Chronik Thailands



Alois Payer

Chronik 1995 / B. E. 2538

1. undatiert

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1995 / B. E. 2538. -- 1. undatiert. -- Fassung vom 2017-03-19. -- URL:

Erstmals publiziert: 2012-10-23

Überarbeitungen: 2017-03-19 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-12-17 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-11-07 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-09-06 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-08-15 [Ergänzungen] ; 2016-02-12 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-08-27 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-05-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-04-10 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-09-19 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-08-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-04-12 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-09 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-01 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-10-12 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-02 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-05-02 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-04-16 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-02-01 [Ergänzungen] ; 013-01-13 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Herausgebers.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library




Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.


Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen!

Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:

Morgenstern, Oskar <1902 - 1977>: On the accuracy of economic observations. -- 2. ed. -- Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. -- 322 S. ; 20 cm.

Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.


2538 / 1995 undatiert

Statistische Daten 1995:
  • Einwohner: 59,46 Mio.
  • Mindestlohn in Bangkok: 145 Baht / Tag
  • Jährliche Ausgaben für Wahrsagerei: 150 Mio. US$
  • Ein Drittel der Parlamentsabgeordneten sammelt Amulette (พระ)
  • In Phuket (ภูเก็ต) gibt es weniger als 8.000 Hotelbetten (2012: über 50.000)
  • Über 100.000 Thais besuchen die USA

1988 - 2010


Abb.: Militärausgaben 1988 - 2010 in Milliarden Baht (blau) und in Promille des Bruttosozialprodukts (rot). Datenquelle: SIPRI



Herkunft des Feinstaubs in der Luft Bangkoks:

1995 -1996

Zum Beispiel: Widerstand von Bauern und Regierungsgewalt dagegen

Abb.: Lage von Amphoe Muang Suphan Buri [เมืองสุพรรณบุรี]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"There are residents of Suphanburi [สุพรรณบุรี] who are not civil servants, yet who have opposed Banharn [Banharn Silpa-archa - บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา, 1932 - ] for valid reasons. A representative case concerns twenty-two farming families in Pho Khiew of Muang District [เมืองสุพรรณบุรี], where Banharn built a government complex in 1996. As the Provincial Office tried to clear the land (348 rai in size), these families, who claimed to have inherited the land from their ancestors in 1915 and had land titles to support their claims, refused to vacate, even though they were assured official compensation payments that amounted to sixteen million baht.20 They put up a surprisingly tenacious resistance by lying flat on the ground to block the passage of bulldozers and trucks.21 In the end, the provincial authorities, apparently with Banharn's tacit consent, evicted these farmers from the construction site, claiming that it was "public" land. In the process, violence broke out, and several villagers were arrested. The farmers were indignant. One of them was quoted as saying, "Development has brought nothing but grief ... It's good to bring civilization here, but don't let that hurt the people."22 Consequently, Banharn's image was stained. The leader of the protest declared, "We had loved Than Banharn very much, that's why we voted for him. We are extremely saddened that he could be so oppressive against Suphanburi citizens. If he continues with the project, we will vote for him no more."23 A civil servant who comes into regular contact with Pho Khiew residents confirmed that Banharn's popularity has been on the wane in that area since the forced eviction.24 In his rush to undertake the megaproject, Banharn employed heavy-handed unilateral tactics that directly hurt the interests of a group of economically precarious low-income Suphanburians, generating profound resentment in its wake."

[Quelle: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 194]


Sangha Act (no. 2) of B.E. 2535 (พระราชบัญญัติคณะสงฆ์ (ฉบับที่ ๒) พ.ศ. ๒๕๓๕). Ist nur ein Amendment zum Act on the Administration of the Buddhist Order of Sangha B. E. 2505 (1962).

Begründung des Gesetzes:

เหตุผลในการประกาศใช้พระราชบัญญัติฉบับนี้ คือ โดยที่พระราชบัญญัติคณะสงฆ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๐๕ ได้ใช้บังคับมาเป็นเวลานานแล้ว สมควรปรับปรุงบทบัญญัติว่าด้วยการสถาปนาสมเด็จพระสังฆราช และการแต่งตั้งผู้ปฏิบัติหน้าที่แทนสมเด็จพระสังฆราช การแต่งตั้งและถอดถอนสมณศักดิ์ของพระภิกษุอำนาจหน้าที่และการปฏิบัติหน้าที่ ของมหาเถรสมาคม การปกครอง การสละสมณเพศของคณะสงฆ์และคณะสงฆ์อื่น วัด การดูแลรักษาวัด ทรัพย์สินของวัด และศาสนสมบัติกลาง ตลอดจนปรับปรุงบทกำหนดโทษให้สอดคล้องกับสภาพการณ์ปัจจุบัน จึงจำเป็นต้องตราพระราชบัญญัตินี้ "Whereas the Sangha Act of B.E. 2505 had been promulgated for a long time, it is expedient to improve the provision concerning the establishment of the Supreme Patriarch, the appointment of the Ecclesiastical Senior Monk for acting for the Supreme Patriarch, appointing and dismissing the Ecclesiastical honorific rank of monks, the authorities, roles and the operation of the Sangha Supreme Council, the administration, leaving monkhood of the monastic order and other monastic order, Monasteries, maintaining monasteries, Estates of monasteries and central Ecclesiastical property including the improvement of the provision of punishment to be in accordance with the present situation, it is hereby necessary to enact this act".
[Quelle:พระราชบัญญัติคณะสงฆ์_(ฉบับที่_๒)_พ.ศ._๒๕๓๕. -- Zugriff am 2015-08-28] [Übersetzung: Phra Dharmakosajarn [พระธรรมโกศาจารย์ aka. Prayoon Dhammacitto - ประยูร ธมฺมจิตฺโต] <1955 - >: Regulations of Sangha administration. -- Lamsai : Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, 2010. -- 143 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 9789743649035. -- S. 70]

