नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्

2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam

9. siṃhādivargaḥ

(Über Tiere)

4. Vers 14c - 15b
(Vögel I)


Übersetzt von Alois Payer

mailto:payer@payer.de 


Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 9. siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 4. Vers 14c - 15b (Vögel I) -- Fassung vom 2011-01-18. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa2/amara209d.htm               

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2001-01-17 (am 127. Geburtstag des Vaters von Alois Payer)

Überarbeitungen: 2001-01-18 [Verbesserungen]

©opyright: Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Meinem Lehrer und Freund

Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron

ist die gesamte Amarakośa-Übersetzung

in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.

Meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die all meine Interessen teilt und fördert

ist das Tierkapitel in Dankbarkeit besonders gewidmet


Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.


"Those who have never considered the subject are little aware how much the appearance and habit of a plant become altered by the influence of its position. It requires much observation to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the low country, small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye they appear to be different plants. The Jatropha curcas grows to a tree some 15 or 20 feet on the Neilgherries, while the Datura alba is three or four times the size in>n the hills that it is on the plains. It is therefore with much diffidence that I have occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub. The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering seasons, especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstroemia Reginae, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, previous to the commencement of the rains, in blossom more or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endeavoured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in contradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little success; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a lifetime would scarcely suffice."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- S. VIII f.]


2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam - Zweiter Teil


2.9. siṃhādivargaḥ - Abschnitt über Löwen und andere Tiere



Abb.: Asiatische Tierwelt
[Bildquelle: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversationslexikon, 1906]


Referenzwerke:

Dave, K. N. <1884 - 1983>: Birds in Sanskrit literature. -- Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. -- XXIV, 481 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0-89581-676-8. [Referenz für Sanskritbezeichnungen von Vögeln]

Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan : together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka ; [in 10 vol.] / Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley. -- Delhi : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1968 - 1974 [Referenzwerk für Vögel Indiens]

Kazmierczak, Krys [Text] ; Berlo, Per van [Ill.]:  A field guide to the birds of the Indian subcontinent. -- New Haven : Yale University Press, ©2000. -- 352 S. : Ill. -- . ISBN 0300079214. [Neue, durchgehend farbig illustrierte Übersicht über 1330 Vogelarten Indiens]

Rasmussen, Pamela C. ; Anderton, John C.: Birds of South Asia : the Ripley Guide. -- Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian, 2005. -- 2 Bde. -- ISBN 84-87334-67-9. [DAS Standardwerk]


Ein großer Teil der Vögel Indiens sind Zugvögel, die in anderen Ländern brüten und in Indien überwintern. Obwohl wir heute viel über Routen und Mechanismen des Vogelzuges wissen, bleibt er weiterhin ein großes Geheimnis wie zu Zeiten Jerdons und Murrays:

"A great number or the majority of those [birds] known to inhabit India and its dependencies quit the country for the purpose of breeding. Each species associate in flocks and aided by their keen sight, together with the advantage they possess of flying at considerable heights in the air, they are enabled with their instinctive knowledge to discover the route they are to take to migrate taking, probably, as a guide, the appearance of the atmosphere, direction of winds, &c.; so that without recourse to improbable modes it is not difficult to form an idea of the speed at which they go in transporting themselves to far countries by crossing vast ocean tracts. Without the means of conveying themselves from one place to another they could scarcely subsist for the reason that climatic influences affect their food-supply. This may also be said to be one of the reasons for migrating. Besides the want of food, other causes of migration are, the want of a proper temperature of air and a convenient situation for the great work of breeding and rearing their offspring. They either remove from one country or climate to another or from the inland districts to hills, forest regions or to sequestered rocks or islands in the sea, or to vast sandy plains far removed from, or in the vicinity of, the sea, or river. And all this is conducted with the greatest punctuality, and the same may be said of their reappearance a few months later. It is also a noteworthy fact, proved by experiments, that birds which affect a certain station or district usually return to it year after year. The question as to how they subsist during their migrations is readily solved, when we consider the velocity of their flight together with the considerable length of time the majority continue on the wing. If we estimate the speed of a bird's flight at a mile in two minutes it would need but 24 hours to carry it as many as seven hundred miles without taking into consideration favourable wind currents which would probably nearly double the distance. Red-starts and other short-winged birds pass by gradual and slow movements as is evidenced by their appearance in different countries at different times of the year but these seldom go further than the inaccessible heights of mountain ranges. Many journey during the night to avoid the dangers of daylight or for the purpose of taking advantage of favourable air currents. What the true reason for migrating is, has yet to be learnt. We see their punctuality of departure and return, we note the dates very carefully, the time of their nidification, the composition of the various structures they build for the rearing of their young, also the number of eggs they lay, their colour, size and shape as well as the changes of their plumage during the breeding season, but beyond this, and conjecture, we have not gone. The nidificatibn of birds is indeed very various, but in consonance with their habits."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. XI f.]

"The migrations of birds are among the most remarkable effects of their instincts ; and the cause thereof has give a rise to numerous speculations. It appears to me that the want or scarcity of food, together with the decline of temperature, are the chief causes that impel most migrator (and perhaps all our Wading and Water-birds) from the northern regions where they breed, to the more genial climate of the winter of the Tropics ; and it is the ever-continued flow-onwards of the birds from the North that impel so many to the extreme South. Where it not for this continued stream from the North, many would stop far short of the usual extent of their wanderings south. The Northward migration, however, is dependent on another cause; viz., the rapid enlargement of the sexual organs in spring, causing the wish of returning to their homes (for such their birth-place must be considered), for the purpose of breeding ; and this appears to become a most powerful and irrestrainable impulse, even birds in confinement and incapable of flight, showing great uneasiness at this time. Why such birds as the Cuckoo, immediately after her eggs are laid, and the male perhaps before that, should proceed to the south, is a more difficult problem. Cuvier's explanation of the cause of migration being dependent on the sensibility of birds to the variations of the atmosphere to an extent of which we can have no idea, no more affords an efficient cause for this, than for that of migration in general.

