Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858. -- 15. Frühe europäische Quellen und Quellen aus der Zeit der East India Companies. --12. Zum Beispiel: Edward Terry, 1616 - 1619. -- Fassung vom 2008-06-10. -- http://www.payer.de/quellenkunde/quellen1512.htm
Erstmals publiziert als:
Early travels in India 1583 - 1619 / ed. by William Foster [1863 - 1951]. -- London [u.a.] : Milford, Oxford university press, 1921. -- xiv, 351 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 288 - 290, 295 - 332. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/earlytravelsinin00fostuoft. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-19. -- "Not in copyright."
Erstmals hier publiziert: 2008-06-10
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung FS 2008
©opyright: Public domain.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
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Abb.: Thomas Roe's Reisen in Indien
[Bildquelle: Roe, Thomas <1581?-1644>: The embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to India, 1615-19, as narrated in his Journal and correspondence / edited by William Foster [1863 - 1951]. -- New and rev. ed. -- London, Oxford University Press, 1926. -- lxxix, 532 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- Nach S. 66]
"1616-19. EDWARD TERRY
Terry's account of India, which, to adopt the quaint language of his editor Purchas, is here offered as 'a good fare-well draught of English-Indian liquor', was the outcome chiefly of his own observations during the two and a half years which he spent in that country as chaplain to Sir Thomas Roe. It owes something to Coryat, who, as we have seen, was the reverend gentleman's companion for a considerable period : something also to the gossip of other members of the ambassador's suite or of the merchants at Surat ; but in the main it is a record of what the author himself had observed. It bears traces of a vigorous and penetrating mind, stimulated by a strong interest in its strange surroundings—an interest further evidenced by the fact that, although he had no intention of staying in the country, Terry took the pains to acquire some knowledge of the Persian language.
The opportunity of seeing the East at close quarters came to our author almost as a matter of chance. Born in 1590, and educated at Rochester School and Christ Church, Oxford, in the spring of 1616 he accepted an engagement for a voyage to the Indies and back as one of the chaplains in the fleet commanded by Captain Benjamin Joseph. On the way out a Portuguese carrack was overtaken and destroyed, after a smart encounter in which the English commander was slain ; and Swally Road was safely reached on September 25, after a voyage of nearly eight months. Roe's chaplain had died a month earlier, and he had written to the Surat factors to provide him with another. As Terry was well commended and was willing to remain in India, he was engaged for the post. He joined the ambassador near Ujjain towards the end of February 1617, and accompanied him to Mandu, where the Emperor fixed his court until October of that year, when he removed to Ahmadabad. Roe and his suite followed him thither and spent about nine months in attendance upon him in that city. Then, in September 1618, the ambassador took his leave and proceeded to Surat to enjoy a few months' rest before embarking for England on February 17, 1619. Thus Terry had only himself seen parts of Malwa and Gujarat—a fact to be borne in mind when reading his generalizations about India. [S. 289]
The Anne, in which the ambassador and his suite returned, anchored in the Downs about the middle of September 1619. The next we hear of Terry is on October 22, when he appeared before the Court of Committees of the East India Company to beg to be released from paying freight on a quantity of calicoes he had brought home. His action was, in fact, a breach of the regulations, since the trade in piece-goods was reserved to the Company ; but on hearing Roe's commendations of Terry's 'sober, honest, and civill life' in India, the Committees 'were contented to pas over this fault' and to excuse him from any payment of freight. Further, on learning that he had spent about £14 on books, most of which he had given to the factors in India, they ordered that this sum should be made good to him.
The reverend gentleman now went back for a while to his Oxford college. Probably it was there that he wrote the results of his observations in India, as now reprinted. This document in 1622 he presented in manuscript to the Prince of Wales, afterwards King Charles I. How it came into the possession of the Rev. Samuel Purchas, who published it three years later in his Pilgrimes (part ii, book ix, chap. 6), is not known ; but it is not unlikely that the Prince himself (to whom, by the way, the first volume of the Pilgrimes is dedicated) had made it over to that editor. That Terry himself was not consulted is suggested by the fact that, in the preface to his own edition of 1655, he makes no allusion to the previous appearance of the work in Purchas's volumes ; and it may be that he was further aggrieved by the pruning (slight as it was) to which the editor had subjected his manuscript, on the plea that part of its contents had been anticipated in the narratives of Roe and others.
However this may be, Terry did not trouble about the matter, but settled down contentedly to his pastoral duties as Rector of Great Greenford, near London, a living which he held from 1629 till his death. There his ministrations appear to have afforded general satisfaction, to judge from the account given of him by Anthony a Wood in his Athenae Oxonienses, as 'an ingenious and polite man, of a pious and exemplary conversation, a good preacher, and much respected by the neighbourhood'. Only once, so far as we know, did the East India Company take any notice of their former chaplain. This was in 1649, when they paid him the compliment of asking him to preach before them on the occasion of the almost simultaneous return of no less than seven of their ships from the East Indies. The sermon was duly delivered at the Church of St. Andrew Undershaft in Leadenhall Street, on September 6, and was afterwards printed under the title of The Merchants and Mariners Preservation and Thanksgiving ; [S. 290] while the occasion was further celebrated by a dinner at a tavern in Bishopsgate Street, to which the preacher was doubtless invited.
Six years later Terry's account of his experiences reappeared in separate form as a dumpy volume of 571 pages, under the title of A Voyage to East-India. In the preface he tells us that the initiative in the matter had been taken by a printer, who had somehow acquired his original manuscript and had persuaded him to revise it. Terry certainly made the most of his opportunity, for, not content with amplifying his previous statements and adding fresh details (in some of which his memory evidently betrayed him), on all possible pegs he hung long moral and religious disquisitions, in the avowed hope that 'they who fly from a sermon and will not touch sound and wholesom and excellent treatises in divinity, may happily (if God so please) be taken before they are aware, and overcome by some divine truths that lie scattered up and down in mania places of this narrative'. With such zest did the reverend gentleman moralize that he expanded his work to seven or eight times the length of its original form as given by Purchas and made it exceedingly wearisome to readers who have no taste for seventeenth-century divinity. It is largely on this account, but partly also because the earlier text contains some interesting details which were struck out in the revised version, that we have here preferred to reprint the narrative as we find it in Purchas's collection. At the same time we have given in notes many extracts from the 1655 edition, where these correct or amplify in any important respect the author's earlier statements. The rather lengthy account of the voyage out, which appears in both versions, is here omitted, as having no bearing on Terry's experiences in India itself.
Despite its didactic prosiness, the work in its separate form attained a considerable degree of popularity, as was shown by its republication ten years later (slightly condensed and without the author's name) in a folio volume containing also Havers's translation of the letters of Della Valle ; while long afterwards (1777) a reprint of the 1655 edition was issued. Terry himself lived on quietly at Great Greenford, just long enough to witness the restoration of the monarchy—an event he celebrated by the publication of A Character of King Charles II—and then died in October 1660. Under the portrait prefixed to his Voyage he had written :
In Europe, Africk, Asia have I gonne ;
One journey more, and then my travel's donne.
And now he had set out on that long last journey."
[Quelle: Early travels in India 1583 - 1619 / ed. by William Foster [1863 - 1951]. -- London [u.a.] : Milford, Oxford university press, 1921. -- xiv, 351 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 288 - 290. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/earlytravelsinin00fostuoft. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-19. -- "Not in copyright."]
[S. 295] Now, to give an exact account of all those forenamed [S. 296] provinces were more then I am able to undertake ; yet out of that I have observed in some few I will adventure to ghesse at all ; and thinke for my particular that the Great Mogol, considering his territories, his wealth, and his rich commodities, is the greatest knowne king of the East, if not of the world. To make my owne conjecture more apparent to others. This wide monarchic is very rich and fertile ; so much abounding in all necessaries for the use of man as that it is able to subsist and flourish of it selfe, without the least helpe from any neighbour. To speake first of that which nature requires most, foode. This land abounds in singular good wheate, rice, barley, and divers other kindes of graine to make bread (the staffe of life). Their wheate growes like ours, but the graine of it is somewhat bigger and more white ; of which the inhabitants make such pure well-relished bread that I may speake that of it which one said of the bread in the Bishoprick of Leige ; it is panis pane melior.1 The common people make their bread up in cakes, and bake it on small iron hearths, which they carry with them when as they journey, making use of them in their tents ; it should seeme an ancient custome, as may appeare by that president of Sarah, when shee entertayned the angels (Genes. 18). To their bread they have great abundance of other good provision, as butter and cheese, by reason of their great number of kine, sheepe, and goats. Besides they have a beast very large, having a smooth, thicke skinne without haire, called a buffelo, which gives good milke ; the flesh of them is like beefe, but not so wholsome. They have no want of venison of divers kinds, as red deare, fallow deare, elkes, and antelops ; but nowhere imparked. The whole kingdome is as it were a forrest, for a man can travell no way but he shall see them, and (except it bee within a small distance off the King) they are every mans game. To these they have great store of hares ; and, further to furnish out their feasts, varietie of fish and fowle. It were as infinite as needlesse to relate particulars : to write of their geese, duckes, pigeons, partridges, quailes, peacockes, and many other singular good fowle, all which are bought at such easie rates as that I have scene a good mutton [i.e. a sheep] sold for the [S. 297] value of one shilling, foure couple of hennes at the same price, one hare for the value of a penie, three partridges for as little, and so in proportion all the rest. There are no capons amongst them but men. The beeves [oxen] of that countrey differ from ours, in that they have each of them a great bunch of grisselly flesh which growes upon the meeting of their shoulders. Their sheepe exceed ours in great bob-tayles, which cut off are very ponderous. Their wooll is generally very course ; but the flesh of them both is altogether as good as ours.
