisons or castles, this, and Rantimore [see p. 100], 40 c., to which are sent such nobles as he intends to put to death, which commonly is some two moneths after their arrivall, the Governour then bringing them to the top of the wall and giving them a dishe of milke,5 which having drunke, he is cast downe thence on the rockes ; the third is Rotas [see p. 100], a castle in the kingdome of Bengala, whither are sent those nobles which are condemned to perpetuall imprisonment, from whence very few returne againe. On the top of this mountaine of Gualere is very good ground, with three or foure faire tankes, and many other faire buildings. On the towne side are many houses cut out of the maine rocke, for habitation and sale of goods. On the north-west side, at the foot of the hill is a spacious meadow inclosed with a stone wall, within which are divers gardens and places of pleasure, fit also to keepe horses in time of warre. This castle was the gate or frontier of the kingdome of Dely, bordering on Mandow, and is neere a mile of ascent.

1 Apparently Kakarwar, on the Dudi River. Finch seems to have turned east at Pipliagāon, until he struck a main road again at Barrai, twelve miles north-east of Bersia and thirty miles south-west of Sironj.

2 The pān or piper betel, the leaf of which is used for chewing with the betel-nut.

3 Guards : Hind. chauki.

4 The palace of Mān Singh. The gate is the Hāthīya Pol, or Elephant Gate.

5 Rather, a decoction of the milky juice of the poppy.

The first of Aprill 1610, to Mendaker [perhaps Mundiākhera], 9 c. The second, 10 c. to Doulpore [Dholpur]. Within 2 c. of the towne, you passe a faire river called Cambere [the Chambal], as broad as the Thames, short of which is a narrow passage with hills on both sides, very dangerous. The castle is strong, ditched round, and hath foure walls and gates one within an other, all very strong, with steep ascents to each, paved with stone ; the citie is inhabited most-what with Gentiles. The castle is three quarters of a mile through, and [S. 146] on the further side hath like gates to be passed againe. The third, to Jajow [Jaju], 9 c. The fourth, to Agra, 9 c. In the afternoone, the Captaine [i.e. Hawkins] carried me before the King. I here found at my comming Captaine Thomas Boys,1 with three French souldiours, a Dutch inginer, and a Venetian merchant with his Sonne and a servant, newly come by land out of Christendome.

1 A soldier of fortune who had come out by way of Turkey and Persia. Two letters from him at Ispahan to Lord Salisbury are noted in the Calendar of State Papers, East Indies, s. d. June 10, 1609. As already mentioned, he started for England with Finch and died, like him, at Bagdad.

In May and part of June, the towne was much vexed with fires night and day, flaming in one part or other, whereby many thousands of houses were consumed, besides men, women, children and cattell, that we feared the judgement of Sodome and Gomorrha upon the place. I was long dangerously sicke of a fever ; and in June the heat so exceeded that we were halfe rosted alive. June the twenty eighth arrived Padre Peniero, an arch-knave (a Jesuite, I should say), who brought letters from the Viceroy, with many rich presents, tending only to thwart our affaires. In this time Mo. Bowcan was complained of by the Captaine to the King, who commaunded Abdel Hassan, the Chiefe Vizier, to doe justice ; but birds of a feather will flie together, and Mo. Bowcan partly mis-reckoned, partly turned us over to a bankrupt Bannian, so that of thirty two thousand five hundred one m[ahmudis] and an halfe due, he would pay but eleven thousand ; neither would he pay that present [i. e. at once].

In July came newes of the ill successe of the Kings forces in Decan, who, beeing within some foure dayes journey of Amdananager [Ahmadnagar], hoping to raise the siege thereof, were forced through famine and drought to make their retrait for Bramport ; whereupon the citie, after much miserie indured, was lost. This armie consisted of one hundred thousand horse at the least, with infinite numbers of cammels and elephants ; so that with the whole baggage there could not bee lesse then five or sixe hundred thousand persons, insomuch that the waters were not sufficient for them ; a [S. 147] mussocke [Hind, mashak, a goatskin water-bag] of water being sold for a rupia, and yet not enough to be had, and all victualls at an excessive rate. For the Decan army still spoyled the countrey before them, and cut betwixt them and supplies for victualing them out of Guzerate and Bramport, daily making light skirmishes upon them to their great disadvantage, that without retiring the whole army had been endangered. At their returne to Bramport there were not to bee found thirty thousand horse, with infinite number of elephants, cammels, and other cattell dead. This moneth also came newes of the sacking of Potana [see p. 113], a great citie in Purrop [see p. 107], and surprising of the castle where the Kings treasure lay, the citizens flying without making resistance. But upon this Cavalero1 presently came a great Ombra2 adjoyning, and tooke him in the castle. The citizens returning, he sent twelve of the chiefe of them to the King, who caused them to be shaven, and in womens attire to bee carried on asses through all the streets of Agra, and on the next day (as it is said) cut off their heads. All this moneth also was much stirre with the King about Christianitie, hee affirming before his nobles that it was the soundest faith, and that of Mahomet lies and fables. He commanded also three princes, his deceassed brothers sonnes,3 to be instructed by the Jesuites, and Christian apparell to be made for them, the whole city admiring. And yet at the same time Abdel Hassans judgement was that it was not justice to pay debts to Christians, in Mo. Bowcans case, wherof againe we had reference from the King to him. Perhaps on like ground as some Europaeans thinke it lawfull to make price [i. e. prize] of the goods and ships of Ethnikes [heathen], eo nomine ; therefore setting out men of warre, so to make the Christian name, not as an ointment powred out, that the virgin soules may be converted and love Christ, but as filthy [S. 148] matter running out of rotten hearts and poisoned lips, yea, with force and armes to exoccupate the kingdome of Christ in those parts. At least let reformed professors reforme this man-of-warre-profession against innocents, that the name of God through them be not blasphemed among the Gentiles. But to returne to this dissimulation (as since it hath to the world appeared), those three princes were christened solemnly, conducted to church by all the Christians of the citie to the number of some sixtie horse, Captaine Hawkins being in the head of them, with St. Georges colours carried before him, to the honour of the English nation, letting them flie in the court before Sha Selim himselfe. The eldest was named Don Philippo,4 the second Don Carlo, the third Don Henrico ; and on the ninth of September was christened another young prince, the Acabars brothers5 sonnes sonne, by the name Don Duarte ; the King giving daily charge to the Fathers for their instruction, that they might become good Christians.

1 Properly a knight, but used in the sense of a dashing adventurer.

2 Umara, a noble (really the plural of amīr).

3 Tahmūras, Bāyasangliar, and Hoshang, the three sons of the late Prince Dāniyāl. Their conversion is referred to by Hawkins (see pp. 83, 116), Roe, Terry, and Bernier, but the last three say that only two of them were made Christians. They soon renounced their new profession, on the ground that the Jesuits had refused to provide them with Portuguese wives (Roe, p. 316 ; Terry, p. 425).

4 No doubt after the King of Spain and Portugal. The ceremony of baptism was performed by Father Xavier and the task of instruction was committed to Father Corsi. Bāyasanghar was the one christened Don Carlos (see the Journal of the Panjab Historical Society, vol. iv, part i, p. 15).

5 Mīrza Muhammad Hakim (see p. 101).

October the twelfth we were certified by letters of M. Jourdaine from Surat that thirtie frigats of the Portugals were cast away on the barre of Surat, hasting before the winter was broken up to catch more English ; many of the men escaped and were glad to beg releefe at the English doore.

The first of November I was sent to buy nill [see p. 40] or indigo at Byana [see p. 151]. I lodged that night at Menhapoore,1 a great saray, 7 c., by which is a garden and moholl [mahal, palace] or summer house of the Queene Mothers, very curiously contrived. The second at Cannowa [Khānwa], 11 c. ; at 4 c. end is a moholl of the Kings. And at every cose end from Agra is erected a stone pillar for 130 c. to Asmere, where lieth interred the body of a great Moorish saint called Hoghee Mondee,2 whereto the Acabar, wanting children, made [S. 149] a foot-pilgrimage to beg for issue, and caused a pillar at each course to be set up, and a moholl with lodgings for sixteene great women at every eighth course alongst, and after his returne obtained three sonnes. At 7 c. on this way, and 12 c. from Agra, is seated the famous citie of Fetipore [Fatehpur Sīkri], built by the Acubar, and inclosed with a faire stone wall, which yet standeth fresh, having foure faire and strong gates, it being some three English miles betwixt gate and gate. In the middest it is all ruinate, lying like a waste desart, and very dangerous to passe through in the night, the buildings lying wast without inhabitants ; much of the ground beeing now converted to gardens, and much sowed with nill and other graine, that a man standing there would little thinke he were in the middest of a citie. To the entrance of the gate from Agra, some course in length upon a stony ascent, lie the mines of the suburbs ; as also without the southwest gate for two English miles in length, many faire buildings being fallen to the ground ; and on the left hand are many faire enclosed gardens, three miles alongst from the citie. At the entrance of the northeast gate is a goodly bazar (market place) of stone, halfe a mile long, being a spacious, straight-paved street, with faire buildings on either side. Close within the gate is the Kings saray, with large stone lodgings, but much ruined. At the head of this street stands the Kings house and moholl, with much curious building ; and on the further side hereof, upon an ascent, stands the goodliest meskite of the East [the Jāma Masjid]. It hath some twentie foure or thirty steps of ascent to the gate [the Baland Darwāza], which is one of the highest and fairest (I suppose) in the whole world ; on the top are a number of clustering pinnacles, curiously disposed. The top of this gate may be plainely scene eight or tenne miles distance. Within is a goodly spacious court, very curiously paved with free stone, about sixe times the largenesse of Londons Exchange, with faire large walkes alongst the side more then twice as broad and double the height of those about the Burse of London [the Royal Exchange], the pillars upholding them beeing of one intire stone ; and round about are entrances into many goodly roomes, neatly contrived. Opposite to the gate toward the further side stands [S. 150] a faire and sumptuous tombe, artificially inlaied with mother of pearle and inclosed with a grating of stone curiously carved. Over head is rich pargetting and paynting. Herein lyeth the body of a great Kalender3, at whose cost the whole meskite was builded. Under the court yard is a goodly tanke of excellent water ; none other being to be had through the citie, but brackish and fretting [corrosive], by drinking whereof was caused such mortality that the Acubar, before it was quite finished, left it, and remooved his seat to Agra ; so that this goodly citie was short lived, in fifty or sixty yeares space beeing built and ruinate. It was at the first called Sykary, which signifieth seeking or hunting ; but after the Acabar was returned from his Asmere pilgrimage and was father of this Sha Selini, hee named it Fetipore, that is, a towne of content, or place of hearts desire obtained.4

1 Probably Mundiāpura, near Kiraoli. Traces of the garden still exist (see the Tūzuk, vol. ii, p. 64 n.).

2 The celebrated shrine of Khwāja Muīnuddīn Chishti [ خواجہ معین الدین چشتی ] at Ajmer.

3 Shaikh Salīm Chishti (see p. 102 n. ). A kalandar is strictly a wandering mendicant. On p. 164 it is used as equivalent to fakīr.

4 Finch's etymology is at fault. Fatehpur signifies 'the city of victory' ; while Sīkri is the name of the original village and has nothing to do with shikār, 'hunting '.