Aus dem Gesetz:

มาตรา ๑๕ ตรี มหาเถรสมาคมมีอำนาจหน้าที่ดังต่อไปนี้

(๑) ปกครองคณะสงฆ์ให้เป็นไปโดยเรียบร้อยดีงาม

(๒) ปกครองและกำหนดการบรรพชาสามเณร

(๓) ควบคุมและส่งเสริมการศาสนศึกษา การศึกษาสงเคราะห์ การเผยแผ่ การสาธารณูปการ และการสาธารณสงเคราะห์ของคณะสงฆ์

(๔) รักษาหลักพระธรรมวินัยของพระพุทธศาสนา

(๕) ปฏิบัติหน้าที่อื่น ๆ ตามที่บัญญัติไว้ในพระราชบัญญัตินี้หรือกฎหมายอื่น

เพื่อการนี้ ให้มหาเถรสมาคมมีอำนาจตรากฎมหาเถรสมาคม ออกข้อบังคับ วางระเบียบ ออกคำสั่ง มีมติหรือออกประกาศ โดยไม่ขัดหรือแย้งกับกฎหมายและพระธรรมวินัยใช้บังคับได้ และจะมอบให้พระภิกษุรูปใดหรือคณะกรรมการหรือคณะอนุกรรมการตามมาตรา ๑๙ เป็นผู้ใช้อำนาจหน้าที่ตามวรรคหนึ่งก็ได้

"The section 15 ter.: The Sangha Supreme Council [มหาเถรสมาคม] has the following authorities and roles:
  1. To rule the Sangha well and morally.
  2. To rule and set up novice ordination.
  3. To control and encourage religious education, welfare Education, propagation, public assistance and public welfare for the monastic order.
  4. To conduct the principle of Doctrines and the Disciplines of Buddhism.
  5. To do other duties as privided in this Act or in this law or the other law.

For this purpose, the Sangha Supreme Council shall have the authorities to enact the rules of the Sangha Supreme Council, to issue the regulations, to formulate the order, to give the order, to have resolution or to give notifications that are not contrary to or inconsistent with law and Dhammavinaya for enforcement or may allow any of monks or committee or sub-committee according to the section 19, to use the authorities and the roles according to the first paragraph "

[Quelle:พระราชบัญญัติคณะสงฆ์_(ฉบับที่_๒)_พ.ศ._๒๕๓๕. -- Zugriff am 2015-08-28] [Übersetzung: Phra Dharmakosajarn [พระธรรมโกศาจารย์ aka. Prayoon Dhammacitto - ประยูร ธมฺมจิตฺโต] <1955 - >: Regulations of Sangha administration. -- Lamsai : Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, 2010. -- 143 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 9789743649035. -- S. 72f.]
มาตรา ๑๕ จัตวา เพื่อรักษาหลักพระธรรมวินัยและเพื่อความเรียบร้อยดีงามของคณะสงฆ์ มหาเถรสมาคมจะตรากฎมหาเถรสมาคม เพื่อกำหนดโทษหรือวิธีลงโทษทางการปกครอง สำหรับพระภิกษุและสามเณรที่ประพฤติให้เกิดความเสียหายแก่พระศาสนาและการ ปกครองของคณะสงฆ์ก็ได้

พระภิกษุและสามเณรที่ได้รับโทษตามวรรคหนึ่ง ถึงขั้นให้สละสมณเพศต้องสึกภายในสามวันนับแต่วันทราบคำสั่งลงโทษ”

"Section 15 quarter: In order to maintain the principle of the doctrines and disciplines as well as the order of the Sangha, the Sangha Supreme Patriarch may enact the rule of the Sangha Supreme Council in order to stipulate the penalty or the way of administrative punishment for monks and novices whose behavior causes the detriment to Buddhism and the monastic order administration

Monks and novices who have been judged as in section 1 to leave their monkhood, they must leave the monkhood within three days from the date they have acknowledged their the punishment. "

[Quelle:พระราชบัญญัติคณะสงฆ์_(ฉบับที่_๒)_พ.ศ._๒๕๓๕. -- Zugriff am 2015-08-28] [Übersetzung: Phra Dharmakosajarn [พระธรรมโกศาจารย์ aka. Prayoon Dhammacitto - ประยูร ธมฺมจิตฺโต] <1955 - >: Regulations of Sangha administration. -- Lamsai : Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, 2010. -- 143 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 9789743649035. -- S. 88.]
“มาตรา ๒๗ เมื่อพระภิกษุรูปใดต้องด้วยกรณีข้อใดข้อหนึ่ง ดังต่อไปนี้

(๑) ต้องคำวินิจฉัยตามมาตรา ๒๕ ให้รับนิคหกรรมไม่ถึงให้สึก แต่ไม่ยอมรับนิคหกรรมนั้น

(๒) ประพฤติล่วงละเมิดพระธรรมวินัยเป็นอาจิณ

(๓) ไม่สังกัดอยู่ในวัดใดวัดหนึ่ง

(๔) ไม่มีวัดเป็นที่อยู่เป็นหลักแหล่ง


พระภิกษุผู้ต้องคำวินิจฉัยให้สละสมณเพศตามวรรคสอง ต้องสึกภายในสามวันนับแต่วันที่ได้รับทราบคำวินิจฉัยนั้น”

"Section 27: When any monk commits the offence with anyone of the following cases;.
  1. To be judged according to section 25, to let him accept the punishment lower than leaving monkhood but he does not accept the punishment
  2. To commit regularly the violation of doctrines and disciplines.
  3. Not belonging to any monastery
  4. No monastery to live permanently

The said monk must leave his monkhood according to the principle and the tradition prescribed in the rule of the Sangha Supreme Council

The monk, who was judged to leave his monkhood as in paragraph 2, must leave his monkhood within 3 days from the day he acknowledged the judgement"


[Quelle:พระราชบัญญัติคณะสงฆ์_(ฉบับที่_๒)_พ.ศ._๒๕๓๕. -- Zugriff am 2015-08-28] [Übersetzung: Phra Dharmakosajarn [พระธรรมโกศาจารย์ aka. Prayoon Dhammacitto - ประยูร ธมฺมจิตฺโต] <1955 - >: Regulations of Sangha administration. -- Lamsai : Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, 2010. -- 143 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 9789743649035. -- S. 86f.]