In India we have several variations in the time of arrival and departure of migratory birds. In lower Bengal the Kites quit Calcutta and its vicinity during the rains, appearing again in the cold weather. It is not known exactly where they go to, but when at Dacca, towards the end of May, I saw a vast flock proceeding in a North-east direction one evening, and, long after dark, they were still passing over. I do not recollect noticing any diminution in the number of Kites at any season, in the South of India.

Some birds of prey, as the lesser Kestrel, the Baza and the Indian Hobby appear most frequently in lower Bengal during the rainy season. The Adjutants visit Calcutta during the rains, leaving in the cold weather. Bee-eaters quit certain parts of the country during the hot season for the purpose of breeding, returning before the conclusion of the rains ; and a few other birds appear to leave some districts for a time, for the same purpose. The vast majority however of the true migratory birds are cold weather visitants, coming in during September and October, and leaving from the end of March to May. The Peregrine Falcon, the true Hobby, the Kestrel, the English Sparrowhawk, all our Harriers, the Short-eared Owl, are all true migratory birds. Among the Insessores the Wagtails, some of the Pipits and Larks, Stonechats, several Warblers and Thrushes, Buntings and Rose Finches, are the chief groups among which migratory birds occur. The Shrike, the Hoopoe and two Starlings, and a very few others, are also among the migratory insessorial birds. The European Quail is the only real migratory bird among the Gallinaceae, and even it is said to breed in small numbers in some parts of the north of India ; but some of the other Quails, and Bustard-quails, and the Pteroclidae, wander about to different localities. Among the Grallatores some Cranes and Storks, and the great majority of the Scolopacidceae breed in the north, and come to India during the winter ; and so do four-fifths of the Ducks that visit us at the same season. Several others among the waders and water-birds leave certain districts for the purpose of breeding, e. g., Otis aurita, Ardea bubulcus, some of the Rails, Terns, Gulls, and others ; and a few birds also wander about, apparently to procure their food with more facility.

Migrating birds often return regularly to the same spot year after year, and even in many cases to the same nest which they have previously occupied. The wonderful instinct by which many birds, carried to a distance from their homes, travel straight back again, is well known, as exemplified by carrier-pigeons and other birds."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Vol 1. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- S. XXII ff.]


Übersicht



2.9.33. Tauben


14. c./d. pārāvataḥ kalaravaḥ kapoto 'tha śaśādanaḥ

पारावतः कलरवः कपोतो थ शशादनः ॥१४ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Tauben:]

  • पारावत - pārāvata m.: "aus der Ferne Stammender"; bes. Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 - Felsentaube - Rock Pigeon  (Dave, S. 501)
  • कलरव - kalarava m.: der einen zarten Laut hat
  • कपोत  - kapota m.: jede Art von Columbidae - Taube - Pigeon / Dove (Dave, S. 486)


Colebrooke (1807): "A dove or pigeon."



Abb.: Calaenas nicobarica Linnaeus, 1758 - Nicobar Pigeon
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 82.]


Abb.: Edelmann und Dame beobachten Tauben (Ausschnitt), 1662


Erläuterungen:

Siehe auch:

Baker, E. C. Stuart (Edward Charles Stuart) <1864-1944>: Indian pigeons and doves  / by E.C. Stuart Baker ; with twenty-seven coloured plates from drawings by H. Grönvold and G.E. Lodge. -- London, 1913. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/indianpigeonsdov00bakerec. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-12.


K. N. Dave gibt folgende Übersicht (S. 251) (in Klammern: Seitenzahl in Ali-Ripley):


Columba livia - Rock Pigeon - Felsentaube

33 cm



Abb.: भस्माङ्ग-पारावतः । bhasmāṅga pārāvata - Rock Pigeon - Columba livia - Felsentaube
[Bildquelle: John Gould: The Birds of Europe, vol. 4 (1832). -- Pl. 3]
 


Abb.: Ursprünglicher (dunkelrot) und heutiger Lebensraum von Columba livia ssp. - Felsentaube
[Bildquelle: Viktor Kravtchenko / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout India to Ceylon, the Himalayas, Assam, Burmah, Persia, Beloochistan and Afghanistan in great abundance, congregating in large flocks. Breeds throughout India.  Eggs 2 in number [...] Nesting in mosques, tombs, buildings, walls, and in holes in rocks, and caverns."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 508]

"The Blue Pigeon of India is one of the most common and abundant birds throughout the country, congregating in large flocks, and breeding wherever they can find suitable spots. They are most partial to large buildings, such as Churches, Pagodas, Mosques, Tombs, and the like; frequently entering verandahs of inhabited houses, and building in the cornices. Holes in walls of cities or towns, too, are favorite places, and, in some parts of the country, they prefer holes in wells, especially, I think, in the West of India, the Deccan, &c. In default of such spots, they will breed in crevices and cavities of rocks, caverns, and sea-side cliffs ; and I have often noticed that they are particularly partial to rocky cliffs by waterfalls. The celebrated falls of Gaissoppa are tenanted by thousands of Blue Pigeons, which here associate with the large Alpine Swift. It is more rare in forest countries generally than in the open country. It extends from Ceylon throughout India to the Himalayas, and also to Assam, Sylhet, and Burmah. It is doubtful if it occurs in Afghanistan, or in other parts of Central Asia. These Pigeons are held in favor by most natives, and almost venerated by some ; and if they build in the house of a native, he considers it a most fortunate omen. They are, however, very destructive to grain, assembling in vast flocks in the cold weather, and, in general, the natives do not object to their being shot. They are undoubtedly the origin of most of the domestic Pigeons of India."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 469f.]


Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 1758 - Wood Pigeon

43 cm



Abb.: रुचक-कपोतः । रुचक-पारावतः । rucaka kapota, rucaka pārāvata - Wood Pigeon - Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 1758 [Bildquelle: John Gould: The Birds of Europe, vol. 4 (1832). -- Pl. 1]

Gesang von Columba palumbus

कलरवः । Anklicken! Gesang von Wood Pigeon - Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 1758
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei:
Mysid / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Columba leuconota Vigors, 1811 (III, 120) - Snow Pigeon - Schneetaube

34 cm



Abb.: श्वेत-पारावतः । śveta parāvata - Snow Pigeon - Columba leuconota Vigors, 1811 (III, 120) - Schneetaube
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 14]

"Habitat. N.-W. Himalayas from 10,000 feet to snow level."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 509]

"This remarkably colored Pigeon is found on the Himalayas, chiefly towards the North-west, and is stated to frequent rocky heights and sequestered valleys, from 10,000 feet to the snow level, in large parties.

