Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1886 (Rama V.). -- Fassung vom 2016-12-01. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/thailandchronik/chronik1886.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2013-09-23
Überarbeitungen: 2016-12-01 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-08-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-10-01 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-09-08 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-08-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-07-04 [Ergänzungen] ;2015-06-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-16 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-31 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-05 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-10-07 [Ergänzungen]
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Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau
die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.
bei den Statistikdiagrammen!
Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:
Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.
Abb.: Chiang Mai, 1886
Abb.: Map of Indo-China showing proposed Burma-Siam-China railway. -- In: Scottish geographical magazine. -- Bd. II (1886)
Eröffnung des Postverkehrs zwischen Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) und Rangoon (ရန်ကုန် - Yangon)
Abb.: Lage von Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) und Rangoon (ရန်ကုန် - Yangon)
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]
Eine britische Dampfschiffgesellschaft eröffnet den Linienverkehr zwischen Haikou (海口) und Bangkok. Dies führt zu einem starken Anstieg der Immigration aus Hainan (海南). Da Hainan in den Tropen liegt, sind die Immigranten von dort die Pioniere, die das Hinterland Siams für den Handel öffnen und entwickeln.
Abb.: Lage von Haikou (海口)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Kommentar eines protestantischen US-Missionars zu den siamesischen Schülern:
|"A teacher of a Bangkok school need have little
trouble with its government if it were not so impossible ever to be sure
of the truth. When a boy gets into mischief, he always plans to tell a
lie about it; and he can do it with such an air of candour that he will
make the teacher almost disbelieve his own senses. But this fault is due
largely owing to the early training in heathen homes and in the
old-fashioned 'wat [temple] schools' of the country."
[Abgedruckt in: Burslem, Chris: Tales of old Bangkok. -- Hong Kong : Earnshaw, 2012. -- ISBN 13-978-988-19984-2-2. -- S. 77]
Robert Laurie Morant (1863 – 1920) kommt als Tutor für die Kinder von Prinz Naret [พระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมพระนเรศรวรฤทธิ์, 1855 - 1925] nach Siam. Später wird er Tutor der Kinder von Prinz Phanurangsi [สมเด็จ พระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้าภาณุรังษีสว่าง วงศ์ กรมพระยาภาณุพันธุวงศ์วรเดช,1859–1928], ab 1888 ist er Tutor von Kronprinz Vajirunhis [มหาวชิรุณหิศ , 1878 - 1895].
1890 wird er "Examiner to the Government Schools".
Morant, Robert Laurie <1863 – 1920>: บันใด : แบบเรียน ภาษา อังกฤษ = Ladder of knowledge. -- Bangkok : Government Education Office.
- Fifty steps steps towards speaking English
- One hundred steps toward reading English
- Fifty steps towards English composition, with special reference to the difficulties of the English verbs
- Fifty steps towards English translation, English grammar & letter writing
[jeweils mit Thai-Titel]
Und entwirft 1891 Anforderungen für die Prüfungen in Englisch. Einen Heimataufenthalt 1891 verwendet er, um weitere Englischlehrer für Siam zu werben.
Abb.: Robert Laurie Morant
[Bildquelel: a.u.a.O., nach S. 202]
"Robert Laurie Morant was born on April 7, 1863, and was the son of the late Robert Morant, of Hampstead. He was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford. At Oxford, where he had a hard struggle upon small means, he took a first class in the final school of Theology. When he left Oxford he went first to a famous preparatory school, Temple Grove, and left his mark upon its organisation.
While still a very young man he went out to Siam as tutor to a nobleman there, and soon became tutor to the Prince and Royal Family. At the request of the King, he organised public education in that country. His scheme remains in marked contrast to the scheme of Indian education, which, in the view of many competent authorities, lacks its originality and practical character. His influence in Siam was so great that he was spoken of as “ the Uncrowned King. ” Jealousies were naturally aroused, and when the King fell ill and power passed out of his hands Morant returned to England.
He now threw himself into social and educational work in East London. “Slumming” was popular then, but very different was this young worker from the host of dilettanti, who moved lightly from West to East. They adventured in many cases to prove a theory, he to construct one. His association with the Webbs [Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, 1859 – 1947, und seine Frau Martha Beatrice Webb, Lady Passfield née Potter, 1858 – 1943] sharpened the edge of his observation; it did not lead him into the mistakes which others of the company made. He saw the virtue of Fabianism; he also saw through its weaknesses. He came back from East London with the conviction that what had to be done must be done by men of affairs who had studied all the facts and understood all the people. He never lost this attitude. He had no patience with quackery in any form. The secret of his life-work was disclosed in his own phrase, “No detail is ever insignificant.” It was his rooted belief that “great things always begin small, never with a flourish of trumpets.” No man detested “the limelight,” as he called it, more than Morant; few men obtained more of it.
In 1895 he became Assistant Director of the newly instituted “Office of Special Inquiries and Reports” in the Education Department. Here he joined Sir Michael Sadler [1861 - 1943]. His report on French primary schools which was drawn up at this time made a great impression and won him considerable fame. When the Unionist Government became committed to an education policy and their credit much involved in Education Bills for that purpose, Sir John Gorst 1835 - 1916] took Morant as his private secretary, and henceforward the work of collecting information, and concentrating it on the material issues, fell mainly upon him. The story of the passing of the Act of 1902 is too long to repeat here. His share in it is one of the romances of the Civil Service; but there must be many still who, when they think of it, see again not only the brilliant duels between Mr. Lloyd George [1863 - 1945] and Mr. Arthur Balfour [1848 - 1930], but also the eager face “ under the gallery ” or the tall figure striding through the lobbies. In the last weeks of the Bill it became necessary to think of how the Act was to be carried out, or indeed ever brought into operation. Finally Mr. Balfour decided that the only man who could do that was the man whose great constructive ability had made the Bill a possibility, and Morant became Acting Secretary of the Board of Education on November 1, 1902.
The Bill was then still in the House, and required every moment of his time. But the office had to be prepared for its passing, and Morant entered upon his work of organisation. By April 1, 1903, the Bill, and the London Bill that followed, had passed; Morant was Permanent Secretary of the Board, and the office had been divided into three main branches. The division has been criticised, but it was necessary at the time. There were three separate problems to be worked out, always in relation to the administrative organisation of the new local education authorities which had to be set up, got to work, and persuaded to co-operate with the Board. [...]"
[Quelle: West, Algernon <1832-1921>: Contemporary portraits; men of my day in public life. -- London : Unwin, 1920. -- S. 199 - 202]
Der US-Missionar William Clifton Dodd (1857-1919) kommt nach Siam.
"Dodd, William Clifton (1857-1919)
Born in Marion, Iowa in 1857, Dodd graduated from Parsons College in 1883 and McCormick Theological Seminary in 1886. He arrived in Chiang Mai [เชียงใหม่] to work under the Laos Mission in 1886 and remained a member of the Chiang Mai Station until 1891. He married Isabella Eakin in 1889. Dodd founded the mission's training school for evangelists in 1889, and in 1891 the Dodds established the Lamphun [ลำพูน] Station near Chiang Mai. In 1897, they helped found the Chiang Rai [เชียงราย] Station where they stayed until 1902. In 1904 they founded the Kengtung [ၵဵင်းတုင်] Station, in Burma, which was the first Laos Mission station outside of Thailand. When that station was closed in 1907, the Dodds returned to Chiang Rai.
Dodd belonged to the "expansionist party" of the Laos Mission, which advocated expansion of the mission's work to reach all of the "Tai" people of Siam, Burma, and China. In pursuit of that goal, Dodd took several exploratory trips into eastern Burma and southern China and collected large amounts of data dedicated to advocating mission expansion. His long trip through southern China to Canton [廣州] in 1910 generated considerable interest in Tai missions and eventually led to the Dodds' founding of the Laos Mission's Chiangrung [เชียงรุ่ง / 景洪, Kiulungkiang] Station in Yunnan [雲南], China, in 1917. Dodd died there on 18 Oct 1919. He was one of the first ethnologists of the Tai race and accumulated an impressive array of data on the extent, numbers, and culture of the Tai. He is especially known for his book The Thai Race: The Elder Brother of the Chinese, published posthumously in 1923 by his wife from his letters, papers, and reports."
[Quelle: Dictionary of Thai Christianity. -- http://www.herbswanson.com/dictionary.php. -- Zugriff am 2013-10-05]
1886 - 1894
Der Brite Robert Laurie Morant (1863 - 1920) ist Tutor der königlichen Kinder. Er erarbeitet auch einen Bildungsplan für Siam.
Abb.: Robert Laurie Morant , 1902
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Einweihung des Prap-Ho-Denkmals (อนุสาวรีย์ปราบฮ่อ) in Nong Khai (นองคาย) zum Gedenken an den Sieg in den Ho-Kriegen (สงครามปราบฮ่อ) seit 1865. Bis heute (2013) werden hier jährlich am 5. März Gedenkfeiern abgehalten.
Abb.: Lage von Nong Khai (นองคาย)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Abb.: Prap-Ho-Denkmal (อนุสาวรีย์ปราบฮ่อ), 2011-03-11
[Bildquelle: Dorami Chan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/9810339@N06/5524198349. -- Zugriff am 2013-06-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]
1886 - 1889
Zweite Forschungs-, Spionage- und Eroberungsexpedition unter der Leitung von Auguste Pavie (1847 - 1925). Sie geht über Nordost-Laos bis Hanoi (Nordvietnam). An den Erkundungen sind außer Pavie neun Franzosen und acht Kambodschaner beteiligt. In Laos sammelt man und wertet aus Chroniken, die in 15 Klöstern in Luang Prabang (ຫຼວງພະບາງ) gelagert sind. So will man französische Besitzansprüche als Rechtsnachfolger Vietnams begründen.
Branda, Paul [= Réveillère, Paul-Émile-Marie] <1829 - 1908>: Ça et là : Cochinchine et Cambodge ; L'Ame khmère ; Ang-Kor. -- 3. ed. -- Paris, Fischbacher, 1892. -- 451 S.
"Phnom-Penh [ភ្នំពេញ], 3 octobre 1885.
Le lendemain de la grande visite officielle pour l’échange des ratifications, Norodôm signa sans difficulté le procès-verbal.
Il avait invité à dîner le gouverneur et les notabilités de son escorte.
Les voitures du roi, accompagnées de sa cavalerie, vinrent au protectorat prendre les invités; Sa Majesté les attendait sur le perron de sa villa et les fit asseoir dans la salle d’attente, jusqu’au moment où le maître des cérémonies vint prévenir que le dîner était servi. Le roi conduisit ses hôtes, vêtu de son costume de cérémonie de la veille avec une très riche ceinture de diamants.
Des lithochromies d’auberge déparent une fort belle salle à manger en bois sombres du pays, travaillés avec goût; tout est européen, un beau surtout de chez Christophle orne la table bien éclairée. Un oncle et deux fils représentaient la famille royale, l’un des fils, le prince Duong-Thiak, l’enfant chéri, gaillard intelligent et déluré, parle très bien le français.
Norodôm [ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម, 18434 - 1904] a eu soixante-douze enfants, il lui en reste quarante-quatre. Cette nombreuse progéniture ne lui donne pas grand souci... Il s’en débarrasse en gratifiant de ses produits, sans plus s’en occuper, les très hauts dignitaires, honneur dont ceux-ci se montrent très fiers.
Le gentil Duong-Thiak a le bonheur de posséder présentement la baronne Pritcha, brouillée avec le prince Yucanthor, à qui elle joua des scènes terribles, le menaçant de se poignarder chez lui.
Le dîner européen, somptueux, œuvre de quelque artiste chinois, eût fait honneur aux meilleurs restaurants de Paris; les Célestes, qui pratiquent pour leur propre compte une cuisine si hétéroclite, préparent les plats français en perfection et les ornent avec un goût exquis; les maîtres d’hôtel chinois servent d’une façon tout à fait distinguée, ils plaisent à l’œil par leur élégant costume et leurs manières délicates. Une table parée de fleurs par leurs soins est une des plus charmantes merveilles qui se puissent voir.
Le général faisait face au roi, placé entre le représentant et l'évêque.
Sa Majesté se montra fort gaie.
On se leva de table pour prendre le café dans une élégante rotonde trop surchargée de bronzes dorés. Le souverain fit tous ses efforts pour paraître aimable; la reconnaissance de l’estomac prescrivait aux convives de le trouver charmant.
Un caprice surgit tout à coup dans la cervelle de Norodôm, celui de faire assister l’évêque au ballet. Ce vieillard à figure énergique et sculpturale, très digne dans sa robe violette, répondit que, dans une circonstance aussi solennelle, il n’avait rien à refuser au roi.
Norodôm, boitant, appuyé sur sa canne, accompagné du gouverneur et suivi de ses invités, se dirigea vers la salle des fêtes. Il nous présenta, assise sur le lit de parade royal, une petite princesse, sa fille favorite, gamine de huit à dix ans, éveillée, de mine espiègle, vêtue d’un sampot, d’un collier et de bracelets de brillants.
Toutes les facultés physiques et intellectuelles du monarque se concentrent sur son corps de ballet.
Comme Norodôm n’a jamais songé à rien fonder d’utile, à entreprendre des travaux publics d’aucun genre, comme il laisse tout dépérir ou s’écrouler, jusqu' a son propre palais, son budget passe à peu près exclusivement à l’entretien de son harem.