1993 - 1995


Abb.: Gemeldete Fälle von Gonorrhöe 1993 - 1995
[Datenquelle: Ministry of Public Health]

Abb.: Professionelle Sexarbeiter achten zunehmend auf Kondomgebrauch, 2007
[Bildquelle: Joshua Willis. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-02-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Es erscheint die Regierungspublikation

เอดส์บันเทิง ["AIDS-Unterhaltung"]

Es ist ein Comic-Buch mit sexistischen Witzen: z.B. wird Busengrapschen als Safe Sex bezeichnet. Das Buch soll Safe Sex propagieren. Das Büchlein führt zu einer heftigen Debatte.

Beispiel eines Dialogs aus dem Büchlein:

"Female Patient: Oh, but doctor, you told me to undress and lie down on the couch for an examination. But I only came for advice about getting married and bringing my boyfriend for a blood test, so why are you undressing too?

Male Doctor: Well! It’s only right that you should get both a doctor’s advice and a demonstration of safe sex too"

[Übersetzt von Prudence Borthwick. -- In: Genders & sexualities in modern Thailand / edited by Peter A. Jackson [1955 - ] & Nerida M. Cook. -- Chiang Mai : Silkworm, 1999. -- 289 p. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 9747551071. -- S. 215]

1995 - 1998

Die Anzahl der Heroinabhängigen in den Malaiisch-sprechenden Südprovinzen nimmt um 30% zu.

1995 - 1999

Weltmarktpreise für Reis:

Abb.: Entwicklung der durchschnittlichen Weltmarktpreise (US$ / Tonne) für Rice (White Broken Rice, Thai A1 Super, f.o.b Bangkok (Wednesday)), 1995 - 1999
[Quelle: Jackson Son & Co. (London) Ltd. / FAO]

Video über eine Reismühle in Thailand:

Klicken: Video Reismühle

[Quelle des .mp4-Videos: Ryanne. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-03-13. --  Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung]

1990 - 2004


Abb.: Gastarbeiter aus Thailand im Ausland (in 1000), 1990 - 2004
[Datenquelle: Jerrold W. Huguet ; Sureeporn Punpuing, 2005]

Abb.: Karaoke-VCDs in Geschäft für thailändische Gastarbeiter, Hsinchu (新竹), Taiwan, 2005
[Bildquelle: Atinncnu / Wikimedia, Public domain]

Abb.: Lage von Hsinchu (新竹)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Geldüberweisungen thailändischer Gastarbeiter aus dem Ausland nach Thailand (in Mio. US-$), 1990 - 2004
[Datenquelle: Jerrold W. Huguet ; Sureeporn Punpuing, 2005]

1988 - 1995

 Export aus und Import nach Laos an der Mekong-Fährstelle Chiang Khong - Houayxay [เชียงของ - ຫ້ວຍ ຊາຍ]

Abb.: Export aus und Import nach Laos an der Mekong-Fährstelle Chiang Khong - Houayxay [เชียงของ - ຫ້ວຍ ຊາຍ] 1988 - 1995, in Mio. Baht
[Datenquelle: Walker, Andrew <1961 - >: The legend of the golden boat : regulation, trade and traders in the borderlands of Laos, Thailand, China, and Burma. -- Honolulu : Univ. of Hawaii Pr., 1999. -- 232 S. : Ill. ; 25 cm. -- (Anthropology of Asia series). -- ISBN 0-8248-2256-0. -- S. 71]

Abb.: Lage von Chiang Khong - Houayxay [เชียงของ - ຫ້ວຍ ຊາຍ]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

1995 - 2012

Zerstörte Opium-Schlafmohnfelder

Ann.: Zerstörte Opium-Mohnfelder 1995 - 2012
[Datenquelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-03-21. -- Fair use]

1990 - 1995

Preis für Rohopium:

Abb.: Preis von Rohopium in Baht / joi (1,6 kg), 1990 - 1995
[Datenquelle: Rita Gebert ; Chupinit Kesmanee [ชูพินิจ เกษมณี]. -- In: Development or domestication? : indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia / ed. Don N McCaskill ; Ken Kampe. -- Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 1997. -- 631 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- ISBN 974-7100-33-9. -- S 363, Anm. 6]

1995 - 2010


Abb.: Morde pro 100.000 Einwohner, Vergleich Thailand und Deutschland, 1995 - 2010
[Datenquelle: und -- Zugriff am 2011-12-14]

Abb.: In einem Land, in dem Militär und Polizei ungestraft morden dürfen, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass die Ehrfurcht vor menschlichem Leben unterentwickelt ist. Gedenken für die 92 Personen, die hier 2010 von Armee und Polizei massakriert wurden. Keiner der Mörder wurde zur Rechenschaft gezogen. Bangkok, 2011-05-19
[Bildquelle: Ratchaprasong. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-01-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

1992 - 1995

Einnahmen und Ausgaben von Wat Ban Rai (วัดบ้านไร่), Amphoe Dan Khun Thot (ด่านขุนทด), dessen Abt der Wunder-Mönch Luang Phor Khoon Parisuttho (หลวงพ่อคูณ ปริสุทโธ, 1923 - ) ist.