It feeds in the fields, returning to the rocks to roost ; and is said to be shy and wary."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 472.]


Ducula aenea Linnaeus, 1766 (III, 111) - Imperial Green Pigeon - Bronzefruchttaube

43 cm



Abb.: पटः । वर्धमान-कपोतः । paṭa,  vardhamāna kapota:  Ducula aenea Linnaeus, 1766 (III, 111) - Imperial Green Pigeon - Bronzefruchttaube
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 7]

"It will be seen from the synonyms I have adopted that I do not consider Blyth's small race C. pusilla, from the South of India, distinct from the bird of Central India. Some specimens from the South are perhaps smaller than others from Northern and North-eastern India ; and examples from the East Coast are somewhat smaller than those from the West Coast; but the supposed new species was founded on a peculiarly small specimen. Should I be correct, this fine Pigeon inhabits the whole of India, from Ceylon to Assam and Sylhet, not however, apparently, occurring in the Himalayas, nor in the North-western Provinces. It also is found in Burmah, and even extends through the Malayan Peninsula to Java and Sumatra, according to Blyth. It is only found in forest countries, and is very abundant in the Malabar forests, in Central India, Midnapore, and the wooded countries to the North-east generally.

According to my observations, it is not at all a mountain species, keeping to forests at low elevations, and I cannot recall ever having seen it as high even as 2,000 feet ; certainly it is more abundant at elevations from the level of the sea to 1 ,000 feet ; and Mr. Blyth was mistaken when he stated that the specimen sent him by myself, from which he made his pusilla, was from the Neilgherries ; indeed I have not even seen this Pigeon in the Wynaad. Layard, on the contrary, describes it as "extending into the low country in Ceylon, but their great haunt is certainly the mountain zone, though, from Dr. Kelaert's observations, it does not appear to have been seen in very high lands." It associates usually in small parties, now and then uniting into flocks of twenty or more. It wanders about from place to place, looking for trees in fruit ; and, in the hot weather, visits the salt swamps on the Malabar Coast, in numbers, along with the next species, to feed on the buds of Avicennia, and other trees of similar habit. I found it breeding in the forests of Central India in April and May, but was unable to get at any of the nests which I saw ; however, I was assured by a Shikaree that he found two eggs in one nest he examined. Like the Green Pigeons, it betakes itself to river banks to drink, about 8 or 9 a. m., and again, I believe, in the afternoon. Its call is a low, deep, plaintive moan, called, however by one writer, a 'harsh and croaking note, not unlike the croaking of a bull frog.' Tickell describes its call as deep and ventriloquous. The flesh is excellent eating. A writer in the Bengal Sporting Review states that, "a wounded bird will erect the feathers of its head and neck, and buffet with its wings the hand which captures it."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 456f.]


Treron apicauda Blyth, 1846 (III, 94) - Pin-tailed Green Pigeon

40 / 35 cm



Abb.:  कोकथुः । कोकदेवः । kokathu, kokadeva: Treron apicauda Blyth, 1846 (III, 94) - Pin-tailed Green Pigeon
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 6]

"This elegant Green Pigeon has hitherto only been found in the South-east Himalayas, in Nepal and Sikim, extending, however, to the hill ranges of Assam. It is not so common near Darjeeling as the last species, and frequents a lower zone, being found in the warmer valleys. Its note is very similar to that of the last species, but less loud, musical, and prolonged."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 454.]


Treron sphenura Vigors, 1832 - Wedge-tailed Green Pigeon

33 cm



Abb.: कोकथुः । कोकदेवः । kokathu, kokadeva: Wedge-tailed Green Pigeon - Treron sphenura Vigors, 1832 (III,96)
[Bildquelle: Mukesh Jain / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"The Kokla Green Pigeon is spread throughout the Himalayas, extending into the hilly regions of Assam and Sylhet. It frequents the zone from 4,000 to 8,000 feet, in winter perhaps descending lower, for Hutton remarks that they leave Mussooree in October, returning in April to breed. It is common at Darjeeling, but, as Tickell remarks, not so extensively gregarious as the common green pigeons of the plains. They frequent high trees, and feed of course exclusively on fruit. Hutton found them breeding in May and June, making the usual nest of dried twigs, and with two white eggs.

The male has a most agreeable note, more prolonged and musical than that of Crocopus. Blyth says of it :—"The notes bear some resemblance to the human voice in singing, and are highly musical in tone, being considerably prolonged and modulated, but always terminating abruptly, and every time the stave is repeated exactly as before, so that it soon becomes wearisome to an European ear." After moulting in confinement, the green colour, in some specimens, becomes replaced by a delicate pearl grey, and the russet tinge of the head and breast becomes pale maronne. Mr. Blyth, described a caged specimen with these tints as V. cantillans.

The Kokhila is greatly prized as a cage-bird by the natives, and is occasionally brought for sale to Calcutta, and sells at a high price."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 453f.]


Streptopelia senegalensis cambayensis Gmelin, 1789 - Little Brown Dove

27 cm



Abb.: कुंकुम-धूम्र-कपोतः । kuṃkuma-dhūmra-kapota - Little Brown Dove - Streptopelia senegalensis cambayensis Gmelin, 1789
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 22]

Habitat. Nearly throughout India, Sind, Kutch, Rajputana, Deccan, Concan, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Southern India generally, Beloochistan, Persia and Afghanistan. In Central and Western India specially abundant. Breeds all over the plains of India during March and April."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 514]

"This little Dove is found throughout the greater part of India, not occurring in Ceylon, Malabar, or Lower Bengal, nor in the countries to the eastward ; but very abundant in Central, and especially in Western India, also in Sindh and the Punjab. It is a very familiar bird, entering gardens and feeding on public roads, and close to houses and stables, without any alarm ; but it is also very abundant in all low bushy jungles. It breeds in Southern India at various times, and Hutton records that it visits Mussooree in April, remaining to breed, and departing again in autumn. Its coo, says Blyth, is 'low, subdued, and musical, a dissyllabic sound, repeated four or five times successively,' and of which its Hindustani and Tamil names are a sort of imitation."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 479.]


