Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1829 (Rama III). -- Fassung vom 2015-06-30. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/thailandchronik/chronik1829.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2013-07-01
Überarbeitungen: 2015-06-30 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-05-09 [Teilung des Kapitels] ; 2015-05-08 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-04-22 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-16 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-04 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-15 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-04 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-10-27 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-09-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-08-20 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-08 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-02-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-01-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-20 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-05 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-05 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-10-11 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-28 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-17 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-02 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-14 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-11 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-07-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-07-10 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-07-08 [Ergänzungen]
©opyright: Dieser Text steht der
Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche
Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Herausgebers.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau
die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.
bei den Statistikdiagrammen!
Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:
Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.
Zwangsansiedlung von Laoten aus Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ) in Lopburi (ลพบุรี), Saraburi (สระบุรี), Nakhon Chaisi (Nakhon Pathom - นครปฐม) und Suphanburi (สุพรรณบุรี). Bis Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts werden ca. 50.000 Laoten in Zentralthailand zwangsangesiedelt.
Abb.: Lage von Lopburi (ลพบุรี), Saraburi (สระบุรี), Nakhon Chaisi (Nakhon pathom - นครปฐม) und Suphanburi (สุพรรณบุรี)
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Erfassung der Obstbaumpflanzungen zwecks Festsetzung der Steuer.
Hungersnot infolge Trockenheit in Süd-Siam und den südlichen Vasallenstaaten.
Die protestantischen Missionare Karl Gützlaff (1803 - 1851) und Joseph Tomlin (1793-1880) benehmen sich sehr aggressiv missionierend. Deshalb werden sie des Landes verwiesen, die Abschiebung wird aber nicht vollzogen. Statt dessen verbietet der König die Verbreitung christlicher Traktate. Die Missionare geben dem US-Kapitän Abel Coffin (1792 - 1837) ein Schreiben an die Protestanten der USA mit, Missionare nach Siam zu senden.
Der britische (schottische) Kaufmann Robert Hunter (gest. 1848) entdeckt die "siamesischen Zwillinge" Chang (昌; จัน) und Eng (恩; อิน) (1811 – 1874), nimmt sie auf dem Handelsschiff von Kapitän Abel Coffin (1792 - 1837) in die USA mit und geht mit ihnen als "Ausstellungsobjekte" auf Welttournee.
Abb.: Chang (昌; จัน) und Eng (恩; อิน), 1830
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
"Chang (Chinese: 昌; pinyin: Chāng, Thai: จัน Chan) and Eng (Chinese: 恩; pinyin: Ēn, Thai: อิน In) Bunker (May 11, 1811 – January 17, 1874) were the conjoined twin brothers whose condition and birthplace became the basis for the term "Siamese twins".
The Bunker brothers were born on May 11, 1811 in Siam (now Thailand), in the province of Samutsongkram (สมุทรสงคราม), to a fisherman and a mother (Nok or นาก [Nak] in Thai). Because of their Chinese heritage (as they were born from a Thai Chinese father and Chinese-Malay mother.), they were known as the "Chinese Twins" in Siam. They were joined at the sternum by a small piece of cartilage. Their livers were fused but independently complete. Although 19th century medicine did not have the means to do so, modern surgical techniques would have easily allowed them to be separated.
In 1829, they were "discovered" in Siam by British merchant Robert Hunter and exhibited as a curiosity during a world tour. Upon termination of their contract with their discoverer, they successfully went into business for themselves. In 1839, while visiting Wilkesboro, North Carolina, the twins were attracted to the area and settled on a 110-acre (0.45 km2) farm in nearby Traphill, becoming naturalized United States citizens.
Determined to start living a normal life as much as possible, the brothers settled on a plantation, bought slaves, and adopted the name "Bunker". On April 13, 1843, they married two sisters: Chang to Adelaide Yates and Eng to Sarah Anne Yates. This made their respective children double first cousins. In addition, because Chang and Eng were identical twins, their children were genetically equivalent to half-siblings, thus making them genetically related in the same manner as half-siblings who are also first cousins.
Their Traphill home is where they shared a bed built for four. Chang and his wife had 10 children; Eng and his wife had 11. In time, the wives squabbled and eventually two separate households were set up just west of Mount Airy, North Carolina in the community of White Plains – the twins would alternate spending three days at each home. During the American Civil War Chang's son Christopher and Eng's son Stephen both fought for the Confederacy. Chang and Eng lost part of their property as a result of the war, and were very bitter in their denunciation of the government in consequence.