Abb.: Lage von Wat Ban Rai (วัดบ้านไร่)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Jeden Werktag je 100.000 Baht
Jeden Samstag und Sonntag je 1.000.000 Baht

Ausgaben für wohltätige Zwecke (Beispiele):

1992 Für Schulen in Nordostthailand 91.000.000 Baht
1993 Für ländliche Gesundheitsprojekte 200.000.000 Baht
1995 Für ein College in seiner Amphoe Dan Khun Thot (ด่านขุนทด)
wo sein Kloster liegt
190.000.000 Baht
1995 Für ein Mönchskrankenhaus in Khorat (โคราช) 30.000.000 Baht

[Datenquelle: Pattana Kitiarsa [พัฒนา กิติอาษา] <1968-2013>: Mediums, monks, and amulets : Thai popular Buddhism today. -- Chiang Mai : Silkworm, [2012]. -- 170 S. : Ill ; 21 cm. -- ISBN 9786162150494. -- S. 102]


PKW und Motorräder nach Region:

Abb.: PKW und Motorräder (in Tausend) nach Region, 1994-12-31
[Datenquelle: Pocket Thailand in figures (1996), S. 18f.]

Abb.: In Bangkok kommt man mit dem Motorrad schneller voran, 2010
[Bildquelle: null0. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-02-01. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Verdienst von und an Prostituierten:

Abb.: Geschätzte Monatseinnahmen von Prostituierten 1995
[Datenquelle: Guns, girls ... (1998), S. 202]

Abb.: A-Go-go-Bar, Patong Beach (หาดป่าตอง), Phuket (ภูเก็ต), 2007
[Bildquelle: ChrisO / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Lage von Patong Beach (หาดป่าตอง)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Monatseinnahmen von in All-inclusive-Etablissements arbeitenden Prostituierten und monatlicher Gewinn pro Prostituierte des Etablissements, 1995 (Schätzungen)
[Datenquelle: Guns, girls ... (1998), S. 204]

Abb.: Auch das männliche Sexgewerbe floriert, Pattaya (พัทยา), 2008
[Bildquelle: Lynhdan Nguyen. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-02-15. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung)]

Abb.: Lage von Pattaya (พัทยา)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

1986 - 1995

Anzahl der kommerziellen Unternehmen für Schwule

Abb.: Schwulen-orientierte kommerzielle Unternehmen, 1986 bis 1995
[Datenquelle: Jackson, Peter A. <1956 - >: Dear Uncle Go : male homosexuality in Thailand : สวัสดีกรับ อาโก๋ ปากน้ำ. -- Bangkok : Bua Luang, 1995. -- 310 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- ISBN 0942777115. -- Völlige Neubearbeitung von Ders.: Male homosexuality in Thailand : an interpretation of contemporary Thai sources (1989). -- S. 235]

1994 - 1995

Anzahl der Schwulenzeitschriften in Thai


Gründung des Elephant Nature Park in der Provinz Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) durch Sangduen "Lek" Chailert (1962 - ).

Abb.: Lage des  Elephant Nature Park
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Elephant Nature Park, Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่), 2010
[Bildquelle: Roberta Zouain. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-04-06. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Elephant Nature Park is a 800-hectare (2,000-acre) sanctuary and rescue centre for elephants in the Northern Thailand, Chiang Mai Province (เชียงใหม่), approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) from Chiang Mai City. Founded in the 1990s, the project's aim is to provide sanctuary for distressed elephants from all over Thailand. Set in a natural valley, bordered by a river, and surrounded by forested mountains the sanctuary and surrounding area offers a glimpse of rural life.


Its founder, Sangduen "Lek" Chailert, was born at a remote mountain community in Northern Thailand in the 1960s. Her maternal grandfather was a tribal man of the forest and Lek's jungle forays with him led to an early and organic understanding of the wonders of nature. Against the backdrop of poverty she obtained a university education - something practically unique considering her circumstances.

Despite extreme financial difficulties she succeeded in founding Elephant Nature Park along with her husband Adam in 1996.

The park is close to her home village. Elephant Nature park has the aim is to provide a sanctuary for elephants to live in a peaceful natural environment. When Lek was young, her family cared for an elephant which became a close companion to Lek. This affection led to working with elephants in the forests. With a vet they provided medical care to sick elephants in remote areas. The park's current herd includes disabled, orphaned, blind and rescued, elephants of all ages.

The elephants at the sanctuary are rescued from street begging, logging or tourism. Their scars, mental and physical, need to be healed. Some outlived their usefulness to loggers while others became useless to trekking camp owners. Lek's work takes her deep into the jungles of Northern Thailand where, with the help of medical staff, she treats tribal villagers and their families with medical care and, often, donated clothing. Her Jumbo Express programme provides much needed care to elephants in the jungles in Chiang Mai province and beyond.

The park is based in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, some 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Chiang Mai city and Chiang Mai International Airport (CNX)

Elephant Nature Park has rescued over 35 distressed elephants throughout the country and has received numerous awards from institutions including the Smithsonian. The founder, Sangduen Chailert, was named Asian Hero of the Year by Time magazine in 2005, and the park has been featured in many international publications including National Geographic magazine, as well as feature documentaries from numerous film production companies including Animal Planet, BBC, National Geographic, CNN.

In an area which abounds with elephant parks and camps, this is the only one which rescues mistreated elephants, allows them heal and to live naturally in their self-chosen family groups. The emphasis is on rescue and conservation rather than 'shows' or training. Dozens of rescued dogs and cats also live at the centre, apparently at ease with their giant neighbours.

The park is open to visitors all year round. Day trips and overnight stays can be arranged as can longer-term volunteer placements.[1]

Protection of the forests is another of her many projects and she had initiated a programme of saving

Park sustainability and preservation programmes are focused around local culture, common sense, and a deep conviction in the preservation of our home area. In one program, individual trees are saved by tying sacred saffron cloth around each tree, which locals are the reluctant to cut down, fearing insults to jungle spirits.

Lek's efforts have been recognised worldwide and numerous stories have appeared on televisionand print media including National Geographic and the Smithsonian Society.[2]. In October 2010, Lek was received in the White House by U.S. Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton.