1 A super-bread, in the jargon of the present day.
Now, to season this good provision, there is great store of salt ; and to sweeten all, abundance of sugar growing in the countrey, which, after it is well refined, may be bought for two pence the pound or under. Their fruits are very answerable to the rest ; the countrey full of musk-melons, water-melons, pomegranats, pome-citrons,1 limons, oranges, dates, figs, grapes, plantans (a long round yellow fruit, in taste like to a Norwich peare), mangoes (in shape and colour like to our apricocks, but more luscious), and, to conclude with the best of all, the ananas or pine,2 which seemes to the taster to be a pleasing compound made of strawberries, claret-wine, rosewater, and sugar, well tempered together. In the northermost parts of this empire they have varietie of apples and peares ; every where good roots, as carrets, potatoes,3 and others like them as pleasant. They have onions and garlicke, and choyce herbs for salads ; and in the southermost parts, ginger growing almost in every place. And here I cannot choose but take notice of a pleasant cleere liquor called Taddy [toddy], issuing from a spongie tree that growes straight and tall, without boughs to the top, and there spreads out in branches (somewhat [S. 298] what like to an English colewort), where they make incisions, under which they hang small earthen pots to preserve the influence.4 That which distills forth in the night is as pleasing to the taste as any white wine, if drunke betimes in the morning ; but in the heat of the day the sunne alters it so as that it becomes heady, ill relished, and unwholsome. It is a piercing medicinable drinke, if taken early and moderately, as some have found by happie experience, thereby eased from their torture inflicted by that shame of physicians and tyrant of all maladies, the stone.
1 The lime, or possibly the pomelo. In his later edition Terry added to this list of fruits 'prunelloes' [i. e. dried plums], almonds, coco-nuts, and myrobalans.
2 The pine-apple (ananas), which had been introduced into India from America by the Portuguese.
3 In the 1655 edition Terry mentions (p. 210) 'potatoes excellently well dressed' as having been served at a banquet given by Āsaf Khān to Sir Thomas Roe in Nov. 1617. According to Sir George Watt (Commercial Products of India, p. 1028), this is the first mention of the ordinary potato in connexion with India. It is, however, possible that Terry was referring to the sweet potato, which was common in India at that time and was well known in England under the name of 'potato '.
4 i. e. that which flows in.
At Surat, and to Agra and beyond, it never raines but one season of the yeere, which begins neere the time that the sunne comes to the Northerne Tropicke, and so continues till his returne backe to the Line. These violent raines are ushered in, and take their leave, with most fearefull tempests of thunder and lightning, more terrible then I can expresse, yet seldome doe harme. The reason in Nature may be the subtiltie of the aire, wherein there are fewer thunderstones made then in such climates where the aire is grosse and cloudy. In those three moneths it raines every day more or lesse, sometimes one whole quarter of the moone scarce with any intermission ; which aboundance of raine, with the heat of the sunne, doth so enrich the ground (which they never force) as that, like Egypt by the inundation of Nilus, it makes it fruitfull all the yeere after. But when this time of raine is passed over, the skie is so cleere as that scarcely one cloud is scene in their hemisphere the nine moneths after. And here the goodnesse of the soyle must not escape my pen ; most apparent in this, for when the ground hath beene destitute of raine nine moneths, and lookes like to barren sands, within seven dayes after the raine begins to fall it puts on a greene coate. And further to confirme this, amongst many hundred acres of corne I have beheld in those parts, I never saw any but came up as thicke as the land could well beare it. They till their ground with oxen and footploughs. Their seed-time is in May and the beginning of June ; their harvest in November and December, the most temperate moneths in all their yeere. Their ground is not enclosed, unlesse it be neere townes and villages, which (though not [S. 299] expressed in the map, for want of their true names) stand very thicke. They mowe not their grasse (as we) to make hay, but cut it either greene or withered on the ground as they have occasion to use it. They sowe tobacco in abundance ; but know not how to cure and make it strong, as those in the Westerne India [i.e. the West Indies].
The countrey is beautified with many woods and great varietie of faire goodly trees ; but I never saw any there of those kinds which England affoords. Their trees in generall are sappie, which I ascribe to the fatnesse of the soyle. Some of them have leaves as broad as bucklers ; others are parted small as feme, as the tamarine trees, which beare a sowre fruit that growes somewhat like our beanes, most wholesome for to coole and cleanse the bloud. There is one tree amongst t#them of speciall observation, out of whose branches grow little sprigs downeward till they take root, and so at length prove strong supporters unto the armes that yeeld them ; whence it comes to passe that these trees in time grow unto a great height and extend themselves to an incredible bredth.1 All the trees in those southerne parts of India still keepe on their greene mantles. For their flowres, they rather delight the eye then affect the sense ; in colour admirable, but few of them, unlesse roses and one or two kinds more, that are any whit fragrant.
1 Needless to say, this is the Banyan or Indian Fig-tree.
This region is watered with many goodly rivers. The two principall are Indus and Ganges. Where this thing remarkable must not passe : that one pinte of the water of Ganges weigheth lesse by an once then any in the whole kingdome1 ; and therefore the Mogol, wheresoever hee is, hath it brought to him that he may drinke it.2 Besides their rivers, they have store of wells, fed with springs, upon which in many places they bestow great cost in stone-worke. To these they have many ponds, which [S. 300] they call tankes ; some of them more then a mile or two in compasse, made round or square, girt about with faire stonewalls, within which are steps of well-squared stone which encompasse the water, for men every way to goe downe and take it. These tankes are filled when that abundance of raine falls, and keepe water to relieve the inhabitants that dwell farre from springs or rivers, till that wet season come againe. This ancient drinke of the world is the common drinke of India. It is more sweet and pleasant then ours, and in those hot countries agreeth better with mens bodies then any other liquor. Some small quantitie of wine (but not common) is made among them. They call it Raack [arrack], distilled from sugar and a spicie rinde of a tree, called Jagra.3 It is very wholsome, if taken moderately. Many of the people who are strict in their religion drinke no wine at all. They use a liquor more healthfull then pleasant, they call Cohha [coffee : Arabic kahwa] : a blacke seed boyled in water, which doth little alter the taste of the water. Notwithstanding, it is very good to helpe digestion, to quicken the spirits, and to dense the blond. There is yet another helpe to comfort the stomacke for such as forbeare wine, an herbe called Beetle or Paune [see p. 143]. It is in shape somewhat like an ivie leafe, but more tender. They chew it with an hard nut some-what like a nut-megge, and a little pure white lime among the leaves ; and when they have sucked out the juyce, put forth the rest. It hath many rare qualities ; for it preserves the teeth, comforts the braine, strengthens the stomacke, and cures or prevents a tainted breath.
1 Ovington (Voyage to Suratt, 1689) says that 'a quart of it is lighter by much than any other water' (p. 209).
2 The 1655 edition adds : 'The water is brought to the King in fine copper jars, excellently well tin'd on the inside, and sealed up when they are delivered to the water-bearers for the King's use ; two of which jarsevery one carries, hanging upon slings fitted for the porter's shoulders .'
3 Jagra is a coarse sugar made from the sap (not the rind) of various palms (see p. 13).
Their buildings are generally base, except it be in their cities, wherein I have observed many faire piles. Many of their houses are built high and flat on the toppe, from whence in the coole seasons of the day they take in fresh ayre. They have no chimnies to their houses, for they never use fire but to dresse their meate. In their upper roomes they have many lights and doores to let in the ayre, but use no glasse. The materials of their best buildings are bricke or stone, well squared and composed ; which I have observed in Amadavar [S. 301] (that one instance may stand for all), which is a most spacious and rich citie, entred by twelve faire gates, and compassed about with a firme stone wall. Both in their villages and cities are usually many faire trees among their houses, which are a great defence against the violence of the sunne. They commonly stand so thicke that, if a man behold a citie or towne from some conspicuous place, it will seeme a wood rather then a citie.
The staple commodities of this kingdome are indico1 and cotton-wooll. For cotton-wooll they plant seedes which grow up into shrubs like unto our rose-bushes. It blowes first into a yellow blossome, which falling off, there remaynes a cod about the bignesse of a mans thumbe, in which the substance is moyst and yellow, but, as it ripens, it swels bigger till it breake the covering, and so in short time becomes white as snow, and then they gather it. These shrubs beare three or foure yeares ere they supplant them. Of this wooll they make divers sorts of pure white cloth, some of which I have scene as fine, if not purer then, our best lawne. Some of the courser sort of it they dye into colours, or else stayne in it varietie of curious figures.
1 Purchas omitted Terry's account of indigo culture, referring the reader instead to Finch's narrative (see p. 153). The omitted portion will be found in the 1655 edition (p. 113), but it scarcely merits quotation here.
