Chronik Thailands



Alois Payer

Chronik B. E. 2467 / 1924-04 - 1925-03 (Rama VI.)

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik B. E. 2467 / 1924-04 - 1925-03 (Rama VI.). -- Fassung vom 2016-12-12. -- URL:  

Erstmals publiziert: 2013-10-15

Überarbeitungen: 2016-12-12 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-04-22 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-02-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-02-14 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-12-31 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-12-18 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-12-11 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-10-06 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-09-09 [Ergänzungen] ;  2015-08-10 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-07-08 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-06-22 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-05-03 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-16 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-10-28 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-09-05 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-08-11 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-04-14 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-27 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-03 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-01 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-18 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-09 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Herausgebers.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library




Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.


Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen!

Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:

Morgenstern, Oskar <1902 - 1977>: On the accuracy of economic observations. -- 2. ed. -- Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. -- 322 S. ; 20 cm.

Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.


2467 / 1924-04 - 1925-03 undatiert

1911 - 1966

Buddhistische Mönche (bhikkhu) und Novizen (sāmaṇera):

Abb.: Buddhistische Mönche (bhikkhu) und Novizen (sāmaṇera) während der Regenzeit (vassa) (in Tausend), 1911 - 1965
[Datenquelle: Bechert (1973), S. 608]


Die Staatsausgaben übersteigen den Haushaltsrahmen um 3 Mio. Baht.


Aufnahme einer ausländischen Staatsanleihe über £3 Mio. für Eisenbahn- und Bewässerungsbau und zum Ausgleich von Verlusten während der Krise 1920/21. Die Staatsanleihe wird faktisch nicht für die vorgesehenen Investitionen verwendet, sondern zum Stopfen von Haushaltslöchern.


Kosten des Wild Tiger Scout Corps (จัดตั้งกองเสือป่า) über 1,2 Mio. Baht


Gründung der chinesischen Rice Trader Association durch die Vereinigung zweier älterer Vereinigungen von Reishändlern. Die Gründung der neuen Association wird angeführt von Tan Gimleng (Chen Jinlong - 陈金眬) (Kiangsiri / เคียงศิริ) und einer Gruppe von im Hinterland tätiger chinesischer Reishändler.


Erscheinen der zweiten gedruckten Gesamtausgabe des Tipiṭaka (พระไตรปิฎก) in 46 Bänden.


Es erscheint

วชิรญาณวโรรส [Vajirañāṇavarorasa] <1880 - 1921>:  พระประวัติตรัสเล่า [Autobiographie]

Abb.: Einbandtitel einer späteren Ausgabe

Englische Übersetzung:

Vajirañāṇavarorasa [วชิรญาณวโรรส] <1880 - 1921>: Autobiography : the life of Prince-Patriarch Vajirañāṇa of Siam, 1860-1921 / translated, edited, and introduced by Craig J. Reynolds. -- Athens : Ohio University Press, 1979. -- 86 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- ISBN 0821403761. -- Originaltitel: พระประวัติตรัสเล่า

Abb.: Umschlagtitel

"I began studying astrology with khun Debyakarana  (That) [ขุน เทพยกรณ (ทัด)], learning at first how to do calendars. It was difficult to understand because we combined astrology together with prognostication to form a single discipline. This led one to think that astrology was studied to acquire knowledge for prophesying. Thus one concentrated on this aspect. It was also difficult to understand because the teaching method had deficiencies. It did not explain the way astrology worked or what calendars were or the meanings of certain terms. For what reason was an era established and then subdivided? What were the differences in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets both in terms of their mean positions as well as their real positions, for example? The manuals said that if one wanted to make a breakdown for a given name one must write down a certain formula and compute it in such and such a manner, beginning with a determination of auspicious and inauspicious days. This had nothing to do with astrology at all but rather with prognostication. These subjects were so difficult that I had to grope around for a while before I grasped them. I was not convinced that all astrologers could explain these things, and I was certain that some astrologers did not know about the stars or even the planets. Khun Debyakarana (That) died while I was studying with him, and I asked to study with another teacher, Pia [เปีย], when he was a monk holding the rank of phrakhrupalat Suvadhanasutaguna [พระครูปลัด สุวัฒนสุตคุณ] at Wat Rajapratigtha [วัด ราชประดิษฐ์]. I intended to make a whole year’s calendar, [but] having finished much of it up to the calculation of the positions of the planets, perhaps more than halfway, I became intensely interested in Dhamma. Seeing how worthless astrology was, I abandoned it, so I never learned much. About prognostication I knew even less, only the little bit that the Prince-preceptor taught me. I did not study the subject seriously. Nevertheless, I put my knowledge of astrology to some use when I revised an old calendar and presented it to the Prince-preceptor."

[a.a.O., S. 29. -- Fair use]

"When I was eighteen years old the king put me to work in the Royal Secretariat. My duties consisted of keeping in order the records of petitions or, in other words, I was the secretary for legal cases.

In those days the courts which investigated legal cases were still scattered in the various government departments [krom] [กรม]. (Ministries had not yet been established. ) Each department would bring its monthly cases before the king, and at that time the Supreme [dika] [ฎีกา] Court would draft and append a royal judgment on the appeal for the king’s consideration. The judgment could be executed once the king had affixed his signature. If the king did not approve of the draft he revised it. It was the king’s wish that the business relating to these matters be consolidated into one section with an official in charge, so he gave me responsibility for this official business. I began my duties on 12 July 1877.

The various departments were responsible for examining their cases and presenting them monthly to the king, and it was my task, once the king had passed them on to me, to compile a document so that he would know in any one month how many new cases each department had submitted, how many had been decided on, and how many remained to be judged. One needed to look only at this register to see that the judging of a great many of the cases had been careless. A single department did not review very many cases in a month. Sometimes the department for the capital would only review two criminal cases in a month. It even happened that the sum total of the cases did not coincide with the case list. If one assumed that the case list of one month was correct, then one could conclude that the list for the previous month was wrong. Sometimes the judge himself could not tell for certain how many cases there were. It was very difficult for me to compile the list and to have to complain endlessly about this. The end result [of my labors] was to make the current totals and the previous totals match.

In addition I was the receiver of the appeals drafted for the king’s decision by Prince Bijitaprījākara, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. I then read the drafts to the king when he conducted this particular kind of business. If he approved, he affixed his signature at the end. If he did not approve he made corrections, instructed me to rewrite, and then affixed his signature. When I had made a copy of the reply I returned the original to Prince Bijita.

Prince Nareśravaraŗiddhi, at that time Chief of the Royal Secretariat, made available to me two scribes, phraya Śrīsundravohāra, then nai Komon, and nai Čhoem, his younger brother. They were both still apprentice scribes. They wrote slowly and made many omissions, even whole lines. I was very concerned about this and had to think up ways to preserve the text. If I had to use the original text to do this I did so. It is remarkable that later on phraya Śrīsundravohāra gradually improved his literary expertise and learned to write rapidly without omitting anything. He could listen to what was said in a meeting and remember perfectly, and this earned him the position of Secretary for the Cabinet. There was one other remarkable thing. He had a son named nai Phan who is now (in 1915) luang Sāraprasröțha. When he was a boy he omitted whole lines just as his father did. The father brought him to me to be ordained as a novice. When I became a person of status in the Sangha I taught him how to write and not omit things, and he eventually became my secretary. Now he has a reputation as a poet.

If a person is of good disposition and requires only a little instruction he is capable of developing himself on his own. Phraya Śrīsundravohāra was of my own generation. It would seem as if he gained only a small amount of expertise and understanding from me, but he gave me the respect due a teacher and thus he brought his son to me in succession. As for luang Sāraprasröțha, I consider myself as his patron, a fact which even he would have to accept.

I studied appeals when I was engaged in this kind of official business. I knew only enough to listen to testimony, discern the truth, and decide according to what was just. I did not know enough to set the sentence, because at that time the various departments, once they had examined the case, would send the file to the king’s tribunal to decide which party was at fault. It was then the duty of the judicial official phra Kraiśrīrājasubhapati to carry out the decision, which is to say to set the sentence by either punishing the guilty party or dismissing the case. When the case reached the appeals stage the king decided the case himself with no reference to precedent. He might let the original decision stand and have it carried out. If he corrected the decision he did so with the norm of justice as his guide. Knowledge of the law code was not a desideratum, because the old legal texts were difficult to understand and because numerous royal ordinances and decrees had accumulated since the Fourth Reign which were dispersed and difficult to assemble. Furthermore, those who made the laws in those days did not inspire confidence. In the modern generation there was only Prince Bijitaprījākara, and one man was not enough to correct so many others and to restore confidence in them all. If I had taken an interest [in this subject] I would know even more.