L’étable de ce troupeau féminin est le théâtre de drames incessants. Si le peuple du Cambodge, d’ordinaire, ne donne pas grande tribulation à son souverain, il n’en est pas de même de ses deux cents épouses. Le jeu est un des passe-temps favoris des recluses. Dans une matinée, la première danseuse perdit trente barres d’argent (environ 2250 fr. ) et paya avec une partie de ses bijoux; or les bijoux des danseuses font partie des joyaux de la couronne. Les gagnantes prétendaient conserver ces bijoux, devenus leur propriété personnelle; elles furent mises aux fers par ordre du roi et la première danseuse s’empoisonna.
Norodôm est d’une impitoyable jalousie, toute infidèle a irrémissiblement la tête tranchée. Quelques coupables — sa sévérité ne l’a point abrité contre les malheurs domestiques, loin de là — ont pu s’enfuir et gagner la terre de Cochinchine.
Le gouvernement français les a rendues à la condition de leur garder la vie sauve, et l’on doit cette justice à Norodôm qu’il a toujours respecté sa promesse.
Le harem, propriété de la couronne, passe au successeur à la mort du roi. La succession au trône, comme on sait, va de frère à frère; si le roi n’en a point, le fils aîné hérite de toutes ses belles-mères. Lascif et d’une convoitise sans limite, Norodôm refusa à Si-Votha une femme de la succession, dont celui-ci était fort épris; ce refus joua un grand rôle dans la rupture des deux frères et poussa Si-Votha à lever l’étendard de la révolte — ce qui confirme une fois de plus le fameux cherchez la femme.
L’appareil électrique étant détraqué — il a coûté 250, 000 fr. et a servi trois fois — la salle des fêtes est éclairée par des lampes à mèche de coton, brûlant à l’air libre de l’huile de coco. Ces vases de cuivre, supportés par des pieds de même métal de deux à trois coudées, sont placés près des colonnes de support de la toiture. Dans chaque vase, un grand nombre de mèches réunissant leurs flammes donnent une large flamme unique. De nombreux piliers coupent fâcheusement la vue de cette vaste scène rectangulaire. Un des petits côtés du rectangle, en communication avec le harem, sert uniquement à l’entrée et à la sortie des danseuses.
La scène cambodgienne n’admet que des femmes; sur le théâtre chinois c’est l’inverse, de jeunes hommes y remplissent les rôles féminins.
Un des grands côtés est en partie occupé par l’appartement séparé d’où les femmes du roi assistent à la fête. Au dehors, au-dessus de la petite porte de communication de cet appartement avec l’estrade royale, placé comme une enseigne, le portrait du président Grévy!!...
Donc à la suite de l’appartement des femmes l’estrade royale.
Sur cette estrade siégeaient, dans quatre fauteuils dorés, le roi, le gouverneur, l’évêque, le représentant du protectorat; derrière eux les autres convives de Sa Majesté.
A la suite encore, mais à un bon mètre plus bas, les officiers de terre et de mer et le personnel européen de Phnom-Penh; parmi cette foule masculine, quelques dames très fortement étoffées ne brillaient guère, pour la beauté des formes, auprès des danseuses de Norodôm.
Le public cambodgien s’entassait sur les deux autres côtés du rectangle.
Des nattes, pour les pieds nus des danseuses, recouvraient le plancher de cette scène de soixante-dix mètres sur trente.
La musique commença... mêmes airs qu’au ballet donné par le ministre de la justice au protectorat, même spectacle avec un personnel plus nombreux.
Ici les danseuses, disposant d’un vaste espace pour courir et marcher, déployaient dans ces exercices une grâce singulière. Le cadre n’avait rien de bien séduisant, les décors, l’une des grandes magnificences de nos théâtres, manquaient; mais le ballet en lui-même était une vraie féerie; on se trouvait en pleines mille et une nuits. Ces femmes très vêtues, souvent avec une chasuble sur les épaules, ruisselaient d’or et de pierreries.
L’évêque se retira après avoir donné la preuve de sa bonne volonté à satisfaire la royale lubie; il ne pouvait prolonger sa présence sans manquer de dignité.
A son départ, le représentant dit au roi:
— L’évêque se retire, parce que cela lui donne des idées...
Cette plaisanterie, d’un goût douteux, plut étonnamment à Sa Majesté, elle en rit avec fracas, en se tordant pendant près d’un quart d’heure. Le représentant avait trouvé la note,
il s’était mis à la portée intellectuelle et morale de son auditeur.
Tout un peuple opprimé travaille pour remplir le gouffre des dépenses du harem de Norodôm."
[a.a.O., S. 186 - 193]
Cort, Mary Lovina: Siam or, The heart of farther India. -- New York : Randolph, 1886. -- 399 S. -- "Having lived since 1874 in Siam ..."
Abb.: Siam und Laos
CHAPTER XIX. THE PEOPLE AND THEIR HOUSES.
The Siamese are undoubtedly descendants of the Laos and other northern tribes, and further back than that they claim descent from the Brahmins of India, and this latter belief accounts to my mind for the presence of Brahmins at all their great state and religious ceremonies, although the king and all his subjects are avowed Buddhists.
Physically they are small and weak, with little muscle and very soft bones. The men have no beards, and all the nation, unless of mixed blood, have straight, coarse black hair, and black or brown eyes. Their features are not at all of the negro type, and some have very good looking faces, strongly reminding one of friends across the sea. The Siamese idea of beauty is to have eyes like buttonholes, with the buttons half through; black teeth, red lips, long finger-nails, straight black hair; large ears that stand out from the head at the top, and whose lobes droop toward the shoulder; small waist, and a white skin, which they mellow by rubbing it with a golden powder called “cummin” They usually have olive complexions, but some are very black.
As a rule, they would have white, beautiful teeth, but the disgusting habit of betel-chewing disfigures the mouth wonderfully, causing the teeth to protrude and blacken, and the lips and tongue to crack. Every habitable place in Siam is defiled with the blood-red saliva they are constantly ejecting from their mouths. The cud they chew so persistently is a combination of ereca-nut, cera leaf, lime, tobacco, camphor, and tumeric. It is a very expensive luxury, but one indulged in by all classes. It is given with the sacred offerings to the priests, as well as to the meanest slaves or beggars who crouch along the streets. The natives consider it an insult if they enter another’s house and are not invited to eat betel, and it is equally impolite to refuse the proffered cud. Indeed, it occupies so important a place in the economy of their social life that a wedding is called “Kun Maak," [หมาก] literally “ betel-tray,” because it heads the procession of gifts which are laid at the feet of the bride’s parents by the bridegroom. They say “ any dog can have white teeth,” inferring that only those who know enough to use betel can have beautiful black ones. I have seen it in the mouths of unweaned children; and old folks no longer capable of chewing, pound it in a mortar to reduce it to the desired pulpiness, or have younger jaws and better teeth masticate it for them. It is mildly stimulating, and they can fast from food a long time if only they have plenty of betel. It costs almost as much as their food, especially among the poor. A great many young men in Bangkok are, however, giving up the filthy custom, especially those who learn to speak English, and we ardently hope the fashion will spread throughout the kingdom.
Some of the young men and women are quite handsome, and the little children beautiful in features and natural graces of form. Their eyes are specially lovely, of a rich liquid brown, and fringed with long, silky lashes. Among the nobility of Bangkok, and where the best language is used and they chat pleasantly together, their voices are low and sweet, and many of the words have a musical ring. They show a certain respect for the aged, and are very fond of little children. Motherhood is considered honorable, so infanticide is rare, and even little daughters are loved and cherished almost as tenderly as sons.
Women enjoy greater liberty than in almost any other Oriental land. You meet them everywhere; and in the bazaars and markets nearly all the buying and selling is done by them. As servants and slaves too, they are seen performing all sorts of labor in the open streets. Still they are down-trodden, and considered infinitely inferior to men. It is a significant fact that although boys have been educated for past centuries in the Buddhist monasteries, there are not, and have never been, so far as I can learn, any native schools for girls. Quite a number, however, learn to read in their own families, but such knowledge is looked upon as a superfluous accomplishment, and they are not encouraged in it, neither is any one ashamed to acknowledge their ignorance of books.
The Siamese are a pleasant, good-natured people, but lazy and indolent to the utmost degree, and vain, shallow, and self-conceited. Their greatest vices are lying, gambling, immorality, and intemperance, although the latter is strictly forbidden by one of the commandments in their Buddhist decalogue.
The vice of intemperance is fearfully prevalent. As early as 1844 the “ Liquor Farmer” of Bangkok and its suburbs, paid $96,000 yearly for the privilege of making and selling it there. It is made of molasses, and costs but little, and the consumption of it is constantly on the increase. The home production is not equal to the demand, and the liquor is imported from China, Batavia, Singapore, and Europe. A certain class of foreigners have made fancy wines and liquors fashionable at court and in the higher circles of native society, and many of the young bloods are ruining both body and soul with strong drink. Native arrack and “low” [ลาว] can be purchased for sixpence a pint, and half that quantity is enough to intoxicate the ordinary tippler. So this “curse of curses ” has taken possession of the land. It has been said that only "two kinds of Americans come to Siam. One class to Christianize, and the other to liquorize the natives! ” In the past this was too true. Some years ago an American so dishonored our flag that now we dare not unfurl the stars and stripes above our homes, even on our national holidays, without the natives considering it the sign of a liquor establishment. It is charged that this American issued papers to vendors of spirits who were thus enabled to sell imported goods, free of duty, under the protection of our dear old flag. The stars and stripes went up and down the rivers and canals on little whiskey-boats, and fluttered from doors in the principal streets of Bangkok and other cities of Siam, where the “ water of sin,” as my old native teacher aptly calls it, was sold.
Eating and smoking opium are also on the increase, and the law which threatens all consumers of it with confiscation of property and death, is not now enforced. There is a weed called by the natives “Kuncha” [กัญชา] (which I think is Indian hemp), grown abundantly in Siam, and those who are too poor to buy opium use this instead and with similar effect. The pleasing effect of this drug lasts three or four hours, and is followed by a deep sleep. The result of its constant use is a wretched nervousness, lung complaints, dropsy, melancholy, madness, and death !
It would be hard to find a Siamese who did not use tobacco in some form. The men and boys nearly all smoke and some of the women. All chew the weed with their betel, and some use it as snuff.
Gambling is only allowed at licensed places except for a few days each year, when the king grants full liberty, and then every man, woman, and child seems determined to make the most of the chance, and everything else is neglected to indulge in the absorbing passion. This vice brings a wondrous revenue into the king’s treasury, and is filling Siam with slaves.
The dress of the Siamese is very simple and comfortable, consisting of a waist-cloth, jacket, and scarf, and sometimes a hat and sandals. If all would, at all times, wear the native dress there would be no occasion for fault-finding. But as a nation they do not know what shame is, and as the climate is mild and pleasant, and the majority of the people poor and careless, their usual dress consists of a simple waist-cloth, adjusted in a very loose and slovenly manner; while many children, until they are ten or twelve years old, wear no clothing whatever. When foreigners first arrive in Siam they are shocked almost beyond endurance at the nudity of the people; and although they constantly preach a gospel of dress, their influence in this respect seems less apparent than in almost any other. Not until Siam is clothed need she expect a place among respectable civilized nations.
The old-fashioned shave, which left a patch of stiff bristles on the top of the head like a shoe-brush, is no longer the universal style. European trims are the most fashionable in the capital, and some of the young men are trying to cultivate the mustache, and the women let their hair cover the whole head, and dress it with cocoanut-oil. They shave their foreheads, rub beeswax on their lips, powder their faces, and perfume their bodies.
They bend their joints back and forth to make them supple, and give the elbow a peculiarly awkward twist which they consider very graceful.
Their salutations are decidedly peculiar. The old style is to get down on all-fours, and then, resting on the knees, raise the clasped hands three times above the head, and also bow the head forward until the brow touches the floor. They kiss with their noses, by pressing them against their friends’, and saying, “Very fragrant, very fragrant!” while they take long, satisfied sniffs. Many are now learning to shake hands and make graceful bows like European nations, but the imported kiss is not yet in vogue, and I do not see that it ever can be until betel is discarded, for at present the nose is a more kissable feature of the Siamese face than the mouth.
The people are exceedingly fond of jewelry, and often their gold chains and rings arc the only adornment the body can boast. Many a young girl refuses to wear a jacket because it would cover up her chains, which are worn as a hunter carries his game-bag, over one shoulder and under the arm. She prefers a scarf which she can arrange and rearrange, and thus display the glitter of her golden ornaments. They wear a great many gold rings, and their earrings are often costly and beautiful. They also have gold armlets and anklets, and charms encircling neck and waist, and the higher ranks now wear gold girdles with jewelled clasps. The jewelry is of odd and unique designs,—snake-bracelets; necklaces of gold turtles, fish, and flowers, set with gems; dragon-headed rings, with diamond, emerald, or ruby eyes, and a tongue that moves. Some rings have little birds poised upon them, with outspread wings and sparkling with jewels; golden elephants, and many other rich and costly designs.
The Siamese are great bathers. Several times daily they may be seen splashing in the rivers or canals, or pouring water over themselves from jars set by the doorway. There is no privacy in Siam—eyes, eyes everywhere; and they think no more of bathing themselves and their children in the open street than of buying a bunch of lettuce from the market-woman. But it would be a mistake to suppose they are cleanly; for as they use neither soap nor towels, this drenching of the body does not cleanse it, especially when to complete the toilet they smear the body with tumeric. I am glad to say, however, that they are singularly free from vermin, owing no doubt to these frequent baths, changes of raiment, and the shaved head.