  • 2003 Guest of Honor of the US Humane Society's Genesis Awards[3]
  • 2005 Time magazine's list of "Asia's Heroes"[4]
  • 2006 Earth Day Award
  • 2006Honoris causa Doctor of Veterinarian Science from HM Crown Prince of Thailand[5]
  • 2008 Outstanding Woman of Thailand Award[6]

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2012-04-06]


Eröffnung des Sirindhorn Dinosaur Museum (พิพิธภัณฑ์สิรินธร) an der Dinosaurier-Fundstätte Phu Kum Khao (ภูกุ้มข้าว), Amphoe Sahatsakhan (สหัสขันธ์), Provinz Kalasin (กาฬสินธุ์).

Abb.: Lage von Amphoe Sahatsakhan (สหัสขันธ์)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Sirindhorn Dinosaur Museum (พิพิธภัณฑ์สิรินธร), 2012
[Bildquelle: Indy Deeghayu. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-10-17. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Nasori Saeseng (Awae Kaleh), ein ehemaliger Afghanistan-Kämpfer, gründet Gerakan Mujahiddin Islam Patani (GMIP), eine muslimisch terroristische Gruppe für den Kampf in den malaiischsprachigen Südprovinzen.


Kompositionen König Bhumibols 1995:


Premiere des Films Sunset at Chaophraya (คู่กรรม, Khu Kam).

Abb.: DVD-Titel
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Fair use]

"Sunset at Chaophraya (Thai: คู่กรรม, Khu Kam) is a 1996 romantic-drama film directed by Euthana Mukdasanit (ยุทธนา มุกดาสนิท, 1952 - ). Adapted from the novel Khu Kam by Thommayanti (ทมยันตี, 1937 - ), the story is a love triangle, set in World War II-era Thailand, and depicts the star-crossed romance between a Imperial Japanese Navy officer and a Thai woman who is involved with the Free Thai resistance (ขบวนการเสรีไทย).

Singer Thongchai "Bird" McIntyre (ธงไชย แมคอินไตย์, 1958 - ) stars as the Japanese officer Kobori (โกโบริ), reprising his role from a popular, 26-episode television series in 1990 that was based on the book. Aside from the 1990 series, the story has been adapted numerous times, including a film in 1973, another film in the 1980s and a musical play in 2003 by Dreambox Theatre in Bangkok that was revived in 2007.

One of top five box office hits in Thailand in 1996,[1] this film was among the first Thai films to gain overseas distribution for home video, with an English-subtitled VHS release in 1998.[2]


It is 1944, and the Japan's efforts to win the Pacific War are failing, and a Thai woman, Angsumalin, has just lost her husband, Kobori, an officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy.

The scene then flashes back to 1939, the early days of World War II in Siam, to Angsumalin (อังศุมาลิน)meeting one last time with her former lover, a young Thai man named Vanus (วนัส). He is leaving for England for his studies and hopes that Angsumalin will wait for him and marry him when he returns.

Shortly thereafter, Thailand is invaded by Japanese military forces. In Thonburi (ธนบุรี), opposite Bangkok on the Chaophraya River (แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา), the Imperial Japanese Navy establishes itself at a base. The forces there are led by Kobori, an idealistic young captain. One day he sees Angsumalin swimming in the river and falls for her. She, being a proudly nationalistic Thai woman, despises him because he is a foreigner.

Nonetheless, Kobori persists at seeing her and a courtship develops. Angsumalin sees a way to use Kobori to serve the underground Free Thai Movement while she waits for Vanus.

Then, for political reasons, Angsumalin's father insists that she marry Kobori. Understanding that Angsumalin is not marrying him out of love, Kobori promises not to touch her, but he breaks that vow after the wedding.

Despite this, Angsumalin develops tender feelings for Kobori, but is still torn by her feelings for her nation and Vanus, who returns to set in motion a conflict between the two men.


In 1996 Version
  • Bird McIntyre (ธงไชย แมคอินไตย์, 1958 - ) as Kobori (โกโบริ)
  • Apasiri Nitibhon (อาภาศิริ นิติพน) as Angsumalin (อังศุมาลิน) (In Japannese name Hideko)
  • Thiraphat Sajakul as Vanus (วนัส)
  • Supakorn Srisawat as Pol
  • Deux Doksadao as Bua
  • Chitrakorn Sundarapakshin as Angsumalin's father
In 2013 Version
  • Nadech Kugimiya (ณเดชน์ คูกิมิยะ, 1991 - ) as Kobori"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-03-05]



Paiwarin Khao-Ngam (ไพวรินทร์ ขาวงาม, 1961 - ) erhält den Southeast Asian Writers Award für die Gedichtsammlung ม้าก้านกล้วย (Banana Tree Horse)

Abb.: Einbandtitel


Es erscheint der Roman จ้าวแผ่นดิน von วิมล ไทรนิ่มนวล (1955 - )

Abb.: Einbandtitel

Englische Übersetzung: Wimon Sainimnuan [วิมล ไทรนิ่มนวล] <1955 - >:  Lord of the land. -- Transl. by Marcel Barang. --  Internet edition [for Kindle]. --  2009. -- ISBN 97 8611 7107 245. -- Originaltitel: จ้าวแผ่นดิน (1995)


Es erscheint:

พันตรีหลวง วุฒิรณพัสดุ์ [Phan Tri Luang Wutthironnaphat]: หัตถเรขานิเทศ ฉบับสมบูรณ์. -- กรุงเทพฯ : เสริมวิทย์, 2538 [=1995]. --724 S. : Ill. ; 15 x 21 cm. -- "Vollständige Anleitung zum Handlesen"

Abb.: Einbandtitel einer neueren Ausgabe

 "Hand Characteristics of Various Categories of People:

The Hand of Sri Thanonchai [ศรีธนนท์ชัย]:

[Author's note: Sri Thanonchai is a well-known character in Thai folklore. He is a poor boy who is famed for his clever and humorous manipulation of logic. As a result of such talents, he is consistently able to overcome obstacles and defeat people who are far greater in rank and status.]