When the courts of justice were established to examine the cases for all the departments under the authority of the same minister, the position I held was continued. Some who occupied my position became Supreme Court officials; some of the Supreme Court officials came to occupy my position. The position is now held by the head of the Department of Legal Studies [Samuhanītiśāstra] in the Ministry of the Palace.

At that time the king began to pay monthly salaries to regularly employed officials. Every official in the Royal Secretariat received a salary. Prince Nareśravaraŗiddhi was the Chief of the Department. Princes Devavongse [เทวะวงศ์วโรปการ, 1858 - 1923] and Sammata were already working in the Secretariat, and when I joined I was the fourth prince. No other princes were added until I left to be ordained. In addition officials in the Royal Scribes Department at the luang [หลวง], khun [คุณ], and clerical levels [also received salaries], I served as an official for two full years, but I never received a salary, whether because the king did not think of it or what, I do not know. The prince who was Chief did not endeavor to look into the matter. I only received an increase of 400 baht in my annual salary, making it 2800 baht per year. All the princes in official service who received a monthly salary also received an increase in their annual salary. I was not made restless by this [failure to receive a salary], as I was in government service out of loyalty. Never before had I received a monthly salary [in return] for such a feeling. To have government duties and something to do and to have close contact with the king were enough to satisfy me. Also, at that time I did not pay for my own living expenses. My maternal grandmother was still taking care of me, and my spendthriftness, which had been the reason for my needing money to spend, had come to an end. The only unfortunate thing was that I had official duties at a time when I was already frequenting the monastery.

After I entered government service I had still not definitely resolved to become a monk. To become a monk would have meant discarding government service. I was thinking then excessively of the advantages to myself. At the time young Siamese were inclined to say that to be ordained as a monk performed no useful service to the kingdom. Monks were lazy. They ate and went to sleep. It was a waste for the kingdom to support them. For my own part, I did not go quite so far. I thought that monks set out to do good, but only individually, because aside from the self there is nothing. To take care of that alone is good enough. So I did not really deny the idea that monks were of no use whatsoever to the kingdom. I did not yet have the insight to take the broader view that monks performed very useful functions indeed. For example, they instructed people in proper conduct and took on the tasks of educating the children of the people. What is important is that they provided a tight binding between the government and the people. In former times monks provided more strength for the kingdom than nowadays. This particular insight had not yet come to me, so I was reluctant to leave government service for the monkhood. But I certainly continued to visit the Prince-preceptor and to study Pali as previously."

[a.a.O., S. 34 - 37. -- Fair use]

"These variations [in practice] prevented the monks in different monasteries from communicating with each other. Monks from up-country monasteries staying the night at a monastery were uneasy about congregating to pay homage to the Buddha image. Once, after I had received a monastic rank, I stayed the night at Wat Sattanataparivatra in Ratburi. I gathered with the monks of that monastery to pay homage to the Three Gems. I wanted to observe their customs, so I requested Phra Samudramuni (Nai), the abbot, to lead the homage to the Three Gems and to lead the chanting. The practices were so unusual that I cannot describe them. The monastery was an offshoot of Wat Somanasavihāra [วัดโสมนัสวิหาร], and possibly these practices originated at that monastery.

In addition, I discovered how one monastery might be a dependent of another monastery. Monks who had status in a monastery, from the abbot on down, were obliged to visit the monastery of the head of the Sangha district [khana] [คณะ] and other leading monasteries. Such monks acquired a familiarity with other monasteries; they learned the ways of other monasteries. However, these monasteries had no princes. Monks in up-country monasteries tended to be untrained, though they were easy to discipline. They were not lordly."

[a.a.O., S. 44f. -- Fair use]


Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่): Gründung einer Krankenschwesternschule am McCormick Hospital (โรงพยาบาลแมคคอร์มิค). Es ist die dritte solche Schule in Siam und die erste außerhalb Bangkoks.

Abb.: Lage des McCormick Hospital (โรงพยาบาลแมคคอร์มิค)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"The third Training School for nurses in Siam was established in 1924 in connection with the McCormick Hospital [โรงพยาบาลแมคคอร์มิค] in Chiengmai [เชียงใหม่]. This is one of the American Missionary hospitals with a capacity of 86 beds. The first school outside Bangkok, it has made good progress. It takes the Red Cross curriculum and goes in for the Rod Cross Nurses’ Certificate. Up-to-date six have already passed the Red Cross final examination. The qualification for admission is the 6th Secondary [มัธยม ๖] standard, the aim of the School being to train nurses to help in the different hospitals of the Mission. This is an important and a big work, for the aim of the Mission is to promote the welfare of the people all over Siam.

In 1927 the Red Cross Society undertook to allow the McCormick Training School students to work at the Red Cross Health Centre at Chiengmai, for six weeks. This may lead to their joining this branch of the nursing work after graduation. The school has grown in equipment and personnel in a way that promises well for its future. Then there is a Maternity Home in Bangkok run by this Mission. It was started in 1922; and graduates of the Bangkok Bible Training School are accepted as students for a course in midwifery to help them in their evangelistic work later on. The Home has made steady progress along the lines of prenatal care and health work.

Abb.: Lage von Nakhon Pathom (นครปฐม
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Most of the American Missionary hospitals, as well as the hospital and dispensary run by the Churches of Christ Mission at Nagor  Pathom [Nakhon Pathom, นครปฐม] now train their own staff."

[Quelle: Siam : general and medical features / by the Executive Committee of the 8th Congress of Far Eastern Association of Tropical Medicine. -- Bangkok : Bangkok Times, 1930. -- 332 S. : Ill ; 25 cm. -- S. 297.]


Abb.: Auto der Royal Mail (ไปรษณีย์), 1924


Es erscheint das von Rama VI. verfasste Schauspiel

Vajiravudh: Coup d'état. -- Bangkok : Dailay Mail, o. J. -- Auch in Thai erschienen.

Darin lobt der König die Monarchie und verdammt die Republik.

"I will say briefly, that every one of those who have expressed the desire for changing the form of Government from a Monarchy to a Republic have no reason for their desire except a personal one and from want of judgement, believing the words of demagogues and of newspapers owned by aliens or by people with personal grievances, who are endeavouring by specious words to foster sedition and rebellion. Comrades! We are true-born Coronians, so why do you want to listen to the words of aliens? We have received from our ancestors a noble heritage, namely birth in the Coronian Nation which we all love and want to cherish; shall we sell our birth-right to the Jews and the aliens? Let us not do it, comrades! Be patient. It is true that we are at present passing through some hard times, but it is nothing so bad as we shall see as slaves of the Bolsheviks. Do you want a Republic, comrades. That will be the first step leading us into slavery under the Bolsheviks! That will be the first step towards an inferno that is hotter than the nether most hell!"

[a.a.O., S. 63ff. -- Zitiert in: Vella, Walter F. <1924 - 1980>: Chayo! : King Vajiravudh and the development of Thai nationalism / Walter F. Vella, assisted by Dorothy B. Vella. -- Honolulu : Univ. Press, 1978. -- 347 S. : Ill. ; 25 cm. -- ISBN 0-8248-0493-7. -- S. 74.]


Erstaufführung des von Rama VI. verfassten Musicals Phra Ruang (พระร่วง บทละครร้อง) über Sri Indraditya (พ่อขุนศรีอินทราทิตย์ , gest. 1270)


T. Ngekchuan (ต.เง็กชวน) gibt die ersten Schallplatten seines Labels กระต่าย (Kratai / Kaninchen) heraus.

Einer der Plattentitel des Labels
กระต่าย (Kratai): มาร์สามัคคีสี่เหล่า - March Samakkhi Si Lao

Klicken, um den Marsch zu hören

มาร์สามัคคีสี่เหล่า - March Samakkhi Si Lao, mp3

Abb.: Reklame des T. Ngek Chuan Store (ร้านนาย ต. เง็กชวน)

Abb.: Plattenhülle


Abb.: Prinz Parajadhipok, der künftige Rama VII. (สมเด็จเจ้าฟ้าประชาธิปกศักดิเดชน์, 1893 - 1941) mit Thai-Studenten in Frankreich, 1924. Pfeil: Pridi Banomyong (ปรีดี พนมยงค์, 1900 - 1983)


Es erscheint:

Cœdès, Georges <1886 - 1969>: Recueil des inscriptions du Siam. -- Première partie: Inscriptions de Sukhodaya, éditées et traduites par G. Cœdès. Siam. & Eng. -- Bangkok : Bangkok Times, 1924. -- 167, 177 S. ; 4°. -- (Bibliothèque Nationale Vajirañāṇa, service archéologique)

Darin (S. 4) sagt Cœdès, dass in Siam nur vier Thais wirklich an Inschriften interessiert waren bzw. sind:


Eröffnung des ersten Golfplatzes Thailands: Royal Hua Hin Golf Club (สนามกอล์ฟ รอยัลหัวหิน). Planer: der schottische Eisenbahningenieur O. A. Robins.