Although these people are called Buddhists, they also worship devils, evil spirits, and men who are priests. Every kind of superstition is known among them—witchcraft, enchantment, sorceries, philters, conjuring of words, all the frightful secrets of the black magic, are resorted to when other moans fail to arrive at their ends, which is clone with the aid of demons called "Pee.” [ผี] They are very ignorant, poor souls, and full of nameless fears—even grown men are afraid to be alone in the dark.
The nobles of Siam, under the present reign, have erected a great many handsome brick houses, which are planned by European architects, and are roomy and comfortable—that is, they are large and cool, and some of them elegantly furnished with English, French, and Chinese furniture. In these houses may be seen beautiful plate, and rich and rare old vases, vessels of gold and silver and jewel-boxes, mirrors, pictures, chandeliers, and other beautiful things in great variety, according to the rank and wealth of the owners. So little clothing is worn, and varies so seldom in style or color, that the wardrobe is usually the least part of the possessions. Some of the princes’ palaces have marble and tile floors, others simple wood. Occasionally they have carpets or straw matting. All are very fond of flowers, and so these houses have beautiful gardens. Sometimes they are attached to the palaces, and sometimes they are off in another part of the city. These are filled with all the lovely trees and flowers of Siam, and many rare plants from other lands. The rich Siamese have many of the comforts and luxuries of life. They have numerous slaves and attendants. But polygamy tills the houses with immorality, bitter jealousies, and strife, and thus there are no homes!
The middle class dwell in houses built of wood, usually unpainted teak, and roofed with earthen tiles. They are small and illy ventilated, and here the people huddle together, from the parents to the children of the third and fourth generation. One can imagine the quarrels and fusses that arise daily where there are so many in one household. They have very little furniture, and may be said to live principally on the floor. They seem to be natural “squatters.” On visiting them first you might think they had just moved in, and that the furniture would come along presently; but if you called five or ten years later you would find it had not yet arrived.
The lower class live in huts made of woven bamboo, and thatched with leaves of the mangrove tree. Nearly all dwellings are built on posts or pillars, which elevate them five or six feet from the ground, and are reached by ladders, which at night are often drawn up to prevent dogs or thieves from coming into the house. But the very poor have to content themselves with huts made of palm leaves tied to a bamboo frame, and with nothing but the bare earth for a floor.
All ordinary Siamese houses must have three rooms; indeed, so important is this number considered to the comfort of the family, that the suitor must often promise to provide three rooms ere the parents will let him claim his bride. There is the common bedroom, an outer room where they sit during the day and receive their visitors, and the kitchen.
Let me begin at the latter, and try to describe the dirty, dingy place. Having no godliness, the next thing to it, cleanliness, is entirely lacking. There is a rude box, filled with earth, where they build the fire and do what they call the cooking; that is, they boil rice and make curry, and roast fish and bananas over the coals. There is no making of bread or pie, of cake or pudding; no roasts, no gravies, no soups. Even vegetables are seldom cooked at home, but are prepared by others and sold in the markets, or peddled about the streets. There they buy boiled sweet potatoes, green corn, and preserved fruits, curries, roasted fish, and ants, peanuts and bananas, sliced pine-apples and melons, and squash. Pickled onions and turnips are sold in the streets of Bangkok just as pickled beets are in Damascus. Curry is made of all sorts of things, but is usually a combination of meat or fish, and vegetables. If you want an English name for it that all can understand, you must call it a stew. The ingredients are chopped very fine, or pounded in a mortar, especially the red peppers, onions, and spices. The predominant flavor is red pepper, so hot and fiery that your mouth will smart and burn for half an hour after you have eaten it. Still, many of the curries are very good, and with steamed rice furnish a good meal. But sometimes a “ broth of abominable things is in their vessels,” as, for instance, when they make curry of rats or bats, or of the flesh of animal» that have died of disease, and they flavor it with “kapick,” a sort of rotten fish, of which all Siamese are inordinately fond. It is unrivalled in the strength of its fragrance and flavor. Siam is unique in that she possesses two of the most abominable things, and yet the most delicious, if we believe what we hear, and they are the durien, a large fruit found only on this peninsula, and “ kapick" which I hope is not found anywhere outside of Siam.
The kitchen has no chimney, and the smoke finds its own way out, leaving black and sooty marks upon everything. There is but little furniture, except the rice-pots, kettle, and perhaps a frying-pan. There is a little stool, a foot square and four inches high, that they call a table, and on which they place the curry and fish and the sliced vegetables, while those who eat squat around it, each with a bowl of rice on the floor before them, which they replenish from a dish or basket near by, or from the rice-pot on the fire-place. The rice-pot is of coarse earthenware, round and bulging, with a small mouth and a lid. They cost but a trifle, and are easily broken, but the rice cooked in them is the most delicious I ever tasted. It is washed, then covered with cold water, and set on the fire; as soon as it comes to the boil it is skimmed and stirred. It is boiled a few moments, and then the water is drained off and the pot set near the fire for the rice to steam. In half an hour it is cooked, and when poured out is like a mountain of snow, every grain separate and whole. No wonder the natives marvel that we can live without it.
There is no regularity about their meals, and they do not wait for one another, but eat when they get hungry. In the higher families the men always eat first and by themselves, and the wives and children and dogs take what is left. The usual rule is for each one to wash his own rice-bowl, and turn it upside down in a basket in a corner of the kitchen, there to drip and dry till the next time it is needed. They eat with their lingers, very few having so much even as a spoon, and they do not use the wafer-like bread so common in the Levant, which those natives double into a kind of three-cornered spoon, dip into the curds or camel stew, and eat down spoon and all.
There are no washing or ironing days. Many have no jackets, only a waist-cloth which they wear when they go to bathe. When they come up out of the water they change it for a dry one. It is then rubbed a little in the water, wrung out, and spread in the sun to dry, then they fold it up and pat it with their hands, and that is all the ironing it gets.
The kitchen floors are nearly all made of split bamboos, with great cracks between, through which they pour all the slops and push the dirt, so there is no sweeping or scrubbing to do. Near the door are several large earthen jars for water, which are tilled from the river by the women or servants as often as they get empty, and here they wash their feet before they enter the house. Theydip the water with a gourd or a cocoanut-shell. They also use brass basins and trays a great deal, but for lack of scouring they are discolored and green with verdigris, and I cannot help thinking the use of such vessels is one of the fruitful sources of the dreadful sores and eruptions with which the whole nation is afflicted.
The outer room is barren enough, with perhaps a mat for guests to sit upon, and a tray from which all are served with betel.
The bedroom is where tilings accumulate. A torn straw mat, or perhaps an ox hide or two on the floor, with brickshaped pillows stuffed with cotton, or a block of wood itself in lieu of anything softer and you have the ordinary Siamese bed. In families of not the very poorest, you sometimes find long narrow mattresses stuffed with tree-cotton. These may be covered with an old nigged waist-cloth instead of a sheet, and over it is suspended a mosquito curtain of unbleached cotton. These things are used for years without being changed or washed. The beds and mats are filthy, and, more horrible still, are swarming with bugs. They infest the curtains, the coverings, the cracks in the floor and the wall, and the little boxes in which they store their few clothes and valuables. I have even seen them creeping over the people, and no one seems to mind them or think of being ashamed. The rooms are never cleared out or scrubbed. The cobwebs of succeeding years tangle and entangle themselves in the corners, drape the rafters and the windows, and indeed every place where the busy spinners lay their hands. There is seldom more than one window to a bedroom, and at night it is carefully closed, and if it were not for the cracks in floor and wall, the miserable inmates would surely smother. They have as great a horror of the night air as some old fogies in more civilized lands who appear to think that God only knows how to regulate the air for twelve hours out of the twenty-four. They do not bring their cattle into the house, for it is very frail and set upon posts, but they keep them under the floor, so they can hear if thieves come to steal them.
They never give any dinner or tea parties, or visit each other as we do at home. There is an occasional feast—as a wedding, a funeral, or a hair-cutting, and sometimes the neighbor girls will sit together under the same tree to sew ; or by the same lamp at night to economize oil, and to chat and gossip. A great place for the latter pastime is at the temples, when they go to hear the Buddhist services, which are in Pali, usually, and not to be understood, or by the river-banks and wells when they go to fetch water. They carry water in pails, or baskets sealed with pitch, and suspended from the ends of a pole a la Chinese.
Thus it will be seen that house-life among the Siamese is very simple and primitive. There are no women who have worn out their lives scrubbing, or fussing over cook-stoves. They do not dread the spring house cleaning, or the fall setting up of stoves and putting down carpets. There is no canning of fruit, nor packing of butter and cheese. But alas! there is no happy home-life either, no family altar where they can worship a living God, no pleasant social board where fathers and mothers, brothers and sisters meet three times a day, and thanking God for food, eat with joy and gladness, and grow strong for His service; no sitting-room where some of the happiest years of our lives arc spent, in loving companionship with those of our own household; no place for books, and no books to read, except perhaps a few vile tales, and books of superstition and witchery. God pity Siam, and plant in her kingdom many happy Christian homes. May her people be purified and cleansed and taught of Thee in all things; then will the good influence, working from the heart outward, touch, and cleanse, and beautify all their surroundings.
* The reader will doubtless notice that my description of housekeeping is of Siamese life among- the lower classes, not among those who have come in contact with missionaries and been improved somewhat, nor those of the higher classes in Bangkok, the princes and nobles, whose old-time home-life was neater and more orderly than that here described. These, through the influence of foreigners coming to Siam and visits to foreign lands, have raised themselves in the scale of living, and have foreign houses filled with foreign furniture and conveniences, order sumptuous meals from foreign bakeries, and have them placed upon their tables and served in modern style. I do not consider that true Siamese housekeeping.
[a.a.O., S. 166 - 178]
One may gain a pretty fair idea of their belief from the following translation of the Siamese Oath of Allegiance [คำสัตย์ปฏิญาณ]:
"We, the slaves of the Lord Buddh, beg to offer to His Majesty, Prabaht Somdetch Pra Chula Chaum Klow [พระบาทสมเด็จ พระจุลจอมเกล้า, 1853 - 1910], the King, this our personal oath, pledging our loyalty, in the immediate presence of the god Buddh, the sacred teachings and the sacred priests.
" We entreat the deity which protects the sectioned white Umbrella (the insignia of royalty), and the guardian deities of all other places throughout the kingdom, to observe with their godlike eyes, and hear with their godlike ears, the pledges we make to Prabaht Somdetch Pra Chula Chaum Klow, the King, who has been crowned and placed upon the throne, and who, observing the ancient royal usages, treats graciously the priests, the ministers, and royal descendants, the official servants of His Majesty, military and civil, within and without, the provincial governors and their subalterns, the rulers of territories, states, and the entire population living within His Majesty’s dominions. Hence it is proper that we gratefully perform our official duties, under His Majesty’s feet faithfully, free from rebellious acts, physical, verbal, mental.
" If we, the slaves of our Lord Buddh, are not firmly fixed in true natural gratitude, or if we meditate to His Majesty, Prabaht Somdetch Pra Chula Chaum Klow, the King, with body, words, or in disposition, or if we disclose our minds to the people or rulers of other regions that are hostile, and plot that others do evil to Prabaht Somdetch Pra Chula Chaum Klow, the King. If we see with our eyes, hear with our ears, or know that others are about to do evil to His Majesty, and do not bring forward the subject for investigation, so that it may be specially brought to the knowledge of His Majesty, but delay with evil intent, with ingratitude, and lack of honesty, and with evil purposes toward Prabaht Somdetch Pra Chula Chaum Klow, the King, who is so full of great mercy and incomparable graciousness:
"We pray the deities of lands and forests; the guardian deities; the atmospheric deities; the goddesses who care for the earth, especially the powerful deities who are located where is the great white Umbrella, emblem of loyalty, may plague us with evils, destroy our lives, effect our destruction and death by breakage, by severance; cause our death by lightning and thunderbolts, by royal weapons, the powerful royal sword, by poison, and the power of land and water animals; let there be some opportunity for the destruction of the perfidious ones; let swift destruction come; let us not escape all great disasters, and consequences of all localities, which those who have the power can inflict for all offences. We beseech the power of the deities to plague with poisonous boils, rapidly fatal, and all manner of diseases, the dishonorable, perverse, and treacherous, plague with untimely, wretched, and appalling deaths, manifest to the eyes of the world; when we shall have departed this life from earth, cause us to be sent and all to be born in the great hell, where we shall burn with quenchless fire for tens and hundreds of thousands of ages and limitless transmigrations; and when we have expiated our penalty there, and are again born in any world, we pray we may fail to
find the least happiness in worlds of pleasurable enjoyments; let us not meet the god Buddh, the sacred teachings, the sacred priests, who come to be gracious to animals, helping them escape misery, reach heaven and attain a cessation of births and deaths; should we meet them, let them grant us no gracious assistance.
"If we remain firmly established in gratitude and honesty, and do not meditate the rebellion and evil that, has been rehearsed, we beg the land, the forest, and the atmospheric deities, and the four great guardians of the world, whose power extends to all the worlds of the gods, to the sacred foundations, forces and rulers of powerful nations, and the deities stationed in the great white Parasols of royalty, and the guardian deities that protect His Majesty by night and by day, and the deities that protect the palace, and the deities stationed to protect the twelve royal treasuries, and all the deities, the armories, and ministers, and great royal property; we entreat you all to assist, and protect us who perform all official duties faithfully; grant us prosperity and happiness in this and in other worlds; cause us to escape all the diseases and calamities that have been enumerated.