The north north-west side of the citie, without the walles, is a goodly lough for 2 or 3 c. in length, abounding with good fish and wilde fowle ; all over which groweth the herbe which beareth the hermodactyle, and another bearing a fruit like a goblet, called camolachachery,1 both very cooling fruits. The herbe which beareth the hermodactyle2 is a weed abounding in most tankes neare Agra, spreading over all the water ; the leafe I observed not, but the fruit is inclosed with a three cornered shell of a hard woodie substance, having at each angle a sharpe picked pricking point and is a little indented on both the flat sides like two posternes. The fruit, being greene, is soft and tender, white, and of a mealish taste, much eaten in India, being exceeding cold in my judgement, for alwayes after it I desired aqua-vitae. It is called by the people Singarra.3 The other beareth a fruit in maner of a goblet, flat [S. 151] on the toppe and of a soft greenish substance, within which a little eminent stand sixe or eight small fruits like akornes, divided from each other and inclosed with a whitish filme, at the first of a russettish greene, tasting like a nut or akorne ; in the middest is a small greene sprigge naught to be eaten.

1 Kānwal kakri, a name given in the Punjab to the sacred Lotus (Nelumbium speciosum).

2 This is a mistake ; the hermodactyle is usually identified as the root of some species of colchicum.

3 hind. singhāra, the caltrop or water-chestnut (Trapa bispinosa). Both the kernels and the flour made from them are largely used as food and medicine. On the cultivation of this plant see Sleeman's Rambles (ed. 1915, p. 76).

Cannowa is a small countrey towne, round about which is made very good nill, by reason of the fastnesse [denseness] of the soile and brackishnesse of the water ; it maketh yeerely some five hundred m[aunds]. Ouchen [Uchen], 3 c. distant, makes very good ; besides which no towne but Byana itselfe compares with this. I remained heere to the two and twentieth ; and three and twentieth, 6 c. to Candere, a roguish, dirtie aldea. At 2 c. on this way is one of those moholls before mentioned. It is a square stone building ; within the first gate is a small court with a place for the King to keepe his darsany,1 and two or three other retiring roomes, but none of note. Within the second court is the moholl, being a foure-square thing, about twice as bigge or better then the Exchange, having at each corner a faire open devoncan [dīwānkhāna, hall], and in the middest of each side another, which are to bee spread with rich carpets and to sit in to passe the time ; and betwixt each corner and this middle-most are two faire large chambers for his women (so that each moholl receiveth sixteene) in severall lodgings, without doores to any of them, all keeping open house to the kings pleasure. Round by the side goeth a faire paved walke, some eight foote broad ; and in the middest of all the court stands the Kings chamber, where he, like a cocke of the game, may crow over all. At Candere I remained till the eight and twentieth, and returned to Bachuna [Pichuna], 4 c. backe in the way.

1 Darshani, 'appearing '. The reference is to the Emperor showing himself in public.

The twentieth of December I went to Byana,1 8 c., a backe way thorow the fields. This citie hath beene great and faire, but is now ruinate, save two sarayes and a long bazar, with a [S. 152] few stragiing houses ; many faire ones being fallen and many others not inhabited (except by rogues or theeves), so that many streets are quite desolate. On the north-west, some three or four cose off, are the ruines of a kings house, with many other faire buildings. The like ruines are to bee scene on the south-west side, over against a towne called Scanderbade,2 in like distance upon the height of the rocky mountaines. The way leading up is a narrow steepe stony cawsey, not to be passed on horse-backe, some quarter of a mile the ascent ; the entrance is thorow a small wicket, passing the lips of the mountaincs in a narrow gutte. On the right hand, upon the very edge, stands a pleasant building where are divers tombes ; from each side the way may be made good with stones against millions of men. Passing a mile hence on a faire cawsey, you come to the kings house, sometimes faire, now ruinate, where a few poore Googers3 remaine in the ruines. Many tombes and monuments yet remaine. At the foote of the hill toward Scanderbade is a pleasant valley inclosed with a wall, and therein many gardens of pleasure. This city hath been in ancient times the seate of a great Potane king,4 and hath had the walles extending on the cliffes 8 c. in length, in those places where is any possibilitie of getting up, the rockcs otherwhere over-hanging ; the fortifications on the other side I saw not. It hath beene a goodly city, inhabited now only with Googers, which are keepers of cattell and makers of butter and cheese. From hence, notwithstanding all this strength, did the Acabar force Sha Selim [see p. 142 n.] the Tyrant, and then laid it waste, as he hath done Mandow and most of the strongholds which he tooke. The countrey which affordeth that rich nill which takes name of Byana is not above twenty or thixtie cose long.

1 Bayāna or Biāna, in Bhartpur State, iifty miles south-west of Agra.

2 Sikandarābād, now called Sikandra, three miles to the south of Bayāna.

3 Hind. Gūjar, a pastoral caste, formerly notorious for cattle-stealing.

4 Sikandar Shāh Lodi, according to Mundy, who also describes the fort (Bijāgarh or Sāntipur),

The herbe Nill groweth in forme not much unlike cives [the chive or Allium] or cich-pease [chickpea], having a small leafe ike that of Sena, but shorter and broader and set on a very [S. 153] short foot-stalke, the branches hard and of a woodie substance like unto broome. It usually groweth not above a yard high and with a stalke at the biggest (which is at the third yeare) not much exceeding a mans thumbe. The seede is included in a small round codde about an inch long, resembling Foenigraecum, save that it is more blunt at both ends, as if it had been cut off with a knife. It carryeth a small flower like that of Hearts-ease ; the seed is ripe in November, and then gathered. The herbe once sowne dureth three yeeres, being cut every yeere in August and September after the raines. That of one yeere is tender and thereof is made Notee,1 which is a weighty reddish nill, sinking in water, not come to his perfection ; that of the second yeere is rich, and called Cyeree,2 very light and of a perfect violet colour, swimming on the water ; in the third yeere the herbe is declining, and this nill is called Catteld,3 being a weightie blackish nill, the worst of the three. This herbe, being cut the moneth aforesaid, is cast into a long cistcrne, where it is pressed downe with many stones, and then filled with water till it be covered ; which so remaineth for certaine dayes, till the substance of the herbe be gone into the water. Then they let the water forth into another round cisterne, in the middest of which is another small cisterne or center ; this water being thus drawne forth, they labour with great staves, like batter or white starch, and then let it settle, scumming off the cleare water on the toppe ; then labouring it afresh, and let it settle againe, drawing forth the cleare water ; doing this oft, till nothing but a thicke substance remaine, which they take foorth and spread on cloth to dry in the sunne ; and being a little hardened, they take it in their hands and, making small balls, lay them on the sand to dry (for any other thing would drinke up the colour) ; this is the cause of the sandy foot. So if raine fall, it looseth his colour and glosse, and is called Aliad.4 Some deceitfully will [S. 154] take of the herbe of all three crops and steepe them all together, hard to be discerned, very knavishly. Fowre things are required in nill : a pure graine, a violet colour, his glosse in the sunne, and that it be dry and light, so that swimming in the water or burning in the fire it cast forth a pure light violet vapour, leaving a few ashes.

1 Sir George Watt concludes that this term is derived from naudha, the young plant.

2 Jari, 'sprouting from the root '.

3 Khutiyāl or khūnti. With this account of the various crops cf. that in Letters Received, vol. vi, p. 241.

4 This seems to be connected with the Hind, āla, 'moist'.

About the sixt of January [1611] the King, being on hunting, was assailed by a lyon, which hee had wounded with his peece, with such fiercenesse that, had not a captaine of his, a Resboot, tutor of the late baptized princes, interposed himselfe, thrusting his arme into the lions mouth as hee ramped against His Majestic, he had in all likelihood been destroyed. In this strugling Sultan Corom, Rajaw Ranidas,1 and others came in and amongst them slew the lyon, that captaine having first received thirty two wounds ; whome therfore the King tooke up into his owne palanke, with his owne hands also wiped and bound up his wounds, and made him a captaine of five thousand horse, in recompence of that his valourous loyaltie.

1 A mistake for Rāja Rām Dās : see Jahāngīr's own account of the incident in the Tūzuk (vol. i, p. 185), where the animal is described as a tiger. The Rājput captain was named Anūp Rāi. Jourdain says that he was rewarded with '1000 horse per yeare, which is as good as 1000l. sterlinge' (p. 161).

The Kings manner of hunting is this : about the beginning of November, accompanied with many thousands, he goeth forth of his castle of Agra and hunteth some thirty or forty course round about the citie ; so continuing till the ende of March, when the heat drives him home againe. He causeth, with choise men, a certain wood or desart place to bee incircled, so contracting themselves to a neerer compasse till they meet againe ; and whatsoever is taken in this inclosure is called the Kings sikar [Hind, shikār] or game, whether men or beasts ; and whosoever lets ought escape without the Kings mercy must loose his life. The beasts taken, if mans meat, are sold and the money given to the poore ; if men, they remaine the Kings slaves, which he yearely sends to Cabull to barter for horse and dogs ; these beeing poore, miserable, theevish people that live in woods and desarts, little differing from beasts.

This moneth the King was providing more forces for Decan, [S. 155] notwithstanding the Decanees required his peace, offering to restore what they had taken. Caun Asom [see p. 98] was sent Generall, and with him twentie thousand horse, accompanied with Matrobet Caun [Mahābat Khān], another great captaine, together with infinite treasure. With these forces went John Frenchman1 and Charles Charke,2 entertained in his service for the warres.

1 Jourdain and Covert call him 'Frencham'. He was one of the survivors from the Ascension, and later proceeded to Agra with Covert. At Burhānpur they were asked by the Khānkhānn to serve him in the Deccan war. On their declaring that they were only merchants, he replied (according to Covert) that 'there was no Englishman, merchant nor other, but he was a souldier'. Frencham left Agra with Covert, but fell ill and had to remain behind at Bukkur, whence no doubt he returned to Agra on recovery.

2 'This Ch. Charke I have spoken with since in London after divers yeares service' (marginal note by Purchas).

January the ninth, I departed from Agra for Lahor to recover debts, and carried twelve carts laden with nil [indigo] in hope of a good price. The places I passed were Rownocta [Rankata], twelve courses : Badeg Sara,1 10 : Acabarpore [Akbarpur], 12 c., formerly a great city, still famous for the antiquities of Indian gobins2 or saints. A little short of this place is a faire deury [deura, temple] inclosed with a stone wall, in which is a devoncan, and round about a little distance in vaults (or cloisters ) are to be seen many pagods [see p 15 w.], which are stone images of monstrous men feareful to behold, but adored by the Indians with flowers and offerings. Houdle [Hodal], 13 c. ; at the entrance of the saray is a faire fountaine [i.e. well], three stories and one hundred steps. Pulwooll [Palwal], 12 c. Ferreedabade [Farīdābd], 12 c. Dely, 10 c. On the left hand is scene the carkasse of old Dely,3 called the nine castles and [S. 156] fiftie two gates, now inhabited onely by Googers. A little short is a stone bridge of eleven arches,4 over a branch of Gemini [the Jumna] ; from hence a broad way shaded with great trees leading to the sepulchre of Hamaron [Humāyūn], this kings grandfather, in a large roome spread with rich carpets, the tombe itselfe covered with a pure white sheet, a rich semiane [see p. 117] over head, and a front certaine bookes on small tressels, by which stand his sword, tucke [turban] and shooes.5 At the entrance are other tombes of his wives and daughters. Beyond this, under like shaded way, you come to the Kings house and moholl, now ruinous. The city is 2 c. betweene gate and gate, begirt with a strong wall, but much ruinate, as are many goodly houses. Within and about this citie are the tombes of twenty Potan kings, all very faire and stately. The kings of India are here to be crowned, or else they are held usurpers. It is seated in a goodly plaine, environed with goodly pleasant gardens and monuments.