The ship that usually goeth from Surat to Moha [Mokha] is of exceeding great burthen. Some of them, I beleeve, at the least fourteene or sixteene hundred tunnes ; but ill built, and, though they have good ordnance, cannot well defend themselves. In these ships are yeerely abundance of passengers ; for instance, in one ship returning thence, that yeere we left India, came seventeene hundred, the most of which number goe not for profit but out of devotion to visite the sepulchre of Mahomet at Medina, neere Meche, about one hundred and fiftie leagues from Moha. Those which have beene there are ever after called Hoggeis [Hāji], or holy men. The ship bound from Surat to the Red Sea beginnes her voyage about the twentieth of March, and finisheth it towards the end of September following. The voyage is but short and might [S. 302] easily bee made in two moneths ; but in the long season of raine, and a little before and after it, the winds are commonly so violent that there is no comming, but with great hazard, into the Indian Sea. The ship returning is usually worth two hundred thousand pounds sterling, most of it in gold and silver. Besides, for what quantitie of monies comes out of Europe by other meanes into India, I cannot answere ; this I am sure of, that many silver streames runne thither, as all rivers to the sea, and there stay, it being lawfull for any nation to bring in silver and fetch commodities, but a crime not lesse then capitall to carry any great summe thence. The coyne or bullion brought thither is presently melted and refined, and then the Mogols stampe (which is his name and title in Persian letters) put upon it. This coyne is more pure then any I know, made of perfect silver without any allay ; so that in the Spanish riall (the purest money of Europe) there is some losse. They call their pieces of money roopees, of which there are some of divers values ; the meanest worth two shillings,1 and the best about two sliillings and nine pence sterling. By these they account their estates and payments. There is a coyne of inferiour value in Guzarat called mamoodies [see p. 77], about twelve pence sterling. Both the former and these are made likewise in halfes and quarters ;2 so that three pence is the least piece of silver currant in the countrey.3 That which passeth up and downe for exchange under this rate is brasse4 money, which they call pices ; whereof three or thereabouts countervaile a peny. They are made so massie as that the brasse in them, put to other uses, is well worth the silver they are rated at. Their silver coyne is made either round or square, but so thicke that it never breakes nor weares out.5
1 This is amended in the 1655 edition to 2s. 3d.
2 'Some few in quarters' ( 1655 edition).
3 'And very few of them to be seen' (ibid.).
4 'Or copper' (ibid.).
5 'They have pure gold coyn likewise, some pieces of great value ; but these are not very ordinarily seen amongst them' (1655 edition).
Now, farther for commodities, the countrey yeelds good store of silke, which they weave curiously, sometimes mingled with silver or gold. They make velvets, sattins, and taffataes ; but not so rich as those of Italy. Many drugs and gummes are [S. 303] found amongst them, especially gum-lac, with which they make their hard wax. The earth yeelds good minerals of lead, iron, copper, and brasse, and they say of silver ; which, if true, they neede not open, being so enriched by other nations. The spices they have come from other places, from the ilands of Sumatra, Java, and the Moluccoes. For places of pleasure they have curious gardens, planted with fruitfull trees and delightfull flowers, to which Nature daily lends such a supply as that they seeme never to fade. In these places they have pleasant fountaynes to bathe in and other delights by sundrie conveyances of water, whose silent murmure helps to lay their senses with the bonds of sleepe in the hot seasons of the day.
But lest this remote countrey should seeme like an earthly Paradise without any discommodities, I must needes take notice there of many lions, tygres, wolves, jackals (which seeme to be wild dogs), and many other harmefull beasts. In their rivers are many crocodiles, and on the land over-growne snakes, with other venimous and pernicious creatures. In our houses there we often meete with scorpions, whose stinging is most sensible and deadly, if the patient have not presently some oyle that is made of them, to anoint the part affected ; which is a present cure. The aboundance of flyes in those parts doe likewise much annoy us ; for in the heate of the day their numberlesse number is such as that we can be quiet in no place for them. They are ready to cover our meate assoone as it is placed on the table ; and therefore wee have men that stand on purpose with napkins to fright them away when as wee are eating. In the night likewise we are much disquieted with musquatoes, like our gnats, but somewhat lesse.1 And in their great cities there are such aboundance of bigge hungrie rats that they often bite a man as he lyeth on his bed.
1 The 1655 edition adds that 'chinches' (i. e. bugs) were a further nuisance.
The windes in those parts, which they call the Monson, blow constantly, altering but few points ; sixe moneths southerly, the other sixe northerly. The moneths of Aprill and May, and the beginning of June till the rayne fall, are so extreme hot as that the winde, blowing but gently, receives such heate from the parched ground that it much offends those that receive [S. 304] the breath of it. But God doth so provide for those parts that most commonly he sends such a strong gale as well tempers the hot ayre. Sometimes the winde blowes very high in those hot and drie seasons, raysing up thick clouds of dust and sand, which appeare like darke clouds full of rayne. They greatly annoy the people when they fall amongst them. But there is no countrey without some discommodities ; for therefore the wise Disposer of all things hath tempered bitter things with sweet, to teach man that there is no true and perfect content to be found in any kingdom but that of God.
But I will returne againe whence I disgressed, and looke farther into the qualitie of the countrey ; that affords very good horses, which the inhabitants know well to manage. Besides their owne, they have many of the Persian, Tartarian, and Arabian breede, which have the name to be the choise ones of the world. They are about the bignesse of ours, and valued among them as deare, if not at a higher rate then we usually esteeme ours. They are kept daintily, every good horse being allowed a man to dresse and feede him ; their provender a kind of graine, called Donna [Dhana, grain], somewhat like our pease, which they boyle, and when it is cold, give them mingled with course sugar ; and twise or thrise in the weeke butter to scoure their bodies. Here are likewise a great number of camels, dromedaries, mules, asses, and some rhynocerots, which are large beasts as bigge as the fayrest oxen England affords ; their skins lye platted, or as it were in wrinkles upon their backs. They have many elephants ; the King for his owne particular being master of fourteene thousand, and his nobles and all men of qualitie in the countrey have more or lesse of them, some to the number of one hundred. The elephants, though they bee the largest of all creatures the earth brings forth, yet are so tractable (unlesse at times when they are mad) that a little boy is able to rule the biggest of them. Some of them I have scene thirteene foot high ; but there are amongst them (as I have beene often told) fifteene at the least. The colour of them all is black ; their skins thick and smooth without haire. They take much delight to bathe themselves in water, and swim better then any beast I know. They lye downe and arise againe at pleasure, as other [S. 305] beasts doe. Their pace is not swift, about three mile an houre ; but of all beasts in the world are most sure of foot, for they never fall nor stumble to endanger their rider. They are most docile creatures and, of all those we account meerely sensible, come neerest unto reason. Lipsius1 in his Epistles (1 Cent, Epist. 50) out of his observations from others writes more of them then I can confirme, or any (I perswade my selfe) beleeve ; yet many things remarkable, which seeme indeed acts of reason rather then sence, I have observed in them. For instance, an elephant will doe any thing almost that his keeper commands him ; as, if he would have him affright a man, he will make towards him as if hee would tread him in pieces, and when he is come at him, doe him no hurt ; if he would have him to abuse or disgrace a man, he will take dirt or kennell water in his trunke and dash it in his face. Their trunks are long grisselly snouts hanging downe twixt their teeth, by some called their hand, which they make use of upon all occasions.
1 Justus Lipsius (Joest Lips), the Dutch humanist, 1547-1606.
An English merchant of good credit upon his owne knowledge reported this of a great elephant in Adsmeere (the place then of the Mogols residence), who being brought often through the bazar or market place, a woman who sate there to sell herbs was wont usually to give him a handfull as he passed by. This elephant afterward, being mad, brake his fetters and tooke his way through the market place. The people, all affrighted, made haste to secure themselves ; amongst whom was this herbe-woman, who (for feare and haste) forgat her little child. The elephant, come to the place where shee usually sate, stopt, and, seeing a child lie about her herbs, tooke it up gently with his trunke, not doing it the least harme, and layed it upon a stall under a house not farre off ; and then proceeded in his furious course. Acosta (a travelling Jesuite) relates the like of an elephant in Goa, from his owne experience.1 Some elephants the King keeps for execution of malefactors ; who being brought to suffer death by that mightie beast, if his keeper bid him dispatch the offender speedily, will presently with his foot pash him into pieces ; if otherwise he would [S. 306] have him tortured, this vast creature will breake his joynts by degrees one after the other, as men are broken upon the wheele.
1 See Christoval Acosta's Tractado de las Drogas y Medecinas de las Indias Orientales (Burgos, 1578), p. 417.
The Mogol takes much delight in those stately creatures, and therefore oft when hee sits forth in his majestie calls for them, especially the fairest ; who are taught to bend to him as it were in reverence, when they first come into his presence. They often fight before him, beginning their combat like rams, by running fiercely one at the other ; after, as boares with their tusks, they fight with their teeth and trunks. In this violent opposition they are each so carefull to preserve his rider, as that very few of them at those times receive hurt. They are governed with an hook of steele, made like the iron end of a boat-hook, with which their keepers, sitting on their neckes, put them back or pricke them forward at their pleasure. The King traines up many of his elephants for the warre ; who carrie each of them one iron gunne about sixe foot long, lying upon a square strong frame of wood, fastned with girts or ropes upon him, which like an harquebuse is let into the timber with a loop of iron. At the foure corners of this frame are banners of silke, put upon short poles ; within sits a gunner to make his shot according to his occasion. The peece carrieth a bullet about the bignesse of a little tennis-ball. When the King travels, he hath many elephants thus appointed for guard. Hee keeps many of them for state to goe before him, who are adorned with bosses of brasse, and some of them are made of massie silver or gold, having likewise divers bells about them, in which they delight. They have faire coverings, either of cloth or velvet or cloth of silver or gold ; and for greater state, banners of silke carried before them, in which is the ensigne of their great king (a lion in the sunne)1 imprinted. These are allowed each three or foure men at the least, to waite upon them. Hee makes use of others to carrie himselfe or his women, who sit in pretie convenient receptacles fastned on their backes (which our painters describe like to castles), made of slight turn'd pillars, richly covered, that will hold foure sitters. Others he employes for carriage of his necessaries. [S. 307] Onely he hath one faire elephant, which is content to be fettered, but would never indure man or other burthen on his backe.