"We have received from His Majesty this water, pledging ourselves, therefore cause us to possess clear, unalloyed happiness, and to escape from all diseases and maladies; and grant us eminent prosperity, and brilliant, happy, fruitful lives, prolonged into very great age; then let us die in happiness resembling sleep, with an awakening in the abode of the gods, in the enjoyment of godlike possessions in heaven, for hundreds of thousands of ages and limitless species of beings.
" When we die and depart from the heavenly and god-worlds to be born again in human worlds, let us abound with goods, glorious and limitless possessions, and distinguished attendants in accord with our desires.
"We entreat the Lord Buddh, the sacred teachings, and the sacred priests, to grant the fulfillment of our desires in the way of heaven, and escape from the successions of life and death, and their attendant miseries, together with our fidelity and gratitude. "
[a.a.O., S. 123 - 125]
"CHAPTER XXIX. DRINKING THE WATER OF ALLEGIANCE.
One year in April we went up to the “Mountain of the Highest Heaven” to see the governor and other noblemen of Petchaburee [เพชรบุรี] drink the water of allegiance to their king. It was a very pretty ceremony, and one that we had never seen before.
The people were gathered in the king’s large audience-hall, which had been prepared for the occasion. The doors had all been thrown wide open, and as we ascended the stone steps the governor saw us and invited ns to sit on his mat. It was the place of greatest honor in the hall, and there being no chairs we accepted the invitation and sat down in real Oriental fashion on a lovely Turkish mat. To our left was the governor’s son, and beyond him other nobles and officers according to rank. The governor had two of his little daughters with him. They were dressed in foreign style, and one of them even had shoes and stockings on, but the elder one had bare limbs and golden anklets. He was very kind and polite to us, explaining the different parts of the ceremony and answering questions. Before him was an elegant array of costly vessels and trays, such as the king presents to those who are entitled to the honor. They are sure tokens of rank and royal favor. I think there were eleven pieces and all pure gold. There was a teapot, a water-goblet and plate, betel-trays, tobacco-boxes, and cigar-cases. All were of the most curious workmanship. The teapot was specially beautiful. It was covered with figures of Chinamen and their curious little houses
DRINKING THE WATER OF ALLEGIANCE. 261
and pagodas, intermingled with trees, flowers, and birds, showing plainly that if the work was not done in China, the style at least was borrowed from the Celestials. The governor’s son had a set of black ware, with flowers in gold-leaf; and the Pra Palaht [พระปลัด], or lieutenant-governor, next to him, but ranking higher, had a golden set that rivalled those of the governor himself. I was surprised to see that there were no gold cups for tea. The Pra Palaht had an ordinary china teacup, with a handle on one side and his monogram on the other, while the governor had a little blue china dish. They gave us tea to drink, and would willingly have supplied us with betel and cigarettes had they not known we would decline the generous offer.
The governor wore his regular court suit, consisting of a purple silk waist-cloth, a white shirt and coat, a golden girdle or belt, white stockings extending above his knees, and black shoes. It is a very simple and comfortable dress, He had the king’s portrait in a golden locket tied about his neck with a pink ribbon, a gold star set with jewels on his right breast, and a silver medal on his left. The silver medal he received at Calcutta when Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. It has her likeness and new title on one side, and an Indian inscription on the other, which we could not read, and the English date “Jan. 1st, 1877. ” He had a white round-crowned hat, surmounted by a golden pagoda, of which he seemed specially proud, judging by the way he lifted it and tenderly turned it round and round, and finally placed it directly in front of us.
What the very beginning of the ceremony was we do not know, for we arrived too late to see. But the first thing we noticed was the feeding of priests. There were six of them in their sacred yellow robes sitting opposite us, with great trays piled with food, from which they were helping themselves, in a not very dainty way, with their fingers. And although they consider it a sin for a Buddhist priest to look at a woman, they watched us a great deal more, I think, than we did them.
The king’s throne at one end of the hall was occupied by a large idol, a golden image of Buddha. Before it were arranged flowers, offerings, lighted candles, and smoking incense-sticks; while in the very front was a large brazen urn holding four or five gallons of water, and by its side a gun, a spear, and three swords. When the priests had finished their breakfast, for all this was in the early morning, a ball of unspun cotton string was attached to the idol and then carried to the priests, who, allowing the cord to pass through both their hands, sat holding it thus while they prayed at intervals. A young man stepped to the centre of the hall, and kneeling before the idol, opened one of those strange folding books and began to read the oaths of allegiance. They were truly fearful, and I whispered to my nearest neighbor that if we believed the evil spirits, to which they appealed, had the power attributed to them, we would never dare take such an oath. After the reading of each part the priests would pray, the nobles bow their heads in assent, and with clasped hands worship the idol.
When all had taken the oath three men came forward, and as they bowed to the idol, two others who sat near an open door began to blow large conch-shells. I had not noticed these men before, and the strange, weird sound they produced with the shells startled me. They were fine-looking young men, without the least shadow of beard or mustache. They were both dressed in white robes, and had their long, heavy black hair twisted up like a woman’s. One of the three men bowing to the idol belonged to the same race. They are what the Siamese call “ Mons. ” I have since been told that these “ Mons ” always take part in the religious ceremonies connected with the king, although they themselves arc Brahmins. There are numerous settlements of them in Siam now, and the French Jesuits claim many of them as converts to their faith.
The three men before the idol now arose. Two of them were Siamese, and they stood one on either side of the brazen vessel tilled with water. The man at the right unsheathed the swords one by one, and handed them to the “ Mon, ” who dipped each one into the water three times, and then passed it to the Siamese on the left, who wiped the blades and put them back into their scabbards. The spear and the gun were likewise dipped into the water. This dipping of these weapons into the water has a peculiar significance. It implies that those who have taken the oath will die by these tokens of the king’s power if they rebel against him. All this time the shells were sounding, the priests chanting, and the people clasping their hands to the idol. Then the “ Mon ” took a golden basin from the governor’s mat and brought him some of the water. He also gave to the son and two or three others. Beginning with the governor, they all stood up, bowed to the idol and then to the king, in the direction of Bangkok. They drank a mouthful of the water, and with the rest they sprinkled their heads and washed their hands. After the higher nobles were served the brazen urn was carried to the rear of the hall, and the petty officers allowed to help themselves. It was amusing to see them crowd around and dip with all sorts of vessels—one with a teapot, another with a cocoanut-shell.
So they drank, and sprinkled and washed with the water of allegiance, and in great confusion the assembly broke up, and each one started for his own home, leaving everything to be gathered up by the servants. As we passed out I could not refrain from saying to the governor, “ Notwithstanding all this the subjects often rebel against their king. ” “ Yes, ” said he, “ but they always have to submit at last. ” “ Not according to your Siamese histories, ” I added, “ for they tell of many a king cast down and another set up on the royal throne. ” At this he was silent and so was I."
[a.a.O., S. 260 - 264]
Henry Yule, Henry <1820 - 1889> ; Burnell, Arthur Coke <1840 - 1882>: Hobson-Jobson : being a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases and of kindred terms etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. -- London : John Murray, 1886. -- 870 S. ; 23 cm
"SIAM , n.p. This name of the Indo-Chinese Kingdom appears to come to us through the Malays, who call it Siyăm. From them we presume the Portuguese took their Reyno de Sião as Barros and Couto write it, though we have in Correa Siam precisely as we write it. Camões also writes Syão for the kingdom; and the statement of De la Loubère quoted below that the Portuguese used Siam as a national, not a geographical, expression cannot be accepted in its generality, accurate as that French writer usually is. It is true that both Barros and F. M. Pinto use os Siames for the nation, and the latter also uses the adjective form o reyno Siame. But he also constantly says rey de Sião. The origin of the name would seem to be a term Sien, or Siam, identical with Shan (q.v.). "The kingdom of Siam is known to the Chinese by the name Sien-lo. . . . The supplement to Matwanlin's Encyclopœdia describes Sien-lo as on the seaboard, to the extreme south of Chen-ching (or Cochin China). 'It originally consisted of two kingdoms, Sien and Lo-hoh. The Sien people are the remains of a tribe which in the year ( A.D.1341) began to come down upon the Lo-hoh and united with the latter into one nation.'" See Marco Polo, 2nd ed., Bk. iii. ch. 7, note 3. The considerations there adduced indicate that the Lo who occupied the coast of the Gulf before the descent of the Sien, belonged to the Laotian Shans, Thainyai, or Great T'ai, whilst the Sien or Siamese Proper were the T'ai Noi, or Little T'ai. (See also SARNAU.) ["The name Siam . . . whether it is 'a barbarous Anglicism derived from the Portuguese or Italian word Sciam,' or is derived from the Malay Sayam, which means 'brown.'" -- J. G. Scott, Upper Burma Gazetteer, i. pt. i. 205.]
1516. -- "Proceeding further, quitting the kingdom of Peeguu, along the coast over against Malaca there is a very great kingdom of pagans which they call Danseam (of Anseam); the king of which is a pagan also, and a very great lord." -- Barbosa (Lisbon, Acad.), 369. It is difficult to interpret this Anseam, which we find also in C. Federici below in the form Asion. But the An is probably a Malay prefix of some kind. [Also see ansyane in quotation from the same writer under MALACCA.]
c. 1522. -- "The king (of Zzuba) answered him that he was welcome, but that the custom was that all ships which arrived at his country or port paid tribute, and it was only 4 days since that a ship called the Junk of Ciama, laden with gold and slaves, had paid him his tribute, and to verify what he said, he showed them a merchant of the said Ciama, who had remained there to trade with the gold and slaves." -- Pigafetta, Hak. Soc. 85.
"All these cities are constructed like" ours, and are subject to the king of Siam, who is named Siri Zacebedera, and who inhabits Iudia (see JUDEA)." -- Ibid. 156.
1525. -- "In this same Port of Pam (Pahang), which is in the kingdom of Syam, there was another junk of Malaqua, the captain whereof was Alvaro da Costaa, and it had aboard 15 Portuguese, at the same time that in Joatane (Patane) they seized the ship of Andre de Bryto, and the junk of Gaspar Soarez, and as soon as this news was known they laid hands on the junk and the crew and the cargo; it is presumed that the people were killed, but it is not known for certain." -- Lembrança das Cousas da India, 6.
"Vês Pam, Patâne, reinos e a longura
De Syāo, que estes e outros mais sujeita;
Olho o rio Menão que se derrama
Do grande lago, que Chiamay se chiama."
Camões, x. 25.
"See Pam, Patane and in length obscure, Siam that ruleth all with lordly sway; behold Menam, who rolls his lordly tide from source Chiámái called, lake long and wide."
c. 1567. -- "Va etiandio ogn' anno per l'istesso Capitano (di Malacca) vn nauilio in Asion, a caricare di Verzino" (Brazilwood). -- Ces. Federici, in Ramusio, iii. 396.
" "Fu già Sion vna grandissima Città e sedia d'Imperio, ma l'anno
MDLXVIIfu pressa dal Re del Pegu, qual caminando per terra quattro mesi di viaggio, con vn esercito d'vn million, e quattro cento mila uomini da guerra, la venne ad assediare . . . e lo so io percioche mi ritrouai in Pegù sei mesi dopo la sua partita." -- Ibid.
1598. -- ". . . The King of Sian at this time is become tributarie to the king of Pegu. The cause of this most bloodie battaile was, that the king of Sian had a white Elephant." -- Linschoten, p. 30; [Hak. Soc. i. 102. In ii. 1 Sion].
[1611. -- "We have news that the Hol- landers were in Shian." -- Danvers, Letters, i. 149.]
1688. -- "The Name of Siam is unknown to the Siamese. 'Tis one of those words which the Portugues of the Indies do use, and of which it is very difficult to discover the Original. They use it as the Name of the Nation and not of the Kingdom: And the Names of Pegu, Lao, Mogul, and most of the Names which we give to the Indian Kingdoms, are likewise National Names."-<-> De la Loubère, E.T. p. 6."
[a.a.O., S. 833f.]
"BANCOCK , n.p. The modern capital of Siam, properly Bang-kok; see explanation by Bp. Pallegoix in quotation. It had been the site of forts erected on the ascent of the Menam to the old capital Ayuthia, by Constantine Phaulcon in 1675; here the modern city was established as the seat of government in 1767, after the capture of Ayuthia (see JUDEA) by the Burmese in that year. It is uncertain if the first quotation refer to Bancock.
1552. -- ". . . and Bamplacot, which stands at the mouth of the Menam."-<-> Barros, I. ix. 1.
1611. -- "They had arrived in the Road of Syam the fifteenth of August, and cast Anchor at three fathome high water. . . . The Towne lyeth some thirtie leagues vp along the Riuer, whither they sent newes of their arrivall. The Sabander (see SHAHBUNDER) and the Governor of Mancock (a place scituated by the Riuer), came backe with the Messengers to receiue his Majesties Letters, but chiefly for the presents expected. " -- P. Williamson Floris, in Purchas, i. 321.
1727. -- The Ship arrived at Bencock, a Castle about half-way up, where it is customary for all Ships to put their Guns ashore." -- A. Hamilton, i. 363.
1850. -- "Civitas regia tria habet nomina: . . . ban măkōk, per contractionem Bangkōk, pagus oleastrorum, est nomen primitivum quod hodie etiam vulgo usurpatur."-<-> Pallegoix, Gram. Linguae Thai., Bangkok, 1850, p. 167."