Streptopelia orientalis agricola Tickell, 1833 - Rufuous Turtle Dove - Orientturteltaube

32 cm



Abb.: कुंकुम-धूम्र-कपोतः । kuṃkuma-dhūmra-kapota - Rufuous Turtle Dove - Streptopelia orientalis agricola Tickell, 1833 - Orientturteltaube
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 20]

"Habitat. The Himalayas to Nepaul and Ceylon. It is a permanent resident of the hilly portions of Southern India, and of the broken belt of hills that stretch across the continent of India from the northern portions of the Western Ghauts to Cuttack ; thence it extends into Eastern Bengal, Khasia hills, Cachar, Assam and along the bases of the Himalayas as far west as the Sikkim and Nepaul Terais, and again southwards into Arrakan, Pegu and Northern Tenasserim. (Hume.) Breeds from December to April, but the majority lay in March, April and May. The number of eggs is two, and like all doves, pure glossy white."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 513]

"It is found throughout a considerable part of India, in the cold weather only, being a regular winter visitant, retiring to the hills to breed. It is more rare in the South of India than in Central and Northern India, and I did not observe it in the forests of Malabar, though observed by Elliot in Dharwar, and by Sykes in the Northern part of the Ghats ; but I have procured it in bamboo jungles on the Eastern Ghats, in Goomsoor, in Central India, and also in Eastern Bengal, the Khasia Hills, and Cachar. Mr. Blyth states that numbers of newly caught birds may frequently be seen in the bird-shops of Calcutta, and it occurs, though rarely, in Ceylon. It appears more social than most of the other Turtledoves, and, indeed, is frequently seen in large flocks. As it does not breed in the plains, I am inclined to think that the species noticed by Hutton as breeding at Mussooree, must be this bird rather than the Northern one, T. rupicolus, which, according to all analogy, ought to breed far North. Whichever it be, Hutton states that it is "a mere summer visitor at Mussooree, where it arrives early in April, when every wood resounds with its deep-toned cooing, being not found lower that 6,000 feet, and it departs in October. It breeds in May, making a platform nest on tall forest trees." If this be, as Blyth conjectures, rupicolus, where does it go to in October ? It does not, that we know, visit the plains of India, and it can barely be expected to go north at that season. Blyth states that he has often had T. meena in confinement in an aviary, and remarked them to be very taciturn, scarcely ever uttering a sound."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 477f.]


Streptopelia tranquebarica humilis Teminck, 1824 - Red Turtle Dove

23 cm



Abb.: अरुण-कपोतः । काण-कपोतः । aruṇa kapota, kāṇa kapota: Red Turtle Dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica humilis Teminck, 1824 (III, 151) - Weinrote Halsringtaube
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 23]

"Habitat. The drier regions in India, to Ceylon and the foot of the Himalayas. Common in the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajputana, Kutch, Guzerat, Concan and Deccan, but less so in Sind. Occurs also in Assam and Northern Burmah. In Sind it affects the northern districts chiefly ; seldom seen below Sukkur. It is not known from S. Afghanistan, where T. senegalensis replaces it."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 516]


Streptopelia chinensis Scopoli, 1768 (III, 151)  - Spotted Dove - Perlhalstaube

30 cm



Abb.: चित्र-कपोतः । चित्रपक्ष-कपोतः । citra kapota, citrapakṣa kapota: Spotted Dove - Streptopelia chinensis Scopoli, 1768 (III, 151) - Perlhalstaube, Kolkatta - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
 


Abb.: चित्र-कपोतः । चित्रपक्ष-कपोतः । citra kapota, citrapakṣa kapota: Spotted Dove - Streptopelia chinensis Scopoli, 1768 (III, 151) - Perlhalstaube, Kolkatta - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout India nearly, to Ceylon and the Himalayas. Replaces the last on the Malabar Coast and in Lower Bengal. Jerdon says it is rare in the bare Carnatic land, the Deccan, and N.-W. Provinces. Uncommon in Upper Sind, but less so in Lower Sind. Breeds in April and May. It occurs, but less abundantly, in Rajputana and N. Guzerat."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 514f.]

"The speckled Dove of India is diffused throughout all India, from Ceylon to the Himalayas, to a height of nearly 7,000 feet ; and equally so in the North-eastern Provinces of Assam and Sylhet. As a rule, it is most abundant in forest districts, or well-wooded countries, and is consequently rare in the bare Carnatic table-land, the Deccan, and the North-western Provinces generally; and most abundant on the Malabar Coast up to Surat, Lower Bengal and the foot of the Himalayas, with the lower ranges ; and in fact, though with exceptions, this Dove and the last species, T. cambaiensis, in many parts of the country, replace each other.

It breeds throughout the country, and at various seasons, and Hutton records it as migratory to the hills near Mussooree, where it breeds at about 5,000 feet. In the districts where it abounds, it is nearly as familiar as the last Dove, entering gardens, feeding on roads, near houses, &c. 'The coo of this Dove,' says Blyth, 'is plaintive and agreeable, something like oot-raow-oo—oot-raow-oo ; but far from easy to express in writing.' The same naturalist remarks that the Crows destroy a large proportion of the eggs and young about Calcutta and its environs."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 480f.]