1 See The Embassy of Sir Thotnas Roe, vol. ii, p. 563,
These vast beasts, though the countrey be very fruitfull and all provision cheape, yet by reason of their huge bulke are very chargeable in keeping ; for such as are well fed stand their masters in foure or five shillings each of them the day. They are kept without doores, where by a sollid chaine upon one of their hind legges they fasten them to a tree or some strong post. As they stand in the sunne, the flyes often vex them ; wherefore with their feete they make dust, the ground being very dry, and with their truncks cast it about their bodies to drive away the flyes. Whenas they are mad (as usually the males are once a yeare for their females, when they are lustie, but in few dayes after come againe in temper), they are so mischievous that they will strike any thing (but their keeper) that comes in their way ; and their strength is such as that they will beate an horse or camell dead with their truncke at one blow. At these times, to prevent mischiefe, they are kept apart from company, fettered with chaines. But if by chance in their phrensie they get loose, they will make after every thing they see stirre ; in which case there is no meanes to stop them in their violent course but by lighting of wild-fire, prepared for that purpose, whose sparkling and cracking makes them stand still and tremble. The King allowes every one of his great elephants foure females, which in their language they call wives. The males testicles lye about his fore-head ; the females teates are betwixt her fore-legges. Shee carrieth her young one whole yeare ere she bring it forth. Thirtie yeares expire ere they come to their full growth, and they fulfill the accustomed age of man ere they dye. Notwithstanding the great plentie of them, they are valued there at exceeding great rates ; some of them prized at one thousand pounds sterling and more.
Now, for the inhabitants of Indostan, they were anciently Gentiles, or notorious idolaters, called in generall Hindoos ; But ever since they were subdued by Tamberlaine, have beene mixed with Mahometans. There are besides many Persians and Tartars, many Abissines and Armenians, and some few [S. 308] almost of every people in Asia,1 if not of Europe, that have residence here. Amongst them are some Jewes, but not beloved, for their very name is a proverbe or word of reproch. For the stature of these Easterne Indians, they are like us, but generally very streight, for I never beheld any in those parts crooked. They are of a tawnie or olive colour ; their haire blacke as a raven, but not curl'd. They love not a man or woman that is very white or faire, because that (as they say) is the colour of lepers (common amongst them). Most of the Mahometans, but the Moolaes (which are their priests) or those that are very old and retyred, keepe their chinnes bare, but suffer the haire on their upper lip to grow as long as nature will feed it.2 They usually shave off all the haire from their heads, reserving onely a locke on the crowne for Mahomet to pull them into Heaven. Both among the Mahometans and Gentiles are excellent barbers. The people often wash their bodies, and anoint themselves with sweet oyles.
1 In the later edition Terry avers that he saw some Chinese and Japanese in India.
2 The 1655 edition says that the hair is kept black 'by combing it continually with black lead combes '.
The habits both of the men and women are little different, made for the most part of white cotton-cloth. For the fashion, they are close, streight to the middle, hanging loose downward below the knee. They weare long breeches underneath, made close to their bodies, that reach to their ankles, ruffling like boots on the smal of their legs. Their feet are bare in their shooes, which most commonly they weare like slippers, that they may the more readily put them off when they come into their houses, whose floores are covered with excellent carpets (made in that kingdom, good as any in Turkie or Persia) or somwhat else (according to the qualitie of the man) more base, upon which they sit, when as they conferre or eate, like taylors on their shop-boards. The mens heads are covered with a long thinne wreathe of cloth, white or coloured, which goes many times about them ; they call it a shash. They uncover not their heads when as they doe reverence to their superiours, but in stead of that bow their bodies, putting their right hands to the top of their heads, after that they have touched the earth [S. 309] with them ; as much as to say, the partie they salute shall, if he please, tread upon them. Those that bee equals take one the other by the chinne or beard, as Joab did Amasa (2 Sam, 20) ; but salute in love, not treacherie. They have good words to expresse their wel-wishes, as this : Greeb-a Nemoas ; that is : I wish the prayers of the poore ;1 and many other like these most significant.
1 The phrase is really a form of address : gharīb-nawāz, 'considerate to the poor '. Sir Charles Lyall points out that Terry has confused nawāz with namāz (prayers).
The Mahometan women, except they bee dishonest or poore, come not abroad. They are very well favoured, though not faire ; their heads covered with veiles. Their haire hangs down behind them twisted with silke. Those of qualitie are bedecked with many jewels about their neckes and wrists. Round about their eares are holes made for pendants ; and every woman hath one of her nostrils pierced, that there, when as shee please, shee may weare a ring. It should seeme an ancient ornament (Es[aiah] 3. 21). The women in those parts have a great happinesse above all I know, in their easie bringing forth of children ; for it is a thing common there, for women great with childe one day to ride, carrying their infants in their bodies, the next day to ride againe, carrying them in their armes.
For the language of this empire, I meane the vulgar, it is called Indostan ; a smooth tongue, and easie to be pronounced, which they write as wee to the right hand.1 The learned tongues are Persian and Arabian, which they write backward, as the Hebrewes, to the left. There is little learning among them ; a reason whereof may be their penury of bookes, which are but few, and they manuscripts. But doubtlesse they are men of strong capacities, and, were there literature among them, would be the authors of many excellent workes. They have heard of Aristotle (whom they call Aplis 2), and have some [S. 310] of his bookes translated into Arabian. Avicenna, that noble physician, was borne in Samarcandia, the countrey of Tamerlaine ; in whose science they have good skill. The common diseases of the countrey are bloudie fluxes, hot fevers and calentures ; in all which they prescribe fasting as a principall remedie. That filthy disease, the consequence of incontinencie, is common amongst them. The people in generall live about our ages ; but they have more old men. They delight much in musicke, and have many stringed and wind instruments, which never seemed in my eare to bee any thing but discord. They write many wittie poems, and compose stories or annals of their owne countrey ; and professe themselves to have good skill in astrologie. And in men of that profession the King puts so much confidence that hee will not undertake a journey, nor yet doe any thing of the least consequence, unlesse his wizards tell him tis a good and prosperous houre.
1 'It is expressed by letters which are very much different from those alphabets by which the Persian and Arabian tongues are formed' (1655 edition, p. 232). Terry is referring to either Hindi or Gujarati, written in the nāgari characters.
2 Possibly Terry had heard him referred to as ul failsūf, i. e. the philosopher.
The Gentiles beginne their yeare the first of March. The Mahometans theirs at the very instant (as the astrologers ghesse) that the sunne enters into Aries ; from which time the King keepes a feast that is called the Nooros,1 signifying nine dayes, which time it continues (like that Ahasuerus made in the third yeare of his raigne : Ester the first) ; where all his nobles assemble in their greatest pompe, presenting him with gifts, hee repaying them againe with princely rewards ; at which time being in his presence, I beheld most immense and incredible riches to my amazement in gold, pearles, precious stones, jewels, and many other glittering vanities. This feast I tooke notice of at Mandoa [Māndu], where the Mogol hath a most spacious house, larger then any I have scene ; in which many excellent arches and vaults speake for the exquisite skill of his subjects in architecture. At Agra hee hath a palace wherein two large towers, the least ten foot square, are covered with plate of the purest gold.2
1 See p. 117. Terry's explanation of the term is of course wrong. He has confused nau (new) with nuh (nine).
2 In the 1655 edition Terry adds : 'this I had from Tom Coriat, as from other English merchants who keep in a factory at that place '.
There are no hangings on the walls of his houses, by reason [S. 311] of the heate ; the wals are either painted or else beautified with a purer white lime then that we call Spanish. The floores, paved with stone or else made with lime and sand, like our playster of Paris, are spred with rich carpets. There lodge none in the Kings house but his women and eunuches, and some little boyes which hee keepes about him for a wicked use. Hee alwayes eates in private among his women upon great varietie of excellent dishes, which dressed and prooved by the taster are served in vessels of gold (as they say), covered and sealed up, and so by eunuchs brought to the King. He hath meate ready at all houres, and calls for it at pleasure. They feede not freely on full dishes of beefe and mutton (as we), but much on rice boyled with pieces of flesh or dressed many other wayes. They have not many roast or baked meats, but stew most of their flesh. Among many dishes of this kinde He take notice but of one they call Deu Pario,1 made of venison cut in slices, to which they put onions and herbs, some rootes, with a little spice and butter : the most savorie meate I ever tasted, and doe almost thinke it that very dish which Jacob made ready for his father, when he got the blessing.
1 This seems to be meant for dopyāj or dupiyāzah, for which see the Āīn, vol. i, p. 60.
In this kingdome there are no innes to entertaine strangers. Onely in great townes and cities are faire houses built for their receit (which they call Sarray), not inhabited ; where any passengers may have roome freely, but must bring with him his bedding, his cooke, and other necessaries wherein to dresse his meate ; which are usually carried on camels, or else in carts drawne with oxen, wherein they have tents to pitch when they meete with no Sarras. The inferior sort of people ride on oxen, horses, mules, camels, or dromedaries (the women like the men) ; or else in slight coaches with two wheeles, covered on the top and backe, but the fore-part and sides open, unlesse they carrie women. They will conveniently hold two persons, beside the driver. They are drawne by oxen, one yoake in a coach, suted for colour, but many of them are white, not very large. They are guided with cords, which goe through the parting of their nostrils and so twixt their homes into the coach-mens hand. They dresse and keepe them clothed as [S. 312] their horses. They are naturally nimble ; to which use makes them so fitting to performe that labour, as that they will goe twentie miles a day or more with good speed. The better sort ride on elephants, or else are carried upon mens shoulders alone, in a slight thing they call a palankee [palanquin], which is like a couch or standing pallat, but covered with a cannopie. This should seeme an ancient effeminacie sometimes used in Rome, Juvenal1 thus describing a fat lawyer that fil'd one of them : Causidici nova cum veniat lectica Mathonis plena ipso.
1 'In his first Satire ', adds the 1655 edition ; where the following translation is given :
'Matho the pleader comes in his new chaire,
Fild with himself, when he takes the air.'