After the war, they again resorted to public exhibitions, but were not very successful. They always maintained a high character for integrity and fair dealing, and were much esteemed by their neighbors. The twins died on the same day in January 1874. Chang, who had contracted pneumonia, died rather suddenly in his sleep. Eng awoke to find his brother dead, and called for his wife and children to attend to him. A doctor was summoned to perform an emergency separation, but Eng refused to be separated from his dead brother. He died three hours later. Chang's widow died on April 29, 1892 and Eng's widow died on May 21, 1917.Legacy
The fused liver of the Bunker brothers was preserved and is currently on display at the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Numerous artifacts of the twins, including some of their personal artifacts and their travel ledger, are displayed in the North Carolina Collection Gallery in Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This includes the original watercolor portrait of Chang and Eng from 1836.
The short story The Siamese Twins by Mark Twain was based on the Bunkers. In 1996, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a 90-minute radio play called United States about the lives and deaths of Chang and Eng Bunker. The writer was Tony Coult and the director was Andy Jordan. Transmission was on June 17, with a cast that included Bert Kwouk and Ozzie Yue as the twins. A Singapore musical based on the life of the twins, Chang & Eng, was directed by Ekachai Uekrongtham and written by Ming Wong, with music by Ken Low. Chang & Eng premiered in 1997 and has since been performed around Asia, starring Robin Goh as Chang Bunker, Sing Seng Kwang as Eng Bunker, and Selena Tan as their mother, Nok. Subsequent productions starred Edmund Toh as Chang Bunker and RJ Rosales as Eng Bunker. The best-selling and multiple-award-winning 2000 novel Chang and Eng by Darin Strauss was based on the life of the famous Bunker twins. The film rights to the novel were purchased by award-winning filmmaking team Gary Oldman and Douglas Urbanski. Oldman is currently working on the screenplay and will also direct.
I Dream of Chang and Eng, a play by noted Bay Area playwright Philip Kan Gotanda and based on the lives of the Bunker Twins was produced in workshop form at UC Berkeley and was produced on their main stage in the spring of 2011.Descendants
Chang and Eng Bunker fathered a total of 21 children and their descendants, including several sets of non-conjoined twins, now number more than 1,500. Many of their descendants continue to reside in the vicinity of Mt. Airy and descendants of both brothers continue to hold joint reunions. Two hundred descendents reunited in Mount Airy in July 2011 for the two hundredth birthday of the twins, which was the twenty-second annual reunion.
Prominent descendants include United States Air Force Major General Caleb V. Haynes who was a grandson of Chang Bunker through his daughter Margaret Elizabeth "Lizzie" Bunker. General Haynes's son, Vance Haynes, earned a doctorate in geosciences, performed foundational fieldwork at Sandia Cave to determine the timeline of human migration through North America, and served as professor at several universities. Alex Sink, Chief Financial Officer of Florida, is a great-granddaughter of Chang Bunker, and was the Democratic nominee in the 2010 Florida gubernatorial election.References
- Mason, Savannah (January 1, 2001). "Chang and Eng Bunker". Find A Grave Memorial. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Conjoined Twins". University of Maryland Medical Center. January 8, 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- Calisota online
- UNC Univ. Libraries, Southern Historical Collection no. 03761
- "Chang and Eng". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. This source confirms the wives' dispute, but disagrees on the number of children and says nothing about the household arrangements.
- Twain, Mark. "The Siamese Twins". The Siamese Twins, Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
- Whirling upstream in Hollywood: Douglas Urbanski [update].
- Philip Kan Gotanda's 'I Dream of Chang and Eng'
- Siamese twins descendants hold 22nd annual reunion, Mount Airy News, July 31, 2011
- Twins' great-granddaughter seeks a different kind of fame, St. Pete TimesFurther reading
- Pages 27–28 and 81, The Chinese in America: A Narrative History, Iris Chang, Viking, 2003, hardcover, 496 pages, ISBN 0-670-03123-2
- Adapted from the Internet-Encyclopedia article, "Chang and Eng Bunker" www.internet-encyclopedia.org -- Chang and Eng Bunker 8 July, 2003
- The Two: The Story of the Original Siamese Twins, Amy and Irving Wallace, Simon & Schuster, 1978, hardcover, ISBN 0-671-22627-4
- Eng & Chang: The Original Siamese Twins, David R. Collins, Silver Burdett Press, 1994, paperback, ISBN 0-382-24719-1; hardcover, ISBN 0-87518-602-5
- Chang and Eng: A Novel, Darin Strauss, Dutton, 2000, paperback, ISBN 0-452-28109-1; hardcover, ISBN 0-525-94512-1"
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chang_and_Eng_Bunker. -- Zugriff am 2011-10-24]
Anuvong (ສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌ - เจ้าอนุวงศ์, 1767 - 1829), Ex-König von Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ) wird mit seinem Gefolge als Gefangene nach Bangkok gebracht.