Streptopelia (risoria var.) decaocto Frivaldsky, 1838 (III, 147) - Indische Lachtaube

32 cm



Abb.: धवल-कपोतः । dhavala kapota: Ring Dove - Streptopelia (risoria var.) decaocto Frivaldsky, 1838 (III, 147) - Indische Lachtaube, Sultanpur National Park,  Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. India generally, and Ceylon, except the more moist regions, as the Malabar Coast ; abundant in Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajputana, Kutch, Guzerat, Concan, Deccan, Central and South India, also Beloochistan and Southern Afghanistan. Rare in Burmah. Breeds throughout the year."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 516]

"The Ring-dove is generally diffused throughout India, frequenting hedges and trees in the neighbourhood of cultivation, and also low bush or reed jungle. It is found in Ceylon, but is rare in Malabar, and generally in forest country, and it appears not to occur in Arrakan, nor in the countries to the East of the Bay of Bengal. Layard notices its partiality for Euphorbia bushes, in which, he says, it generally builds its nest. Blyth states that it 'inclines to be more gregarious than our other Doves ;' but less so, I think, than T. meena. Like the other Doves, it breeds in the plains at all seasons, but also, it appears, ascends the Hills near Mussooree, to breed there in spring. "The coo," says Blyth, " is quite different from that of the domestic Turtle-dove, and may be expressed by kookoo-koo, kookoo-koo."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 482.]


Macropygia unchall Wagler, 1827 - Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove

41 cm



Abb.: तुषार-कपोतः । तुसाल-कपोतः । tuṣāra kapota, tusāla kapota: Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove - Macropygia unchall Wagler, 1827 (III, 138) - Malayische Kuckuckstaube
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 24]

"Habitat. S.-E. Himalayas, from Nepaul to Bhootan, extending to the Khasia hills. In Sikkim, according to Jerdon, it frequents the zone from 3000 to nearly 7000 feet. Hodgson says it lays in the Central forests of Nepaul in May and June. At Darjeeling, according to Theobald, during July. It also occurs along the hill tracts of Eastern Bengal ; in the north-eastern portion of Pegu on the Karin hills at 4000 feet elevation and on the Tounghoo hills at an altitude of 3500 feet. Gates adds, that Mr. Davison obtained it in Tenasserim on the Mooleyit mountain and at Kollidoo further north. They are shy birds and keep to thick forests, associating in small flocks. They breed on trees, making a nest of twigs and laying two eggs. Breeding season March and April."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 511]

"This fine Tree-dove is found in the S. E. Himalayas, from Nepal to Bootan, extending to the Khasia Hills. In Sikim it frequents the zone, from 3,000 to nearly 7,000 feet ; is found singly, occasionally in small parties ; feeds on various fruits, which it chiefly takes from the trees, now and then descending to the ground. Its voice is a deep, repeated, coo. I found its nest on the Khasia Hills at about 4,500 feet, on trees, at a moderate elevation."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 474.]


Chalcophaps indica Linnaeus, 1758 - Emerald Dove

27 cm



Abb.: शुकच्छवि-कपोतः ।  हारीत-कपोतः । śukacchavi kapota, hārīta kapota - Emerald Dove - Chalcophaps indica Linnaeus, 1758 (III, 157) - Grünflügeltaube
[Stuart Baker, 1913. -- Pl. 11]

"Habitat. Throughout India in forest countries and well wooded districts ; not in the drier regions, as Sind, Rajputana, Kattyawar, &c. It is abundant in Lower Bengal ; extends to Assam and all the countries on the east of the Bay of Bengal as far as Tenasserim. It also occurs in Ceylon, the Andamans, Nicobars, the Indo-Burmese Countries, South China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, and all the islands nearly down to Australia. Frequents thick forests, and is met with in small parties or in pairs. Breeds from March to July in suitable localities. The nests, according to Hume, are placed in some dense bush or low thick-foliaged tree."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 517f.]

"This beautiful Ground-dove is found throughout India, in forest countries, occasionally in well- wooded districts, as in Lower Bengal, extending to Assam and all the countries on the East of the Bay of Bengal, as far as, at all events, Tenasserim. It is very partial to bamboo jungle, and occurs from the level of the sea up to 3,000 feet, or perhaps higher. It feeds mostly on the ground, often on roads in forests, and bare spots under trees, walking along with a rapid motion, and allowing a moderately near approach.

Its flight is very rapid. It is generally seen alone. Its voice is a low plaintive moan, or 'lowing coo,' as Layard calls it. Its eggs are said by Layard to be pale yellowish drab color, but Blyth says that they are merely of a less pure white than those of ordinary Pigeons or Doves. It soon becomes reconciled to confinement, and caged birds are usually for sale in Calcutta."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 485.]


2.9.34. Greifvögel (Habichtartige und Falkenartige)


14. c./d. pārāvataḥ kalaravaḥ kapoto 'tha śaśādanaḥ
15. a./b. patrī śyena
ulūkas tu vāyasārāti-pecakau

पारावतः कलरवः कपोतो थ शशादनः ॥१४ ख॥
पत्री श्येन
उलूकस् तु वायसाराति-पेचकौ ।१५ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Greifvögel (Habichtartige und Falkenartige):]

  • शशादन -  śaśādana m.: "Hasenfresser": verschiedene Adler (Hawk Eagles = Spizaetus sp. & Nisaetus sp. - Haubenadler & Hieraaetus sp. - Habichtsadler)
  • पत्रिन् - patrin m.: der auf eine besondere Art Herabstürzende (= Greifvogel)
  • श्येन - śyena m.: Śyena: "a generic term which includes the Falconidae [Falkenartige] (Falcon), and certain species of the Accipitridae [Habichtartige] family, esp. Eagles, Hawk Eagles, Buzzards; may refer specifically to the true Eagles [...]; and to different forms of the Peregrine Falcon." (Dave, S. 512)

Colebrooke (1807): "A hawk or falcon."


2.9.34.1. Adler


Atharvaveda 8.9.17f. spricht von सप्त सुपर्णाः - sieben Adlerarten. Rechnet man den Bartgeier zu den sechs in Indien vorkommenden Arten des echten Adlers (Aquila sp.) hinzu, kommt man auf folgende sieben Arten von suparṇa:

  1. सुपर्ण - suparṇa m. im engeren Sinn: Aquila chrysaetos daphanea Svertzov, 1888 (I, 273) - Himalayan Golden Eagle
  2. Aquila heliaca heliaca Savigny, 1809 (I, 274) - Imperial Eagle - Östlicher Kaiseradler
  3. Aquila rapax nipalensis Hodgson, 1833 (I, 278) - Eastern Steppe Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler
  4. Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, 1831 (I, 276) - Indian Tawny Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler
  5. Aquila clanga  Pallas, 1811 (I, 279) - Greater Spotted Eagle - Schelladler
  6. Aquila pomarina hastata Lesson, 1834 (I, 281) - Lesser Spotted Eagle - Schreiadler
  7. Gypaetus barbatus aureus Hablizl, 1783 (I, 314) - Himalaya-Bartgeier - Himalayan Bearded Vulture

Man könnte als 7. Species auch Ictinaetus malayensis perniger Hodgson, 1836 (I, 283)- Black Eagle - Malaienadler, ansehen.