For pastimes they delight in hawking, hunting of hares, deere, or wilde beasts. Their dogs for chase are made somewhat like our gray-hounds, but much lesse ; they open not in the pursuite of the game. They hunt likewise with leopards, which by leaping sease on that they pursue. They have a cunning device to take wild-fowle ; where a fellow goes into the water with a fowle of that kind he desires to catch, whose skinne is stuffed so artificially as that it appeares alive. He keepes all his body but the face under water, on which he layes this counterfeit ; thus comming among them, plucks them by the legs under water.1 They shoote for pastime much in bowes, which are made curiously in the countrey of buffeloes hornes, glewed together ; to which they have arrowes made of little canes, excellently headed and feathered. In these they are so skilfull that they will kill birds flying. Others take delight in managing their horses on which they ride, or else are otherwise carried, though they have not one quarter of a mile to goe ; the men of qualitie holding it dishonorable to goe on foote.
1 This practice is described in the Āīn (vol. i, p. 295) ; also by Ovington (Voyage, to Suratt, p. 274).
In their houses they play much at that most ingenious game we call chesse, or else at tables.1 They have cardes, but quite different from ours. Sometimes they make themselves merry [S. 313] with cunning jugglers or mountebankes, who will suffer snakes they keepe in baskets to bite them, and presently cure the swelling with powders ; or else they see the trickes of apes and monkeyes.
1 The old English name for backgammon. The Indian equivalent here referred to, viz. the game of chaupar, is described in the Āīn (vol. i, p. 303). An account of Indian cards will be found at p. 300 of the same volume.
In the southerne parts of Indostan are great store of large white apes ; some, I dare boldly say, as tall as our biggest gray-hounds. They are fearefull (as it should seeme) to birds that make their nests in trees ; wherefore nature hath taught them this subtiltie, to secure themselves by building their little houses on the twigs of the utmost boughs, there hanging like purse-nets, to which the apes cannot possibly come.1
1 He is describing the nest of the weaver bird.
Every great towne or citie of India hath markets twice a day : in the coole season presently after the sunne is risen, and a little before his setting. They sell almost every thing by weight. In the heate of the day they keepe their houses ; where the men of better fashion, lying on couches or sitting on their carpets, have servants stand about them who, beating the ayre with broade fannes of stiffe leather or the like, make winde to coole them. And taking thus their ease, they often call their barbers, who tenderly gripe and smite their armes and other parts of their bodies, instead of exercise, to stirre the bloud. It is a pleasing wantonnesse, and much used in those hot climes.
I must needes commend the Mahumetans and Gentiles for their good and faithfull service ; amongst whom a stranger may travell alone, with a great charge of money or goods, quite through the countrey and take them for his guard, yet never bee neglected or injured by them. They follow their masters on foote, carrying swords and bucklers or bowes and arrowes for their defence ; and by reason of great plentie of provision in that kingdome, a man may hire them upon easie conditions, for they will not desire above five shillings the moone, paide the next day after the change (Quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est ; et panis fumusque domi 1), to provide themselves all necessaries, and for it doe most diligent service. Such [S. 314] is their pietie to their parents that those which have no greater meanes will impart halfe of it at the least to releeve their necessities, choosing rather for to famish themselves then to see them want.
1 Another quotation from Juvenal's Satires. The 1655 edition translates the passage thus :
' Their coat, their shooes, their bread, their fire,
And all besides, bought with this hire.'
There are, both among the Mahumetans and Gentiles, men of undaunted courage. Those of note among the Mahumetans are called Baloches,1 inhabiting Hajacan, adjoyning to the kingdome of Persia ; or else Patans, taking their denomination from a province in the kingdome of Bengala.2 These will looke an enemie boldly in the face and maintaine with their lives their reputation of valour. Among the many sects of Gentiles there is but one race of fighters, called Rashbootes, a number of which live by spoyle ; who in troopes surprize poore passengers, cruelly butchering those they get under their power. Those excepted, all the rest in the countrey are in generall pusilanimous, and had rather quarrell then fight ; having such poore spirits in respect of us Christians that the Mogol is pleased often to use this proverbe : that one Portugal will beate three of them, and one English-man three Portugals.
1 The Balūchis were scattered all over Northern and Western India, owing to the general use of their camels for the transportation of goods.
2 This is, of course, a mistake.
Touching their munition for the warre, they have good ordnance, made (for ought I could gather) very anciently in those parts. Iron peeces carried upon elephants (before described), and lesser gunnes made for foot-men, who are somewhat long in taking their ayme, but come as neere the marke as any I ever saw. They fire all their peeces with match. As for gun-powder, they make very good. They use lances and swords and targets [shields], bowes and arrowes. Their swords are made crooked like a faulchion, very sharpe, but for want of skill in those that temper them, will breake rather then bend ; and therefore wee often sell our swordblades at high prices that will bow and become streight againe. I have seene horse-men there, who have carried whole armories about them, thus appointed : at their sides good swords ; under them sheves of arrowes ; on their shoulders bucklers, and upon their backs guns fastned with belts ; at the left side bowes hanging in cases, and lances about two yards and a halfe [S. 315] long (having excellent steele heads), which they carrie in their hands. Yet for all this harnesse, the most of them dare not resist a man of courage, though he have for his defence but the worst of those weapons. The armies in those easterne warres oftentimes consist of incredible multitudes ; they talke of some which have exceeded that mightie host which Zerah, King of Ethiopia, brought against Asa (2 Chron, 14). The musicke they have when they goe to battell is from kittle-drums and long winde instruments. The armies on both sides usually beginne with most furious onsets ; but in short time, for want of good discipline, one side is routed and the controversie, not without much slaughter, decided.
The Mahometans have faire churches, which they call Mesquits, built of stone. The broade side towards the west is made up close, like a wall ; that towards the east is erected on pillars ; so that the length of them is north and south, which way they burie their dead. At the corners of their great churches which stand in cities are high pinacles, to whose tops the Moolaas ascend certain times of the day and proclaime their prophet Mahomet thus in Arabian : La Alla illa Alla, Mahomet Resul-Alla ;1 that is : No God but one God, and Mahomet the ambassadour of God. This in stead of bells (which they endure not in their temples) put the most religious in minde of their devotion. Which words Master Coryat often hearing in Agra, upon a certaine time got up into a turret, over against the priest, and contradicted him thus in a loude voyce :"la Alla, illa Alia, Hazaret-Eesa Ebn-Alla :2 No God but one God, and Christ the Sonne of God ; and further added that Mahomet was an impostor ; which bold attempt in many other places of Asia, where Mahomet is more zealously professed, had forfetted his life with as much torture as tyrannie could invent. But here every man hath libertie to professe his owne religion freely and, for any restriction I ever observed, to dispute against theirs with impunitie.
1 The proper form is : Lā ilāha illa-l-lāh, Muhammadur-Rasūlullāh.
2 Ḥazarat Īsā Ibn Allāh.
Now concerning their burials. Every Mahometan of qualitie in his life time provides a faire sepulcher for himselfe and [S. 316] kindred, encompassing with a firme wall a good circuit of ground, neere some tanke (about which they delight for to burie their dead) or else in a place nigh springs of water that may make pleasant fountaynes ; neere which hee erects a tombe, round or square, vaulted upon pillars, or else made close, to be entred with doores ; under which are the bodies of the dead interred. The rest of the ground they plant with trees and flowers, as if they would make Elysian fields such as the poets dreamed of, wherein their soules might take their repose. They burie not within their churches. There are many goodly monuments of this kinde, richly adorned, built to the memorie of such as they have esteemed saints, of which they have a large kalender. In these are lamps continually burning, whither men transported with blinde devotion daily resort, there to contemplate the happines these Pieres [see p. 180] (for so they call them) enjoy. But among many faire piles there dedicated to this use, the most excellent is at Secandra, a village three miles from Agra. It was beganne by Achabar-sha [Akbar-shāh], this Kings father, who there lyes buried, and finished by this present King, who meanes to lye beside him.
Their Moolaas imploy much of their time like scriveners, to doe businesse for others. They have libertie to marrie as well as the people, from whom they are not distinguished in habite. Some live retyred, that spend their dayes in meditation or else in giving good morall precepts unto others. These are of high esteeme ; and so are another sort called Seayds [see p. 171], who derive themselves from Mahomet. The priests doe neither reade nor preach in their churches ;1 but there is a set forme of prayer in the Arabian tongue, not understood by most of the common people, yet repeated by them as well as by the Moolaas. They likewise rehearse the names of God and Mahomet certayne times every day upon beads, like the misse-led Papist, who seemes to regard the number rather [S. 317]
1 In the 1655 edition this statement is corrected to one that the mullahs 'read some parcells out of their Alcoran upon Frydays (which are their Sabboths or days of rest) unto the people assembled in their mosquit or churches, and then further deliver some precepts, which they gather out of it, unto their miserably deluded hearers '.
then the weight of prayers. Before they goe into their churches they wash their feete, and entring in put off their shooes. As they beginne their devotions, they stop their eares and fixe their eyes, that nothing may divert their thoughts. Then in a soft and still voyce they utter their prayers ; wherein are many words most significantly expressing the omnipotencie, greatnesse, eternitie, and other attributes of God ; many words full of humiliation, confessing with divers submissive gestures their owne unworthinesse ; when they pray, casting themselves low upon their faces sundrie times, and then acknowledge that they are burthens to the earth and poison to the aire, and the like, and therefore dare not so much as looke up to heaven, but at last comfort themselves in the mercies of God through the mediation of Mahomet. And many amongst them (to the shame of us Christians), what impediment soever they have, either by pleasure or profit, pray five times every day, at six, nine, twelve, three, and six of the clock. But, by the way, they distinguish their time in a different manner from us, dividing the day into foure and the night into as many parts, which they call Pores [pahar]. These are againe subdivided each into eight parts, which they call Grees [ghari], measured according to the ancient custome by water dropping out of one little vessell into another, by which there alwayes stand servants appointed for that purpose,1 smiting with an hammer a concave piece of pure metall, like the inner part of an ordinarie platter, hanging by the brim on a wyre, the number of Grees and Pores as they passe.