[a.a.O., S. 56f.]
" JUNK , s. A large Eastern ship; especially (and in later use exclusively) a Chinese ship. This indeed is the earliest application also; any more general application belongs to an intermediate period. This is one of the oldest words in the Europeo-Indian vocabulary. It occurs in the travels of Friar Odorico, written down in 1331, and a few years later in the rambling reminscences of John de' Marignolli. The great Catalan Worldmap of 1375 gives a sketch of one of those ships with their sails of bamboo matting and calls them Xnchi. no doubt a clerical error for Xũchi. Dobner, the original editor of Marignolli, in the 18th century, says of the word (junkos): "This word I cannot find in any medieval glossary. Most probably we are to understand vessels of platted reeds (a juncis texta) which several authors relate to be used in India." It is notable that the same erroneous suggestion is made by Amerigo Vespucci in his curious letter to one of the Medici, giving an account of the voyage of Da Gama, whose squadron he had met at C. Verde on its way home.
The French translators of Ibn Batuta derive the word from the Chinese tchouen (chwen), and Littré gives the same etymology (s.v. jonque). It is possible that the word may be eventually traced to a Chinese original, but not very probable. The old Arab traders must have learned the word from Malay pilots, for it is certainly the Javanese and Malay jong and ajong, 'a ship or large vessel.' In Javanese the Great Bear is called Lintang jong, 'The Constellation Junk,' [which is in Malay Bintang Jong. The various forms in Malay and cognate languages, with the Chinese words which have been suggested as the origin, are very fully given by Scott, Malayan Words in English, p. 59 seq.].
c. 1300. -- "Large ships called in the language of China 'Junks' bring various sorts of choice merchandize and cloths from Chín and Máchín, and the countries of Hind and Sind." -- Rashíduddín, in Elliot, i. 69.
1331. -- "And when we were there in harbour at Polumbum, we embarked in another ship called a Junk (aliam navim nomine Zuncum). . . . Now on board that ship were good 700 souls, what with sailors and with merchants. . . ." -- Friar Odoric, in Cathay, &c., 73.
c. 1343. -- "They make no voyages on the China Sea except with Chinese vessels . . . of these there are three kinds; the big ones which are called junk, in the plural junūk. . . . Each of these big ships carries from three up to twelve sails. The sails are made of bamboo slips, woven like mats; they are never hauled down, but are shifted round as the wind blows from one quarter or another." -- Ibn Batuta, iv. 91. The French translators write the words as gonk (and gonoûk). Ibn Batuta really indicates chunk (and chunūk); but both must have been quite wrong.
c. 1348. -- "Wishing them to visit the shrine of St. Thomas the Apostle . . . we embarked on certain Junks (ascendentes Junkos) from Lower India, which is called Minubar." -- Marignolli, in Cathay, &c., 356.
1459. -- "About the year of Our Lord 1420, a Ship or Junk of India, in crossing the Indian Sea, was driven . . . in a westerly and south-westerly direction for 40 days, without seeing anything but sky and sea. . . . The ship having touched on the coast to supply its wants, the mariners beheld there the egg of a certain bird called chrocho, which egg was as big as a butt. . . ."-<-> Rubric on Fra Mauro's Great Map at Venice.
" "The Ships or junks (Zonchi) which navigate this sea, carry 4 masts, and others besides that they can set up or strike (at will); and they have 40 to 60 little chambers for the merchants, and they have only one rudder. . . ." -- Ibid.
1516. -- "Many Moorish merchants reside in it (Malacca), and also Gentiles, particularly Chetis (see CHETTY), who are natives of Cholmendel; and they are all very rich, and have many large ships which they call jungos." -- Barbosa, 191.
1549. -- "Exclusus isto concilio, applicavit animum ad navem Sinensis formae, quam Iuncum vocant." -- Scti. Franc. Xaverii Epist. 337.
[1554. -- ". . . in the many ships and junks (Jugos) which certainly passed that way." -- Castanheda, ii. c. 20.]
1563. -- "Juncos are certain long ships that have stern and prow fashioned in the same way." -- Garcia, f. 58b.
1591. -- "By this Negro we were advertised of a small Barke of some thirtie tunnes (which the Moors call a Iunco)." -- Barker's Acc. of Lancaster's Voyage, in Hakl. ii. 589.
1616. -- "And doubtless they had made havock of them all, had they not presently been relieved by two Arabian Junks (for so their small ill-built ships are named. . . .)" -- Terry, ed. 1665, p. 342.
[1625. -- "An hundred Prawes and Iunkes." -- Purchas, Pilgrimage, i. 2, 43.
[1627. -- "China also, and the great Atlantis (that you call America), which have now but Iunks and Canoas, abounded then in tall Ships." -- Bacon, New Atlantis, p. 12.]
1630. -- "So repairing to Iasques (see JASK), a place in the Persian Gulph, they obtained a fleete of Seaven Iuncks, to convey them and theirs as Merchantmen bound for the Shoares of India." -- Lord, Religion of the Persees, 3.1673. -- Fryer also speaks of "Portugal Junks." The word had thus come to mean any large vessel in the Indian Seas. Barker's use for a small vessel (above) is exceptional."
[a.a.O., S. 472]
Der deutsche Chirurg Ernst Gustav Benjamin von Bergmann (1836 - 1907) führt die Dampfsterilisation ärztlicher Instrumente ein. Damit wird die gefährliche chemische Sterilisation zurückgedrängt.
Abb.: Ernst von Bergmann bei einer Operation. Im Vordergrund Trommel mit sterilisiertem Material / von Franz Skarbina (1849 - 1910), 1906
Der Amerikaner Jackson macht als Erster den Vorschlag, Beton vorzuspannen (Spannbeton). Durch Spannbeton wird der Betonbau in der Folgezeit revolutioniert.
Abb.: Wirkungsweise der Vorspannung
[Bildquelle: Störfix / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Frankreich: erste Versuche zur Trinkwasseraufbereitung (Reinigung und Desinfektion) durch Ozon.
Die französische Armee beginnt Fusil d'Infantrie Modèle 1886 als Standardgewehr einzuführen. Es ist das erste Gewehr, das für den Einsatz von rauchlosem Schießpulver entwickelt wurde.
Abb.: Fusil d'Infantrie Modèle 1886
[Bildquelle: Antique Military Riffles. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/36224933@N07/4685605331. -- Zugriff am 2013-08-26. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Abb.: Von den Britem erbeutete birmanische Schusswaffen
[Bildquelle: The Graphic <London>. -- 1886-06-19]
Burma wird Teil von Britisch-Indien. Die birmanische Regierung wird durch einen Chief Commisioner und eine britische Verwaltung ersetzt. Die Shan-Staaten werden als von Upper Burma verschiedene eigene politische Einheit mit eigener Verwaltung unter Shan-Fürsten, so lange diese den Briten loyal sind..
Abb.: British Burma
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]
"Divisions of British Burma
The province of Burma, after 1885 was administered as follows:
- Ministerial Burma (Burma proper)
- Tenasserim Division (Toungoo, Thaton, Amherst, Salween, Tavoy, and Mergui Districts)
- Arakan Division (Akyab, Northern Arakan or Arakan Hill Tracts, Kyaukpyu and Sandoway Districts)
- Pegu Division (Rangoon City, Hanthawaddy, Pegu, Tharrawaddy and Prome Districts)
- Irrawaddy Division (Bassein, Henzada, Thayetmyo, Maubin, Myaungmya and Pyapon Districts)
- Scheduled Areas (Frontier Areas)
- Shan States
- Chin Hills
- Kachin tracts
The "Frontier Areas", also known as the "Excluded Areas" or the "Scheduled Areas", compose the majority of states within Burma today. They were administered separately by the British with a Burma Frontier Service, and later united with Burma proper to form Myanmar's geographic composition today. The Frontier Areas were inhabited by ethnic minorities such as the Chin, the Shan (တႆး / ไทใหญ่ ), the Kachin and the Karenni (กะเหรี่ยง)."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_rule_in_Burma. -- Zugriff am 2014-11-10]
Abb.: Burma: ethnolinguistic groups, 1972
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]
1886 - 1888
Kampf indo-britischer Truppen um die Herrschaft über die Shan-Staaten und andere Minderheitengebiete. 1886 sind in den Shan-Staaten 20.000 indo-britische Besatzungssoldaten. Ende 1888 sind die meisten Shan-Gebiete befriedet.
Abb.: Lage von Lampang (ลำปาง)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
"Cultivation is dependent to a very great extent upon the irrigation canals and trenches which have been cut in former times, often of considerable length, and which, when in good order, distribute the waters of the Me Wang and other streams over a large surface. But the present chief does nothing for the people. They are there for his benefit, not he for theirs. To this view of a ruler’s duties is mainly attributable the serious drought from which the country suffered in the rainy season in 1885. Thousands of the people were deprived of their sustenance, and not a few emigrated elsewhere in search of food, while of those who remained many had to support life on the bitter tubers of a species of Colocasia [vermutlich: Taro - Colocasia esculenta] that grows wild in the recesses of the mountains."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 120f.]
Abb.: Taro - Colocasia esculenta
[Bildquelle: Wibowo Djatmiko / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
"6 January. The thermometer this morning at 7 o’clock again marked 51° [11°C]. It was intensely cold, and the bath was a fearful pleasure. But as soon as the sun had dispersed the mists which hung over the river, the air became warm; a pith helmet and an umbrella seemed necessary means of protection against a ‘coup de soleil’. After breakfast I got myself ferried across the river with Luang Suriya, and we went for a walk through the bazaar, where there are a few shops kept by Chinamen and by Lao women. Petticoat stuffs, cotton yarns, lucifer matches and scents were the chief foreign goods exposed for sale. Turning a corner we found ourselves at the southern end of the main street, which we traversed as far as the sala klang [ศาลากลาง], where my friend Luang Thoranen has taken up his quarters. This is the building where Mr Bock installed himself, as he relates in the book [Bock, Carl <1849 - 1932>: Templer og elefanter : eller beretnig om en undersøgelsesreise gjennem Siam og Lao. -- Kristiania : Mallings, 1884. -- 370 S. ; Ill.] I have referred to more than once, against the wishes of the local authorities. His imprudence in striking a Lao Phya [เจ้าพระยา] was probably the cause of his subsequent difficulties with the people of Chiengmai [เชียงใหม่] and Muang Fang [ฝาง]. How far the objections made to his carrying off Buddhist idols from the latter place were due to the word having been passed on from Lakhon [Lampang], or to genuine religious objections on the part of the inhabitants, it might be difficult to say. The Siamese have no scruples about appropriating broken images from a ruined temple, but they dislike such articles passing into the possession of a foreigner, who owing to the difference of religion would be unlikely to treat them with due respect. Most of us would object to an engraving of, say the Sistine Madonna, being hung up as an ornament in the house of a Siamese ‘globe-trotter’, or his using an old silver chalice as a tea-pot. The Siamese it is said do not approve of Buddhist images being sold to the foreigners resident in Bangkok, even when they have never been dedicated by being enshrined in some temple. If an European, consequently, happens to acquire any article of this sort he should keep the fact to himself, out of mere tenderness to the scruples of the natives, even when he does not respect such a weakness.
The women struck one as being very free in their manners, for they chaffed our elephant drivers, who were mostly complete strangers, as if they had been intimate acquaintances since their childhood. One hears an indifferent account of their morals, which is perhaps not to be wondered at in a country where the female sex apparently is allowed equal rights with the other portion of mankind. They simply claim and exercise the privileges which in most other countries are confined to the men, with a result that may be recommended to the attention of some of our more advanced social reformers.
Dr and Mrs Peoples who reside here deserve grateful mention. They are missionaries belonging to the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions, or as it is more shortly known in Siam, the A.B.C.F.M. Young and energetic, they have taken up their abode in Lakhon [Lampang], three days distance from their colleagues in Chiengmai, and on the average two months from Bangkok. The chief is friendly, and has given them a plot of ground some quarter of a mile below the Vice- Consulate where they are about to build a comfortable house. In addition to his spiritual office, Dr Peoples exercises the profession of a physician, and it may safely be prophesied that for the present he will have more calls for the cure of bodies than of souls. He has only three Christian converts to look after, and these are not of his own making. Consequently he has to occupy his spare time as best he can with cycling on very bad roads, riding and shooting. He is superior to most of his class, and very much of a gentleman. As a rule Christianity does not make much progress either in Siam or among the Laos, but to the American missionaries is due the spread of the English language and what few elementary notions of European civilisation have as yet found their way into the minds of the natives. They war constantly against ignorance, superstition and oppression, and for their efforts in these directions they deserve the respect of every candid man. Of course they are not liked, for the reason that they have not been able to lower their standard of conduct to the local level."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 124 - 127]
1886-01-11 - 1886-01-14
Chiang Mai [เชียงใหม่]
"I asked him about Doi Chiengdao [ดอยเชียงดาว]. Well, the people used formerly to ascend it, but it is now inaccessible. Did not know why, but the Laos could not go up any longer. The Phi [ผี] (Spirits) would prevent them.