Karl Friedrich August Gützlaff berichtet 1834 über die Misshandlung und Folter durch die Siamesen:
"The horrible barbarities practised in their iniquitous war with Laos, —their treatment of the king and his family, who were basely betrayed into their hands, afford a melancholy exhibition of their ferocity. The situation of the captives is thus described by Mr. Tomlin [Jacob Tomlin, 1793 - 1880], who was residing as a missionary at Bangkok when they were brought in: —
“ The king of Laos and his family when taken prisoners, were brought here in chains, and exposed to public view for a fortnight in a large iron cage! The news of their arrival caused great joy; the Prah Klang [พระคลัง] and other high personages were long busied in devising the best mode of torturing and putting them to death. ”
Mr. Tomlin, who went to see them, observes,
“We were disappointed in not seeing the king. Nine of his sons and grandsons were in the cage; most of them grown up, but two were mere children, who deeply affected us by their wretched condition, all having chains round their necks and legs; one particularly, of an open cheerful countenance, sat like an innocent lamb, alike unconscious of having done any wrong, and of the miserable fate which awaited him. Two or three, however, hung their heads, and were apparently sunk into a melancholy stupor. Now and then they raised them, and cast a momentary glance upon us, their countenances displaying a wild and cheerless aspect. The sad spectacle they exhibited was heightened rather than alleviated by the laughter and playfulness of the Siamese boys who went to see them. Close by are the various instruments of torture in terrific array. A large iron boiler for heating oil, to be poured on the body of the king, after being cut and mangled with knives! On the right of the cage a large gallows is erected, having a chain suspended from the top beam, with a large hook at the end of it. The king, after being tortured, will be hung upon this hook. In the front there is a long row of triangular gibbets, formed by three poles joined at the top, and extended at the bottom. A spear rises up from the joining of the poles a foot or more above them. The king's two principal wives, and his sons, grandsons, &c., amounting in all to fourteen, are to be fixed on these as upon a seat. On the right of the cage is a wooden mortar and pestle, to pound the king’s children in. Such are the means these unsophisticated children of nature employ to maintain their superiority over one another, —such the engines of power despotism employs to secure its prerogative, —and such the worse than fiendish cruelty of man towards his fellow-man, when left to the unsoftened dictates of his own depraved heart Shortly afterwards, the old Laos king expired, and thus escaped the hands of his tormentors. He is said to have gradually pined away, and died broken-hearted. His corpse was removed to the place of execution, decapitated, and hung on a gibbet by the river side, a little below the city, exposed to the gaze of every one passing by, and left a prey to the birds. His son afterwards escaped, but on being pursued, put an end to his existence. Of the fate of the others we have not heard.”"
[Quelle: Gützlaff, Carl Friedrich <1803 - 1851>: Journal of three voyages along the coast of China : in 1831, 1832 and 1833; with notices of Siam, Corea and the Loo-Choo Islands / to which is prefixed an introductory essay on the policy, religion, etc. of China by W. Ellis. By Charles Gutzlaff. -- London : Westley [u.a.], 1834. -- S. XLVIII - L]
Bangkok: Tod von Anuvong (ສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌ - เจ้าอนุวงศ์, 1767 - 1829), Ex-König von Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ).
1829-03-04 - 1837-03-04
Andrew Jackson (1767 - 1845) ist Präsident der USA.
Abb.: Andrew Jackson bekämpft das Monster Bank, 1832
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Mit dem Metropolitan Police Act schafft das Parlament Großbritanniens erstmals eine Berufspolizei für London. Die landesweite Royal Thai Police (ตำรวจแห่งชาติ) wird 1933 gegründet werden.
Abb.: Polizist ("Peeler"), 185x
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
1829-12-11 - 1830-03-10
David Richardson (1796 - 1846), Arzt der britischen Honourable East India Company in Moulmein (မော်လမြိုင်မြို့), reist von Moulmein über Hot (ฮอด) und erreicht Lamphun (ลำพูน) nach 40 Tagen, dort bleibt er vom 1830-01-19 bis 1830-01-08 und verhandelt über die Lieferung von Rindern an die Garnison in Moulmein sowie über die Weiterführung der chinesischen Handelskarawanen bis nach Moulmein. Er wird auch vom Chao Chiwit (เจ้าชีวิต) empfangen, die Reise nach Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) wird ihm aber verboten. Er kehrt mit 100 Rindern nach Moulmein zurück und verliert unterwegs nur vier Rinder.
Abb.: Lage von Moulmein (မော်လမြိုင်မြို့), Hot (ฮอด), Lamphun (ลำพูน), Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่)
[Bildquelle: Map of Indo-China showing proposed Burma-Siam-China Railway. -- In: Scottish Geographical Magazine. -- 2 (1886)]
Zu Chronik 1830 (Rama III.)