1 'To turn that vessell up again when it is all dropped out, and then to strike ', &c. (1655 edition).
For the temperance of many, both among the Mahometans and Gentiles, it is such as that they will rather die (like the mother and her seven sonnes : 2 Mac[cabees] 7) then eate or drinke any thing their law forbids. Such meate and drinke as their law allowes they use onely to satisfie nature, not appetite ; hating gluttonie, and esteeming drunkennesse (as indeed it is) a second madnesse, and therefore have but one word in their language (mest) for a drunkard and a mad-man.1 They keepe a solemne Lent, which they call the Ram-Jan, [S. 318] about the moneth of August,2 which continues one whole moone : during which time those that bee strict in their religion forbeare their women, and will take neither meate nor drinke so long as the sunne is above their horizon ; but after he is set, eate at pleasure. Towards the end of this Lent they consecrate a day of mourning to the memorie of their dead friends ; when I have beheld divers of the meaner sort make bitter lamentation. (Beside this common sadnesse, there are many foolish women who often in the yeere, so long as they survive, moysten the graves of their husbands or children with affectionate teares.) But when the night begins to cover the day of generall mourning, they fire an innumerable companie of lamps and lights, which they set on the sides and tops of their houses and all other most conspicuous places ; and when these are extinguished, take foode. The Ram-Jan fully ended, the most devout Mahometans assemble to some famous misquit, where by a Moola some part of the Alcoran (which they will not touch without reverence) is publikely read. They keepe a feast in November, called Buccaree [Bakarah-īd], signifying the Ram-feast, when they solemnely kill a ram, and roast him in memorie of that ram which redeemed Ishmael (as they say) when Abraham was readie to make him a sacrifice. Many other feasts they have in memorie of Mahomet and their Pieres.
1 This is an overstatement, though mast has a wide connotation.
2 Terry was misled by the fact that both in 1617 and in 1618 the beginning of Ramazān fell within the month of August. The 1655 edition substitutes : 'which begins the first new moon which happens in September' ; but this is also wrong. As the Muhammadan year is lunar, any given month in time moves round the calendar of the solar year.
They have the bookes of Moses, whom they call Moosa Carym-Alla : Moses the righteous of God. Ibrahim Calim-Alla : Abraham the faithfull of God.1 So Ishmael, the true sacrifice of God ; Dahoode [Dāūd], David the prophet of God; Selimon [Sulaimān], Salomon the wisedome of God; all expressed, as the former, in short Arabian words. To whose particular remembrances they daily sing ditties. And moreover, [S. 319] there is not a man amongst them (but those of the ruder sort) that at any time mentions the name of our blessed Saviour, called there Hazaret-Eesa, the Lord Christ, without reverence and respect, saying that He was a good man and a just, lived without sinne, did greater miracles then ever any before or since Him. Nay farther, they call Him Rhahow-Alla [Rāhullāh], the breath of God ; but how He should be the Sonne of God cannot conceive, and therefore will not beleeve. Notwithstanding this, the Mahometans in generall thinke us Christians so uncleane they will not eate with us, nor yet of any thing is dressed in our vessels.
1 These epithets should be : Mūsa Kalīmūllāh, Moses, the man who conversed with God : Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh, Abraham, the friend of God.
Among the Mahometans are many called Dervises, which relinquish the world and spend their dayes in solitude, expecting a recompence in a better life ; whose sharpe and strict penances they voluntarily undertake farre exceede all those the Romanists boast of. For instance, there are some that live alone upon the tops of hills remote from companie, there passing their time in contemplation; and will rather famish then move from these retyred cells ; wherefore the people that dwell neerest to them, out of devotion, releeve them. Some againe impose long times of fasting upon themselves, til nature be almost quite decayed. There are many other among them they call religious men, who weare nothing about them but to hide their shame ; and these, like the Mendicant Friars, begge for all they eate. Usually they live in the suburbs of great cities or townes, and are like the man our blessed Saviour mentions, about the citie of the Gadarens, which had devils and ware no clothes, neither abode in any house but in the tombes. They make little fires in the day, sleeping at night in the warme ashes, with which they besmeare their bodies. These ashmen suffer not the rasor at any time to come upon their heads, and some of them let their nayles grow like birds clawes, as it is written of Nabuchadnezzar, when hee was driven out from the societie of men. And there are a sort among them, called Mendee,1 who, like the priests of Baal, [S. 320] often cut their flesh with knives and launcers. Others I have scene who out of devotion put such massie fetters of iron upon their legs as that they can scarce stirre with them ; and so,2 as fast as they are able, goe many miles in pilgrimage barefoote upon the parching ground, to visit the sepulchres of their deluding saints ; thus taking more paines to goe to hell (tantum relligio potuit suadere malorum3) then any Christian I know doth to goe to heaven. These marry not. Such as doe, Mahomet allowes foure wives. Besides they take libertie to keepe as many women as they are able. Only the priests content themselves with one. Notwithstanding this polygamie, the hot jealousies of the lustfull Mahometans are such that they will scarce endure the brothers or fathers of their beloved wives or women to have speech with them, except in their presence ; and Time, by this restraint, hath made it odious for such women as have the reputation of honestie to be scene at any time by strangers. But if they dishonour their husbands beds or, being unmarried, are found incontinent, professing chastitie, rather then they shall want punishment, their owne brothers will bee their executioners ; who for such unnaturall acts shall be commended rather then questioned. Yet there is toleration for impudent harlots, who are as little ashamed to entertayne as others openly to frequent their houses. The women of better fashion have eunuchs in stead of men to wait upon them ; who in their minoritie are deprived of all that may provoke jealousie.
1 Sir Charles Lyall suggests that this term may represent Mahdawi, a sect of Shiah devotees in Gujarat. In India Mahdi is popularly pronounced Menhdi. During the Muharram such devotees often gash their bodies.
2 The 1655 edition adds (p. 283) : 'covered with blew mantles'.
3 A well-known quotation from Lucretius. The 1655 edition gives the whole passage.
Their marriages are solemnized in great pompe. For after the Moola hath joyned their hands, with some other ceremonie and words of benediction, the first watch of the night they begin their jollitie ; the man on horse-backe, be he poore or riche, with his friends about him, many cresset lightly1 before him, with drums and wind instruments and other pastimes. The woman followes with her friends in coaches, covered ; and after they have thus passed the most eminent places of the citie or towne they live in, returne home and there part with a banquet, the men and women separated. They marry for [S. 321] the most part at the ages of twelve or thirteene, their mothers most commonly making the matches.
1 Lights ?
Now more particularly of the Gentiles, which are there distracted in fourscore and foure severall sects, all differing mainly in opinion ; which had oftentimes fild me with wonder, but that I know Satan (the father of division) to be the seducer of them all. Their illiterate priests are called Bramins ; who, for ought I could ever gather, are so sottish and inconstant in their grounds that they scarce know what they hold. They have little churches which they call Pagodes, built round, in which are images for worship made in monstrous shapes. Some of them dreame of Elysian fields, to which their soules must passe over a Styx or Acharon, and there take new bodies. Others hold that ere long the world shall have a period ; after which they shall live here againe on a new earth. Some Bramins have told me how that they acknowledge one God, whom they describe with a thousand hands, with a thousand feete, and as many eyes, thereby expressing his power. They talke of foure books, which about six thousand yeeres since were sent them from God by their prophet Ram ; whereof two were sealed up and might not be opened ; the other to be read onely by themselves.1 They say that there are seven orbes, above which is the seate of God : that God knowes not petie things, or, if He doe, regards them not. They circumscribe God unto place, saying that He may be seene, but as in a mist [S. 322] afarre off, not neere. They beleeve that there are devils, but so bound in chaines that they cannot hurt them. They call a man Adam [Hind, ādmi], from our first father Adam, whose wife, tempted with the forbidden fruit, tooke it (as they say) and eate it downe ; but as her husband swallowed it, the hand of God stopped it in his throat ; whence man hath a bunch there, which women have not, called by them Adams apple. As anciently among the Jewes, their priesthood is hereditarie ; for every Bramins sonne is a priest, and marries a Bramins daughter. And so among all the Gentiles the men take the daughters of those to bee their wives which are of their fathers tribe, sect, and occupation ; for instance, a merchants sonne marries a merchants daughter. And every mans sonne that lives by his labour marries the daughter of him that is of his owne profession ; by which meanes they never advance themselves. These Gentiles take but one wife ; of which they are not so fearefull as the Mahometans of their multitude, for they suffer them to goe abroad. They are married yong, at six or seven yeeres old (their parents making the contracts), and about twelve come together. Their nuptials, as those of the Mahometans, are performed with much pompe and jollitie.
1 The version in the 1655 edition (p. 349) is as follows : 'Those Bramins talk of two books, which, not long after the Creation, when the world began to be peopled, they say were delivered by Almighty God to Bramon . . . one of which books (they say), containing very high and secret and mysterious things, was sealed up and might not be opened ; the other to be read, but onely by the Bramins or priests. And this book thus to be read came after, as they further say, into the hands of Bremaw . . . and by him it was communicated unto Ram and Permissar, two other fam'd prophets amongst them, which those heathen do likewise exceedingly magnifie, as they do some others whose names I have not. Now that book, which they call the Shester, or the book of their written word, hath been transcribed in all ages ever since by the Bramins, out of which they deliver precepts unto the people.' In this 'Bramon' is Brahma, the primeval spirit : ' Bremaw ', the god Brahmā : 'Ram', Rāma : 'Permissar', Parameshvara (i. e. Shiva) : and 'Shester' the Shāstra.