Abb.: Lage von Hua Hin (หัวหิน)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Royal Hua Hin Golf Course (สนามกอล์ฟ รอยัลหัวหิน)
[Bildquelle: ©Google earth. -- Zugriff am 2013-10-13]


Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation with Japan, B.E. 2467 (1924 A.D.)

1921 - 1924

Auslandsstudenten mit staatlichem Stipendium

Abb.: Mit staatlichem Stipendium im Ausland Studierende, 1921 - 1924
[Datenquelle: Kasian Tejapira [เกษียร เตชะพีระ] <1957 - >: Commodifying Marxism : the formation of modern Thai radical culture, 1927-1958. -- Kyoto : Kyoto Univ. Pr., 2001. -- 390 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm.  -- (Kyoto area studies on Asia ; 3). -- ISBN 1876843985. -- Revision of the author's thesis (doctoral) -- Cornell University, 1992. -- S. 9]

1924 - 1926

Sydney Philip Perigal Waterlow  (1878 - 1944) ist britischer Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary


Ein schwerer Taifun verwüstet Chaozhou (潮州). Rama VI. spendet für die Opfer 5.000 Baht. Dies führt dazu, dass in Siam ein großer Betrag für die Taifun-Opfer gespendet wird.

Abb.: Lage von  Chaozhou (潮州)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Es erscheint:

Graham, Walter Armstrong <1868 - 1949>:  Siam. -- 3. ed. -- London : Moring, 1924. -- 2 Bde : Ill. ; 21 cm.

Darin über Thai-Frauen:

"The women of the lower ordershave always enjoyed absolute freedom."

[a.a.O., Bd. I., S.245.]

Über chinesische Schulen:

"A development of recent years is seen in the Chinese voluntary schools of Bangkok, established in various parts of the town and attended by large numbers of boys and girls, the children of immigrant Chinese merchants and shop-keepers. These schools, which date from shortly after the Chinese revolution, were at first looked upon by the Siamese with suspicion, as it was thought that they inculcated revolutionary principles and checked that free mixing of Chinese with Siamese blood which has been so much to the advantage of Siam. The suspicion which seemed at one time likely to lead to interference and suppression, though not unreasonable, has apparently faded away, a measure of purely nominal control has been accepted, and the schools in question flourish and increase. They are certainly creating a class with aspirations and ideals largely foreign to, and seemingly incompatible with, those of Siam."

[a.a.O., Bd. I, S. 256f.


Es erscheint

Hagenbeck, John <1866 - 1942> ; Ottmann, Victor <1869 - 1944>: Südasiatische Fahrten und Abenteuer : Erlebnisse in Britisch- und Holländisch-Indien, im Himalaya und in Siam. -- Dresden : Verlag Deutsche Buchwerkstätten, 1924. -- 232 S. : Ill.

Abb.: Einbandtitel


Es erscheint:

Savina, Francis Marie <1876 - 1941>: Histoire des Miao. -- Hongkong : Imprimerie de la Société des Missions-Étrangères, 1924. -- 304 S. : Ill. -- Ba Chay Revolte (Révolte du Fou) 1918-07 - 1921-03 von Hmong (Meo) in Norvietnam und Laos.

Abb.: Einbandtitel

"Histoire des Miao ("History of the Miao") is a 1924 ethnographic book of the Hmong people by François Marie Savina (1876 - 1941), published by the Société des Missions-Etrangères de Paris.[1] As of 2006, of Savina's writings, it is the most well-known and the most often cited.[2] The book includes Savina's theories and views of the Hmong. Savina argued that the Hmong had non-Asian origins because their legends had similarities to European stories.[3]

Jean Michaud, author of Historical Dictionary of the Peoples of the Southeast Asian Massif, described the book as "highly original yet controversial work of applied ethnography and largely conjectural history".[2] Mark Pfeifer of the Hmong Cultural and Resource Center wrote that the book is "Not supported by any available empirical evidence, not given credence by contemporary scholars".[4] A statement Michaud, in a biography of Savina included to his 'Incidental' Ethnographers. French Catholic Missions on the Tonkin-Yunnan Frontier, 1880-1930, contributes to refine by showing the staggering extent of Savina's field experience and proficiency in several vernacular languages, including Hmong/Miao. Analyzing critically Histoire des Miao (pp. 186–203), Michaud shows that it is not so much Savina's ethnography that is lacking, but his critical sense as visible in unwarranted historical assumptions rendered partial by his Catholic faith."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2016-02-26]

François Marie Savina (20 March 1876 – 23 July 1941[1]) was a Frenchman who worked as a Catholic priest and as an anthropologist.[2] For an approximately forty-year period he worked in the Upper-Tonkin Vicariate, Hainan, and Laos.[1] He studied the Hmong people of northern Vietnam and Laos as he was asked to spread Christianity to them.[2] Nicholas Tapp, author of The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora, described Savina as "One of our earliest informants who is at all frank about the nature of his day-today encounters with the Hmong".[3] Charles Keith, author of Catholic Vietnam: A Church from Empire to Nation, wrote that Savina was "[t]he most notable" missionary ethnographer of Southeast Asia of his era.[4]

Tapp wrote that "Savina spoke Hmong but we do not know how much".[5] Savina also had studied Chinese. Robert Entenmann, author of "The Myth of Sonom, the Hmong King," wrote that Savina "was unfamiliar with Chinese history and the subtleties of Chinese vocabulary".[6]


He was born in Brittany, France. In 1901 he arrived in Tonkin after having joined the Société des Missions-Etrangères de Paris (MEP).[1] He was 25 years old at the time.[7]

Initially Savina worked with Hmong in Lào Cai, Vietnam.[7] From 1906 to 1925 Savina worked with the Hmong people in Yunnan, China,[3][7] and also with Hmong in northern French Indochina.[3] From 1918 to 1921 Savina had an official assignment in Laos. Beginning in 1925 he worked as an ethnographic field research representative of the École française d'Extrême-Orient (EFEO). During that assignment he was based in Hainan and made frequent trips to Hong Kong where he interacted with a printing house of the MEP. This assignment ended in 1928.[1]

He resumed his missionary activities in 1939 and moved to Ha Giang in Upper Tonkin. He was hospitalized in Hanoi after he came down with pneumonia in March 1941. At age 65 he died on July 23 of that year.[1]


Savina collected his own data to build eight dictionaries of languages of Southeast Asia, including those in highland and lowland areas. The dictionaries and four lexicons he wrote combined have a total of over 5,000 pages; these were published from 1911 to 1939.[1] Savina also wrote histories and ethnographic texts.[4] Many of his works are about the Hmong people.[3] Savina's publications discuss the Ao, Be, Chinese, Day, Hiai, Hoklo, Miao, Nung, Tay, and Vietnamese languages.[1] His works appeared in academic journals of the era.[4]

Savina wrote Histoire des Miao, published in 1924, and Monographie de Hainan ("Monograph of Hainan Island"), published in 1929. Of Savina's writings, Histoire des Miao is the most well-known and the most often cited.[1] He wrote a 1920 confidential report titled "Rapport politique sur la révolte des Méos au Tonkin et au Laos."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2016-06-26] 

1924 - 1931

Der vietnamesische Kommunistenführer Ho Chi Minh (Hồ Chí Minh, 1890 - 1969) lebt in Ban Na Chok (บ้านนาจอก), 5 km vor Nakhon Phanom (นครพนม).

Abb.: Lage von Nakhon Phanom (นครพนม)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Ho Chi Minh (Hồ Chí Minh), Briefmarke, Sowjetunion 1990
[Bildquelle. Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Eröffnung von Route Coloniale No 8. Dadurch soll Laos von Siam entfernt und an französisch Indochina angebunden werden. Die Straße ist in der Regenzeit nicht befahrbar.

Abb.: Lage von Route Coloniale No 8


Die französischen Bakteriologen Albert Calmette (1863 - 1933) und Camille Guérin (1872 - 1961) stellen einen Impfstoff gegen Tuberkulose vor: BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin).

Abb.: Lungentuberkulose
[Bildquelle: Der ärztliche Ratgeber in Wort und Bild 1910 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


4-Hexylresorcin (Hexylresorcinol) medizinisch angewendet. Zunächst als Antiseptikum für die Harnblase, später als generelles Mittel gegen viel Arten von Wurmerkrankungen.


In der Sowjetunion wird die Diesellokomotive Ээл2 eingesetzt. Es ist die erste einsatzfähige Großdiesellokomotive mit elektrischer Übertragung. Sie wurde nach den Plänen von Juri Wladimirowitsch Lomonossow (Юрий Владимирович Ломоносов, 1876 - 1952) in der Maschinenfabrik Esslingen (Deutschland) gebaut.