There is one man in our country who is truly tough and unyielding, able to withstand [any and all manner of obstacles], strong and resolute, enjoys speaking in a controversial manner, and is capable of solving problems in the manner of Sri Thanonchai. That man’s name is Mr. Narin Phasit [นรินทร์ ภาษิด, 1874 - 1950] ...

During the years in which he was employed in government service, it can be said that Phra Phanom Sara Narin was better than anyone else in his ability at the capture of thieves. However, at the same time, he was a person with a very strong mouth. He was unwilling to bow down before anyone, even the very highest of officials in his administrative circle. What was right was right and what was wrong was wrong. Once he had reached an opinion, that opinion was to stay in his head and he was never to retract it. Therefore, Narin did not last in government service for a long period of time. According to official government plans, he should have been given higher rank and status than what he did in fact receive. His failure to attain that rank was purely the result of his own stubbornness...

I am well acquainted with Narin. [During the years of our friendship], I have continuously over the years predicted his fortune and examined his hand. On certain occasions, we would eat together at my house. Narin told me the day and the month of his birth and also left an imprint of his palm. He informed me that he was quite willing to have the results printed in order that they be circulated as public knowledge. As I told him, that indeed was my own personal desire for it was my wish that the print of his hand be included in my manual on palm reading...

Narin has played around in the political affairs of our country in a manner in which no one else has ever done. [His activities] have been such that he has received the title of "Man of Great Nuisance to Society. " [As for the collapse of his business in alcohol and the fall of the Nariwong Temple {วัตร์นารีวงศ์}], it is simply on account of the fact that his life line, his mind line, and his heart line twist and turn and then come to join together under the Mount of Venus in the palm of his right hand. Therefore, whatever status he is to attain, that status cannot be maintained over a long period of time. However, the mind line in his right hand originates very high above his lifeline, and it is also very long. This is illustrative of the fact that ever since the beginning [of his career], he has always been in the possession of very good ideas.... However, it just so happens that he also has two marks of a cross that rise up and border both sides of the mind line of his right palm. These marks show that he is a man whose thoughts go against those of the majority, and that he is not afraid to express them.... Narin once asked me whether this type of hand is that of a crazy man. I myself do not think that Narins hand shows any signs of abnormality. This is because his mind line is quite good and indicates that he is a man of sound judgment. It is simply that the cross marks have caused his thoughts to deviate in a certain direction."

[Übersetzung: Koret, Peter: The man who accused the king of killing a fish : the biography of Narin Phasit [นรินทร์ ภาษิด] of Siam (1874-1950). -- Chiang Mai : Silkworm, 2012. -- 397 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- ISBN 9786162150432. -- S. 321f. -- Fair use]


Es erscheint:

Holmes, Henry <1935 - > ; Suchada Tangtongtavy [สุชาดา ตั้งทองทวี] ; Tomizawa, Roy: Working with the Thais : a guide to managing in Thailand. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 146 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-50-3

Abb.: Einbandtitel

Das Buch wird für Fallstudien an der Harvard Business School verwendet.


Es erscheint:

สายพิน แก้วงามประเสริฐ [Saipin Kaewngamprasert]: การเมืองในอนุสาวรีย์ท้าวสุรนารี [Politik im Thao-Suranari-Denkmal]. -- กรุงเทพฯ : มติชน, 2538 [= 1995]. --  439 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-7115-88-3

Abb.: Einbandtitel

"In 1995 Matichon Group [มติชน ]published a master s thesis written by Saipin Kaewngamprasert [สายพิน แก้วงามประเสริฐ] on "Thao Suranari," [ท้าวสุรนารี] said to be the heroine who helped suppress a Lao "revolt" in Nakhon Ratchasima (Khorat) [นครราชสีมา (โคราช)] in the reign of Rama III. A monument to Thao Suranari was constructed by the new government in 1933 shortly after its suppression of the royalist Boworadet rebellion which had used Khorat as a base - further adding to the "rebel" city’s infamous reputation. The statue of Thao Suranari (or "Ya Mo" as she is more affectionately known) has since become not only a cultural emblem but also a religious landmark for the people of Khorat and, to a certain extent, the northeastern region generally. The crux of Saipin’s thesis is that there is no evidence from the reign of Rama III to indicate the existence, let alone heroism, of Thao Suranari. The implication was that the cult of Thao Suranari was constructed by the government to ensure the loyalty of the northeastern region to the Thai state, a loyalty that remained in question up to the 1960s. This thesis was interpreted as a slight on the people of Khorat. Demonstrations were organized by various groups in Khorat, goaded on by local politicians demanding, among other things, that the book be burned, that Saipin apologize to the monument, and that her master’s degree be withdrawn. Eventually Matichon was forced to recall the book; Saipin went into hiding and was later transferred from her school in Nakhon Ratchasima to another province. The episode has many lessons. It is an irony that what started out as a state cult has now become a crucial element in contemporary discourses of regional cultural identity. Moreover, the power of regionalism, so long suppressed by the Thai state, now resorts to the same tactics of intimidation used by the state when its foundations are questioned by academic scholarship."

[Quelle: Jory, Patrick: Problems in contemporary Thai nationalist historiography. -- In: Kyoto Review of Southeast Asisa. -- 3 (2003-03). -- Online: -- Zugriff am 2016-02-12. -- Fair use]

Abb.: Statue von Thao Suranari (ท้าวสุรนารี, 1772 - 1852) / von Silpa Bhirasri (ศิลป์ พีระศรี = Corrado Feroci), Korat (โคราช)
[Bildquelle: Thanyakij / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Einweihung des Denkmals für Thao Suranari (ท้าวสุรนารี, 1772 - 1852) von Silpa Bhirasri (ศิลป์ พีระศรี = Corrado Feroci, 1882 - 1962) in Korat (โคราช), 1934-01-05

Abb.: Lage von Korat (โคราช)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

1995 (?)