1 Bād-ki-sarāi. It is suggested in Growse's, Mathura (p. 28) that the sarāi intended is the one at Jamālpur, about three kos from Bād.

2 'Gosains' is probably intended.

3 Tughlakābād, which according to tradition had fifty-two gates (Carr Stephen's Archaeology of Delhi, p. 91). The following marginal note is appended to the passage in the text : 'There are said to bee foure Delyes within 5 c. ; the eldest built by Rase [i. e. Rāja Anang Pāl], who by his ponde [pundit] or magicians counsell tried the earth by an iron stake, which he pulled out bloody with the blood of a snake, which his ponde said was signe of good fortune. [This is a well-known story relating to the iron pillar near the Kutb Minār (op. cit., p. 17).] The last of his race was Rase Pethory [Rāi Pithora or Prithwi Rāj], who, after seven times taking a Potan king, was at last by him taken and slaine. He began the Potan kingdome. They came from the mountaines between Candahar and Catull [Kābul]. The second built by Togall Sha [Tughlak Shāh], a Potan king. The third little of note. The fourth by Shershaselim [Sher Shāh], where is that tomb of Hamaron' [Humāyūn].

The last named was the Delhi of Finch's day. It lay to the south of the modem city, and occupied part of the site of Firozābād.

4 The Bāra Pala bridge, near the shrine of Nizām-uddīn.

5 Cf. Peter Mundy's description (Travels, vol. ii, pp. 100, 181) of the tomb of Prince Khusrau.

Nalero [Narela] is hence 14 c. About 2 c. without Dely is the remainder of an auncient mole [rnahal ?] or hunting house, built by Sultan Berusa,1 a great Indian monarch, with much curiositie of stoneworke. With and above the rest is to be [S. 157] seen a stone pillar,2 which, passing through three stories, is higher then all twenty foure foot, having at the top a globe and a halfe moone over it. This stone, they say, stands as much under the earth, and is placed in the water, being all one entire stone ; some say Naserdengady,3 a Potan king, would have taken it up and was prohibited by multitude of scorpions, and that it hath inscriptions. In divers parts of India the like are to be scene, and of late was found buried in the ground about Fettipore a stone piller of an hundred cubits length, which the King commanded to bring to Agra, but was broken in the way, to his great griefe.4 It is remarkeable that the quarries of India, specially neere Fettipore (whence they are carryed farre) are of such nature that they may be cleft like logges and sawne like plancks to seele chambers and cover houses of a great length and breadth. From this monument is said to bee a way under ground to Dely castle.5 Now here remaine onely Googers, and there are store of deere. We saw in the way the mines of divers places [palaces ?], and neere the same the mines of a wall 20 c. in circuit, being a parke for game. Some part of this way was theevish, and, some report being given out of the Kings death, many rogues with that false alarme were abroad. We met the Fosder [faujdār, military commandant] of Dely with some two thousand horse and foot in their pursuit, who burnt their townes and tooke them and theirs, whatsoever he could get ; and the next day at breakfast we were like to be surprized by theeves.

1 Sultan Firoz Shāh, who laid out a hunting park on the Ridge and built therein a palace. The pillar referred to by Finch is the Asoka lāt brought by Firoz Shāh from Meerut and erected on the same spot, where it still stands. The earliest European account of it seems to be that given by Monserrate. Some writers have supposed that Finch meant to describe the other Asoka pillar at Delhi—that in the Kotila of Firozābād, but this is evidently wrong.

2 'A stately obeliske with Greeke or Hebrew inscriptions (as some affirme), supposed to be set there by Alexander' (marginal note, probably by Purchas, based on Coryat).

3 Sir Edward Maclagan thinks this Nāsiruddīn Ghāzi may have been Nāsiruddīn Tughlak, son of Firoz Shāh.

4 Nothing seems to be known concerning this pillar.

5 For references to this and other subterranean passages see Monserrate (p. 590), Jarrett's Āīn (vol. ii, p. 279), and Father Hosten's articles in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, 1911 (p. 102) and 1912 (p. 279).

Gonowre [Ganaur], 14 c. Panneput [Pānīpat], 14 c. ; at the entry whereof was placed a manora1 with the heads of some [S. 158] hundred theeves newly taken, their bodies set on stakes a mile in length. Carmall [Karnāl], 14 c. ; the way theevish, where but for our peece lauguage we had been assaulted. On the north-west extend mountaines neere to Lahor from hence, with snow on the tops. Tanassar [Thānesar], 14 c. ; here is a castle, a goodly tanke, and by it pagods, much reverenced by all the Gentiles throughout India. Neere it also are the salarmoniake pits. Shabad [Shāhābād] or Goobade, 10 c. Amballa [Ambāla], 12 c. Hollowa Saray [Alūwa sarāi], 14 c. Syrinam [Sirhind], 7 c.; it hath a faire tanke with a summerhouse in the middest, to which leads a bridge of fifteene stone arches, very pleasant. From hence is a small river cut to the Kings garden,2 a corse distant, with a cawsey of forty foot broad, planted with trees on both sides to it. The garden is fowre square, each square a cose in length or better, inclosed with a bricke-wall, richly planted with all sorts of fruits and flowers, rented yeerely (as I was told) for fifty thousand rupias ; crossed with two maine walkes, forty foot broad and eight high, with water running alongst stone channells in the middest, and planted on both sides thicke with faire cypresses ; one of these cawseys is also paved with peble, curiously inter-wrought. Atthe crossing stands an eight square mohol with eight chambers for women, in the midst thereof a faire tank ; over these, eight other roomes, with faire galleries round about ; on the top of all a faire jounter3 ; the whole building curiously wrought in stone, with faire painting, rich carving, and pargetting ; and on two sides two faire tankes in the midst of a faire stone chounter, planted round with cypresse trees ; a little distant is another mohol, but not so curious.

1 Mīnār, or pillar. For the practice of cementing the heads of criminals or rebels in pillars erected for the purpose, see Mundy, pp. 72, 90, &c.

2 ' ome say it was made An. Dom. 1580' (marginal note).

3 'Jounter' or 'chounter' is the Hind. chautri or chabūtara, a terrace for recreation.

From hence we passed to Dorapy [Dorāha], 15 c. Pulloeeque Saray [Phillaur-ki-sarāi], 13 c. Nicoder [Nakodar], 12 c. Sultanpoore [Sultānpur], 11 c. Fetipore,1 7 c. ; a saray built (if it were finished) by Sha Selim in memoriall of the overthrow given Sultan Cusseroom [Khusrau], his eldest sonne, the occasion [S. 159] whereof was this.2  Sha Selim, upon some disgust, tooke amies in his fathers lifetime and fled into Purrop, where he kept the strong castle of Alobasse [Allahābād] (but came in some three moneths before his fathers deceasse) ; whereupon Acubar gave the crowne to Sultan Cusseroom his sonne. But after Acabars death, Selim, by his friends, seized on the castle and treasure, and his sonne fled for Lahor, where hee gathered some twelve thousand horse, all good souldiours and Mogols, possessing the suburbs twelve daies, and proclaimed king in the kasse,3 and his father in the castle. In this place he gave battell to Strek Fereed [Shaikh Farīd], and disordered his three hundred horse and put them to the sword. To the second [i. e. assistance] of him came Melec Ale Cutwall [Khwāja Malik Ali, the kotwāl] (the King being some 20 c. behind) with some two hundred horse, beating up the Kings drummes, and giving a brave assault, shouting God save King Selim ; upon which the Princes souldiours fainted and fled, the Prince himselfe fleeing only with five horse, and got 30 c. beyond Lahor for Cabull ; which if he had gotten, he would have put his father to further trouble ; but beeing to passe a river where hee gave mohors of gold, the boate-man grew in distrust, and in the middest of the channell leapt overboord and swamme to the shoare, where hee gave notice to the governour of the towne adjoyning, who presently with flftie horse came downe to the river, where the boat was still floting, imbarqued himselfe in another, and saluted him by the name of king, dissemblingly offering his aide and inviting him to his house ; which the Prince accepting, was locked up with his company and guarded till hee had sent the King word ; who sent Germaunabeg4 to fetch him fettered on an elephant. From hence his father proceeded to Cabul, punishing such as he found tardie in this revolt ; carrying his sonne with [S. 160] him prisoner ; and returning by this place where the battell was fought (as some say) caused his eyes to be burned out with a glasse ; others say onely blind-folded him with a napkin, tying it behind and sealing it with his owne seale, which yet remaineth, and himselfe prisoner in the castle of Agra.5 All alongst on both sides the way from Cabul to Agra, a reasonable distance, the King caused trees to be planted to shade the way in remembrance of this exploit, and called this place Fetipoore, that is, Hearts content, as ye before heard of the citie [see p. 150], which for his birth was named so by his father Aecubar ; these, as any decay, must by the peoples toyle be supplied.

1 Vairowal, on the Beās, named Fatehpur ('town of victory') in memory of Khusrau's defeat.

2 See Hawkins's account (p. 107).

3 Perhaps he means the ām-khās, a term sometimes used for the dīwān-i-ām. The city and the castle would have separate governors, and it would seem that one declared for Jahangir and the other for Khusrau.

4 Zamāna Beg, i. e. Mahābat Khān. For other accounts of Khusrau's capture see the Tūzuk (vol. i, p. 66), the Āīn (vol. i, p. 414), and Du Jarrie (vol. iii, p. 141).

5 That Khusrau was blinded by his father was evidently very generally believed at the time (see supra, p. 108, and Du Jarrie, vol. iii, p. 169). The question is discussed by Mr. Beveridge in a note on p. 174 of vol. i of the Tūzuh and in an article in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, vol. 39 (p. .597). He inclines to accept the story, mainly because the impostor who afterwards personated the Prince pretended that he had marks of the blinding. This, however, was a very natural artifice, given the prevailing impression ; and against such an argument may be set the fact that Sir Thomas Roe, who both saw and talked with the Prince in 1617, makes no mention of any injury to his sight, and moreover speaks of him as destined to succeed to the throne -- an event hardly to be contemplated in the case of a blind man. Terry, who also saw Khusrau more than once, says explicitly that 'his eyes were sealed up (by something put before them which might not be taken off) for the space of three years ; after which time that seal was taken away' ; and this agrees with one of the rumours noted by Finch. Della Valle's version is that the eyes were sewn up for a time, without injuring the sight. The story given in Elliot's History of India, vol. vi (p. 448), that the Prince was deprived of his sight by having a wire thrust into his eyes, but that his vision was afterwards restored by the skill of a surgeon, is not only improbable in itself but is obviously an attempt to reconcile the current belief in the blinding with the fact that Khusrau could see quite well in later years. Mundy, it may be noted, has a tale (p. 104) that one eye was 'eaten out with applyeinge to it a certaine venemous hearbe ', but fixes the date of this as a little before the Prince's murder in 1622.