Aquila chrysaetos sp. - Steinadler

95 cm



Abb.: सुपर्णः । शशादनः । Aquila chrysaetos sp. - Steinadler (die östliche Subspecies ist dunkler gefärbt als das abgebildete Tier)
[Bildquelle: Naumann: Naturgeschichte der Vögel Mitteleuropas. -- Bd. V, Tafel 39. -- 1899]


Abb.: Nest von सुपर्णः । suparṇa m.: Himalayan Golden Eagle - Aquila chrysaetos daphanea Svertzov, 1888 (I, 273), Stok, Ladakh
[Bildquelle: wildxplorer. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/21932201@N04/2309773350. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-12. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: Verbreitung von सुपर्णः । Aquila chrysaetos sp. - Steinadler: dunkelgrün: ganzjähriges Vorkommen; hellgrün: Sommervorkommen ; blau: Wintervorkommen
[Bildquelle: A. Aiger / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The whole of Europe and N. Asia, extending into India and N. China. Has been found in the Punjab and in the Himalayas. In Sind it occurs on the hills dividing Sind from Khelat ; also in the Bolan, Beloochistan, and probably extends into Persia and Afghanistan.

Nothing is known as to the breeding of this noble and majestic eagle in India."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 29]

"This magnificent Eagle is found but rarely in India, and only, I believe, on the Himalayas. Sykes' Golden Eagle (Cat. No. 7) is not referred to by Horsfield in his Catalogue, and was most probably the next species, as my supposed Golden Eagle (Cat. No. 9) undoubtedly was. (At Simla and the North-Western Himalayas the Laemmergeyer is often called the Golden Eagle.) Its habits in Europe are well known. It breeds on steep cliffs, and lays two eggs white, with brown and purplish blotches. The golden Eagle is found over the greater part of Northern and Central Europe, Asia, and America. In Central Asia it is trained by the Kirghises and other tribes, to kill antelopes, foxes, and even wolves, it is said ; and is held in the highest esteem by all the tribes of Central Asia. It is carried on a perch between two men, or fixed on a horse. It is said to seize the smaller animals with one foot, and drag the other on the ground, but fixes on the head and neck of the larger animals. It is named Berkul or Bjurkul by the Tartars, and a trained Eagle is worth two camels. It is the Bearcoote of Atkinson in his Travels in Northern and Central Asia."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 56f.]


Aquila heliaca heliaca Savigny, 1809 (I, 274) - Imperial Eagle - Östlicher Kaiseradler

85 cm



Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila heliaca heliaca Savigny, 1809 (I, 274) - Imperial Eagle - Östlicher Kaiseradler
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 64.]


Abb.: Junger सुपर्णः । Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 (I, 274) - Imperial Eagle - Östlicher Kaiseradler, Seewinkel, Österreich
[Bildquelle: Biopauker / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: Brutgebiete (orange) und Überwinterungsgebiete (blau) von सुपर्णः । Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 (I, 274) - Imperial Eagle - Östlicher Kaiseradler

"Habitat. South, Eastern and Central Europe, and throughout India nearly. Occurs in Sind, the Punjab, Beloochistan, Afghanistan, Persia, Concan, and Deccan; Nepal, Behar, Central and Southern India, and the Himalayas.

Mr. Hume (Rough Notes) has collected all the information possible in regard to the nidification of the Imperial Eagle. A few, he says, remain to breed in the upper Punjab and possibly in the Dhoon ; the rest breed in the Himalayas. They lay (in the plains) in February, March, and possibly April, building a large platform of sticks on or near the top of trees ; Peepul trees generally, and also at times on Babool (Acacia) and other thorny trees."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 31]

"The Imperial Eagle is rare in the South of India, but not uncommon in the Table land, and in Central India, and is also found throughout the Himalayas. It prefers the neighbourhood of hills, and the bare open country, or thin and low jungle. It may frequently be seen seated on the ground, or on a stone on the top of a low hill, till an hour or two after sunrise, when it rises, apparently unwillingly, and takes a quest after game at no great elevation, hunting slowly over the bushy valleys and ravines, and occasionally over cultivated ground. If unsuccessful in its search, it reseats itself, and after an interval again takes wing, and this time soars to a great height, circling slowly in the air, and traversing a large extent of country. It pounces on hares, florikins, rats, lizards, and various other mammals and birds, and in default of these, will eat carrion. I have several times seen one captured in a net by a portion of the carcase of a sheep being put down as bait. When it does condescend to partake of carrion, it allows no other bird to approach till it has satisfied its hunger.

I have seen this Eagle's nest in a lofty tree in the Deccan. The egg is reddish white, with some red blotches and spots. One is figured in the first volume of the ' Ibis.'

I kept one alive at Jalna for some time. It was very tame, and appeared to prefer raw meat to any other kind of food, even to birds or animals, living or dead. It was very sluggish and inactive, even when urged by hunger ; the only cry I heard it utter was a harsh croak. It used to drink a gulp or two of water after eating. Out of India, it is found in the South of Europe, North Africa, and Western and Northern Asia."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 58.]


Aquila rapax nipalensis Hodgson, 1833 (I, 278) - Eastern Steppe Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler

78 cm



Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax nipalensis Hodgson, 1833 (I, 278) - Eastern Steppe Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke I, 1830. -- S. 46.]


Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax nipalensis Hodgson, 1833 (I, 278) - Eastern Steppe Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler
[Bildquelle: Naumann: Naturgeschichte der Vögel Mitteleuropas. -- Bd. V, Tafel 48. -- 1899]


Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax nipalensis Hodgson, 1833 (I, 278) - Eastern Steppe Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler, Rann of Kutch - કચ્છનું મોટું રણ, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Tarique Sani. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tariquesani/4350218975/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]
 


Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, 1831 (I, 276) - Indian Tawny Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler

67 cm



Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, 1831 (I, 276) - Indian Tawny Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke I, 1830. -- S. 44.]


Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, 1831 (I, 276) - Indian Tawny Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 62.]


Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, 1831 (I, 276) - Indian Tawny Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 66.]


Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, 1831 (I, 276) - Indian Tawny Eagle - Raubadler / Savannenadler, Pokaran - पोखरण, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: AshLin / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Bengal, Rajpootana, Kattiawar, the Deccan, Concan, Behar, the Carnatic, Central and Southern India, Nepal and Darjeeling.

A permanent resident in Sind and most parts of India. In Sind it breeds in January [...] In upper India it breeds from the middle of November to the middle of June, but the majority, according to Hume, lay in January."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 34]

"The Wokhab is more robust in form than A. naevia, and is quite a miniature of A. imperialis. It is found throughout the greater part of India, except the more moist and wooded portions. It is unknown on the Malabar Coast, and in Lower Bengal, and does not extend into the Indo-Chinese countries. It prefers the dry open plains, and cultivated land, especially if there are hills near. It is rather rare in the Carnatic, but very abundant in the Deccan, in Central India, and the upper plains of India above Monghyr. Till an hour or two after sunrise it may be seen seated on the top of some tree, and in the very centre, and nearly concealed from view ; after which it sallies forth, sailing about at a moderate height over the fields, valleys, and ravines, or circling high in the air with kites, vultures, and other birds of prey. It frequently enters cantonments and villages, and carries off chickens, ducklings, or other poultry. It feeds occasionally on hares, partridges, and other game ; also on rats, lizards, snakes, and even insects ; and will always descend to the fresh carcase of a sheep. It, however, subsists habitually by robbing kites, falcons, and other birds of prey of their earnings ; and may often be seen pursuing a kite with great impetuosity, and always succeeds in getting the desired morsel.

The Wokhab is very troublesome in hawking on this account, mistaking the jesses for some prey, and pursuing the Falcon, sometimes driving it back to the fist of the falconer, at other times frightening it fairly and irretrievably away. For an interesting account of this Eagle pursuing a Falcon, vide, J. A. S., XV. 8. I once saw a pair of Wokkabs kill a florikin (Otis aurita) which I had put up, and at which I had slipped a Laggar. One of them made a swoop, and missed, the other instantly followed, and struck it to the ground ; but riding up quickly, I prevented it from carrying the bird off, and secured it quite dead, with its back laid bare by the powerful hind claw of the Eagle. I have often had Wokhabs alive. One in particular got very tame. It used to snatch morsels from the Imperial Eagle kept along with it, to which the latter in general quietly submitted. It was a very noisy bird, frequently uttering shrill and wild screams. It had, moreover, a great share of curiosity, walking up to and carefully and thoroughly examining every new comer I placed in the same apartment.

The Wokhah builds on high trees, making a large nest of sticks, and laying two eggs, white, with a few reddish brown spots, from January to March."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 60f.]



Abb.: Lebensräume von सुपर्णः । Aquila rapax ssp. - Raubadler / Savannenadler
[Bildquelle: R. Altenkamp / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Aquila clanga  Pallas, 1811 (I, 279) - Greater Spotted Eagle - Schelladler

67 cm



Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila clanga  Pallas, 1811 (I, 279) - Greater Spotted Eagle - Schelladler, Bharatpur - भरतपुर, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila clanga  Pallas, 1811 (I, 279) - Greater Spotted Eagle - Schelladler, Bharatpur - भरतपुर, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila clanga  Pallas, 1811 (I, 279) - Greater Spotted Eagle - Schelladler, Bharatpur - भरतपुर, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Brutgebiet (Orange) und Überwinterungsgebiete (blau) von सुपर्णः । Aquila clanga  Pallas, 1811 (I, 279) - Greater Spotted Eagle - Schelladler
[Bildquelle: R. Altenkamp / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Sind, Persia, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Bengal, Kutch, and Guzerat; also the Concan and Deccan, Malabar, and Southern India. Breeds in Sind, the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces and Oudh ; also in Bengal and Central India. Capt. Marshall's note on the nidification of this species in the Sharunpur district gives May and June as the period of breeding."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 35]

"The Spotted Eagle is found throughout India in suitable places. It prefers the neighbourhood of cultivation, especially of wet paddy fields, or the vicinity of tanks and marshes in a well-wooded country. It is tolerably common in the Carnatic, and Malabar Coast ; rare in the table land. It preys upon all sorts of birds or small animals that it can manage to pick up, squirrels, rats ; also lizards and frogs. It has a wild clanging cry, compared by Pallas to the sound 'jeb, jeb, jeb,' which it frequently utters when perched on a high tree. It breeds on trees. I have seen their nests, but did not procure the eggs. Blyth says it is common in the Bengal Sunderbunds. It is also found in the south of Europe, N. Africa, and Western Asia, and has been killed in England."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 59.]


Aquila pomarina hastata Lesson, 1834 (I, 281) - Lesser Spotted Eagle - Schreiadler

64 cm



Abb.: सुपर्णः । Aquila pomarina hastata Lesson, 1834 (I, 281) - Lesser Spotted Eagle - Schreiadler
[Bildquelle: Naumann: Naturgeschichte der Vögel Mitteleuropas. -- Bd. V, Tafel 46. -- 1899]

 
"Habitat. Upper India. Recorded from Behar, Darjeeling, and Nepal."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 35]

"This small but handsome Eagle is comparatively rare. I only met with it in the South of India once or twice. It appears to be more common in Bengal, where it plunders birds' nests, and also eats the cocoons of silk-worms. A specimen, shot by Mr. Frith in Mymensing, first attracted that gentlemen's attention by the alarm which was manifested upon its approach to a large banyan tree, upon which were several of the deep and massive nests of the Sturnus contra, one of which it immediately proceeded to pull to pieces, to rob of its contents, in which operation it was shot. (J. A. S., XII. 128.)"