Abb.: Ээл2 Юэ-001, 1928
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Diesellokomotive, Thailand, 2009
[Bildquelle: Tanakorn Jantanong / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Haadyai Cinema, Songkhla/Singora (สงขลา), 1924

Abb.: Lage von Songkhla/Singora (สงขลา)
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]

2467 / 1924-04 - 1925-03 datiert

1924-04-04 - 1924-09-28

Flieger des US Army Air Service machen den ersten Flug rund um die Erde.

Route: USA - Kanada - Alaska - Aleuten - Russland - Kurilen - Japan (sechs Landungen) - Siam (Bangkok) - Burma - Indien - Persien - Mesopotamien - Syrien - Türkei - Rumänien - Ungarn - Österreich - Frankreich - England - Orkney-Inseln - Island - Grönland - Neufundland - Kanada - USA (14 Landungen)

Abb.: Das Leitflugzeug "Chicago"
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Laut Bangkok Times studieren mit Staatstipendien


Anlässlich der Eröffnung der British Empire Exhibition sendet der britische König an sich selbst ein Telegramm via Kanada - Neuseeland - Australien - Südafrika - Indien - Aden - Ägypten - Gibraltar.

Abb.: Plakat, 1924
[Bildquelle: Wikiepdia. -- Public domain]


Wegen Japaner diskriminierender Bestimmungen im Asian Exclusion Act der USA vom 1924-05-26 kommt es in Japan zu "Hasse Amerika!"-Demonstrationen.


Deutschland ernennt einen vorläufigen diplomatischen Vertreter in Bangkok, die Gesandtschaft wird 1925 mit einem Gesandten besetzt.


Karikatur: Kartenspiel-Kreis adeliger Frauen (ไพ่วงคุณหญิง), in der Zeitung Sayam rat (สยามรัฐ):

Abb.: Kartenspiel-Kreis adeliger Frauen (ไพ่วงคุณหญิง)
[Bildquelle: Barmé (2002), S. 128]


König Rama VI. heiratet Krueakaew Abhaiwongse (เครือแก้ว อภัยวงศ์, 1906 - 1985).

Abb.:  Prinzessin Suvadhana (สุวัทนา) mit Tochter Prinzessin Bejaratana Rajasuda Sirisobhabannavadi (สมเด็จพระเจ้าภคินีเธอ เจ้าฟ้าเพชรรัตนราชสุดา สิริโสภาพัณณวดี), 1925
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Princess Phra Nang Chao Suvadhana (Thai: สุวัทนา; RTGS: —Suwatthana—) was the royal consort of King Vajiravudh (or Rama VI) of Siam. Her former name was Krueakaew Abhaiwongse (Thai: เครือแก้ว อภัยวงศ์; RTGS: —Khruea-kaeo Aphaiwong—). She was born a commoner on 15 April 1906. Her father was Lord Abhayabhupesa (Lueam Abhaiwongse, พระยา อภัยภูเบศร  - เลื่อม อภัยวงศ์) and her mother was Ms. Lek Bunnag (นาง เล็ก บุนนาค).

Life and marriage

Kruakeaw first met King Vajiravudh in 1924 during a dramatic production, in which they both acted. Soon after, Krueakaew was renamed Suvadhana and elevated to the rank of a minor consort. Later that same year they were married at the Grand Palace (พระบรมมหาราชวัง) in Bangkok. Although King Vajiravudh initiated many Siamese nationalistic policies of the 1920s, his queen Suvadhana was of Khmer descent of Phratabong province (Battambang - ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង). Suvadhana's grand aunt, Khun Chom Iem Busba, was the wife of HM King Norodom I (ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម) of Cambodia.

When Suvadhana became pregnant in 1925, the King elevated her rank to that of Phra Nang Chao Suvadhana (HRH Suvadhana, Princess Consort of Siam). Not soon after the King fell gravely ill, on the 24 November 1925, Suvadhana gave birth to a daughter: Her Royal Highness Princess Bejaratana (สมเด็จพระเจ้าภคินีเธอ เจ้าฟ้าเพชรรัตนราชสุดา สิริโสภาพัณณวดี, 1925 - 2011). She became the king's only child. The king died only two days later. Princess Bejaratana is first cousin with HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej and third cousin with HM King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.[1]

 Exile in England

The Princess and her daughter continued to live at the Dusit Palace (พระราชวังดุสิต), raising her daughter during the reign of her husband's younger brother King Prajadhipok. In 1938, as war looms, the Princess and her daughter emigrated to the United Kingdom, following the example of Prajadhipok who went in exile there in 1935. First she lived at Fairhill Villa in Camberley, Surrey, she later moved to Brighton. During the Second World War the Princess volunteered for the British Red Cross, donating winter clothes and other equipments to British soldiers; she later received a letter of recommendation from the organization. She would spend 22 years in England, she made her own living by investing in stocks and bonds; living a comfortable lifestyle with Thai servants.

 Return and later life

The Princess and her daughter returned to Thailand permanently in 1957. They bought some land on Sukhumvit Road Soi 38, and build the Ruenruedi Villa Palace. During her later years she carried out many royal duties and became patron of many charitable organizations. Suvadhana died at Siriraj Hospital (ศิริราชพยาบาล) on the 10 October 1985 at the age of 79, her funeral was presided over by King Bhumibol Adulyadej (or Rama IX) and Queen Sirikit."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2012-03-30]


Per Münzgesetz wird in Deutschland die Reichsmark eingeführt.

Abb.: 10 Reichsmark, 1924
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Der ehemalige Vizekonsul in Bangkok, Zobel, trifft als Gesandtschaftsrat und vorläufiger Vertreter des Deutschen Reichs in Siam in Bangkok ein. Er stirbt 1925-06-12 an Hitzschlag.

1924-10-01 - 1924-11-24

Erster Flug von den Niederlanden nach Batavia (Jakarta, Java, Niederländisch-Ostindien). Fluglinie: Amsterdam - Prag - Bulgarien (ein Monat Aufenthalt wegen Ersatzmaschine) - Konstantinopel (Istanbul) - Sumatra - Java. Flugzeug: Fokker F.VII der KLM. Echte Flugzeit: 127 Stunden.

Abb.: Lage von Batavia (Jakarta)
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]

Abb.: Eine Fokker F.VII in Batavia, o. J.
[Bildquelle: Tropenmuseum of the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) / Wikimedia. -- CC-BY-SA]

1924-11-04 - 1929-06-05

 Stanley Baldwin (1867 - 1947) ist Prime Minister Großbritanniens.

Abb.: Inserat
[Fair use]


Palace Law on Succession, BE 2467 (1924) (กฎมณเฑียรบาลว่าด้วยการสืบราชสันตติวงศ์ พระพุทธศักราช ๒๔๖๗) regelt die Thronfolge.

"The Palace Law of Succession, Buddhist Era 2467 (1924) (Thai: กฎมณเฑียรบาลว่าด้วยการสืบราชสันตติวงศ์ พระพุทธศักราช ๒๔๖๗; RTGS: Kot Monthian Ban Wa Duai Kan Suep Ratchasantatiwong Phra Phutthasakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Hok Sip Chet) governs succession to the Throne of the Kingdom of Thailand, under the ruling House of Chakri. Succession matters prior to the end of absolute monarchy in 1932 could be contentious, especially during the Ayutthaya period from the 14th to 18th centuries. In 1924, King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) attempted to clarify the succession process by laying down the Palace Law of Succession. It was promulgated and came into effect in November 1924 as, in part, an attempt to eliminate the vagueness relating to succession within the Thai monarchical regime and to systematically resolve previous controversies. In 1932, after Siam became a constitutional monarchy, various amendments relating to succession were introduced. The 1997 Constitution of Thailand relied on the law with regards to succession, but the 2006 Interim Constitution made no mention of succession, leaving it to "constitutional practice." The 2007 Constitution again relied on the Palace Law. The succession laws and protocols provide insights into the Thai crown's past and future.