From hence to Hoghe Moheede,1 10 c. Cancanna saray, 12 c. Lahor, 7 c.; where I arrived February the fourth. On the [S. 161] twentie eighth arrived here a Persian embassadour2 allied to Sha Abash, with a great caravan accompanying him. I by them learned that the way to Candahar was now cleere, the warres being ended which the Turkish Gelole3 had caused, who the former yeare had fled to the Persian with some ten thousand Turkes and had obtained some jaggere [jāgīr, an assignment of land] neere thereto ; whereof he purposing to make himselfe king, was overthrowne, and being sent for by the Persian refused to come ; till, deluded by promise of a mariage, he was got to the court, and there lost his head. We heard also of the Persians taking from the Turke the strong castle of Curdes after a yeeres siege, with other Asian and Europaean newes.

1 The position given seems to answer toTarn Tarān; but Finch's distances are not to be trusted. Khānkhānān-sarāi has not been identified.

2 Yādgār Ali Sultān. For this embassy, see the Tūzuk, vol. i. pp. 193, 237, &c.

3 A letter from Persia of June, 1609, refers to the defeat of 'Jouile, the great Geloly' (Cal. State Papers, E. Indies, 1513-1616, no. 446), but who he was is not evident, unless he is to be identified with the Turkish general Jāghāl-āghli mentioned by Malcolm (History of Persia, vol. i, p. 538). In that case, however, Malcolm's dates must be wrong.

Lahor is one of the greatest cities of the East, containing some 24 c. in circuit by the ditch which is now casting up about it, and by the Kings command now to be inclosed with a strong wall. In the time of the Potans it was but a village, Multan then flourishing, till Hamawn [Humāyūn] enlarged this. The towne and suburb is some 6 c. thorow. The castle or towne is inclosed with a strong bricke wall, having thereto twelve faire gates, nine by land and three openings to the river ; the streets faire and well paved ; the inhabitants most Baneans and handicrafts men, all white men of note lying in the suburbs. The buildings are faire and high, with bricke and much curiositie of carved windowes and doores ; most of the Gentiles doores of sixe or seven steps ascent and very troublesome to get up, so built for more securitie and that passengers should not see into their houses. The castle is seated on Ravee, a goodly river which falleth into Indus, downe which go many boats, of sixtie tunne or upwards, for Tatta in Sind, after the fall of the raine, being a journey of some fortie dayes alongst by Multan, Seetpore,1 Buchur [Bukkur], Rauree [Rohri] etc. [S. 162]

1 Sītpur, an ancient town on the Indus, in the Muzaffargarh district.

This river commcth from the cast and runneth westerly by the north side of the citie ; upon which, within the castle, is the Kings house,1 passing in at the middle gate to the riverward. Within the citie on the left-hand you enter thorow a strong gate, and a musket shot further another smaller, into a faire great square court, with atescanna2 for the Kings guard to watch in. On the left-hand thorow another gate you enter into an inner court, where the King keepes his darbar, and round about which court are atescanna's also for great men to watch in. In the middest there stands a high pole to hang a light on. From hence you go up to a faire stone jounter or small court, in the middest whereof stands a faire devoncan, with two or three other retiring rooms wherein the King sits out all the first part of the night, commonly from eight to eleven. On the walles is the Kings picture, sitting crosselegged on a chaire of state ; on his right hand Sultan Pervese, Sultan Caroone, and Sultan Timoret,3 his sonnes ; next these Sha Morat [Shāh Murād] and Don Sha [Dāniyāl Shāh], two of his brothers (the three baptized before spoken were sonnes of this later) : next them Emersee Sheriff [Mīrza Sharīf], eldest brother to Caun Asom (of whom it is reported his estate to be such that, of one hundred chiefe women which he kept, he never suffred any of their clothing after their first wearing to be ever touched by any stranger, but caused them to bee buried in the ground, there to rot ; as also that he alway had in service five hundred massalgees [torchbearers : mashalchi], in so much that whensoever he went from court to his house in Agra, which was at least a corse, no man removed foote with his torch but stood all alongst to his house) : next this man, Emersee Rostene [Mīrza Rustam], late King of Candhar ; then Can Canna [see p. 71] (which signifieth prince of the Cannes) : then Cuttūp Caun [Kutbuddīn Khāan Koka], Rajaw Manisengo [Rāja Mān Singh], Caun Asom [Khān Azam], [S. 163] Asoph Caun [Āsaf Khān (Jafar Beg)], Sheeck Fereed [Shaikh Farīd], Kelish Caun [Kilīj Khān], and Rajaw Juggonat [Rāja Jagannāth] (who at his death had seven of his friends that burned themselves with him, besides one of his sisters, and a brothers childe). On the left hand of the King stands Rajaw Bowsing [Bhāo Singh], who beats away flyes, then Rajaw Ramdas [Rām Dās], who holds his sword, Cleriff Caun, Caun John, Jemana Lege or Mawbet Caun, Moerow Bowcan, Rajaw Bossow, Rajaw Ransing, Majo Kesso, and Lala Bersing.4 Note also that in this gallery, as you enter, on the right-hand of the King over the doore is the picture of our Saviour ; opposite on this left-hand, of the Virgin Mary. This devoncan is very pleasantly seated, over-looking the Ravee. From hence passing thorow a small entrie to the west, you enter another small court, where is another open chounter of stone to sit in, covered with rich semianes [see p. 117]. From hence you enter into a small gallery, at the end of which, next the river, thorow a small window the King looks forth at his dersanee [see p. 151] to behold the fights of wilde beasts on the medow by the river. On the wall of this gallery is drawne the picture of the Acabar sitting in his state, and before him Sha Selim his sonne standing with a hawke on his fist, and by him Sultan Cusseroom, Sultan Pervis, Sultan Coroome, his three sonnes. At the end is a small devoncan where the King useth to sit ; behind which is his lodging chamber, and before it all open into a paved court, alongst the right-hand whereof runneth a small moholl of two stories, each containing eight faire lodgings for severall women, with galleries and windowes looking to the river and to the court. All the doores of these chambers are to bee fastened on the out-side, and none within. In the gallery where the King useth to sit are drawne overhead many pictures of angels, with pictures of Banian dews [see p. 134], or rather divels, intermixt in most ugly shape with long homes, staring eyes, shagge haire, great fangs, ugly pawes, long tailes, with such horrible difformity and deformity that I wonder the poore women are not frighted [S. 164] therewith. Within this court is a pleasant devoncan and lodgings, and the way to another moholl for the King to passe, but none otherr.

1 The palace was altered and enlarged by Shāh Jahān, and in later times suffered much at the hands of the Sikhs and the British. See the Archaeological Survey Report for 1902-1903 and an article by Dr. Vogel in the Journal of the Panjāb Historical Society, vol. i, no. 1.

2 Yātish-kkāna, a guard-room (see Monserrate, p. 645).

3 Parwīz, Khurram, and Tahmūras. The last was a nephew, not a son.

4 These are Sharif Khān, Khān Jahān, Zamāna Beg or Mahābat Khān, Mukarrab Khān, Rāja Bāso, Rāja Rāi Singh, Rāja Keshu Dās (?), and Lāla Bīr Singh.

Now to returne to the former court, where the Adees [see p. 99J or guard keepe their watch, there is also on the left hand the new Derbar ; beyond it another small court with atescanna, and passing thorow another gate a faire large square moholl, called the New Moholl, of that largenesse that it may lodge two hundred women in state, all severall. Likewise returning to the great court, passing right on, you enter another small paved court on the left hand and into another moholl, the stateliest of the three, contrived into sixteene severall great lodgings, each having faire lodgings, a devoncan (or hall), a small paved court, each her tanke, and enjoying a little world of pleasure and state to herselfe ; all seated very pleasantly upon the river. Before the moholl of Sultan Casserooms mother1 is placed an high pole to hang a light on, as before the King ; for that shee brought forth his first sonne and heire. In the midst stands a goodly gallery for the King to sit in, with such ugly pictures over-head as before. At the end are drawne many portraitures of the King in state sitting amongst his women, one holding a flaske of wine, another a napkin, a third presenting the peally [piyāti, a small cup] ; behind, one punkawing [fanning : pankha], another holding his sword, another his bow and two or three arrowes etc. Before this gallery is a faire paved court, with stone gratings and windowes alongst the waters side ; at the end a faire marble jounter, convexed over-head, looking over the river ; beneath it a garden of pleasure ; behind, the Kings lodgings, very sumptuous, the walles and seelings all over-laid with pure gold, and round alongst the sides, about a mans height, some three foote distant, are placed faire Venice looking-glasses, three and three, each above other ; and below these, alongst the walles, are drawne many pictures of this mans ancestors, as of Acabar his father, Hamowne his grand-father, Babur his great grand-father, who first set foote into India with thirtie of his nobles, all clad like kalendars or fookeers, which so came [S. 165] to Dely to Secanders [Sikandar Lodi, 1489-1517] court then raigning ; where by his very countenance he was discovered, yet found mercy and returned upon his oath not to attempt anything during the said Secanders raigne, which he performed ; but after his death he sent his sonne Hamawne upon his successor Abram [Ibrāhīm Lodi, 1517-26], from whom he tooke the whole kingdome.2 Yet at length rose up a great captaine [Sher Shāh] of the blood-royall in Bengala, who fought a great battel with Hamawne neare Ganges, put him to flight, and so closely followed him that he drave him forth of the kingdome to the Persian Shaw ; of whom hee obtained new forces (with whom came Byram, Caun Canna his father [see p. 71 n.], for generall) and reconquered all, livnng after that in security. This king dying left Acabar very yong, appointed Byram Caun Protector ; whom the Acabar, comming to yeares, cast off, and on a roomery [Spanish romeria] or pilgrimage to Mecca, as is said, made away with him. His sonne Can Canna (or Caun of the Caunees) doth also much curbe Sha Selim the King, with his friends and allyes being able to make better then an hundred thousand horse. Sha Selim affirmeth hiniselfe to be the ninth lawfully descended from the loynes of Tamerlane the Great, being the great-grand-child of Babur, King of Cabull.

1 The Shāh Begam. She was a daughter of Rāja Bhagwān Dās and sister of Rāja Mān Singh.

2 There seems to be no truth in this story of Bābur's visit to India in disguise ; and it was he, and not Humāyūn, who made the invasion of 1526.

But to returne to the entrance of this moholl : passing forth of that court thorow a strong gate, you enter into the city againe ; this house and appurtenances of mohols being at the least two English miles in circuit. On the east-side of the castle, hard without the wall, is the garden of Asoph Caun [Āsaf Khāan (Jafar Beg)], small, neat, with walkes (planted with cypresse trees), divers tankes and jounters ; as you enter, a faire devoncan supported with stone pillars, with a faire tanke in the midst, and in the midst of that, on foure stone pillars, a jounter for coolenesse. Beyond are other galleries and walkes, divers lodgings for his women neatly contrived, and behind, a small garden and garden-house. In the midst of the garden is a very stately jounter with faire buildings overhead, [S. 166] and a tanke in the center with large and goodly galleries alongst the foure sides thereof, supported with high stone pillars. Adjoyning to this is a garden of the Kings, in which are very good apples, but small, toot [tūl, mulberry] white and red, almonds, peaches, figges, grapes, quinces, orenges, limmons, pomgranats, roses, stock-gellow-flowers,1 marigolds, wallflowers, ireos,2 pinkes white and red, with divers sorts of Indian flowers.