Abb.: Lage des Doi Chiengdao [ดอยเชียงดาว]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
By far the most remarkable sight which Chiengmai [เชียงใหม่] affords is the early morning market. To this between two and three thousand women flock in every day from the surrounding country, each bringing her small supply of goods for sale, and coming in some cases from long distances, even as far as from Lamphun [ลำพูน / หละปูน] itself. They line both sides of the road leading up to the outer western gate, the first part of the main street to the second gate and from the crossroads in the centre of the city they spread right and left for a long distance. Their wares are laid out on mats spread on the ground, behind which they squat in little groups of twos and threes. No shouting or loud-voiced chaffering over sales, as is the case with the Siamese market-women in Bangkok. I have already described their dress and the manner of doing up their hair peculiar to the Lao women. Many of them wear a bunch of flowers at the back of the head. The stock-in-trade of a group seems to be of no great value; a few half dried chillies, some bundles of cut tobacco, three or four pieces of petticoat cloth, a pile of buffalo-hide wafers sprinkled with sesame seed, or a few pounds of pork would furnish out half a dozen of them. It is seldom that you see either fish or rice exposed for sale, and I have no idea where the people who deal in these principal articles of food are to be found. The only shops in the town are small booths which line the street between the first and second gates, and here you may buy English cotton goods, yarns, and lacquered boxes from Burmah. In the cross street outside, which runs northwards and parallel to the river, you can procure a few vegetables and miscellaneous European goods from Chinamen or their native wives. The shops inside the walls seem to be mostly in the hands of the Burmese men and women. There are two European stores outside the town, one kept by an Italian, the other by a German, the latter having his place of business on the left bank of the river. Rupees are the universal currency.
The city is laid out on the same principle as Phre [Phrae - แพร่/แป้], Lakhon [ละคอน = Lampang - ลำปาง] and Lamphun [ลำพูน / หละปูน]. You can hardly see the houses for the trees. Each dwelling stands in its own garden of fruit trees, including a fair proportion of areca palms. A Lao city is like an assemblage of rural suburbs turned outside-in and intersected by green lanes. The best theory is that the walls are intended solely as a refuge for the population of the province in time of war, and not as its usual place of habitation. The chief’s palace is naturally inside, as are also the houses of his numerous relatives, many, if not most, of whom occupy official posts. Artizans of merit have no freedom. As soon as a man becomes noted for skill in silverrepoussé work or the manufacture of lacquered boxes, he is overwhelmed with commands from the chief and his relations, who pay little or nothing for the labour they thus monopolize. Consequently anything like a healthy development of the natural artistic capacity of the people is not to be expected, and there are no shops where you can buy their productions. You must supply a silversmith with rupees, and wait your turn until he can find time to work it up into the cup or basin you require.
The form of the lacquered articles produced by these people is exclusively cylindrical or cup-shaped. The core is of fine bamboo basket-work, coated with lac, or with lac mixed with the ashes of straw. When the lac is dry, the basket is turned on a very simple lathe, the wheel of which revolves backwards and forwards, the principle of the crank being apparently unknown. In place of the more scientific appliance, the workman uses a treadle, which turns the wheel one way, and it is brought back in the opposite direction by a long bamboo which acts as a spring. The tool employed for smoothing is a bent chisel, sharpened at the end and sides of the bend. After the process of shaving has once been performed, fresh lac is applied, and it is shaved again, for the finest work this is repeated as many as twenty times. After being turned, the surface is polished with a piece of fine-grained reddish stone of a sandy texture. The natural colour of the lac when dried is black. After the coating has reached a sufficient thickness, therequired design is drawn on it by means of an ordinary double-ended graving tool, and lac coloured red with vermilion is rubbed into the pattern thus obtained. Finally the completed article is polished by covering it with a mixture of lac and vegetable oil; the polish -is simply smeared over with the finger and left to dry. The drying takes place on a shelf closed by a curtain, and the vapour of water is not, as m Japan, considered necessary. The lac is obtained from a tree which is certainly not the Rhus vernicifera, and I am inclined to believe, that the process and the materials employed do not differ from those used in the similar manufacture which is carried on in Burmah. For my own part, I consider the Burmese article to be superior to what is produced in Chiengmai. One of the workmen who was engaged on a cylindrical box about eight inches diameter and three and a half inches high said that he would receive a rupee and a half for. his labour, but that the completed article would fetch ten rupees in the bazaar. The designs are drawn from memory, and consist mainly of conventional flowers and leafage, with sometimes a bird introduced, the peacock appearing to be a favourite."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 144 - 149]]
Prinz Maha-Vajirunhis (มหาวชิรุณหิศ, 1878 - 1895) wird Kronprinz (สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร).
Abb.: Maha-Vajirunhis (มหาวชิรุณหิศ)
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
"Crown Prince Maha Vajirunhis (Thai: มหาวชิรุณหิศ, June 27, 1878 - January 4, 1895) was the first Crown Prince of the Chakri Dynasty. He was the first son of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Savang Vadhana (สว่างวัฒนา, 1862 - 1955).
In 1886, after the death of the last Vice King (กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) Bovorn Vichaichan (กรมพระราชวังบวรวิไชยชาญ, 1838 - 1885), King Chulalongkorn chose not to appoint one of his brothers as a new Vice King, but instead appointed his eldest son as the Crown Prince of Siam. On 14 January 1886 he was officially introduced to his position with the title of Sayam Makutrajakuman (สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร) or Crown Prince of Siam. A bright and handsome child the Prince died unexpectedly of typhoid at age 16, long before he could reach the throne. King Chulalongkorn's second son, Prince Vajiravudh (วชิราวุธ) was then named crown prince, and succeeded him as Rama VI in 1910.
The King build the Prince his own Palace, nicknamed Windsor Palace (วังวินด์เซอร์), the European style palace was demolished after his death, the site is currently the National Stadium of Thailand."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajirunhis. -- Zugriff am 2012-03-30]
Chiang Mai [เชียงใหม่]
"On the 15th of January, I dined with the chief, who had courteously allowed me to fix the hour.
The conversation was heavy, until someone started the subject of Burma, and the chief’s eyes glittered with delight as he called to mind how his people had pursued a Burmese pretender, who appeared in Chiengmai some years ago, and killed one or two of the impostor’s followers. The old man would not believe that the British forces had taken Mandalay [မန္တလေးမြို့]; the whole story was too incredible. As if any European could have conquered the great Kingdom of Burmah, which had been too much for the Laos themselves a hundred years ago, with so little difficulty. Moreover our own Burmese subjects in Chiengmai disbelieved the rumour. It had been invented in Chiengmai itself by the foreigner who sat in a hut at the end of a wire and pretended to be in communication with Bangkok. Everyone knew that it was impossible. After dinner we admired his collection of gold boxes and basins ofrepoussé work, kept in a series of glazed cupboards at the back of the room, many of them very large and heavy, and probably ancient. They are the handsomest things of the kind I have seen in Siam, and the intrinsic value of the mere metal must be several thousand pounds. His crown, a gift from the King of Siam, was also produced."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 150]
Chiang Mai [เชียงใหม่]
"January 23. The real object of our trip was to visit a teak forest, in order to get an idea, from actual inspection, of the manner in which the timber business is carried on. These forests exist all over the five northern Lao provinces, and many of them are worked by Asiatic British subjects under contract with the chiefs and other owners, in some cases by lease for a period of years, in others upon annual agreements, the usual terms being a royalty of three or four rupees a log, besides the presents in the nature of a premium that are given in order to obtain a lease. The lessees seldom or hardly ever are men of capital, but obtain funds at a high rate of interest (generally three per cent a month) from the Indian money lenders at Moulmein. A lessee will work part of a forest himself, another part will be sublet, and a third part will be handed over to contractors, who undertake to deliver logs at a fixed price at the bank of the stream by which they are to be floated down. The original lessee is bound to pay the royalty on each log before it leaves the limits of the forest on its way down to Moulmein or Bangkok, and to him the owner is entitled to look for payment. But sometimes he recognizes the sub-lessee by consenting to receive the royalty from him direct.
The foresters, being mostly men of straw, as a rule do not pay the royalty on taking away the timber, and in order to remove it have to give a promissory note for the amount due, with interest again at three per cent a month, and they often assign by way of collateral security some indefinite number of logs still lying in the forest or so many elephants, which are not in any way identified; this sort of document they are in the habit of styling a mortgage. Everything goes smoothly enough if rain falls every year in sufficient quantity to float out into the rivers the logs which have been dragged to the bank of the stream. The forester then sells them at Moulmein [မော်လမြိုင်မြို့] or Bangkok, or perhaps on the way to either of those places, and having got his money is in a position to redeem the note he has given for the royalty. If he is honest he gets on all right, but many of them are of extravagant habits and prefer spending the cash on women or temple building, the two kinds of luxury to which the Burman or Peguan is chiefly addicted. He gives fresh notes to the lesser, and the debt continues to grow at compound interest until all hope of its ever being discharged is given up by the parties. Then the owner tries to come down upon the lessee, sub-lessees and contractors, he lays violent hands upon all the logs lying in the forest and upon all the elephants he can find, no matter whose they are, and in entire disregard of the rights of the men who have by their labour given to the timber nine-tenths of the value which it now possesses. And a pretty crop of law-suits is the result.
Another source of dispute in past times has been the practice indulged in by some of the chiefs of granting away the same forest to two different individuals, or of giving the lease of a forest to one man after he has already accorded to another the right of cutting timber, in spite of a special treaty dating so far back as 1874 by which the Siamese Government undertook to put a stop to these proceedings. In another article of the same treaty it was provided that a court should be established to try all cases between British subjects and Siamese or Laos, but it never heard or decided a single action. A fresh treaty was negotiated in 1883 which, as far as can at present be seen, promises to produce better results under the constant supervision of the Vice-consul who resides at Chiengmai to look alter the interests of the numerous British subjects scattered over the Northern Lao States.
The teak from the Western part of Nan [น่าน], the State of Phre [Phrae - แพร่/แป้] and from part of Lakhon [ละคอน = Lampang - ลำปาง] comes down the Me Yom [แม่น้ำยม] past Sawankhalok [สวรรคโลก], while a certain quantity descends from Eastern Nan [น่าน] and the provinces of Phichhai [พิชัย] and Phitsanulok [พิษณุโลก] by the Menam Pho [แม่น้ำโพ]. A small quantity of
inferior timber is obtained from the provinces of Sawankhalok [สวรรคโลก] and Sukhothai [สุโขทัย] also. The two rivers unite a short way above Paknampho [ปากน้ำโพ], from which place the rafts pass down the Menam.
That of Western Lakhon [ละคอน = Lampang - ลำปาง], Northern and Eastern Chiengmai [เชียงใหม่] and Lamphun [ลำพูน/หละปูน] finds its way by the Me Ping [แม่น้ำปิง] to Paknampho [ปากน้ำโพ] and so to Bangkok.
The Siamese provinces of Mu’ang Thon (Tern) [เมืองเถิน] and Raheng [ระแหง = Tak - ตาก] also yield a certain amount.
On the west of the State of Chiengmai is the well known forest of Mu’ang Yuom [Khun Yuam - ขุนยวม], the produce of which finds its way to Maulmein by the river Salween [သံလွင်မြစ်], as does likewise that of the Thoungyeen valley, the opposite sides of which belong respectively to Burmah and the Siamese Province of Raheng. Further north contributions are received from Mehong-son [Mae Hong Son - แม่ฮ่องสอน], which belongs to Chiengmai, the valley of the Me Hang and even from the banks of streams which lie in the Western districts of the State of Chieng-tung [Keng Tung - ကျိုင်းတုံမြို့].
A curious circumstance is the great difference in the prices obtained at Maulmein and Bangkok. At the former port the rates for the finest logs are from eighty to one hundred rupees, while at the latter they sell for no more than thirty-five. One explanation I have heard offered is that in Maulmein there is a considerable market for shingles cut out of the “slabs” or outsides of the logs, while in Bangkok these are almost of no value, and hence the exporter cannot afford to pay as high a price for the rough logs as the teak buyers of Burmah are ready to give. Logs at Chiengmai, on which the royalty of three to four rupees has been paid are worth, say, about fifteen rupees, and the average cost of transit thence to Bangkok is eight rupees, half of which is for elephants “ounding” them over shallow places down to the rapids and thence to Raheng, where they are made up into rafts, the balance being for rafting to Bangkok. At Chhainat a duty has to be paid to the Siamese government which averages another four rupees. So that with the high interest on the capital embarked in this trade, the profit to the forester is a very uncertain thing. If he is lucky in getting his timber out quickly, he will make money, but if a succession of dry seasons intervenes, he loses heavily. Three years is probably the least time in which a log can be cut and brought down. The fluctuations of the market at home, which of late years have been severe, must also be taken into account, and it is a matter for surprise that any man should think it worth his while to embark in such a business.
In the forest of Ban Huei Samöng the teak trees are mostly near the stream, but in some parts of the Lao States the timber has to be dragged as much as ten miles, and the labour required to get it to the bank of the stream is enormously expensive. The elephant seems to do little work in proportion to his huge size; for three days he drags timber up to noon, and then has a five days rest. The logs are felled during the rainy season, when they are less likely to be split by the fall, as the ground is then soft. One forester cuts a single log per diem, but three usually work together, and cut the same number of logs. They use a heavy long handled axe, in preference to a saw. We saw several pine trees lying there which had been utterly ruined by splitting, for ropes are not employed to break the force of impact on the earth. The woodmen no doubt try to direct the fall of the tree so that it may come down clear of its neighbours, but they are not always successful, and then the trunk comes crashing down through the surrounding branches, damaging itself and sometimes seriously injuring the men who have miscalculated the effect of their blows. Before being felled the trees are “girdled”,
that is to say the bark is roughly hacked through with the axe at a height of about four feet from the ground, so that the tree dies, after which it is usually left standing for three years to dry. But sometimes the lessee has a larger number of trees “girdled” than he can cut during the term of his agreement, and they may then be left to dry for several years, which much impairs their value. A custom appears to exist of allowing the outgoing lessee to exact from his successor a rupee for each tree girdled and left standing. This right should not be recognized by the courts, as it leads to waste, and the price thus paid for girdling is far in excess of its value. There is no written law to regulate this industry, and the judges have therefore the opportunity by carefully considered decisions of giving the stamp of legality to those forest customs which common sense approves, while refusing to recognize those which are detrimental to the public interest. But what am I doing in assuming such a motive of action as regard to the “public interest” in a country where there is no public, and the people are regarded as existing for the sole benefit of their rulers?