The original Palace Law of A.D. 1360[1] relating to succession since Ayutthaya Kingdom period (1351–1767) did not lay out a clear system for determining a successor upon the death of a king. Rather, it provided a frame of reference from which the next king could be chosen. Typically, the new king would be either the late king's son born of a major queen or consort (Thai: หน่อพระพุทธเจ้า; RTGS: no phra puttha chao), or one of his brothers.[2] The Law also provided rules by which someone who was neither a son nor a brother of the deceased king could accede to the throne, should the situation or circumstances require it.[3]

However, the Palace Law was not always followed and did not ensure smooth successions. At least one third of Ayutthaya's royal successions involved bloodshed. Indeed, the history of the kingdom at that time is a chronicle of frequent usurpations and of ambitious men thwarting the final wishes of recently departed kings. Historian David K. Wyatt observed that "virtually all successions to the throne of Ayutthaya in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were, at the least, irregular, and in many cases either disguised or real usurpations."[4]

King Taksin (reigned 1767–1782) established himself as King of Siam by right of conquest. He, however, alienated the ecclesiastical support to secure the legitimacy of his reign, and was overthrown in a palace coup. His chief military commander, then on an expedition to enforce recognition of his friend and king by the current ruler of Cambodia, hastened to the rescue. When apprised of the full seriousness of situation, however, he concurred in the overthrow and founded the Royal House of Chakri as King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (later styled Rama I, reigned 1782–1809.) He next established the office of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand. Then, following the precedent of the newly crowned King Wareru of the 13th century, the newly crowned king of Siam commissioned scholars to collect and revise laws from the Ayutthaya era. The Code of Wareru is reflected in successive codes, but the Siamese went beyond it to establish a true code of laws.[5] The Palace Law was a constituent part of this new legal compendium called The Three Seals Code,[6]:p.9/30 which was needed, Rama I said, because old laws were often misinterpreted and this led to injustice. Succession under the Three Seals Code took into account the potential of the next king to be, as prescribed by ancient Buddhist texts, a dhammaraja (righteous king). This was manifested in his upholding of the Ten Virtues (pāramī)of Kingship: Dāna (giving), Śīla (self conduct), Paricaga (giving up), Ajava (straightness), Maddava (gentleness), Tapa (perseverance), Akkodha (non-anger), Avihimsa (not causing harm), Khanti (endurance or patience), and Avirodhana (not going wrong).[7] Linage, however, still played a very important role.

All of the transfers of power in the Royal House of Chakri that followed the introduction of the Three Seals Code were accomplished with almost no bloodshed – although they were not without some complications.[8] In part, greater adherence to the idea that the wisest and most capable possible successor should be chosen has tempered the eight successions of the Royal House of Chakri during the Rattanakosin (Bangkok) era. At a special council of senior members of royalty and officials, it was agreed that King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai or Rama II (reigned 1809–1824) should succeed his father.[9] After the death of Rama II in 1824, a grand assembly of the royal family, high officers of state and members of the Buddhist monkhood led by the supreme patriarch was convened. The assembly chose a son born of Rama II and a royal consort, a prince who had a proven record, over the king's much younger and less experienced half-brother, Prince Mongkut, who had recently been ordained as a monk. Although as the son of a full queen, Prince Mongkut might have had a superior claim to the throne in terms of lineage, he remained in the temple. This averted a potential succession crisis and any conflict with King Nangklao or Rama III (reigned 1824–1851).[10]

The nuances of all this were beyond the understanding of many European observers raised in the presumably less complicated tradition of primogeniture, in which the oldest male heir always succeeds by right of lineage. In the eyes of some Westerners, it appeared that new king had usurped the throne.[11] Later, Rama III's own succession nearly became a crisis. As his health continued to deteriorate in 1851 following months of fruitless discussions about possible successors, the heir to the throne remained unnamed. A foreign observer of the time recounted that: "All parties concerning the question of the succession were preparing themselves with arms and troops for self-defence and resistance." Before they could come to blows, "there was convened at the king's palace ... a meeting of all the princes, nobles, and chief rulers of the land to confer on the all engrossing question of who shall become the successor to the present king."[12]

One of the possible successors to the throne was Prince Mongkut again. Over the 27 years of Rama III's reign, the royal monk had become the leader of a Buddhist reform order. When considering his heir, Rama III had reportedly expressed reservations about the princes who might succeed him. If Prince Mongkut became king, Rama III feared he might order the Sangha (community of monks) to dress in the style of the [Buddhist] Mons.[13] To assuage such doubts, Prince Mongkut wrote a letter to the assembly to make his own case for succeeding to the throne. He also ordered monks in his order to discontinue any practices considered unorthodox or foreign.

According to historian David K. Wyatt, who cites an account given by Prince Mongkut to American missionary Dan Beach Bradley about two weeks before Rama III died, the assembly resolved to protect the claims to the throne of Prince Mongkut and his talented younger brother, Prince Chudamani. As it came to pass, when Rama III passes away, Prince Mongkut becomes king Rama IV, reigned 1851–1868, and Prince Chudamani was elevated to the office and residence of Front Palace as Phra Pinklao (or Pin Klao) with equal honor to the King (as was the case with Naresuan and Ekatotsarot.) In English, the office is called " Uparaja, "Vice King" or "Second King", with Mongkut preferring the latter. In the Chakri dynasty, there were three previous holders of the office – Maha Sakdi Polsep, Maha Senanurak and Isarasundhorn. The latter was the only Chakri Front Palace to succeed as king, as Rama II.

King Mongkut left the position of second king open after Phra Pinklao died in 1865.[14] If King Mongkut had named a replacement second king, the throne could have passed to that person rather than one of his sons.[14] When King Mongkut died in 1868, the Great Council was assembled again. It selected 15-year-old Prince Chulalongkorn, the oldest son of King Mongkut, and Chao Phraya Sri Suriyawongse, a leading member of the powerful Bunnag family, was appointed regent. The council also named the son of the former second king, Prince Yodyingyot (1838–1885, later known as Prince Bovorn Vichaichan), as the uparat[15] (ancient title for "vice king.")

As uparat, Prince Yodyingyot, who resided in the Front Palace previously occupied by his father, Phra Pinklao, had 2,000 of his own troops and modern military equipment. In the Front Palace crisis of 1875, the troops of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V, reigned 1868–1910) and Prince Yodyingyot nearly clashed when it appeared that the latter was challenging the throne. Prince Yodyingyot sought refuge in the British consulate and, after lengthy negotiations, his troops were disarmed and the prince allowed to return to the Front Palace.[16] When Prince Yodyingyout died in 1885, King Chulalongkorn discontinued the Front Palace and uparat system entirely.[17] A year later, King Chulalongkorn elevated the oldest, full-blooded prince among his sons, Prince Vajirunhis (1878–1895) to the position of Crown Prince (Thai: สมเด็จพระบรมโอรสาธิราช สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร; RTGS: Somdet Phra Boromma-orasathirat Sayam Makut Ratchakuman). The investiture came well ahead of any expected succession. It was not surprising that the king at this time should choose a modified system of primogeniture to designate his heir apparent. A succession crisis might have left Siam vulnerable to interference from predatory, encroaching Western colonial powers.[18] As Wyatt noted: "By 1910 [the year of King Chulalongkorn's death] the Siamese had abandoned the old rules of succession to the throne and had adopted the Western pattern of designating the heir to the throne long in advance."[19]

The accession of King Vajiravudh (Rama VI, reigned 1910–1925) was the least problematic succession in the history of the Royal House of Chakri up to that point. After the premature death of Crown Prince Maha Vajirunhis, his younger half brother, Prince Vajiravudh was invested as crown prince in 1895 and, upon the death of his father King Chulalongkorn, acceded to the throne. Based on his own experience as heir, King Vajiravudh knew that his father had wanted to institute a more ordered system of succession on the basis of primogeniture which unequivocally designated a crown prince. During his reign, he set the precedent for numbering Kings of Thailand as "Rama" by styling himself as Phra Ram thi Hok (พระรามที่หก.) Rama VI, however, was unable to produce a male heir and, as a result, succession became an issue again.

Of the 77 children fathered by King Chulalongkorn, only seven sons born of queens survived beyond 1910, In the early 1920s, two of King Vajiravudh's three full brothers died. By the end of 1925, only the youngest brother, Prince Prajadhipok, was still alive. As a result, Wyatt writes that, "the problem of succession to the throne came to prominence rather suddenly in the last few years of the reign". This situation provided important impetus for drafting the Palace Law of Succession or kot monthienban wa duai kansubsantatiwong in 1924. This law which continues to provide the framework for succession today, confirmed the primacy of the lineage of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Saovabha, as well as the king's sole and authentic right to choose his successor. It also made the determination of succession as legally precise and binding as possible.[20]

Details of succession

In the first section, King Vajiravudh states that "according to royal tradition, Siamese Kings have the sole power and prerogative to designate any descendant of the royal family as heir to the throne".[21] Explaining why this new law was needed, King Vajiravudh wrote:

"But as it has been in the past, and could be in the future, the king cannot name his own successor ... resulting in troubling events ... When kings have died, the vying for royal power has opened an opportunity for persons ... who have been obstructive to the prosperity of the kingdom. It has also been the opportunity for enemies, both internal and external, to think of doing harm to the royal family and the freedom of Siam. [Such situation] has brought disaster to the Thai nation. The king has thus desired to have a law determining succession in order to reduce the trouble of contending [for the throne] within the royal family."