For their habit, it differs little from the Mahometans ; but many of the women weare rings upon their toes, and therefore goe barefoote. They have likewise broad rings of brasse (or better metall according to the qualitie of the woman) about the small of the legges to take off and on ; haply such as the Prophet meant by the tinkling ornaments about the feete, or the ornaments of the legs, which the Jewish women were wont to put on (Esay 3). And such as these they have about their armes. The flaps or nether part of their eares are boared when they are yong, which hole, daily stretched and made wider by things kept in it for that purpose, at last becomes so large that it will hold a ring (I dare boldly say) as large as a little sawcer, made hollow on the sides for the flesh to rest in. Both men and women wash their bodies every day before they eate ; which done, they keepe off their clothes (but the covering of modestie) till they have fed. This outward washing appertaines, as they thinke, to their clensing from sinne ; not unlike [S. 323] the Pharisies, who would not eate with unwashen hands (Mar. 7). Hence they ascribe a certaine divinitie to rivers, but above all to Ganges ; daily flocking thither in troopes, and there throw in pieces of gold or silver, according to their devotion and abilitie ; after which they wash their bodies.1 Both men and women paint on their fore-heads or other parts of their faces red or yellow spots.
1 'And the nearer they can come to the head of that river, the more virtue they believe is in the water' (1655 edition, p. 348).
Now farther for their grosse opinions, they beleeve not the resurrection of flesh ; and therefore burne the bodies of their dead neere some river (if they may with conveniencie), wherein they sowe the ashes. Their widowes marrie not ; but, after the losse of their husbands, cut their haire and spend all their life following as neglected creatures ; whence, to bee free from shame, many yong women are ambitious to die with honor (as they esteeme it), when their fiery love brings them to the flames (as they thinke) of martyrdome most willingly ; following their dead husbands unto the fire, and there imbracing are burnt with them ; but this they doe voluntary, not compelled. The parents and friends of those women will most joyfully accompanie them, and when the wood is fitted for this hellish sacrifice and begins to burne, all the people assembled shoute and make a noyse, that the screeches of this tortured creature may not bee heard. Not much unlike the custome of the Ammonites, who, when they made their children passe through the firee to Moloch, caused certaine tabret or drums to sound, that their cry might not be heard ; whence the place was called Tophet, a tabret (2 Kings, 23. 10). There is one sect among the Gentiles which neither burne nor interre their dead. They are called Parcees ; who incircle pieces of ground with high stone walls, remote from houses or roade-wayes, and therein lay their carkasses wrapped in sheetes ; thus having no other tombes but the gorges of ravenous fowles.1
1 In the 1655 edition this account of the Parsees is much enlarged from the Rev. Henry Lord's Display of Two Forraigne Sects in the East Indies, 1630
The Gentiles for the most part are very industrious. They till the ground or else spend their time otherwaies diligently [S. 324] in their vocations. There are amongst them most curious artificers, who arc the best apes for imitation in the world ; for I hey will make any new thing by patterne. The Mahometans are generally idle ; who are all for to morrow (a word common in their mouthes). They live upon the labours of the Gentiles. Some of which poore seduced infidels will eate of nothing that hath life ; and these live upon herbs and milke and butter and cheese and sweet-meates, of which they make divers kindes, whereof the most wholsome is greene ginger, as well preserved there as in any part of the world. Others will eate fish, and no living thing else. The Rashbootes eate swines-flesh, most hatefull to the Mahometans. Some will eate of one kinde of flesh, some of another ; but all the Gentiles abstaine from beefe, out of the excellent esteeme they have of kine ; and therefore give the King yeerly (beside his other exactions) great summes of money as a ransome for those creatures ; whence among other good provision we meete there but with little beefe. Those most tender hearted idolaters are called Banians ; who hold Pithagoras his μετεμπσυχωσις as a prime article of their faith. They thinke that the soules of the best men and women, when their bodies let them out of prison, take their repose in kine, which in their opinion are the best of all creatures. So the soules of the wicked goe into viler beasts ; as the soules of gluttons and drunkards into swine ; the soules of the voluptuous and incontinent into monkies and apes ; the soules of the furious, cruell, and revengefull into lyons, tygers, and wolves ; the soules of the envious into serpents ; and so into other creatures according to their qualitie and disposition, successively from one to aνother of the same kinde, ad infinitum ; by consequence βeleeving the immortalitie of the world. So that there is not a silly flie but, if they may bee credited, carries about some soules (haply they thinke of light women)1 ; and will not be perswaded out of these grosse opinions, so incorrigible are their sottish errours ; and therefore will not deprive the most offensive creatures of their life (not snakes, that will kill them), [S. 325] saying it is their nature to doe harme : how that they have reason to shunne, not libertie to destroy them.
1 The 1655 edition adds that 'probably they further believe that the souls of froward, peevish, and teachy [i. e. touchy] women go into waspes '.
For their workes of charitie many rich men build Sarraas, or make wells or tankes neere to high-wayes that are much travelled, where passengers may drinke ; or else allow pensions unto poore men, that they may sit by the high-way sides and offer water unto those that passe.
Their day of rest is Thursday ; as the Mahometans Friday. Many festivals they have which they keepe solemne ; and pilgrimages, whereof the most famous are specified in the briefe descriptions of Negracut and Cyba ; where people out of devotion cut off part of their tongues, which (if Master Coryat, who strictly observed it, may be beleeved) in a few daies became whole againe. It were easie to enlarge, but I will not cast away inke and paper in a farther description of their stupid idolatries. The summe is that both Mahometans and Gentiles ground their opinions upon tradition, not reason ; and are content to perish with their fore-fathers, out of a 'preposterous zeale and loving perversenesse, never ruminating on that they maintayne, like to uncleane beasts which chew not the cud.
Now both these Mahometans and Gentiles are under the subjection of the Great Mogoll, whose name signifieth a circumcised man,1 and therefore he is called the Great Mogoll, as much as to say : the Chiefe of the Circumcision. He is lineally descended by the father from that famous conquerour of the East, called in our stories Tamberlaine, in theirs Temar [Timur] ; who towards his end, by an unhappie fall from his horse, which made him halt to his grave, was called Temar-lang, or Temar the Lame. The present King is the ninth in a direct line from that his great ancestor. The Emperour stiles himselfe : the King of Justice, the Light of the Law of Mahomet, the Conquerour of the World.2 Himselfe moderates in all matters [S. 326] of consequence which happen neere his court, for the most part judging secundum allegata et probata. Tryals are quicke, and so are executions : hangings, beheading, impaling, killing with dogges, by elephants, serpents, and other like, according to the nature of the fact. The execution is commonly done in the market place. The governours in cities and provinces proceed in like forme of justice. I could never heare of law written amongst them ; the King and his substitutes will is law. His vice-gerents continue not long in a place, but, to prevent popularitie, receive usually a remoove yearely. They receive his letters with great respect. They looke for presents from all which have occasion to use them, and if they be not often visited will aske for them ; yea, send them backe for better exchange. The Cadee [Kāzi] will imprison debtors and sureties, bound with hand and scale ; and men of power for payment will sell their persons, wives, and children ; which the custome of the land will warrant.
1 The same statement is made by Salbank (Letters Received, vol. vi, p. 184), by Roe [Embassy, p. 312), and by Bluteau (Vocabulario, 1712- 21) ; but there is no ground for it.
2 The original of the first epithet can only be guessed at, though it may be a perversion of Ghufrān panāh ('the asylum of pardon'), which appears as one of the Emperor's titles on his tomb. The rest is Nūr-ud-dīn Muhammad Jahāngīr ; but in this 'Muhammad' is a personal name, and has no relation to the preceding word, as Terry supposed.
The King shewes himselfe thrice a day ; first, at sun-rising at a bay-window1 toward the east, many being there assembled to give him the salam, and crying Padsha salament [Pādshāh salāmat], that is : Live, O King. At noone he sees his elephants fight or other pastimes. A little before sun-set he shewes himselfe at a window to the west, and, the sunne being set, returneth in with drums and wind instruments, the peoples acclamations adding to the consort. At any of these three times, any sutor, holding up his petition to be scene, shall be heard. Betwixt seven and nine he sits privately, attended with his nobles.
1 'In a place very like unto one of our balconies, made in his houses or pavilions for his morning appearance directly opposite to the east, about seven or eight foot high from the ground' (1655 edition, p. 389).
No subject in this empire hath land of inheritance, nor have, other title but the Kings will ; which makes some of the grandes to live at the height of their meanes ; merchants also to conceale their riches, lest they should be made spunges. Some meane meanes the King allowes the children of those great ones ; which they exceed not, except they happily [S. 327] succeed in their fathers favours. His pensions are reckoned by horse, of which hee payeth a million in his empire, for every horse allowing five and twentie pound yearely,1 raised from lands thereunto designed. There are some twentie in his court which have pay of five thousand horse : others of foure thousand or three thousand : and so downward. Hee which hath pay of five thousand is bound to have two thousand2 at command, and so in like proportion others. This absolute dependance makes them dissolute parasites. When he giveth advancement, he addeth a new name (as Pharao did to Joseph), and those pithily significant ; as Mahobet Chan, the Beloved Lord ; Chan Jahaun, the Lord of my Heart3 ; Chan Allan,4 the Lord of the World ; etc. The chiefe officers of state are his Treasurer, the Master of his Eunuches (who is Steward and Comptroller of his House), his Secretarie, the Master of his Elephants, the Tent-master, and Keeper of his Wardrobe. These [There ?] are subordinate titles of honour, as Chan, Mirza, Umbra [see p. 147] or Captaine, Haddee [see p. 99], a souldier or horseman.5 Gorgeous apparell is prohibited by the sunnes heate ; the King himselfe being commonly vested with a garment, as before described, of pure white calico lawne. Blue may not be worne in his presence (the colour of mourners), nor the name of death sounded in his eares ; but such casually is mollified by tearmes to this purpose : Such an one hath made himselfe a sacrifice at Your Majesties feet. That heate of the countrey makes little sale for English cloth, most used there for coverings of elephants, horses, coaches. Yet may this king be thought to exceed any other [S. 328]
1 In the 1655 edition Terry reduces this sum to £18.
2 'One thousand or more' (1655 edition).