1 The white stock (Mathiola incana).

2 The Florentine iris.

On the west side of the castle is the ferry to passe over to Cabul (and so to Tartary or Cascar [Kāshgar]), a very great road-way, and the further side of the river is a goodly countrey. Infinit numbers of gardens full of rarity exceeds [i.e. project beyond], two or three c. in length.

Passing the Sugar Gonge1 is a faire meskite built by Shecke Fereed ;2 beyond it (without the towne, in the way to the gardens) is a faire monument for Don Sha his mother, one of the Acabar his wives, with whom it is said Sha Selim had to do (her name was Immacque Kelle,3 or Pomgranate kernell) ; upon notice of which the King [Akbar] caused her to be inclosed quicke within a wall in his moholl, where shee dyed, and the King [Jahanglr], in token of his love, commands a sumptuous tombe to be built of stone in the midst of a fouresquare garden richly walled, with a gate and divers roomes over it.4 The convexity of the tombe he hath willed to be wrought in workes of gold, with a large faire jounter with roomes over-head. Note that most of these monuments which I mention are of such largeness that, if they were otherwise contrived, would have roome to entertaine a very good man with his whole houshold. Without the Dely Droware,5 where the nolat [naubat] or great drum beats, is a goodly streight [S. 167] street, about three quarters of a mile long, all paved ; at the end of which is the Bazar ; by it the great saray ; besides which are divers others, both in the city and suburbs, wherein divers neate lodgings are to be let, with doores, lockes, and keyes to each. Hence to the north-east lyeth Ambere,6 the place of hospitality ; from hence to the south-east the habitation of divers loving etc.

1 The shrine of Bāwa Farīd Shakarganj, to the south-west of the city.

2 Shaikh Farīd erected several buildings in Lahore, but this mosque does not appear in the list.

3 Anārkīkali (pomegranate blossom). There is no corroboration of Finch's story that she was the mother of Dāniyāl.

4 The tomb, which is still one of the sights of Lahore, was not finished till 1615.

5 The Delhi Gate (darwāza).

6 This may possibly refer to some āmbhāgh (mango-garden) in which there may have been a dharmsāla or rest-house ; but no trace of such a place can be found in modern maps.

The seventeenth of May came newes of the sacking of Cabul by the Potan theeves, which kept in the mountains, being eleven thousand foot and one thousand horse ; the Governour thereof being at Gelalabade [Jalālābād] about other affaires, and the garrison so weak that they were able only to maintaine the castle. In six houres they spoiled the city and retired with great booty. The King, for better awing of these rebels, hath placed twenty three ombraes betwixt Lahor and Cabul ; and yet all will not serve, they often sallying from the mountains, robbing caravans, and ransacking townes. The eighteenth of August arrived a great caravan from Persia, by whom we had newes from an Armenian, which had served M. Boys, of the French kings death,1 and of affaires betwixt the Turk and Persian ; he having destroyed the countrey about Tauris [Tabrīz], raced the citie, and filled up the wells to hinder the Turks armie ; the merchants by this means (to our griefe) not daring to adventure beyond Candhar.

1 Henri IV was assassinated in May, 1610.

Of divers wayes in the Mogols Kingdome, to and from Lahor and Agra, and places of note in them.1

1 This heading was doubtless sujiplied by Purchas.

From Lahor to Cabull, passing the Ravee, at 10 c. stands Googes saray [Kacha sarāi] ; beyond which 8 c. Emenbade [Amīnābād], a faire city ; thence to Chumaguckur [Chīma Gakkhar] 12 c., a great towne. To Guzurat [Gujrāt] 14 c., a faire citie of great trade ; at 7 c. of this way you passe the river Chantrow [Chenāb], neare a corse over. To Howaspore [S. 168] [Khawāsspur] 12 c. To Lourc Rotas [Rohtās]1 15 c., a citie with a strong castle on a mountaine, the frontier of the Potan kingdome. To Hattea [Hatya] 15 c. To Puckow [Pakka] 4 c. To Raulepende [Rāwalpindi] 14 c. To Collapanne [Kālapāni] 15 c. To Hassanabdall2 4 c., a pleasant towne with a small river and many faire tanks in which are many fishes with gold rings in their noses, hung by Acabar ; the water so cleare that you may see a penny in the bottome. To Attock 15 c., a citie with a strong castle, by which Indus passeth in great beautie. To Pishore [Peshāwar] 36 c. To Alleek Meskite [Ali Masjid] 10 c., the way dangerous for rebels, which are able to make ten or twelve thousand men. To Ducka [Daka] 12 c. To Beshoule [Basāwal] 6 c. To Abareek [Bariku] 6 c. To Aleboga [Ali Boghan] 9 c.; by which runneth Cow [the Kābul River], a great river which comes from Cabul (way still theevish). To Gelalabade [Jalālābād] 4 c. To Loure-Charebage 4 c. To Budde-Charbag 6 c. To Nimla [Nīmla] 8 c. To Gondoma [Gandamak] 4 c. To Surcrood [Surkhāb] 4 c. ; a saray with a small river which lookes red and makes to have a good stomack. To Zagdelee [Jagdalak] 8 c. To Abereek [Āb-i-bārīk] 8 c. To Dowaba [Doāba] 8 c.; a great mountain in the way, 4 c. ascent. To Butta Cauke [Butkhāk] 8 c. To Camree [Bikrāmi] 3 c. To Cabul 3 c. It is a great and faire citie, the first seate of this kings great grand-father, with two castles and many sarayes. 20 c. beyond is Chare-cullow [Chārīkār], a pleasant faire citie ; and 20 c. beyond, Gorebond [Ghorband], a great citie bordering upon Usbeke. 150 c. beyond Cabul is Taul Caun [Talikhān], a citie in Buddoesha [Badakhshān].

1 From this point the road may be traced in the Tūzuk (vol. i, p. 96).

2 Hasan Abdāl. Jahāngīr records that he caught some fish here and released them after fastening pearls in their noses (Tūzuk, vol. i, p. 99).


From Cabull to Cascar [Kāshgar] with the caravan is some two or three monethes journey .1 It is a great kingdome and [S. 169] under the Tartar. A chiefe citie of trade in his territorie is Yar Chaun [Yārkand], whence comes much silke, purslane [porcelain], muske, and rheubarb, with other merchandize ; all which come from China, the gate or entrance whereof is some two or three monethes journey from hence. When they come to this entrance, they are forced to remaine under their tents, and by license send some ten or fifteene merchants at once to doe their businesse, which being returned they may send as many more ; but by no means can the whole caravan enter at once.

1 'Beyond Cabull 60 c. runne mountaines, at the foote of which lyeth the way to Cascar' (marginal note).

Finch's references to Central Asia and Kashmīr in this and the succeeding paragraph form the subject of an interesting article contributed by Sir Aurel Stein, K.C.I.E., to the Journal of the Punjab Historical Society, 1917, to which the reader may be referred for details. Sir Aurel Stein notes that the time allowed by Finch for the journeys from Kābul to Kāshgar, and from thence to China, still holds good. The 'gate' of the latter country he identifies with the present-day Chia-yū-kuan, near Su-chou. The route described from Lahore to Kashmīr is, he points out, that regularly used by the Mughal emperors and now known as the Pīr Panjāl route ; and the stages given by Finch, so far as they can be traced, are roughly correct.

From Lahor to Cassimere [Kashmīr, i.e. Srīnagar] the way is as in Cabull way to Guzerat [Gujrat] ; from thence north or somewhat easterly withall, 16 c. to Bimbar [Bhimbar] ; to Joagek Hately 14 c. ; to Chingesque Hately 1 10 c. ; to Peckly2 10 c. ; to Conowa 12c.; thence 8 c. you ascend a mountaine called Hast Caunk Gate,3 on the top of which is a goodly plaine, from whence to Cassimer is 12 c. thorew a goodly countrey. The city is strong, seated on the river Bahat [Bihat or Jhelum] ; the countrie is a goodly plaine, lying on the mountaines, some 150 c. in length and 50 c. in breadth, abounding with fruits, graine, saffron, faire and white women. Heere are made the rich pomberies [shawls : pāmri] which serve all the Indians. This countrey is cold, subject to frosts and great snowes ; neare to Cascar, but seperated with such mountaines that there is no passage for caravans ; yet there commeth oft-times musk, with silke and other merchandize, [S. 170] this way by men, and goods are faine to be triced up, and let downc often by engines and devices. Upon these mountaines keepes a small king called Tibbot, who of late sent one of his daughtei's to Slia Selim to make aflinitie.4

1 The present Chingas Sarāi.

2 The reference seems to be to the hilly district known as Pakhli ; but as this is a considerable distance from the Pīr Panjāl route, being in fact on the alternative route via the Hāji Pīr pass. Sir A. Stein suggests that Finch's informant really meant to convey that from Chingas Sarāi there was a branch route to the road coming through Pakhli to Kashmīr.

3The Pīr Panjāl pass. Sir A. Stein explains 'Hast Chaunk' as a reference to the momitain ridge of Hastivanj, overlooking the Pīr Panjāl pass from the south.

4 As Sir Edward Maclagan points out, Jahāngīr in 1590-91 married a daughter of Ali Rāi, the ruler of Baltistān or Little Tibet (Āīn, vol. i, p. 310).

Nicholas Uphet [Ufflet] made another way from Agra to Surat1 by Fetipore [Fatehpur Sīkri], Seanderbade [Sikandarābād], Hindoine [Hindaun], Cheningom [Chandangāon], Mogoll Saray, Nonnigong, at the foote of a mountaine, which with others adjoyning are held by two Rajaws of no note. Opposite to these on the left hand beginne the mountaines of Marwa [Mārwār], which extend neare Amadaver. Upon these mountaines stands an impregnable castle called Gur Chitto,2 the cheefe seat of Rana, a very powerfull Rajaw, whom neither Potan or the Acabar himselfe could ever subdue ; which comes to passe by reason that all India hath beene Gentiles and this prince hath bin and still is esteemed in like reverence by them as the Pope of Rome by the Papists. And for this cause the Rajaws which have been sent against him frame some excuses that they may not indamage much his territories, which extend hence alongst Amadaver way an hundred and fifty great corses, and in breadth toward Ougen [Ujjain] 200 c., inclosed for the most part with inaccessible mountaines and fortified well by art in places accessible. He is able to make twelve thousand good horse upon any occasion, and holds many faire townes and goodly cities. The way followeth by Gamgra [Jampda] ; Charsoot [Chātsu] (chiefe seat of Rajaw Manisengo his prigonies) :3 Ladaney [Ladāna] : Mousalde [Mozābād] : Banderamde.4 Asmere [Ajmer], seated [S. 171] upon the top of an inaccessible mountaine of 3 c. ascent, being a fort invincible ; the citie at the foot not great, inclosed with a stone wall, ditched round, the buildings reasonable faire ; without the wals are many antiquities, amongst which, some 2 c. toward Agra, is a very faire tanke.5 This place is only famous for the sepulchre of Hoghee Mundee [see p. 148], a saint much respected by the Mogols, to whom (as is said before) the Acabar made a romery on foot from Agra to obtayne a sonne. Before you come to this tombe you passe three faire courts, of which the first contayneth neere an acre of ground, paved all with blacke and white marble, wherein are interred many of Mahomets cursed kindred ; on the left hand is a faire tanke inclosed with stone. The second court is paved like the former, but richer, twice as bigge as the Exchange in London ; in the middest whereof hangs a curious candlesticke with many lights. Into the third you passe by a brazen gate curiously wrought ; it is the fairest of the three, especially neere the doore of the sepulchre, where the pavement is curiously interlayed ; the doore is large and inlayed with mother of pearle, and the pavement about the tombe of interlaid marble ; the sepulchre very curiously wrought in worke of mother of pearle and gold, with an epitaph in the Persian tongue. A little distant stands his seate in a darke obscure place, where he sat to fore-tell of matters, and is much reverenced. On the east-side stand three other courts, in each a faire tanke ; on the north and west stand divers faire houses, wherein keepe their sides6 or church-men. Note that you may not enter any of these places but bare-foot.