According to King Vajiravudh, it was his father's intention to bring Thai royal successions into closer line with those of other nations. The important principles established by the law concern the king's right to name or remove an heir apparent, the procedures to be used if the king has not named an heir apparent, and also a description of the suitable characteristics for an heir to the throne.

The reigning king has absolute power to name any royal male as heir apparent, and upon being announced publicly, the "position of such heir is secure and indisputable":

  • Section 5 – The king has the sole power and prerogative to designate any descendant of the royal family as heir to the throne, depending on his judgement and trust placed on the ability of the said person to succeed him.
  • Section 6 – Once the king has designated the heir to the throne and has had such designation proclaimed to members of the royal family, officials and the public at large, the position of such heir is secure and indisputable. When the necessary time comes, the said heir shall immediately ascend the throne to succeed the late king in accordance with the latter's wish.

The king also has absolute power to remove an heir apparent from the position. If he does so, "his entire lineage is removed from any claim to the throne":

  • Section 7 – The king has the sole power and prerogative to remove the heir to the throne from his position. Anyone who has been removed from the position of heir to the throne shall be considered as broken from [excluded from] any claim to succession and his name shall be removed from the line of succession. His sons and his entire lineage of direct descendants shall also be excluded from the line of succession. The king has the sole power and prerogative to exclude any member of the royalty from the line of succession.
  • Section 8 and 9 lay out the processes by which a new king is determined when the king dies with no heir apparent designated. In such case, the chief state official is to invite the first in line of succession to be king. Section 9 was set out "to clear any doubt" as to "the order in the line of succession", delineated down to 13 levels. Below are the first six levels:
    • The first-born son of the king and queen;
    • The first-born son of the said prince and his royal consort;
    • Younger sons, in order, of the said prince and his royal consort;
    • The second-born son of the king and queen when the first-born son is deceased and has no male children;
    • The first-born son of the second-born son of the king and queen if the second-born son is deceased;
    • Younger sons, in order, of the second-born son [and so on].

While Section 9 ranks those eligible for kingship, the law's next set of clause entitled, "On those who must be excluded from the line of succession", describes what might disqualify a potential heir to the throne.

  • Section 10 addresses members of royalty in the line of succession who may be unsuitable to accede. This Section is not really so much a law as a piece of advice. It states:

"Whoever is to ascend to the throne should be one from the masses fully respect and can be contentedly taken as their protector. Therefore any member of the royalty whom the multitude holds as loathsome, such person should foreswear the path to succession in order to remove the worry from the king and the people from the realm."

  • Section 11 states: "Descendants of the royal family with any of the following characters shall be excluded from the line of succession:
    • Insanity;
    • Convicted of a serious crime under the law;
    • Unable to serve as Upholder of Buddhism;
    • Married to a foreign consort, i.e. a woman whose nationality is originally not Thai;
    • Being removed from the position of heir to the throne regardless of during which reign such removal took place;
    • Being proclaimed to be excluded from the line of succession.

The last exclusion, Section 13, pertains to accession by a princess:

  • Section 13 – As it is deemed to be untimely for a princess to ascend the throne as a sole sovereign of Siam, inclusion of princesses in the line of succession shall be categorically prohibited.

Other points in the law provide guidance for when the new king is a minor under 20 years of age (a member of the royalty is to be named as regent and the two most senior privy councillors are to act as advisers). Procedures were also put in place for future kings to amend the law. They are advised to keep in mind that the law was written to strengthen the dynasty, and that amendments required approval from two-thirds of the Privy Council.

The 1924 Palace Law of Succession was put into effect the following year with the accession of King Prajadhipok (Rama VII, reigned 1925–1935). He had never been groomed for the throne, nor had he ever expected to accede or aspired to doing so. He had spent most of his adult life in military schools (Royal Military Academy, Woolwich in England and L'École Supérieure de Guerre in France) and had only returned to Siam in 1924. When his older brother died late the following year, he was at the top of the succession list and became Siam's last absolute monarch.[22]

Although the Palace Law on Succession worked in 1925, there remained some underlying problems. King Prajadhipok wrote in 1926 that the law still embodied the two distinct and rather contradictory principles that had long characterized succession in Siam: "the principle of election and the principle of hereditary succession". For example, if the king did not designate his own successor, the throne was to go to one of his sons. King Prajadhipok remarked, "This sounded straightforward enough, but a complication arises here owing to the habit of polygamy." The law specified that the next king was to be chosen according to the rank of his mother, the queen. But there were four ranks of queen, and this arrangement was complicated by the fact that the rank of a queen could either be raised or lowered "according to the whims of the king". Thus several people could still make competitive claims to the throne. King Prajadhipok observed: "This, to my mind, creates very great possibilities of complications."[23] In addition, he was not convinced that the flexibility in the law, which allowed for a monarch to choose a successor who would please the people, could be properly applied.

On 11 November 1924, King Vajiravudh amended the Palace Law outlining a list of succession which adhered strictly to the Rules of Primogeniture, clearly stating that the son of a deceased heir would have precedence over the younger brother of his late father. This followed the European concept of primogeniture with added difference that whilst in Europe all male offspring would have their place in the line of succession, in Thailand rights of succession are only to be found in the male offspring who are descended from the King by royal consorts. King Vajiravudh also clearly outlines the various groups of consorts and grants rights of succession to their descendants in order of the seniority of the title of the consort – that is, the descendants of a consort of the first rank come before those of a consort of the second rank in the list of succession, and so on. The system applies equally to his own reign as to all previous and future reigns of the Chakri Dynasty. Thus, if the line of the reigning King fails, on his death one searches amongst the line of his predecessor for an heir, and if that line has failed, amongst the line of his predecessor. Rights of succession are thus clearly vested in all lines of descent from King Rama I through a King and a royal consort.

Whilst no specific reference is made to the individual consorts of each reign by name, the interpretation of the list of succession with reference to the Royal Family in 1924 is that the descendants of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) by Queen Saovabha Bongsri (1864–1919) have rights above those of his descendants by Queen Savang Vadhana (1862–1955), and those of Queen Savang Vadhana above those of Queen Sukhumala Marasri (1861–1927), etc.

King Chulalongkorn fathered a total of 77 children of which there were 32 sons (however a lesser number survived into adulthood) by 4 different queens and 32 consorts but most of them were born of non-royal wives or Chao Chom Manda. Between the 1910s and 1920s, there were only seven sons born of three principal queens with princely rank of Chao Fa (Thai: เจ้าฟ้า; "sky lord" or "celestial prince") as follows:-

  • 5 princes by Queen Saovabha Bongsri
    • Crown Prince Maha Vajiravudh (Rama VI, 1881–1925 reigned 1910–1925) had one daughter by his consort, Princess Suvadhana
      • Princess Bejaratana Rajasuda (1925–2011)
    • Prince Chakrabongse Bhuvanath (1883–1920) had one son by his Russian wife, Mom Catherine Na Phitsanulok (née Catherine/Ekaterina "Katya" Ivanovna Desnitskaya)
      • Prince Chula Chakrabongse (1908–1963)
    • Prince Asdang Dejavudh (1889–1925)
    • Prince Chudadhuj Dharadilok (1892–1923) had one son by a commoner maid
      • Prince Varananda Dhavaj (1922–1990)
    • Prince Prajadhipok Sakdidej (Rama VII, 1893–1941 reigned 1925–1935) had no issue
  • 1 prince by Queen Savang Vadhana
    • Prince Mahidol Adulyadej (1892–1929) had two sons by his commoner and royally-recognized wife, Mom Sangwalya (later known as The Princess Mother)
      • Prince Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII; 1925–1946 reigned 1935–1946)
      • Prince Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX; born 1927 and reigning from 1946)
  • 1 prince by Queen Sukhumala Marasri
    • Prince Paribatra Sukhumbhand (1881–1944) had two sons
      • Prince Chumbhotbongs Paribatra (1904–1959) by a royal wife
      • Prince Sukhumbhinanda (1923–2003) by a commoner wife

During the reign of King Vajiravudh, two of his full brothers, Prince Chudadhuj Dharadilok and Prince Asdang Dejavudh died in 1923 and 1925 respectively. Another brother and heir presumptive, Prince Chakrabongse Bhuvanath died in 1920 not long after divorcing his Russian wife, Katya. Their only son, Prince Chula Chakrabongse, was excluded from the succession because his mother was a foreigner under Section 11 (4) of the 1924 Palace Law. While Prince Varananda Dhavaj, only son of Prince Chudadhuj Dharadilok from a morganatic union, was considered, by royal discretion, ineligible to the throne.