There are of course no laws or customs having the conservation of the forests for their object, and in a few years more all the timber that is worth cutting will have been exhausted. The teak tree is self-sown, and if the forests are allowed to lie fallow for twenty years or so, the business will again revive. A regulation has been proposed by which the foresters would be heavily fined for each log felled that is of less than a certain diameter, but regulations are of little use when the officials cannot be trusted to enforce them. The unpopular system of government reserves which exists in Burmah would be even more difficult of application here."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 158 - 162]
Prinz Prisdang Jumsai (พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932) wird als Gesandter akkreditiert vonSeiner Kaiserlichen und Königlichen Apostolischen Majestät
von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König von Ungarn und Böhmen, von Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slawonien, Galizien, Lodomerien und Illyrien; König von Jerusalem etc.; Erzherzog von Österreich; Großherzog von Toskana und Krakau; Herzog von Lothringen, von Salzburg, Steyer, Kärnten, Krain und der Bukowina; Großfürst von Siebenbürgen, Markgraf von Mähren; Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piacenza und Guastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; Gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg und Tirol, von Kyburg, Görz und Gradisca; Fürst von Trient und Brixen; Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Graf von Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg etc.; Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark; Großwojwode der Wojwodschaft Serbien etc., etc.
Franz Joseph I. (1830 - 1916)
Abb.: Franz Joseph I., 1908
Am 28. ist Prinz Prisdang zum Hofball der Kaiserin Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie (1837 - 1898), Herzogin in Bayern, Kaiserin von Österreich, Apostolische Königin von Ungarn, eingeladen.
Abb.: Elisabeth, 1898
Abb.: Wiener Hofball
Prinz Prisdang macht auch seine Aufwartungen bei
- Erzherzog Rudolf Franz Karl Joseph (1858 - 1889), Kronprinz von Österreich und Ungarn
- Marie Therese Henriette Dorothea (1849 - 1919), Erzherzogin von Österreich-Este, Prinzessin von Modena
- Albrecht Friedrich Rudolf (1817 - 1895), Erzherzog von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, Feldmarschall und Generalinspektor der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee
- Erzherzog Wilhelm Franz Karl (1827 - 1894) von Habsburg-Lothringen
- Erzherzog Ludwig Viktor Joseph Anton (1842 - 1919) von Österreich
Abb.: Erzherzog Rudolf Franz Karl Joseph (1858 - 1889), Kronprinz von Österreich und Ungarn
Abb.: Marie Therese Henriette Dorothea (1849 - 1919), Erzherzogin von Österreich-Este, Prinzessin von Modena
[Bildquelle: Wiukimedia. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Albrecht Friedrich Rudolf (1817 - 1895), Erzherzog von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, Feldmarschall und Generalinspektor der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Erzherzog Wilhelm Franz Karl (1827 - 1894) von Habsburg-Lothringen
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Erzherzog Ludwig Viktor Joseph Anton (1842 - 1919) von Österreich, 1889
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
Der französische Resident von Kampong Cham (កំពង់ចាម), Calan, an den resident general von Kambodscha über die Aufstände gegen d Franzosen in ganz Kambodscha:
"We cannot deceive ourselves; with the exception of a few points on the river where our supporters still hold on, with difficulty, the insurrection is master of the whole region. Throughout, bands move about the country, taxing the population, recruiting men, burning the houses of our partisans, and attempting to take their women and children so that they can be removed to the interior as a way to force others to make their submission.
To give an exact idea of the situation, in terms of the attitude of the population, everyone works against an effort to make an evaluation of the state of the countryside. The Cambodian population is entirely won over to the rebellion."
[Übersetzt in: Osborne, Milton E.: The French presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia : rule and response (1859-1905). -- Bangkok : white Lotus, 1997. -- 379 S. : Ill. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-00-1. -- "First published by Cornell Univ. in 1969". -- S. 213f.]
1886-02-01 - 1886-07-20
William Ewart Gladstone (1809 - 1898) ist Prime Minister Großbritanniens.
Abb.: William Ewart Gladstone, 1889
Per Dekret wird der Lehrplan für Standard I festgelegt. Es sind die sechs Bände der Sprachlehre:
ศรีสุนทรโวหาร (น้อย อาจารยางกูร) [Si Sunthon Wohan] <พระยา> <1822 - 1891>: มูลบทบรรพกิจ ["Erste Schritte der Pflichten"]. -- 1871. -- Online: http://www.finearts.go.th/nakhonsithammaratlibrary/parameters/search/หนังสืออิเล็กทรอนิกส์/book/27.html?page=100&tmpl=component. -- Zugriff am 2015-09-29
sowie minimale Kenntnisse westlicher Arithmetik.
Festlegung des Lehrplans für Standard II. Die Schüler müssen lernen
Raheng [ระแหง = Tak - ตาก]
Abb.: Lage von Raheng [ ระแหง = Tak - ตาก], Moulmein [မော်လမြိုင်မြို့] und Tavoy [ထားဝယ်မြို့]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
"Raheng [ระแหง = Tak - ตาก], as may be seen from the map, lies about halfway between Chiengmai [เชียงใหม่] and Bangkok. It is the principal town in the northern part of Siam proper, and the province of which it is the capital immediately adjoins the Lao States of Lakhon [ละคอน = Lampang - ลำปาง] and Chiengmai. Mu’ang Tak is the official name, Raheng, by which it is best known to foreigners, being as far as I have been able to ascertain, its original Lao appellation. On the west the province of Raheng is conterminous with Lower Burmah, and the road hence to Moulmein [မော်လမြိုင်မြို့] is much frequented by traders, who take about five days to perform the journey. Where traders go, dacoits are pretty sure to abound, and cases of gang-robbery are not uncommon on the frontier. The ringleader in these crimes was until recently a certain subordinate of the Governor of Raheng, named Phra In, who, owing to subterranean connections with the Palace at Bangkok, has hitherto managed to evade the penalty of his misdeeds. He has however been at last arrested, and will no doubt be put on his trial in company with two of his accomplices who have been extradited for that purpose by the British Authorities in Burmah, whither they had fled to escape justice. A line of telegraph has recently been constructed between Raheng and Moulmein, doubling that which already exists between Bangkok and Tavoy [ထားဝယ်မြို့]."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 192f.]
John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley (1826 – 1902), Secretary of State for India, an Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (1826 – 1902), Vizekönig von Indien:
Abb.: John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley
[Bildquelle: Carlo Pellegrini (1839–1889). -- In: Vanity Fair. -- 1869-07-17. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
[Bildquelle: Alfred Thompson (1831–1895). -- In Vanity Fair. -- 1870-04-09. -- Public domain]
"Of course we don't wish to see Siam swallowed up by France, but besides that such an event, though possible, cannot be very near, I do not see that we should feel much anxiety now that we have all Burmah. It would have been a serious evil that French influence should predominate in the upper valley of the Irrawaddy [ဧရာဝတီမြစ်]. It is by no means of the same importance to us that France should dominate the country watered by the Mekong [មេគង្គ / ແມ່ນ້ຳຂອງ / แม่น้ำโขง], or even, though that would certainly be objectionable, the country through which runs the Menam [แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา] [Chao Phraya]. The situation is for obvious reasons not comparable to the position of Russia on our North West frontier for the simple reason that the French possessions are within the sphere in which our naval superiority can be exerted with its full weight."
[Zitiert in: Tuck, Patrick J. N.: The French wolf and the Siamese lamb : the French threat to Siamese independence, 1858-1907. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 434 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-28-7. -- S. 84f.]
Abb.: Lage von Irrawaddy [ဧရာဝတီမြစ်], Menam Chao Phraya [แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา] und Mekong [មេគង្គ / ແມ່ນ້ຳຂອງ / แม่น้ำโขง]
[Bildquelle: Scottish Geographical Magazine. -- 1886. -- Public domain]
Kamphaeng Phet [กำแพงเพชร]
Abb.: Lage von Kamphaeng Phet [กำแพงเพชร]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
"Another method of fishing, which is rather a favourite with the Laos, is to throw into the water small balls compounded of rice and tobacco. These the fish greedily devour, and becoming half stupefied, they are then easily caught by hand. This sort of fishing our men used to practise nearly every evening at the edge of the sand-bank where the boats lay. They also wasted a good deal of time by stopping during the day to cut fire-wood as a provision for the lower part of the river, where it is not so readily obtained, but they might just as well have done this work in the evenings after the boat was tied up."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 197]
Oberhalb von Paknam Pho (ปากน้ำโพ = Nakhon Sawan - นครสวรรค์)
Abb.: Lage von Paknam Pho (ปากน้ำโพ = Nakhon Sawan - นครสวรรค์)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
"That evening we reached a village on the left bank not far above Paknam Pho [ปากน้ำโพ], of which I am not able to record the name. It was a wretched-looking place surpassing in squalor even the ordinary Siamese village. The day’s work being over, a few of the inhabitants were lounging on the high bank under the trees. In answer to our questions, they said they had not been able to raise a rice crop last year on account of the deficiency of water, nor the year before last, owing to the floods. They complained of the hardships of the "government service", to which there appeared to be no limit. The native officials who travel on the river are allowed to impress the inhabitants to serve as boatmen, for which no pay is given. Life was not worth having, they said, so great was the oppression under which the people groaned. For the expedition to Luang Phrabang [ຫຼວງພະບາງ] the government had required a levy of a hundred men from the district, but the local officials called out the whole male population and forced those who were not needed to pay for exemption. They were glad to see foreigners in the country, for they paid for everything they had, and did not take away the villagers to row their boats. There is no doubt that the administrative system in Siam is capable of being greatly ameliorated, and perhaps we might without much exaggeration call it very bad. It is even possible that the common people imagine they would be better off under the dominion of a civilised power, and would not fight very bravely in defence of their own King. But on the other hand, there is no government in the world that satisfies everybody, and grumbling against the powers that be is a favourite occupation with people who have not energy enough to defend their natural rights or to insist upon improvement. And I do not think that the benefit we confer on Asiatics by relieving them of corrupt and oppressive rulers quite counterbalances the loss of their independence. But those only deserve to be free who can secure freedom by their own exertions."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 199f.]
Der britische Gesandte, Ernest Mason Satow (1843 - 1929), kehrt von seiner - 1885-12-01 begonnenen - Inspektionsreise nach Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) zurück.
"I had thus been a hundred and one days away, two-thirds of which time had been spent in actual travelling and after having been pent up so long in a boat, I was only too glad to return to a terrestrial existence at Bangkok, and the comfort of a leathern armchair."
[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. ]
Luang Prabang (ຫຼວງພະບາງ, Laos): Übereinkunft zwischen Siam und Frankreich über die Anwesenheit von siamesischen Beamten in Laos. Die Übereinkunft wird von Frankreich nie voll ratifiziert. Siam stationiert in Luang Prabang (ຫຼວງພະບາງ) und Xieng Khouang (ຊຽງຂວາງ) Residenten.
Abb.: Lage von Luang Prabang (ຫຼວງພະບາງ) und Xieng Khouang (ຊຽງຂວາງ)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Der US-Drogist John Stith Pemberton (1831 - 1888) erfindet Pemberton’s French Wine Coca, das ursprüngliche Coca Cola. Dieses wird während des Vietnamkriegs zum Symbol des US-Imperialismus ("Imperialistenbrause").
Abb.: Inserat Pembertons
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Coca Cola wird auch Thailand "erobern": Bangkok, Songkran, 2007
[Bildquelle: perigrinari. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/66094064@N00/467015882. -- Zugriff am 2013-08-24. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]
Ange Michel Filippini (1834 - 1887), französischer Gouverneur von Cochinchina, über die Aufstände gegen Frankreich in ganz Kambodscha:
Abb.: Lage der im Text genannten Orte und Provinzen (Grenzen von 1991)
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]
"The two provinces of Banam and Kratie [ក្រចេះ], the only ones that were more or less peaceful, in the sense that civil authority was recognized and respected, were nevertheless troubled by incursions of pillagers and by the attempts at revolt of several bands. The province of Kampong Thom [កំពង់ធំ] was almost entirely in the hands of Si Votha’s bands. Kampong Chhnang [ខេត្តកំពង់ឆ្នាំង] and Kampong Cham [ខេត្តកំពង់ចាម] were completely troubled, and although the situation was a little better in Pursat [ពោធិ៍សាត់], this last province was no less troubled by constant rebel incursions; in Kampot [កំពត] we could scarcely maintain our posts for the troops and the customs service; finally, in Phnom Penh [ភ្នំពេញ], only a few kilometers from the capital, the rebels made frequent appearances, stealing elephants and forcing the population to pay taxes to them."