1 This is the route described also by Jourdain, Mundy, Tavernier, &c. Ufflet's journey seems to have been made in the autumn of 1610 (see Jourdain, p. 139)

2 Chitorgarh, the ancient capital of Mewār until it was captured by Akbar in 1568, when the Rāna founded a new capital at Udaipur.

3 'Prigonies are lordships' (marginal note). The word is really parganas, the old-established territorial divisions of Northern India, commonly adopted as administrative units by the Moguls and later rulers.

4 Probably Bandar Sindri, which Mundy calls Bandersunder.

5 The lake called the Ana Sāgar.

6 Arabic saiyid, 'a lord' ; the designation in India of those who claim to be descendants of Muhammad.

From hence the way lieth to Cairo [Garao] : Mearta [Merta], which hath a stone castle with many faire turrets, a faire tanke, and three faire pagodes richly wrought with inlayd workes, adorned richly with jewels, and maintayned with rich offerings : Pipera [Pīpar] ; Jouges gong [Jogikāgon] ; Settrange [Sutulāna ?] ; Canderupe [Khandap] ; Jeloure [Jālor]. This last is a castle seated on the height of a steepe mountaine, 3 c. in ascent, by a faire stone cawsey, broad enough for two men to [S. 172] passe abrest. At the first cose end is a gate and place of armes ; there the cawsey is inclosed with wals on both sides ; and at the 2 c. end is a double gate ; at the 3 c. stands the castle, where you must enter three severall gates, the first very strongly plated with iron ; the second not so strong, with places over it to throw downe scalding lead or oyle ; the third strongly plated with pikes sticking forth, like harping irons. Betwixt each of these gates are spacious courts for armes, and within the further gate is a faire portcullis. Being entred, on the right hand stands a faire meskite, with divers devoncans adjoyning, both to doe justice and to take the aire. On the left hand stands the Governours house on the height of the hils, over-looking all. A flight-shot [bow-shot] within the castle is a faire pagode built by the founders of the castle, ancestors of Gidney Caun,1 which were Indians. He turned Moore and bereaved his elder brother of this hold by this stratageme. He invited him and his women to a banket ; which his brother requiting with like invitation of him and his, in steed of women he sends choice souldiers well appointed and close covered, two and two in a dowle3 ; who, beeing entred after this manner, possest themselves of the ports [gates] and held it for the Great Mogoll, to whom it now appertayneth, being one of the strongest seated forts in the world. Some halfe cose within the gate is a goodly tanke foure square, cut directly downe into the rocke, affirmed to bee fiftie fathome deepe, of cleere and good water. A little further is a faire plaine shaded with many goodly trees, beyond which, on the top of a little piqued mountayne, is the sepulchre of King Hassward,3 while he lived a great souldier, since his death a great saint, honoured in these parts. Here lye also interred two sonnes of Gillould, a Potan king of Dely ;4 neere to which is a wall which divides the castle neere a cose in circuit (the whole castle beeing [S. 173] about 8 c. in compasse), nigh whereto is said to kecpo a huge snake of five and twentie foot long and as bigge as a man in the waste, which the people will by no meanes hurt, holding it a good fortune, for it hurts no man, but keepes amongst the bushes and bryars of this piqued mountaine. This castle is called the gate or frontire of Guzurate. From hence you come to Mudre [Modra] ; Bilhnall [Bhīnmāl], the foundations of whose ancient wall are yet scene (they have beene 24 c. in circuit) ; many goodly tankes also going to mine, by one of which is the founders sepulchre, whither the Indians resort to worship. From hence to Amadabade is a deepe sandy desart countrey. Rodeapore [Rādhanpur] in this way hath many sepulchres (I let passe it and the rest).

1 Possibly Ghazni or Ghaznīn Khān of Jālor, for whom see the Āīn (vol. i, p. 493).

2 'A dowly or dowle is a chaire or cage wherein they carry their women on mens sholders' (marginal note). It is of course the familiar dhooly.

3 Can he mean Malik Shāh, a noted Muhammadan saint, whose tomb is still to be seen in the castle ?

4 Possibly Jalāl-uddīn Firoz (1290-96), the tirst of the Khalji kings of Delhi.

Amadabade or Amadavar is a goodly city and scituate on a faire river, inclosed with strong wals and faire gates, with many beautifull turrets. The castle is large and strong ; where resideth Caun Asom his sonne [Jahāngīr Kuli Khān], the Vice-Roy in these parts. The buildings comparable to any citie in Asia or Africa, the streets large and well paved, the trade great (for almost every ten dayes goe from hence two hundred coaches richly laden with merchandise for Cambaya), the merchants rich, the artificers excellent for carvings, paintings, inlayd workes, imbroydery with gold and silver. At an houres warning it hath in readiness sixe thousand horse ; the gates perpetually strong guarded ; none suffered without license to enter, nor to depart without certificate. The cause of this is Badurs [see p. 100] neighbourhood in his strong hold, within 50 c. of this citie to the east, where nature, with some helpe of art and industry, hath fortified him against all the Mogolls power ; and whence some foure yeeres since (proclaiming liberty and lawes of good fellowship) hee sacked Cambaya with a sudden power (combined by hope of spoile) of one hundred thousand men, which for fourteene dayes continued possessors there and sharkers. There is also betwixt this and Trage1 a certaine Rajaw on the mountaines able to make seventeene thousand horse and foot, the people called Collees [Kolis] or Quullees, keeping in a desart wildernesse which secures him from conquest ; and on the right hand is [S. 174] another able to make tenne thousand horse, holding in a desart plaine a castle impregnable, whose land is subject to Gidney Cauns  government. but these seven yeeres he hath denyed him tribute, and stands on his defence. This Rajaw is said to have a race of horses not equalled in all the East, each valued at fifteene thousand r[upees], reported to bee much swifter then the Arabian, and able to continue with reasonable speed a whole day without once drawing bitte ; of which he is said to have one hundred mares. From Geloure to this citie is all a sandy, woody countrey, full of theevish beastly men and of mankind, savage beasts, lions, tygres etc. Thirty c. about this city is made nill [indigo] called Cickell [Sarkhej], of a towne 4 c. from Amadavar, not so good as that of Biana.

1 There is a Trāj about seven miles south-west of Kaira.

Cambaya is hence 38 c. ; sandy, wooddie, theevish way. It stands by the sea, encompassed with a strong bricke wall ; the houses high and faire ; the streets paved in a direct line with strong gates at the end of each ; the bazar large. About the citie are such infinite numbers of munkeyes, leaping from house to house, that they doe much mischiefe and, untyling the houses, are readie to braine men as they passe in the streets with the stones that fall. On the south is a goodly garden with a watch-tower of an exceeding height ; on the north are many faire tankes. It is the mart of Guzurat, and so haunted by the Portugals that you shall often finde two hundred frigats at once riding there. It aboundeth with all sorts of cloth and rich drugges. The bay is 8 c. over, dangerous to passe by reason of the great bore which drownes many, and therefore requires guides skilfull of the tydes (in the neap tydes is least perill). Theeves also, when you are over the channell, are not a little dangerous, forcing you (if not the better provided) to quit your goods, or in long bickerings betraying you to the tydes fury, which comes so swift that ten to one you escape not. Foure coses beyond this bay is Joumbeser [Jāmbusar], now much ruined, and from thence eighteene to Boroche [Broach], a woodie, dangerous passage, in which are many wilde peaeockes. Within 4 c. of Boroche is a great mine of agats.1 It is a faire castle, seated on a river twice as broad [S. 175] as the Thames, to the mouth of which is hence 12 c. Here are made the rich baffatas,1 in finenesse surpassing Holland cloth, for fiftie rupias a booke, which contayneth fourteene English yards, and are not three quarters broad. Hence to Variaw [Variāo] 20 c., a goodly countrey and fertile, full of villages, abounding with wild date trees, which generally are plentifull by the sea-side in most places ; whence they draw a liquor called tarrie [tāri, toddy] or sure [Sanskrit sura], as also from another wild coco-tree called tarrie. Three c. hence is Surat.

1 Doubtless the reference is to the mines at Ratanpur, in the Rājpīpla state, about fourteen miles east of Broach. They are still the chief source of supply for agates.

2 Cotton clothes (bāfta, 'woven').

In a towne betweene Boroche and Amadavar lyeth a great saint of the Moores called Polle-Medomy,1 much resorted to out of all places of India for wealth, children, or what else they desire. Divers in the way goe with great chaines on their legges, and with their hands chained together and their mouthes locked up (only opening them for food), and when they come before him in this manner of their humble devotion, they afflrme that presently their chaines and lockes fly open, not one returning in vaine ; if themselves bee not vaine in their hopes, and in these and other like affections, which wayting on lying vanities, forsake their owne judge.

1 Probably some such name as Pīr Ali Madīni ; the shrine has not been traced.

From Agra to Cannowes [Kanauj] is 130 c.1 east ; the citie great and unwalled, seated on an ascent, and the castle on the height well fortified ; at the foot whereof anciently Ganges tooke his course, but hath now broken a passage thorow the valley some 4 c. distant, notwithstanding as yet a small branch remayneth there. Ganges is within his bounds three quarters of a mile broad, but with great raines swels over his bankes, covering the whole vale neere 10 c. It hath thirtie rivers of note which fall into it, as doth he himselfe into the Gulfe of Bengala. In it are innumerable alagaters or crocodiles, there called murgurmach [magarmachh, crocodile-fish]. It hath eighteene faire branches. Thence to Lacanowes [Lucknow] [S. 176] is 30 c. ; a towne of great traffique for linnen and other merchandize. To Oude [AyodhyaJ from thence arce50 c. ; a citie of ancient note, and seate of a Potan king, now much ruined ; the castle built foure hundred yeeres agoe. Heere are also the mines of Ranichand[s] 2 castle and houses, which the Indians aeknowled[g]e for the great God, saying that he tooke flesh upon him to see the tamasha3 of the world. In these ruines remayne certaine Bramenes, who record the names of all such Indians as wash themselves in the river running thereby ; which custome, they say, hath continued foure lackes of yeeres (which is three hundred ninetie foure thousand and five hundred yeeres before the worlds creation). Some two miles on the further side of the river is a cave of his with a narrow entrance, but so spacious and full of turnings within that a man may well loose himselfe there, if he take not better heed ; where it is thought his ashes were buried. Hither resort many from all parts of India, which carry from hence in remembrance certaine graines of rice as blacke as gun-powder, which they say have beene reserved ever since. Out of the ruines of this castle is yet much gold tryed.4 Here is great trade, and such abundance of Indian asse-horne5 that they make hereof bucklers and divers sorts of drinking cups. There are of these homes, all the Indians affirme, some rare of great price, no jewell comparable, some esteeming them the right unicornes home.