According to the Palace Law, Prince Prajadhipok, the only surviving full brother of King Vajiravudh via bloodline of Queen Saovabha Bongsri, was then the next in line to the throne. Prince Mahidol Adulyadej became second in line (although older than Prince Prajadhipok, he was son of Queen Savang Vadhana). Third and fourth in line would be his two sons: Prince Ananda Mahidol and Prince Bhumibol Adulyadej. Last in line would have been Prince Paribatra Sukhumbhand, only son of Queen Sukhumala Malasri, although this was unlikely given he had been exiled in the Siamese revolution of 1932.

The law based on the principle of male primogeniture, with first in line being the eldest son of the previous monarch and second in line being the next-oldest son, and so on. The law expressly ruled against women ascending the throne (this clause was abrogated in the 1997 Constitution).

This line of succession was followed when King Vajiravudh died on 26 November 1925, with Prince Prajadhipok succeeding as King Rama VII. Neither King Vajiravudh nor his successor had sons. The latter was childless while the former's only offspring was a daughter, who was born two days before his death and was excluded from the line of succession under Section 13 of the Palace Law.

The absolute monarchy was overthrown on 24 June 1932 and the king was placed within a constitutional framework, but the new constitution continued to rely on the Palace Law regarding matters of succession. Many of the 18 constitutions that have followed since 1932 contain provisions concerning succession and all of them have affirmed that choosing an heir apparent is a prerogative of the king. In the absence of a designated heir, these constitutions generally left the questions of succession up to the Privy Council or members of the royal family working under the 1924 Palace Law of Succession.

In 1935 when King Prajadhipok abdicated without designating an heir, the cabinet took five days to consider possible successors within the Royal House of Chakri bloodline before setting upon Prince Ananda Mahidol, the eldest heir of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej. This choice followed the 1924 Law of Succession and was also approved by the National Assembly. No debate was needed when the unmarried young King Ananda Mahidol died unexpectedly on 9 June 1946. His younger brother, Prince Bhumibol Adulyadej, was undisputed heir and succeeded to throne as the current King of Thailand.

The law today

The 1997 constitution of Thailand, like most preceding Thai constitutions, continued to rely on the Palace Law with regards to succession. However, the 2006 Interim Constitution does not contain any articles regarding succession, and instead, left it to "constitutional practice." Sections 22 and 23 of the 2007 Constitution dealing with succession again relied on the Palace Law.

The heir apparent to the Thai throne is Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn, eldest and only son of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. The Thai constitution was amended in 1974 to allow the Privy Council to appoint a princess as successor to the throne. This change made for the possibility of an eventual female succession in the absence of male heir (something not hitherto allowed for). These rights of succession of a female are strictly defined and apply only to the daughters of a king, and may only come into effect following the approval of the legislative assembly. However this would definitely occur in the absence of an heir apparent. This amendment is retained in Section 23 of the 1997 "People's Constitution" and 2007 Constitution.

"In the case where the throne becomes vacant and the king has not appointed his heir under paragraph one, the Privy Council shall submit the name of successor to the throne under Section 22 to the Council of Ministers [cabinet] for further submission to the National Assembly for approval. For this purpose, the name of a princess may be submitted. Upon the approval of the National Assembly, the president of the National Assembly shall invite such successor to ascend the throne and proclaim such successor king."

Recent constitutions of Thailand have made the amendment of the Palace Law of Succession the sole prerogative of the reigning King. According to Gothom Arya, former Election Commissioner,[24] this allows the reigning king, if he so chooses, to appoint his son or any of his daughters to the Throne.

While the successions of all monarchs from the Royal House of Chakri involved a process of endorsement, in some form, involving either elder royals, the Privy Council or the national government, there is nothing uncertain about the next succession. As things stand in 2014, the cabinet will inform the president of the National Assembly who will invite Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn to become king.[25]

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-10-26]


Bangkok Times über Presse und Pressezensur:

"In the official world of this country it is settled policy to ignore newspaper criticism—unless, of course, it is thought necessary to send for the police."

[Zitiert in: Batson, Benjamin Arthur <1942 - >: The end of the absolute monarchy in Siam. -- Singapore : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1984. -- 349 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- (Southeast Asia publications series ; no. 10). -- ISBN 0-19-582612-4. -- S. 74]


Zusammen mit drei weiteren Ursulinen kommt Ursulinenschwester Marie Xavier (aka. Xaveria, geborene Ana Pirc) (1894 - 1987) aus Laibach (Krain, Österreich-Ungarn, heute: Ljubljana, Slowenien)nach Siam, sie wird Lehrerin und später Direktorin der 1927 gegründeten Mater Dei Schule (โรงเรียนมาแตร์เดอี) in Bangkok. König Bhumibol (Rama IX., 1927 - 2016 ) wird seinen ersten Unterricht bei ihr haben.

Abb.: Sr. Xaveria
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-10-27]

Abb.: Lage von Laibach

"Die Ursulinen, eigentlich Gesellschaft der Heiligen Ursula (früher auch Ursulinerinnen, Ordenskürzel: OSU, lateinisch Ordo Sanctae Ursulae) sind eine von Angela Merici (1474 - 1540) 1535 in Brescia gegründete Frauengemeinschaft zu Ehren der Ursula von Köln, die sich zum bekanntesten Erziehungsorden entwickelte."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-10-28]

"Brief history of Ursulines in Thailand

It was on 25 November 1924 that Ursuline sisters first landed in Siam, namely:

  • Mother Therese Mary Mertens
  • Mother Xaviera Pirc [1894 - 1987]
  • Mother Raphael Vurnik
  • Mother Agnes Delattre

They came to Siam to spread the good news of Jesus’ love for the Siamese people at the invitation of Bishop Perros [René-Marie-Joseph Perros, M.E.P., 1870 - 1952] in charge of the vicariate of the Siam at the time.

Abb.: René-Marie-Joseph Perros

Initially, the four missionary sisters stayed at St. Louis Hospital [โรงพยาบาลเซนต์หลุยส์] until the following year, because they had arrived sooner than Bishop Perros had expected. The sisters taught first at Kularb Watana School [โรงเรียนกุหลาบวัฒนา] at Calvary Church [วัดกาลหว่าร์ ], Talad Noi [ตลาดน้อย], taking over duties from the St. Paul de Chartres Sisters to look after orphans and the church.

Abb.: Kularb Watana School [

The sisters established Mater Dei School [โรงเรียนมาแตร์เดอี] on Ploenchit Road [ถนนเพลินจิต] in 1927 when the number of students exceeded the space available at Kularb Watana School. The number of students continued to grow apace.

Abb.: Mater Dei School [โรงเรียนมาแตร์เดอี]

In 1932, the Regina Coeli School [โรงเรียนเรยีนาเชลี] was established in Chiang Mai [เชียงใหม่], the first in Thailand’s North.

Abb.: Regina Coeli School [โรงเรียนเรยีนาเชลี]

In 1955, the sisters opened Vasudevi School [โรงเรียนวาสุเทวี] on Chan Street [ถนนจันทน์] in Bangkok to serve girls in the area, then, considered very far from the heart of the city.

Abb.: Vasudevi School [

The sisters initiated social welfare activities in Ratchaburi Province [ราชบุรี] south of Bangkok: community development in Chombeung [จอมบึง] and Saunta districts and looking after the church and local community in Thungkaoluang [ทุ่งเขาหลวง] district.

Abb.: Lage von Chombeung [จอมบึง]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Lage von Thungkaoluang [ทุ่งเขาหลวง]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

In the North, sisters established Bethany House as a residence for training hilltribe girls from the area around Regina Coeli School.

In Bangkok, they established Ban Thep House preschool [ศูนย์รับเลี้ยงเด็กบ้านเทพ] in the Suan Oy [สวนอ้อย] community Soi 6 and Thevee Center at Vasuthevee School.

In addition, the sisters set up centers for the public benefit, such as National Catechetical Center [ศูนย์อบรมคริสตศาสนธรรม ระดับชาติ] and a national sisters Center.

Then, in 1993, the sisters were given responsibility for looking after a church and its community at Chiang Kham [เชียงคำ] and established the Angela House as a training center in Chiang Kham, Payao Province [พะเยา], for local and village girls to instill in them a sense of womanhood.

Abb.: Lage von Chiang Kham [เชียงคำ]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

During the same year, the sisters were given responsibility for looking after the Sirimatthevee church and the local school in Phan [พาน], Chiang Rai Province [เชียงราย].

Abb.: Lage von Phan [พาน]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

In 2002, the sisters opened a co-ed preschool and a girls’ center in Payao Province [พะเยา] to help housewives and girls appreciate their value and capabilities in the modern world."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-10-28]


Bangkok Times berichtet, dass seit dem Bau der Eisenbahn nach Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) der Reispreis dort sich verdreifacht hat.