Es erscheint:

ความเป็นมาทางการเมืองของกรณีนองเลือด พฤษภาคม 2535 สู้เพื่อประชาธิปไตย / กลุ่มนักวิชาการเพื่อประธิปไตย [Origins of the bloodshed in Mai 1992]. -- o.O., o.J.

Darin enthalten:

ธเนศ อาภรณ์สุวรรณ [Thanes Apornsuwan] <1948 - >: นานาทรรศนะ 17-20 พฤษภาคม 2535 [Various viwepoints on 17 - 20 May 1997]

"The origin and process of this [May 1992] incident and 14th October are somewhat similar. In the beginning, it seemed like a victory for the people and the students. The government was changed according to the demands of the people. But on 14th October, the peoples movement perhaps did not maintain political power. Eventually, the power was taken back [by the state], ending in the 6th October bloodshed. ... I think the demands of the people during May 1992 were clearer than on 14th and 6th October. ... [P]eople in the highest offices must be elected. ... [and] the recent [May 1992] uprising was a continuation of that political will and proved that during the last nineteen years Thai democracy has never been suspended."

[Thanet, a.a.O., S.37. -- Übersetzt in: Kanokrat Lertchoosakul [กนกรัตน์ เลิศชูสกุล]: The rise of the Octobrists in contemporary Thailand : power and conflict among former left-wing student activists in Thai politics. -- New Haven : Yale University Southeast asia Studies, 2016. -- 364 S. 23 cm. -- (Yale Southeast Asia studies ; monograph 65). -- ISBN 9780985042943. -- Zugl. The London School of Economics and Political Science, thesis 2012-09. -- S. 190. -- Fair use]


Es erscheint:

เอนก เหล่าธรรมทัศน์ [Anek Laothamatas] <1954 - >: สองนคราประชาธิปไตย : แนวทางการปฏิรูป การเมือง เศรษฐกิจเพื่อประชาธิปไตย [A tale of two democracies : conflicting perceptions of elections and democracy in Thailand]. -- กรุงเทพฯ : มติชน, 2538. -- ISBN 9749155017

Abb.: Einbandtitel einer der Ausgaben


An der Osaka Triennale erhält der Bildhauer Tawatchai Puntusawasdi (ธวัชชัย พันธุ์สวัสดิ์, 1971 - ) den Grand Prize.


Gründung des Liverpool Thailand FanClub (official partner of Liverpool F. C.)

Abb.: ®Logo

Abb.: Lage von Liverpool
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Michele Ronja Waagaard (มิเชล วอกอด์ด, 1980 - ) wird von der Teen-Zeitschrift The Boy zum Model des Jahrs gewählt.

"Michele Ronja Waagaard (Spelt Thai มิเชล วอกอด์ด or มิเชล วอกอร์ด ) Born March 7, 1980 is a Norwegian/Thai model, pop star and radio host. In 1995 she won the title as Model of the Year for the Thai teen magazine The Boy.

Michele studied at Bangkok Patana School (โรงเรียนบางกอกพัฒนา). She has appeared in music videos for stars such as Bird Thongchai McIntyre (ธงไชย แมคอินไตย์, 1958 - ), Raptor, Fly, U.H.T, Maew Jerasak and several more. In 1996 she landed a record deal with Grammy Entertainment in Thailand. Michele and 7 other teenagers released the teen friendly album Teen 8 Grade A. The album was greatly received by the Thai public and the band sold several 100.000 copies and went on tour.

Abb.: CD-Titel
[Fair use]

After a year on the road the four girls in the band came together and created Thailand's first pop girl band JAMP, Jennifer, Anna, Michele and Por. JAMP released two albums JAMP and Bungorn ao tae dance. After several years of touring the girls split up and went their separate ways in 2001. Por released a solo album while Jennifer started in a new girl band show girls.

Michele became a full-time catwalk model. In 2002 Michele became a VJ for MTV Thailand. She hosted MTV POP with Rowena Kennett and MTV ROCK. Michele moved to Los Angeles to attend the Lee Strasberg Institute. Michele moved back to her birth country Norway in 2005. There she hosted and produced a daily music show SVISJ SHOW for the national broadcasting network NRK as well as also she went to film and TV broadcasting school

On December 14 and 15 2008, Michele hosted the fourth annual GBOB Challenge (the Global Battle Of The Bands World Finals) in central London.

Michele now works at the radio station Wave fm 88 in Bangkok. Hosting the morning show and weekend show. She also ventured into writing and photography and doing freelance photography on the side."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-04-10]


Beliebteste Marken beim Neuwagenkauf PKW:

Abb.: Zehn beliebteste Marken beim Neuwagenkauf PKW, 1995
[Datenquelle: Pocket Thailand in figures (1996), S. 181]

Abb.: Viele Bangkoker verbringen einen großen Teil ihrer Zeit im Verkehrsstau, darum sind schicke Autos ein Ersatz fürs Eigenheim, 2007
[Bildquelle: maistora. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-01-31. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Gewinnstruktur bei mit Fischerbooten übers Meer eingeschmuggeltem Diesel:

Abb.: Gewinnstruktur bei mit Fischerbooten übers Meer eingeschmuggeltem Diesel, 1995
[Datenquelle: Guns,girls ... (1998), S. 119]


Korruptionsskandal des Landwirtschaftsministers Suthep Thaugsuban (สุเทพ เทือกสุบรรณ, 1949 - )