1 The distance is about half this ; and Finch's figures for the other distances are not reliable.

2 Rāma Chandra, the hero of the Rāmāyana. The reference is to the mound known as the Rāmkot or fort of Rāma.

3 Hind, tamasha, a show or spectacle.

4 This practice is mentioned in the Āīn (Blochmann and Jarrett's transln., vol. ii, p. 171).

5 Rhinoceros horn. The bucklers were made from the hide of the animal.

From Oudee to Acabarpore [Akbarpur, in Fyzābād district] 30 c., some 30 c. from whence lyeth Bonaree [Benares], the principall mart of Bengala goods. From Acab[arpore] to Jounpore [Jaunpur] 30 c. ; seated on a small river, over which is a bridge with houses like London Bridge, but nothing so good. The castle hath beene a seat of the Potan kings, there yet remayning two faire meskites, with many other ancient monuments ; the houses are like those of Amadavar ; the [S. 177] circuit some 8 or 10c. Hence come excellent sweete oyles, carpets, hangings cmbrodered with silke, all sorts of fine linnen, etc.

Thus much from Agra to Jounpore this way ; from thence (returning that way to Agra) to Alabasse is 110 c.,1 30 c. all [of ?] which are thorow a continuall forrest. The towne and castle stand out on the further side of Ganges pleasantly seated, called anciently Praye [see p. 19], and is held one of the wonders of the east. Divers Potan kings have sought to build here a castle, but none could doe it till Acabar layd the foundation and proceeded with the worke. It stands on a point or angle, having the river Gemini [Jumna] on the south side falling into Ganges. It hath beene fortie yeeres abuilding, and is not yet finished ; neither is like to bee in a long time. The Acabar for many yeeres had attending this worke by report twentie thousand persons, and as yet there continue working thereon some five thousand of all sorts. It will be one of the most famous buildings of the world. In this castle Sha Selim kept, when he rebelled against his father. The outward wals are of an admirable height, of a red square stone, like Agra Castle ; within which are two other wals nothing so high. You enter thorow two faire gates into a faire court, in which stands a piller of stone2 fiftie cubits above ground (so deeply placed within ground that no end can be found), which by circumstances of the Indians seemeth to have beene placed by Alexander or some other great conquerour, who could not passe further for Ganges. Passing this court you enter a lesse ; beyond that a larger, where the King sits on high at his dersane to behold elephants and other beasts to fight. Right under him within a vault are many pagodes, being monuments of Baba Adam and Mama Havah [Adam and Eve] (as they call them) and of their progenie, with pictures of Noah and his descent. The Indians suppose that man was heere created, or kept heere at least for many yeeres, affirming themselves to be of that religion whereof these fathers were. To this place resort many [S. 178] thousands from all parts to worship ; but before they approch these reliques, they wash their bodies in Ganges, shaving their heads and beards, thereby deeming themselves clensed from all their former sins. Out of this court is another richly paved where the King keepes his derbar ; beyond it another, whence you enter into the moholl, large, divided into sixteene severall lodgings for sixteene great women with their slaves and attendants. In the middest of all, the Kings lodgings of three stories, each contayning sixteene roomes ; in all eight and fortie lodgings, all wrought over-head with rich pargetting and curious painting in all kind of colours. In the midst of the lowest storie is a curious tanke.

1 He means that the distance to Agra from Jaunpur via Allahābād is 110 kos (a gross under-estimate), of which the stage from Jaunpur to Allahābād represents thirty.

2 The Asoka pillar in Allahābād fort. It is really only thirty-five feet in length.

In this moholl is a tree which the Indians call the tree of lift (beeing a wilde Indian figge tree), for that it could never bee destroyed by the Potan kings and this mans ancestors, which have sought to doe it by all meanes, stocking it up and sifting the very earth under it to gather forth the sprigs ; it still springing againe, insomuch that this king lets it alone, seeking to cherish it.1 This tree is of no small esteeme with the Indians. In the waters side within the moholl are divers large devoncans, where the King with his women often passe their times in beholding Gemini paying his tribute to Ganges. Betweene them and the waters side at the foote of the wall is a pleasant garden, shaded with cypresse trees and abounding with excellent fruits and flowres, having in the midst a faire banquetting house, with privie staires to take boate. From hence in October or November, when the great frost [freshet ?] is past, you may passe by boats for Bengala, but the passage is dangerous ; 4 c. downe are two castles opposite on the bankes, Harrayle and Gussee,2 seated on two hils raysed by industry, built by the Potans.

1 This is the Akshaivat, or undying fig tree, for which see the Allahābād Gazetteer, p. 210.

2 Arāil and Jhūsi, just below the junction of the Ganges and the Jumna. There are ruins of forts at both places.

From Alabasse to Menepore [Manihpur] is 20 c. alongst the river Ganges. At 2 c. on this way is a sumptuous tombe for this kings first wife,1 mother to Sultan Cusseroon and sister to [S. 179] Rāja Manisengo, who upon the newes of her sonnes revolt poysoned her selfe. From hence passing Ganges is a more direct way to Jounpore. To Chappergat2 is 12 c. Here is one of the fairest saraies in India, liker a goodly castle then a inne to lodge strangers ; the lodgings very faire of stone, with lockes and keyes, able to lodge a thousand men. A man can scarse shoote from side to side with an arrow ; neere to it is a faire bridge ; both built by one man ; the way perillous for theeves. Itay [Etāwa] is thence 12 c. ; anciently the seate of a Potan king, but now ruined. On the height of the hill, cut steepe downe, is seated a strong castle double walled, having at the entrance the figure of a mans face, which the Indians much worship, powring abundance of oyle upon it. To Amedipore [Itimādpur] is 43 c. ; a plentifull countrey, full of good saraies for caravans. Much indico called cole,3 of a grosse sort, is made in this way, which is spent in India or transported for Samercand [Samarkand], Cascat [Kāshgar], and those parts ; none passing into Christendome, except mixed with that of Biana. Hence to Agra is 7 c., passing Gemini close to the citie.

1 See note on p. 164. She poisoned herself before Khusrau actually rebelled ( Tūzuk, vol. i, p. 55).

2 Chaparghata, on the Sengur. Mundy praises the sarāi .

3 Koil (now Alīgarh) was the centre for an inferior kind of indigo.

Lands lying Easterly from Lahor, with their Lords.

Alongst the Ravee easterly lyeth the land of Rajaw Bossow [Rāja Bāso], whose chiefe seate is Tem-mery,1 50 c. from Lahor. He is a mighty prince, now subject to the Mogol, a great minion of Sha Selim. Out of this and the adjoyning regions come most of the Indian drugges, growing on the mountaines, spikenard, turbith,2 miras kebals,3 gunlack [gumlac], turpentine, costus,4 etc. This Rāja confines the Kings land easterly. Bordering to him is another great Rajaw, called Tulluck-Chand [Tilok Chand], whose chiefe city is Negercoat [Nagarkot, now Kāngra], 80 c. from Lahor and as [S. 180] much from Syrinan [Sirhind] ; in which city is a famous paged called Je or Durga,5 unto which worlds of people resort out of all parts of India. It is a small short idoll of stone, cut in forme of a man ; much is consumed in offerings to him, in which some also are reported to cut off a piece of their tongue and, throwing it at the idols feet, have found it whole the next day (able to lye, I am afraid ; to serve the father of lyes and lyers, how ever) ; yea, some out of impious piety heere sacrifice themselves, cutting their throats and presently recovering. The holyer the man, the sooner forsooth he is healed ; some (more grievous sinners) remaining halfe a day in paine before the divell will attend their cure. Hither they resort to crave children, to enquire of money hidden by their parents or lost by themselves ; which, having made their offerings, by dreames in the night receive answere, not one departing discontented. They report this pagan deity to have beene a woman (if a holy virgin may have that name) ; yea, that shee still lives (the divell shee doth) but will not shew her selfe. Divers Moores also resort to this peer [Pers. pīr, a saint]. This Raja is powerfull, by his mountaines situation secure, not once vouchsafing to visite Sha Selim.

1 Dhameri, the old name of Nūrpur, near Pathānkot, in Kāngra

2 Indian jalap, the root of Operculina turpethum.

3 Apparently chebulic myrobalans.

4 The root of Saussurea lappa, valued both for medicinal purposes and as a perfume.

5 The temple of Bajreswari Devi : see the Tūzuk, vol. ii, p. 224, and Terry (infra).

On this Rajaw easterly confineth another, called Deceampergas,1 a mightie prince ; his chiefe seat Calsery, about an 150 c. from Agra ; his countrey held 500 c. long north and south, 300 c. broad, populous, able to raise upon occasion five hundred thousand foot, but few or no horse ; the land plentifull in it selfe, but sends forth little. To the eastward of this Rajaw, betwixt Jemini and Ganges lyeth the land of Rajaw Mansa,2 a mighty prince and very rich, reported to be served all in vessels of massie gold ; his countrey 300 c. long [S. 181] and one hundred and fifty broad ; his chiefe seat Serenegar [Srīnagar] ; the mountaines called Dow Lager [Dhaulāgiri, White Mountain], upon which in time of winter falls such extreame snowes that the inhabitants are forced to remoove into the valleyes. Yet doe I not thinke that any of these lands extend northerly above forty degrees, but the height of the mountaines causeth this extremity of cold. This Rajas land extendeth within some 200 c. of Agra, part within 50 c. of Syrinan ; very plentifull.

1 It has been suggested that this is meant for Ude Chand Parkāsh, Rāja of Sirmūr ; but he had not yet come to the throne, and, bearing in mind that Finch's r is often. mistaken for a c, it appears more likely that the earlier Rāja, Dharm Parkāsh, is intended. It is true that the latter had been dead for over forty years ; but Finch's hearsay information is often inaccurate in such matters. 'Calsery' is Kālsi, the ancient capital of Sirmur.

2 Garhwāl. Here again Finch seems to be referring to a chief (Rāja Mān Sāh) long dead.

On the further side of Ganges lyeth a very mightie prince, called Rajaw Rodorow,1 holding a mountainous countrey ; his chiefe seat Camow ; his territories extend 400 c. long and not much lesse in breadth, abounding with graine, have many goodly cities ; thence commeth much muske, and heere is the great breed of a small kind of horse called gunts [gūnth], a true travelling sealecliffe beast. This prince is puiseant in foot, but hath few horse or elephants, the mountaines not requiring the one and the cold excluding the other ; his lands thought to reach neare China. To the south of this Raja, thwart the streames of Ganges, is seated another. Raja Mugg,2 very powerfull in horse, foote, and elephants. In his land is the old rocke of naturall diamonds, which yeelds him no small benefit. His lands extend east, somewhat south, 700 c. from Agra. Beneath him amongst the streames of Ganges keepeth a Potan prince of the Dely-kings race, whom the King cannot subdue, by reason of the streames and ilands of Ganges.3 He conflneth upon Purrop, and makes often inroades upon the Kings lands, enforcing Sha Selim to maintaine a frontire army. Hence to the mouth of Ganges all is the Kings land ; only in the mouth the Portugall out-lawes hold a small fort, and doe much mischiefe, living in no forme of subjection to God or man.4 [S. 182]

1 This seems to be the Rāja Rudra Chand of Kumāon, though he had been dead some years when Finch wrote. By 'Camow' (Kumāon ?) is probably meant Almora.