[Übersetzt in: Osborne, Milton E.: The French presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia : rule and response (1859-1905). -- Bangkok : white Lotus, 1997. -- 379 S. : Ill. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-00-1. -- "First published by Cornell Univ. in 1969". -- S. 217]
Der französische Forschungsreisende, Diplomat und Spion Auguste Pavie (1847 - 1925) an Charles Remire, französischer Resident in Quy Nhơn (城舖歸仁) (Vietnam):
Abb.: Auguste Pavie, Briefmarke Postes Indochine Française
'Nos pensées sont communes, la grandeur de la France est là.'
[Zitiert in: Tuck, Patrick J. N.: The French wolf and the Siamese lamb : the French threat to Siamese independence, 1858-1907. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 434 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-28-7. -- S. 357, Anm. 20]
Deutschland: Stapellauf des Erdöltankschiffs Glückauf. Es ist "weltweit das erste seegehende Öltankschiff moderner Bauart" (Wikipedia).
Abb.: Erdöltanker Glückauf
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Öltanker, Bangkok, 2009
[Bildquelle: cop4cbt. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/26953850@N04/3426386655. -- Zugriff am 2013-08-24. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]
General Georges Jules Piquet (1839 - 1923), Résident général Frankreichs in Kambodscha, an den französischen Gouverneur von Cochinchina über das Vorgehen französischer Truppen gegen die Guerilla-Aufstände ganz Kambodscha:
"The day the French. troops invaded Cambodia, after the unhappy events of Sambor and Banam, they considered themselves to be in a conquered country and the inhabitants had to suffer all the calamities of a state of war; thefts from private homes and from pagodas, assassinations, rapes. . . . Such behavior had inevitably to bring the greatest part of the population to oppose us and engendered hatreds which it will be difficult to eliminate."
[Übersetzt in: Osborne, Milton E.: The French presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia : rule and response (1859-1905). -- Bangkok : white Lotus, 1997. -- 379 S. : Ill. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-00-1. -- "First published by Cornell Univ. in 1969". -- S. 216f.]
Mannheim: der badische Ingenieur Carl Benz (1844 - 1929) führt erste öffentliche Probefahrt mit dem Benz Patent-Motorwagen Nummer 1 durch.
Abb.: Benz Patent-Motorwagen Nummer 1
[Bildquelle: DaimlerChrysler Medienseiten / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
Charles-Louis Filippini, französischer Gouverneur von Cochinchina, bietet König Norodom I ( ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម) (1834 – 1904) von Kambodscha Zugeständnisse an, falls der König bei der Beendigung der Aufstände gegen die Franzosen in ganz Kambodscha mithilft.
"Governor Filippini began negotiations with Norodom in 1886. He recognized both the necessity for some immediate concessions and the extent to which Norodom’s honor had been engaged in the unfortunate days of June 1884. On his first visit to Phnom Penh, in July 1886, at a time when the rising still held sway over most of the country, he offered concessions to Norodom in exchange for an effort by the king to bring the insurgency to an end. Filippini’s account of the meeting shows the extent to which it involved real bargaining. Norodom argued that he should have full power to pardon and punish those who took part in the rising. He asked that the French limit the number of residents to be installed in provincial regions and that they continue to leave provincial administration to Cambodian officials. He wished to maintain the right to name governors of provinces, and as a final right he asked that no land should be alienated without his consent. To all these requests, Filippini replied that Norodom must recognize that the 1884 convention had to be respected, but that he was prepared to go some distance to meet Norodom’s desires. The king could continue to name governors, for instance, provided they were loyal to him and to France. On land matters, however, the governor would only agree that this question be left, for the moment, unresolved. He ended his first interview with Norodom with the warning that the French government, in exchange for the consideration which it was giving Norodom’s wishes, expected to see an end to the rising by 1 January 1887. Norodom would have to ensure this."
[Quelle: Osborne, Milton E.: The French presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia : rule and response (1859-1905). -- Bangkok : white Lotus, 1997. -- 379 S. : Ill. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-00-1. -- "First published by Cornell Univ. in 1969". -- S. 223f.]
1886-07-25 - 1892-08-11
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830 - 1903) ist Prime Minister Großbritanniens.
Abb.: "He is too honest a Tory for his party and his time".: Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury / von Carlo Pellegrini (1839 - 1889)
[Bildquelle: Vanity fair. -- 1869-07-10 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
König Norodom I ( ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម) (1834 – 1904) von Kambodscha appelliert in einer Proklamation an sein Volk, die Aufstände gegen Frankreich zu beenden. Der König soll zu den ihn nötigenden Franzosen gesagt haben: "Euer Schutz (Protektorat) ist die Einäscherung der Monarchie.":
"Among the most important evidence for the traditionalist character of the revolt is Norodom’s proclamation of August 1886. By this point the king was convinced that there was no path open to him but cooperation with the French. Yet his proclamation was surprisingly unrepentant. It noted,
"For two years the officials and the people have shown their discontent and have revolted, saying that great changes have been made in our government"
Now, Norodom told his people, he and his officials had decided to ask the French for a large measure of control over the affairs of the kingdom, and this had been granted.
If Norodom believed that the French intended to give him wide control over administration of the country, he was to be sorely disappointed in the years that followed. But for the moment the French were prepared to make some concessions in order to end the running sore of insurgency, which they could not otherwise heal. "
[Quelle: Osborne, Milton E.: The French presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia : rule and response (1859-1905). -- Bangkok : white Lotus, 1997. -- 379 S. : Ill. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-00-1. -- "First published by Cornell Univ. in 1969". -- S. 223]
In der Folgezeit reist Norodom in die aufständigen Regionen und ruft sie auf, die Aufstände zu beenden. Allein im Südwesten Kambodschas verbringt der König einen Monat in dieser Mission. Bis Ende 1886 hören die Aufstände auf. Ausnahme: einige Gegenden im Nordosten Kambodschas.
Abb.: Kambodscha 1886
[Bildquelle: Scottish Geographical Magazine. -- 1886. -- Public domain]
Tod von Mom Ying (หม่อมยิ่ง), geborene Prinzessin Yingyaowalak (พระเจ้าลูกเธอ พระองค์เจ้ายิ่งเยาวลักษณ์ อรรคราชสุดา, 1851 - 1886). Sie war von einem buddhistischen Mönch geschwängert worden und wurde deswegen schwerst bestraft und ihrer Adelstitel beraubt.
Abb.: Prinzessin Yingyaowalak (พระเจ้าลูกเธอ พระองค์เจ้ายิ่งเยาวลักษณ์ อรรคราชสุดา)
Der französische Forschungsreisende, Diplomat und Spion Auguste Pavie (1847 - 1925) an Charles Remire, französischer Resident in Quy Nhơn (城舖歸仁) (Vietnam):
'En ce qui concerne la frontière, je ne pensais pas qu’il fût utile de la délimiter. A quoi bon, me disais-je, faire une grosse dépense pour délimiter des terrains que nous considérons comme nôtres et qu’un avenir prochain nous réserve incontestablement?'
[Zitiert in: Tuck, Patrick J. N.: The French wolf and the Siamese lamb : the French threat to Siamese independence, 1858-1907. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 434 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-28-7. -- S. 358, Anm. 22]
Berner Übereinkunft zum Schutze von Werken der Literatur und Kunst. Siam tritt 1931 bei.
In seiner Geburtstagansprache spricht König Chulalongkorn erstmals von Nordostthailand als seinen Lao-Provinzen. Er kündigt an, dass er nach Xiangkhouang (ຊຽງຂວາງ) und Sipsong Ch(a)u Thai (สิบสองเจ้าไต / สิบสองจุไทย)
Daraufhin wird in Nong Khai eine Armee mit über 1000 Mann zusammengestellt, um den Anspruch auf Oberherrschaft über das Königtum Luang Prabang (ພຣະຣາຊອານາຈັກຫລວງພະບາງ), Sipsong Ch(a)u Thai (สิบสองเจ้าไต / สิบสองจุไทย) und Sam Neua (ຊຳເຫນືອ) zu bekräftigen.
Abb.: Lage der Sipsong Ch(a)u Thai (สิบสองเจ้าไต / สิบสองจุไทย / ສິບສອງຈຸໄຕ / ສິບສອງເຈົ້າໄຕ)
[Bildquelle: Kinodo2 / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
Abb.: Ungefähre Lage der Staaten Luang Prabang (ພຣະຣາຊອານາຈັກຫລວງພະບາງ) und Hua Phan Thang Ha Thang Hok (หัวพันทั้งห้าทั้งหก)
Gottfried Daimler führt sein erstes Motorboot (mit Ottomotor) vor.
Abb.: Gottfried Daimler mit Motorboot auf dem Neckar bei Cannstatt
Abb.: Motorboot mit Automobilmotor, Bangkok, 2006
[Bildquelle: hc.saustrup. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/43707435@N00/290270653. -- Zugriff am 2013-09-23. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]
Einweihung der Kathedrale Saint-Joseph (Nha Tho Lon) in Hanoi (Vietnam. Die Kathedrale steht an der Stelle der buddhistischen Bao Thien Pagoda, die abgerissen wurde, um der Kathedrale Platz zu machen. Bauherr ist der französische Missionar und Apostolische Vikar von Tonkin, Paul-François Puginier (1835 - 1892)
Abb.: Kathedrale Saint-Joseph (Nha Tho Lon), Hanoi, 2006
[Bildquelle: Grossbildjaeger / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
In Paris erscheint:
Lanessan, Jean Marie Antoine de <1843-1919>: L’expansion coloniale de la France : étude économique, politique et géographique sur les établissements français d'outre-mer. -- Paris : Alcan, 1886. -- 1016 S. : Karten ; 23 cm.
"M. de Lanessan, the great apostle of French expansion, who subsequently filled the office of Governor-General of Indo-China, opened the attack in his well-known book, "L'Expansion Coloniale de la France," published in 1886. In this work the theory was boldly put forward that the mountainous and desert region lying between the basin of the Mekong and that of the Menam "ought to be considered by France as the natural limit of her Indo-Chinese Empire on the side of Siam." "Having," he said, "retaken the great Lake provinces, which formerly were dependent on Cambodia, and basins of the Mekong and the Se-monn, we ought to adhere to the policy of respecting and, if necessary, protecting the independence of Siam." In writing thus M. de Lanessan did no more than crystallise the opinions of leading French Indo-Chinese officials. These functionaries wanted to "round off" their conquests in Tonkin, and it became a part of their deliberate policy to carry the frontier as far as possible in the iamese direction."
[Quelle: Arnold Wright in: Twentieth century impressions of Siam : its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources / ed. in chief: Arnold Wright. -- London [etc.] : Lloyds, 1908. -- S. 70f.]
" On the south-east of Laokay the frontiers between Yunnan and the States tributary to Burmah and Siam are very vague; we have every interest in leaving them in this shape, in order to be able to push them back some day to the Mekong [ແມ່ນ້ຳຂອງ]. ... On the west, from the frontier of Yunnan [雲南] to the mouth of the Se-Moun, the Mekong ought to be the frontier of our Empire.... From the Se-Moun our Empire should cross the Mekong, include the secondary basin of the Se-Moun, join the northern end of the Great Lake, and include the provinces of Battambong [ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង] and Angkor [អង្គរ], which has always formed part of the kingdom of Cambodia (pp. 500-501)....
The basin of the Se-Moun, which belongs to the basin of the Mekong, is separated from the basin of the Menam, which represents Siam properly so-called , by a mountainous and desert region, which constitutes a natural and scientific frontier between the basin of the Mekong and that of the Menam.... That mountainous frontier ought to be considered by France as the natural limit of her Indo-Chinese Empire on the side of Siam. Having retaken the Great Lake [Tonle Sap - ទន្លេសាប] provinces, which formerly were dependent on Cambodia, and the basins of the Mekong and the Se-Moun, we ought to adhere to the policy of respecting, and, if necessary, protecting the independence of Siam (p. 470)."
[Übersetzt in: Norman, Henry <1858-1939>:
Phongpaichit, Pasuk <ผาสุก พงษ์ไพจิตร, 1946 - > ; Baker, Chris <1948 - >: Thailand : economy and politics. -- Selangor : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1995. -- 449 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 983-56-0024-4. -- Beste Geschichte des modernen Thailand.
Ingram, James C.: Economic change in Thailand 1850 - 1870. -- Stanford : Stanford Univ. Pr., 1971. -- 352 S. ; 23 cm. -- "A new edition of Economic change in Thailand since 1850 with two new chapters on developments since 1950". -- Grundlegend.
Akira, Suehiro [末廣昭] <1951 - >: Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855 - 1985. -- Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, ©1989. -- 427 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 4896561058. -- Grundlegend.
Skinner, William <1925 - 2008>: Chinese society in Thailand : an analytical history. -- Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press, 1957. -- 459 S. ; 24 cm. -- Grundlegend.
Mitchell, B. R. (Brian R.): International historical statistics : Africa and Asia. -- London : Macmillan, 1982. -- 761 S. ; 28 cm. -- ISBN 0-333-3163-0
Smyth, H. Warington (Herbert Warington) <1867-1943>: Five years in Siam : from 1891 to 1896. -- London : Murray, 1898. -- 2 Bde. : Ill ; cm.
ศกดา ศิริพันธุ์ = Sakda Siripant: พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว พระบิดาแห่งการถ่ายภาพไทย = H.M. King Chulalongkorn : the father of Thai photography. -- กรุงเทพๆ : ด่านสุทธา, 2555 = 2012. -- 354 S. : Ill. ; 30 cm. -- ISBN 978-616-305-569-9
Zu Chronik 1887 (Rama V.)