Betrug bei der Lotterie des Wild Tiger Scout Corps (จัดตั้งกองเสือป่า)

"The next most lucrative source of income after the Privy Purse was the Wild Tiger lotteries that the King periodically authorized the Royal Division to conduct. In January, 1925 a particularly large lottery was under way. On the appointed day, a crowd gathered to witness the drawing of the winning number. Included in the many dignitaries in attendance were several foreign advisers whose participation had been solicited to increase public confidence in the event. What happened next, as was later attested to by one of the advisers and verified by a special court of inquiry, was that Phraya Nonthisen (Maek Siansewi) [พระยานนทิเสนสุเรนทรภักดี (แม็ค เศียนเสวี)] a royal favorite who was Chief of the Wild Tigers General Staff, perpetrated a swindle. Upon his announcing the winning number, one of his confederates came forward with a counterfeit ticket to claim the prize. The fact that his ticket was not creased or soiled whatsoever was noticed by everyone present. There was an almost immediate public outcry. In the coming weeks, the local newspapers stoked the flames of public indignation by constantly referring to the incident and calling for a thorough investigation. Vajiravudh had good cause to question his favorite’s integrity since only three years previously Nonthisen had allowed one of his subordinates to embezzle 2,000 baht. Nevertheless, the King adamantly refused to investigate the lottery swindle."

[Quelle: Greene, Stephen Lyon Wakeman: Absolute dreams : Thai government under Rama VI, 1910-1925. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1999. -- 224 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-69-9. -- S. 164. -- Fair use]

"By the middle of 1925, the King began to show signs that he had softened his hitherto defiant attitude and was willing to heed the entreaties of his many critics to cut back on royal expenditures. In a symbolic gesture, he finally agreed to investigate the recent Wild Tiger Lottery scandal. He appointed a special committee of Palace officials to look into the matter. It soon [1925-07-24] concluded that Phraya Nonthisen and his seven accomplices were more than likely guilty of a swindle, but, since no records had been kept, this could probably not be proved. Upon receipt of the findings, Vajiravudh [1925-07-31] made it known in the royal household that henceforth Nonthisen should be considered persona non grata. His case was sent to the Department of Public Prosecution where in September, 1925 it was taken to court. Two years later [1927--08], Nonthisen and his cohorts were sentenced to 15 and 6 years respectively, and were ordered to repay the 253,106 baht they had stolen."

[Quelle: Greene, Stephen Lyon Wakeman: Absolute dreams : Thai government under Rama VI, 1910-1925. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1999. -- 224 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-69-9. -- S. 167. -- Fair use]


Mani Sanasen (มณี สาณะเสน, 1898 - 1978) wird Mitarbeiter im Sekretariat des Völkerbunds in Genf (Schweiz). Er ist der einzige Thai in diesem Sekretariat (das 1929 630 Angestellte hat). Mani bleibt in dieser Stellung bhis 1940, 1942 - 1944 wirkt er beim Free Thai Movement (เสรีไทย) in Großbritannien. Nach dem Krieg arbeitet er bis zu seiner Pensionierung bei der UNO in Genf, wo er bis zu seinem Tod bleibt.

Abb.: Völkerbundpalast in Genf, 2005
[Bildquelle: Yann Forget / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


In Berlin trifft als diplomatischer Geschäftsträger Siams ad interim ein: Luang Lipikorn Koson [หลวงลิปิกรโกศล]


Es erscheint:


Ein US-Konsul an das Außenministerium:

"There are a number of Siamese papers of little influence or responsibility and relatively small circulation, the existence of which is usually of an ephemeral nature, which might be described as a ‘mushroom’ press'"

[Zitiert in: Batson, Benjamin Arthur <1942 - >: The end of the absolute monarchy in Siam. -- Singapore : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1984. -- 349 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- (Southeast Asia publications series ; no. 10). -- ISBN 0-19-582612-4. -- S. 72]


Das Deutsche Reich ratifiziert das vorläufige Handelsabkommen mit Siam: Gesetz über das deutsch-siamesische vorläufige Wirtschaftsbakommen nebst Protokoll und Zusatzabkommen vom 1925-02-18 (im Reichsgestzblatt veröffentlicht am 1925-02-27). Ab jetzt dürfen deutsche Staatsbürger wieder unbegrenzt nach Siam einreisen.


Französisch-Siamesischer Vertrag: Frankreich verzichtet auf alle exterritorialen Rechte in Siam.


Auf der Zweiten Internationalen Opiumkonferenz wird in Genf (Schweiz) das Opiumabkommen von 1912-01-12 erweitert: es werden die Drogen Heroin, Kokain und Cannabis geächtet. Siam tritt dem Abkommen bei. In Siam werden 2580 Lizenzen für Opium-Divans (Opiumhöhlen) versteigert, wo Opium legal geraucht werden darf.

Abb.: Lage von Genf
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Set für Opiumraucher
[Bildquelle: Steven Martin / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Japan: Gesetz zur Einführung des allgemeinen Wahlrechts für Männer ab 25 Jahren. Bisher war das Wahlrecht von der Steuerleistung abhängig.


Tod von Sun Yat-sen (孫逸仙, 1855 - 1925), Provisorischer Präsident der Republik China, Gründer der Kuomintang ( 中國國民黨). Neuer Chef der Kuomintang wird Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石, 1887 - 1975).

Abb.: Chiang Kai-shek (
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Der deutsche Geschäftsträger in Bangkok versucht Waffenkisten in der Gesandtschaft, die im Krieg für Indien (gegen Großbritannien) bestimmt waren, unter der Gesandtenwohnung zu vergraben. Die Kisten enthalten ca. 260 Browning-Pistolen, 3 Gewehre und 6.000 Patronen.

Abb.: Browning FN 1910
[Bildquelle: Rama / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Die Chinesin Yao Kok Si wird in einem chinesischen Hotel tot aufgefunden. Sie wollte ihren Mann in Saigon besuchen, wurde aber betrügerisch auf ein Schiff nach Siam gebracht. In Siam wurde sie gezwungen als Prostituierte in einem chinesischen Hotel zu arbeiten.

Abb.: Lage von Saigon
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]

Verwendete Ressourcen


Vella, Walter F. <1924 - 1980>: Chayo! : King Vajiravudh and the development of Thai nationalism / Walter F. Vella, assisted by Dorothy B. Vella. -- Honolulu : Univ. Press, 1978. -- 347 S. : Ill. ; 25 cm. -- ISBN 0-8248-0493-7

Phongpaichit, Pasuk <ผาสุก พงษ์ไพจิตร, 1946 - > ; Baker, Chris <1948 - >: Thailand : economy and politics. -- Selangor : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1995. -- 449 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 983-56-0024-4. -- Beste Geschichte des modernen Thailand.

Ingram, James C.: Economic change in Thailand 1850 - 1870. -- Stanford : Stanford Univ. Pr., 1971. -- 352 S. ; 23 cm. -- "A new edition of Economic change in Thailand since 1850 with two new chapters on developments since 1950". --  Grundlegend.

Akira, Suehiro [末廣昭] <1951 - >: Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855 - 1985. -- Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, ©1989. -- 427 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN 4896561058. -- Grundlegend.

Skinner, William <1925 - 2008>: Chinese society in Thailand : an analytical history. -- Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press, 1957. -- 459 S. ; 24 cm. -- Grundlegend.

Mitchell, B. R. (Brian R.): International historical statistics : Africa and Asia. -- London : Macmillan, 1982.  -- 761 S. ; 28 cm.  -- ISBN 0-333-3163-0

Kludas, Arnold <1929 - >: Die Seeschiffe des Norddeutschen Lloyd 1857 bis 1970. -- Augsburg : Bechtermünz, 1998. -- 165 + 168 S. : Ill ; 28 cm. -- ISB 3-86047-262-3. -- Standardwerk.

Credner, Wilhelm <1892 - 1948>: Siam das Land der Tai : eine Landeskunde auf Grund eigner Reisen und Forschungen. -- Stuttgart : Engelhorn, 1935. -- 423 S. : Ill.

Bechert, Heinz <1932 - 2995>: Buddhismus, Staat und Gesellschaft in den Ländern des Theravāda-Buddhismus. -- Bd. 3: Bibliographie, Dokumente, Index. -- Wiesbaden : Harassowitz, ©1973. -- (Schriften des Instituts für Asienkunde in Hamburg ; XVII/3).

Barmé, Scot: Woman, man, Bangkok : love, sex, and popular culture in Thailand. --  Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. -- 273 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. --  ISBN 0-7425-0157-4

Zu Chronik B. E. 2468/1 = 1925-04 - 1925-11 (Tod Ramas VI.)