2 A vague reference to the Maghs or Mugs (see p. 26). The Āīn (vol. ii, p. 120) alludes to their contentious with the Arakanese over certain mines of diamonds, &c.

3 Possibly Isa Khān (see p. 2S) is meant.

4 These were the Portuguese pirates who had settled on the island of Sandwīp and elsewhere.

On the further side of Ganges is the mightie king of Arracan, enjoying a large territory and infinite numbers of small barkes. Eastward from him is the kingdome of Siam ; behind it Ova1 and Jangoma [see p. 38], Betweene Tanassar [Tenasserim] and Arracan is the kingdome of Pegu ; the land now lyeth waste. To the south is the kingdome of Queda, Malacca etc. On the sea-coast of Bengala this King hath two chiefe ports, Ougolee [Hūgli] (tyrannized by the Portugals) and Pipilee [Pippli] ; passing which and the land of Orixa [Orissa] you enter into the lands of Goloconda, on whom Sha Selim maketh warres, and hath forcibly taken much of his land. His chiefe port is Masulipatan, and his royall seat Braganadar [see p. 131] and Goloconda, that late builded. Alongst the seaside toward the Cape is the mightie king of Bezeneger [Vijayanagar], under whom the Portugals hold Saint Thome and Negapatan, but are not suffered to build a castle. But I let passe these neighbouring Indies and returne to Agra, the Mogols royall residence. Agra hath not been in fame above fiftie yeeres, being before Acabars time a village ; who removed (as you have heard) from Fetipore for want of good water. It is spacious, large, populous beyond measure, that you can hardly passe in the streets, which are for the most part dirty and narrow, save only the great bazar and some few others, which are large and faire. The citie lyeth in manner of a halfe-moone, bellying to the land-ward some 5 c. in length, and as much by the rivers side, upon the bankes whereof are many goodly houses of the nobility, pleasantly over-looking Gemini, which runneth with a swift current from the north to the south, somewhat easterly, into Ganges. Upon the banke of this river stands the castle, one of the fairest and admirablest buildings of the East, some three or foure miles in compasse,2 inclosed with a faire and strong wall of squared stone ; about which is cast a faire ditch, over it draw-bridges. The walles are built with bulwarkes, somewhat defensible, regalled,3 with a counter-scarfe or front without, some fifteene yards broad. Within this are two other [S. 183] strong walls and gates. To the castle are foure gates, one to the north, by which you passe to a rampire with great peeces ; another west to the Bazar, called the Cichery [Kachahri, court house] gate, within which, over against the great gate, is the Casi [kāzi, a judge] his seat of Chiefe-Justice in matters of law, and by it two or three murtherers very great (one three foot in the bore and fifteene long) of cast brasse. Over against this seat is the Cichery or Court of Rolls, where the Kings Viscer sits every morning some three houres, by whose hands passe all matters of rents, grants, lands, firmans, debts, etc. Beyond these two gates you passe a second gate [the Hathi Pol], over which are two Rajaws in stone, 4 who were slaine in the Kings derbar before the Kings eyes, for being over-bold in speech ; they selling their lives bravely, in remembrance of which they are heere placed. Passing this gate you enter into a faire streete, with houses and munition all alongst on both sides. At the end of this street, being a quarter of a mile, you come to the third gate, which leads to the Kings Derbar ; alwayes chained, all men but the King and his children there alighting. This gate is to the south, called Acabar Drowage,5 close within which is the whores child,6 many hundreds of which attend there day and night, according as their sevcrall turnes come every seventh day, that they may bee ready when the King or his women shall please to call any of them to sing or dance in his moholl, he giving to every one of them stipends according to their unworthy worth. The fourth gate is to the river, called the Dersane,7 leading into a faire court extending alongst the river, in which the King lookes forth every morning at sun-rising, [S. 184] which hee salutes, and then his nobles resort to their tessillam.8 Right under the place where he lookes out is a kind of scaffold whereon his nobles stand, but the addees with others awayt below in the court. Here also every noone he looketh forth to behold Tamashan [see p. 176] or fighting of elephants, lyons, buffles, killing of deare with leopards ; which is a custome on every day of the weeke, Sunday excepted, on which is no fighting ; but Tuesday on the contrary is a day of blood, both of fighting beasts and justiced men, the King judging and seeing execution.

1 Probably 'Ava' is intended.

2 This is an exaggeration. The circuit of the walls is about a mile and a half.

3 Battlemented ; from 'regal', a groove or slot.

4 'It is said that they were two brothers, Resboots, tutors to a prince their nephew, whom the King demaunded of them. They refused and were committed, but drew on the officers, slew twelve, and at last by multitudes oppressing were slain ; and here have elephants of stone and themselves figured' (marginal note). It is uncertain whether this note is by Finch or by Purchas, but the former seems more likely. The figures stood on raised platforms on either side of the gate, but both men and animals have long since disappeared, though the pedestals  of the elephants are still to be seen.

5 Darwāza (gate). This is now known as the Amar Singh Gate.

6 Probably a misreading of chauk, meaning 'square'.

7 Darshani (see p. 151). Mr. Havell, in his Handbook to Agra (p. 45) says that this was near the old disused Watergate.

8 Explained in the. margin as 'a gesture of humiliation'. It is the taslīm, or salute made by touching the ground with the back of the right hand and then rising and bringing the palm up to the crown of the head.

To returne to the thirde gate : within it you enter into a spacious court with atescanna's round about, like shops or open stalls, wherein his captaines according to their degrees keep their seventh day chockees [watch : chauki]. A little further you enter within a rayle into a more inward court, within which none but the Kings addees and men of sort are admitted, under paine of swacking by the porters cudgells, which lay on load without respect of persons. Being entred, you approach the Kings derbar or seat, before which is also a small court inclosed with railes, covered over head with rich semianes to keepe away the sunne ; where aloft in a gallery the King sits in his chaire of state, accompanied with his children and Chiefe Vizier (who goeth up by a short ladder forth of the court), no other without calling daring to goe up to him, save onely two punkaw's to gather wind ; and right before him below on a scaffold is a third, who with a horse taile makes havocke of poore flies. On the right hand of the King, on the wall behind him, is the picture of our Saviour ; on the left, of the Virgin. Within these railes none under the degree of foure hundred horse are permitted to enter. On the further side of this court of presence are hanged golden bels, that if any be oppressed and can get no justice by the Kings officers, by ringing these bels when the King sits, he is called, and the matter discussed before the King. But let them be sure their cause be good, least he be punished for presumption to trouble the King. Here every day, betweene three and foure a clocke, [S. 185] the King comes forth (and many thousands resort to doe their duties, each taking place according to his degree) ; where hee remaines hearing of matters, receiving of newes by letters read by his Vizier, graunting of suites, etc., till shutting in of the evening, the drumme meanewhile beating, and instruments playing from a high gallery on the next building opposite ; his elephants and horses passing by in brave fashion, doing their tessillam and being perused by officers to see if they prosper. In the castle are two high turrets, over-laid with pure massie gold, which may be seen from farre, one over his mohol, the other over his treasury. After his going in from the derbar in the evening, some two houres after he comes out againe, sitting forth in a small more inward court behind the other, close to his moholl, into which none but the grandes, and they also with tickets to be renewed with every moone, are permitted to enter ; where he drinkes by number and measure, sometimes one and thirtie, and running over, mixing also among severe judicatures. From this court is his privy passage into a curious garden, and to his barge, by which he often passeth the river to an other garden opposite. It is remarkeable that, both in court and here in these gardens, no courtiers or gardeners are tied to attendance, but by their seventh dayes turne.

Some adde1 that the citie hath no walls, but a ditch round about, not broad, and dry also ; adjoyning to the ditch without the citie are very large suburbs. The city and suburbs are one way seven mile in length, three in breadth. The noble mens houses and merchants built with bricke and stone, flat roofed ; the common sort, of mudde walls, covered with thatch, which cause often and terrible fires. The citie hath sixe gates. The adjoyning river Gemini being broader then the Thames at London, on which are many boats, some of one hundred tunnes, but these cannot returne against the streame. Most of the noble mens houses are by the rivers side. From Agra to Lahor [S. 186] sixe hundred miles.2 The way is set on both sides with mulbery-trees.

1 'A written booke entititled A Discourse of Agra mid the foure principall waies to it ; I know not by what author, except it be Nic. Uphlet' (marginal note). This must be Purchas's note, not Finch's ; and consequently the paragraph to which it refers must have been interpolated by the former. Uphet's work does not seem to have been published.

2 An overstatement. The distance is about 440 miles by road.

King Acabars sepulchre is 3 c. distant from Agra in the way to Lahor ; nothing neere finished as yet, after tenne yeares worke.1 It is placed in the midst of a faire and large garden inclosed with bricke walls, neere two miles in circuit ; is to have foure gates (but one of which is yet in hand), each, if answerable to this foundation, able to receive a great prince with a reasonable traine. Alongst the way side is a spacious moholl for his fathers women (as is said) to remayne and end their dayes in deploring their deceassed lord, each enjoying the lands they before had in the Kings time, by the pay or rents of five thousand horse the principall ; so that this should be to them a perpetuall nunnery, never to marry againe. In the center of this garden stands the tombe foure square, about three quarters of a mile in compasse. The first inclosure is with a curious rayle, to which you ascend some sixe steps into a small square garden quartered in curious tankes, planted with variety of sweets ; adjoyning to which is the tombe, rounded with this gardenet, being also foure square, all of hewne stone, with faire spacious galleries on each side, having at each corner a small beautifull turret, arched over head and covered with various marble. Betwixt corner and corner are foure other turrets at like distance. Here, within a faire round coffin of gold, lieth the body of this monarch, who sometimes thought the world too little for him. This tombe is much worshipped both by the Moores and Gentiles, holding him for a great saint. Some tenne or twelve foot higher you ascend by staires to another gallery (like, but narrower, to the former, as are also the rest that follow), containing onely three of those turrets between corner and corner. Here in the midst is his wardrobe for a memoriall. The third story hath but two of those middle turrets on a side ; the fourth one ; the fifth hath only the corner turret and a small square gallery. The tombe2 was not finished at my departure, but lay in manner of a coffin, [S. 187] covered with a white sheet interwrought with gold flowers. By his head stands his sword and target [shield], and on a small pillow his turbant, and thereby two or three faire gilded bookes. At his feet stand his shooes, and a rich bason and ewre. Every one approaching neere makes his reverence and puts off his shooes, bringing in his hand some sweete smelling flowers to bestrew the carpets or to adorne the tombe.

1 Hawkins (p. 120) says fourteen ; but there is some doubt whether it was really begun before Akbar's death in 1605.

2 By this Finch seems to mean the cenotaph on the top story.

At my last sight thereof, there was onely over head a rich tent, with a semiane over the tombe. But it is to be inarched over with the most curious white and speckled marble and to be seeled all within with pure sheet-gold richly inwrought.1 These foure last turrets, also inclosing the sepulchre, are of most rich curious marble and the ground underfoot paved with the like. There are in continuall worke about this and other buildings about it, the moholl and gate, not so few as three thousand. The stone is brought from a rich quarrey neere Fetipore, which (wee have said) may be cut in length and forme as timber with sawes, and plankes and seelings are made thereof.

1 This plan was never carried out ; but Fergusson notes that there are traces in the structure of such an intention.