Abb.: Suthep Thaugsuban (สุเทพ เทือกสุบรรณ), 2010
(Photographer attached to the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Thailand : Peerapat Wimolrungkarat / พีรพัฒน์ วิมลรังครัตน์. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-05-03. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"The Democrat Party (พรรคประชาธิปัตย์) won elections in 13 September 1992, shortly after Black May (พฤษภาทมิฬ), and formed a government. Suthep became Agriculture Minister. As part of the Sor Por Kor 4-01 (สปก.4-01) land reform scheme, Suthep gave title deeds to 592 plots of land in Khao Sam Liam, Kamala and Nakkerd hills of Phuket province (ภูเก็ต) to 489 farmers. It was later found that members of 11 wealthy families in Phuket were among the recipients. Suthep addressed a huge crowd in his Surat Thani constituency a month before a no-confidence debate and called on his supporters to march on Bangkok in the hundreds of thousands to defend his reputation. The scandal led Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai of the Democrat Party to dissolve the House of Representatives in July 1995 in order to avoid the no-confidence debate. In subsequent elections, the Chart Thai party (พรรคชาติไทย) won a majority, leading to the downfall of Chuan Leekpai's Democrat Party-led government."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2012-05-03]


Eröffnung des 700th Anniversary Stadium in Chiang Mai (สนามกีฬาสมโภชเชียงใหม่ 700 ปี) zum 700-Jahres-Jubiläum der Stadtgründung.

Abb.: Lage des 700th Anniversary Stadium in Chiang Mai (สนามกีฬาสมโภชเชียงใหม่ 700 ปี)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: 700th Anniversary Stadium in Chiang Mai (สนามกีฬาสมโภชเชียงใหม่ 700 ปี), 2011
[Bildquelle: Nor Oh. -- -- Zugriff am 2012-06-05. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Es erscheint:

สมเด็จพระเจ้าพี่นางเธอ เจ้าฟ้ากัลยาณิวัฒนา กรมหลวงนราธิวาสราชนครินทร์ [=Galyani Vadhana, the Princess of Naradhiwas] <1923 - 2008>: เจ้านายเล็กๆ-ยุวกษัตริย์. -- กรุงเทพฯ : วงศ์จร, 2538 [= 1995]. -- 290 S. : Ill. ; 26 cm. -- Erinnerungen der Schwester des Königs an die Jugend des Königs.

Abb.: Einbandtitel


Es erscheint:

สายพิณ แก้วงามประเสริฐ: การเมืองในอนุสาวรีย์ ท้าวสุรนารี. -- กรุงเทพฯ : มติชน, 2538. -- 439 S. -- ISBN 974-7115-88-3. -- Übersetzung des Sachtitels: "Politik im Thao-Suranari-Denkmal".

Darin sucht die Verfasserin aufzuzeigen, dass Thao Suranari (ท้าวสุรนารี, aka. Ya Mo - ย่าโม, 1772 - 1852) eine moderne Erfindung der Identitätskonstruktion der Bevölkerung Korats (โคราช) ist und deswegen dort eine zentrale Figur der spiritistischen Medien-Kulte geworden ist.

Abb.: Einbandtitel

Abb.: Thao-Suranari-Denkmal, Korat (โคราช), 2004
[Bildquelle: M112 / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Abb.: Lage von Korat (โคราช)
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]




Seoul (Südkoreat): im Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr werden weltweit erstmalig contactless smart cards eingeführt.

Abb.: rabbit card, eine thailändische  contactless smart card, mit der man den Fahrpreis in Bangkok Skytrain und Bangkok BRT seit 2012-05 abrechnen kann


Es erscheint

Landon, Kenneth Perry Jr. <1943 - >: The Landon chronicles synopsis : a complete synopsis of The Landon Chronicles (an oral history of Margaret Dorothea Mortenson Landon [1903 - 1993] and Kenneth Perry Landon [1903 - 1993], recorded by their son from 1976 to 1989). -- 1995. -- Online: -- Zugriff am 2015-04-10


Eröffnung des Manwan Dam (漫湾大坝) am oberen Mekong (澜沧江). Es ist das erste große Wasserkraftwerk am Mekong.

Abb.: Lage des Manwan Staudamms (漫湾大坝)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Es folgen viele weitere Staudämme (fertig, im Bau, in Planung oder geplant):

Abb.: Staudämme am chinesischen Lauf des Mekong
[Bildquelle: . -- Zugriff am 2016-01-07. -- Fair use]

Mengsong Dam [勐松水电站] geplant
Ganlanba Dam [橄榄坝水电站] geplant
Jinghong Dam [景洪水电站] in Betrieb
Nuozhadu Dam [糯扎渡水电站] in Betrieb
Dachaoshan Dam [大朝山水电站] in Betrieb
Manwan Dam [漫湾水电站] in Betrieb
Xiaowan Dam [小湾水电站] in Betrieb
Gongguoqiao Dam [功果桥水电站] in Betrieb
Miaowei Dam [苗尾水电站] im Bau
Dahuaqiao Dam [大华桥水电站] im Bau
Huangdeng Dam [黄登水电站] im Bau
Tuoba Dam [托巴水电站] in Planung
Lidi Dam [里底水电站] im Bau
Wunonglong Dam [乌弄龙水电站] im Bau
Guonian Dam [果念水电站] in Planung
Gushui Dam [古水水电站] geplant
Guxue Dam
Rumei Dam
Banda Dam
Kagong Dam
Yuelong Dam
Cege Dam



Es erscheint der vietnamesische Roman zum Vietnamkrieg:

Bảo Ninh [= Hoàng Ấu Phương] <1952 - >: The sorrow of war : a novel of North Vietnam / Bao Ninh ; translated from the Vietnamese by Phan Thanh Hao ; edited by Frank Palmos. -- 1st American ed. --  New York : Pantheon Books, 1995. -- 233 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 0679439617. -- Originaltitel: Thân phận của tình yêu (1991)

Abb.: Einbandtitel

Verwendete Ressourcen


Zu Chronik 1995 / B. E. 2538. -- 2. datiert