3 Mahābat Khān means ' the lord who inspires awe' ; while Khān Jahān is ' the lord of the world '. Sir Charles Lyall points out that Terry, whose smattering of Persian often misled him, has confused the one term with mahabbat (affection) and the other with jān (the soul).
4 Corrected in the 1655 edition to 'Chan-Allaam' (for whom see p. 99).
5 The later edition amplifies this paragraph into : 'All the Kings children are called Sultans or princes : his daughters Sultanaus or princesses. The next title is Nabob, equivalent to a duke ; the next Channa, a double lord, or earle ; the next Chan, a lord. So Meirsa signifies a knight that hath been a general or commander in the wars : Umbra, a captain : Haddee, a cavalier or souldier on horse-back.'
in glorious thrones and rich jewels. Hee hath a throne in his palace at Agra, ascended by degrees [steps], on the top whereof are foure lions made of massie silver, gilded, set with precious stones, supporting a canopie of massie gold.1 By the way I may mention a tame lion living in his court while I was there, going up and downe without hurt like a dogge. His jewels, wherewith hee is daily adorned about his head, necke, wrists, and hilts of his sword and dagger, are invaluable. He is on his birthday, the first of September, (now sixtie times renewed) yearely weighed, and account kept thereof by his physicians, thereby ghessing at his bodily estate.2
1 In the 1655 edition Terry says that he had this information from English merchants who had been at Agra. He adds that the lions stood on pedestals of curiously coloured marble.
2 See notes on pp. 118, 245, supra.
Part of two letters to His Majestic is here translated out of Persian ; sent by Sir Thomas Roe, but written one a yeare before the other.1
1 Both letters are given at full length in The Embassy (pp. 557, 559).
'When Your Majestic shall open this letter, let your royal! heart be as fresh as a sweet garden ; let all people make reverence at your gate ; let your throne be advanced higher amongst the greatnesse of the kings of the Prophet Jesus. Let Your Majestic be the greatest of all monarches, who may derive their counsell and wisedome from your brest as from a fountayne, that the law of the majestie of Jesus may revive and flourish under your protection. The letters of love and friendship which you sent me, and the presents (tokens of your good affection toward mee), I have received by the hands of your embassadour Sir Thomas Roe, who well deserveth to be your trusted servant ; delivered to me in an acceptable and happie houre. Upon which mine eyes were so fixed that I could not easily remoove them to any other object, and have accepted them with great joy,' etc.
The last letter hath this beginning :—
'How gracious is Your Majestic, whose greatnesse God preserve. As upon a rose in a garden, so are mine eyes fixed upon you. God maintayne your estate, that your monarchie may prosper and be augmented, and that you may obtayne [S. 329] all your desires, worthy the greatnesse of your renowme. And as your heart is noble and upright, so let God give you a glorious raigne, because you strongly defend the majestie of Jesus, which God yet made more flourishing, because it was confirmed by miracles,' etc.
That which followeth in both letters is to testifle his care and love toward the English. These letters being written, their copies were sent to the Lord Embassadour, and the originals, rolled up and covered with cloth of gold and sealed up at both ends ; which is the letter-fashion of those parts.
We travelled two yeares with the Great Mogoll in progresse, in the temperate moneths twixt October and April, there being no lesse then two hundred thousand men, women, and children in this leskar or campe (I amhereof confident), besides elephants, horses, and other beasts that eate corne ; all which notwithstanding, wee never felt want of any provision, no, not in our nineteene dayes travell from Mandoa to Amadavar, thorow a wildernesse, the road being cut for us in the mayne woods. The tents were of divers colours, and represented a spacious and specious citie. The Kings tents red, reared on poles very high, and placed in the midst of the campe, covering a large compasse, incircled with canats [kanāt, a screen] (made of red calico stiffened with canes at every breadth, standing upright about nine1 foot high), guarded round every night with souldiers. He remooved ten or twelve miles a day, more or lesse, according to the convenience of water. His wives and women of all sorts (which are one thousand at least, provided for in his tents) are carryed in palankas or upon elephants, or else in cradles hanging on the sides of dromedaries, covered close and attended by eunuches. In wiving, he respects fancie more then honour, not seeking affinitie with neighbour princes, but to please his eye at home. Noore-Mahal, the name of his best beloved, signifieth the Light of the Court. Shee hath much advanced her friends, before meane, and in manner commands the commander of that empire by engrossing his affections. The King and his great men maintayne their women, but little affect them after thirtie yeares of their age. [S. 330]
1 'Ten' in the 1655 edition.
This multitude of women notwithstanding, the Mogoll hath but sixe children : five sonnes and a daughter. All his sonnes are called Sultans or Princes : the eldest Sultan Cursero, the second Sultan Parveis, Sultan Caroon the third, Sultan Shahar the fourth. The last is Sultan Tauct, which word in the Persian signifieth a throne ; so named by the King, who the first houre of his quiet possessing the throne had newes of his birth, about nineteene yeares since.1 The first sonne, by any of his marryed wives, by prerogative of birth inherits ; the elder brother beeing there called the Great Brother.2 Although the younger be not put to death, as with the Turkes, yet it is observed that they survive not long their father, employed commonly in some dangerous expedition. Achabar-sha had threatned to disherit the present King, for abuse of Anar-kalee (that is Pomegranate Kernell), his most beloved wife [see p. 166] ; but on his death-bed repealed it. This Achabars death is thus reported. He was wont upon displeasure to give pils to his grandes to purge their soules from their bodies ; which intending against one, and having another cordiall pill for himselfe, whiles hee entertayned the other with faire flatteries, by a happie-unhappie mistake hee tooke the poyson himselfe ; which with a mortall fluxe of bloud in few dayes killed him.3 Neque enim lex justior ulla est quam necis artifices arte perire sua.4
1 Jahāndār (see note on p. 100) was born in 1605.
2 'Budda Bij, their great brother' (1655 edition). This phrase stands for buddha bhāi, 'old brother'.
3 This story of Akbar's death, though not accepted by modern historians, had evidently a wide currency in India at this time. It is to be found also in the Chronicle appended to De Laet's De Imperio Magni Mogolis, and in Peter Mundy's journal under date of 1632 (vol. ii, p. 103). In both of these the intended victim is identified as Mīrza Ghāzi, son of Mīrza Jāni Beg, ruler of Sind ; though the tradition among the Rājputs was that he was Rāja Mān Singh of Amber (see Tod's Rajasthan). Herbert (Some Yeares Travell, p. 72) has a somewhat different version ; and yet another is given by Manucci (vol. i, p. 150).
4 In the 1655 edition Terry translates the couplet thus :
'When some to kill most deadly engines frame,
Tis just that they themselves be caught i' th' same.'
It is from Ovid's Art of Love (i, 655).
This Kings disposition seemes composed of extreames : very [S. 331] cruell, and otherwhiles very milde ; often overcome with wine, but severely punishing that fault in others. His subjects know not to disobey ; Nature forgetting her private bonds twixt father and sonne to fulfill that publike. He daily relieves many poore, and will in pietie helpe to carrie sometimes his mother in a palanka on his shoulders. He speakes respectively of our Saviour, but is offended at His crosse and povertie ; thinking them incompetible to such majestie, though told that His humilitie was to subdue the worlds pride.
All religions are tolerated, and their priests in good esteeme. My selfe often received from the Mogoll himselfe the appellation of Father,1 with other many gracious words, with place amongst his best nobles. The Jesuites have not only admittance into his presence but incouragements from him by many gifts, with libertie of converting to them ; and to the subject, to be without losse of favour converted. He made tryall of one convert 2 with many threats to deterre him from his new profession ; and finding him undauntedly resolute, he assayed by flatteries and promises to regaine him ; but therein also failing, hee bade him continue, and with a reward discharged him ; having told him that if he could have frayed [i. e. frightened] or brought him from his religion, he would have made him an example for all waverers. The chiefe Jesuite was Franciscus Corsi,3 a Florentine by birth, living at the Mogolls court agent for the Portugals. I would I were able to conflrme the reports of their conversions. The truth is they have spilt the water of baptisme upon some faces, working on the necessities of poore men, who for want of meanes, which they give them, are content to weare crucifixes, but for want of instruction are only in name Christians. I observed that of the poore there, five have begged in the name of Marie for one in the name of Christ [cf. p. 276]. I also desired to put my hand to this holy worke, but found it difficult, both [S. 332]
1 Padre—a term which, introduced by the Jesuit missionaries, still does duty in India for a chaplain or minister of any Christian denomination.
2 'A gentleman of quality and a servant of the Gireat Mogul' (1655 edition). This tale was derived from Coryat (see p. 280, supra).
3 For an account of him see The Embassy, p. 314.
by Mahumetane libertie for women and the debauched lives of some Christian-unchristian men amongst them, per quorum latera patitur Evangelium.1 Hee which hath the Key of David, open their eyes, and in His good time send labourers into this vineyard. Amen.
1 'By whom the Gospell of Jesus Christ is scandalized and exceedingly suffers' is the translation given in the 1655 edition.
Zu: 13. Zum Beispiel: "Tom Raw, the Griffin", 1828