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 62f.]


Gypaetus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 314) - Bartgeier - Bearded Vulture

122 cm



Abb.: सुपर्णः । Gypaetus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 314) - Bartgeier - Bearded Vulture
[Bildquelle: Richard Bartz / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: Brutgebiete von Gypaetus barbatus sp. Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 314) - Bartgeier - Bearded Vulture
[Bildquelle: ulrich prokop / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The highest mountains of Europe, Asia, and Africa, principally the most inaccessible parts ; also the Himalayas from Nepal to Cashmere, and the Salt and Sooliman Ranges ; not uncommon in the Bolan (Beloochistan) and South Afghanistan. The Lammergeyer is not common in any part of Sind, except the northern country, at and beyond Jacobabad, affecting the hilly districts. Whether it is a permanent resident of those parts or only a winter visitant, is not known. Mr. Hume, in his contributions to the Ornithology of India, &c., in Stray Feathers states that he observed it on two occasions in the hills dividing Sind from Khelat. Dr. Day observed it in Durryah, and it is said to be well known to sportsmen who have shot ibex in those ranges. [...]

Breeds in the Himalayas during December, January, and part of February."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 28]

"This fine bird is found in the Himalayas from Nepal to Cashmere, and also on the Salt and Suliman ranges of the Punjab. I did not observe it at Darjeeling. It extends from the skirts of the hills to the Snowy Range, and is not uncommon at Simla, Mussooree, and other stations in the N. W. Himalayas."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 14.]


Ictinaetus malayensis Temminck, 182 (I, 283) - Black Eagle - Malaienadler

75 cm



 
Abb.: सुपर्णः । Ictinaetus malayensis Temminck, 182 (I, 283) - Black Eagle - Malaienadler
[Bildquelle: Kalyanvarma / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"This remarkable eagle is found in most of the hilly and jungly districts of India. I have seen it in Malabar near the level of the sea, in the Wynaad, Coorg, and all along the Western Ghats, on the Neilgherries, on the Eastern Ghats, and, rarely in Central India; also throughout the Himalayas. Out of India it is found in the hilly districts of Burmah and Malayana.

It is a bird of easy, graceful, and elegant flight, always seen soaring and circling about at no great height, with hardly any flapping of its ample wings. I never saw it perch except for the purpose of feeding, or on being wounded; and the Lepchas of Darjeeling, when I saw this Eagle, said 'this bird never sits down.' It lives almost exclusively, I believe, by robbing birds' nests, devouring both the eggs and the young ones. I dare say if it saw a young or sickly bird it might seize it, but it has neither the ability nor dash to enable it to seize a strong pheasant on the wing, or even, I believe, a partridge ; and Hodgson, I fancy, must have trusted to a native, partially ignorant of its habits, when he says—"that it preys on the pheasants of the regions it frequents as well as their eggs." I have examined several kinds shot by myself, and invariably found that eggs and nestling birds alone had been its food. In three cases I found the eggs of the hill quail ( Coturnix erythrorhyncha), of Malacocercus Malabaricus, and of some doves (Turtur), with nestlings, and the remains of some eggs which I did not know. I have seen it also after circling several times over a small tree, alight on it, and carry off the contents of a dove's nest. In India, doves, and perhaps some other birds, breed at all times in the year ; and it may perhaps obtain eggs or nestlings at all seasons, by shifting its quarters and varying the elevations ; if not, it probably may eat reptiles, but of this I cannot speak from observation. It hunts over the forests slowly, regularly quartering the ground, and examining every spot. The natives say that it breeds on trees, which is indeed most likely. Hodgson remarks that its body is entirely free from offensive odour and vermin. Capt. Irby, in his paper on the 'Birds observed in Oude and Kumaon,' states that he obtained this bird in Kumaon and saw it up to 10,000 feet of elevation. He states the irides to be yellow, but in this he is certainly in error. Doctor Adams, in his list of the birds of Cashmere, P. Z. S. 1859, says that he saw on the mountains, "at an elevation of about 17,000 feet a fine Eagle about the size of the golden Eagle ; the head and neck were white, rest of plumage black, tail long and wedge-shaped. I was struck subsequently with its similarity to A. malaiensis." This Eagle never being white on the head, Adams' bird must have been some other species ; perhaps the Aquila pelagica of Pallas."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 65ff.]


Garuḍa



Abb.: Viṣṇu auf Garuḍa, Patan - पाटन, Nepal
[Bildquelle: Markus Koljonen / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"GARUḌA. A mythical bird or vulture, half-man, half-bird, on which Vishnu rides. He is the king of birds, and descended from Kaśyapa and Vinatā, one of the daughters of Daksha. He is the great enemy of serpents, having inherited his hatred from his mother, who had quarrelled with her co-wife and superior, Kadru, the mother of serpents. His lustre was so brilliant that soon after his birth the gods mistook him for Agni and worshipped him. He is represented as having the head, wings, talons, and beak of an eagle, and the body and limbs of a man. His face is white, his wings red, and his body golden. He had a son named Sampāti, and his wife was Unnati or Vināyakā. According to the Mahā-bhārata, his parents gave him liberty to devour bad men, but he was not to touch Brahmans. Once, however, he swallowed a Brahman and his wife, but the Brahman so burnt his throat that he was glad to disgorge them both.

Garuḍa is said to have stolen the Amṛta from the gods in order to purchase with it the freedom of his mother from Kadru. Indra discovered the theft and fought a tierce battle with Garuḍa. The Amṛta was recovered, but Indra was worsted in the fight, and his thunderbolt was smashed.

Garuḍa has many names and epithets. From his parents he is called Kāśyapi and Vainateya. He is the Suparṇa and the Garutmān, or chief of birds. He is also called Dakshāya, Śālmalin, Tārkshya, and Vināyaka, and among his epithets are the following : Sitānana, 'white faced;' Rakta-paksha, 'red winged;' Śweta-rohita, 'the white and red;' Suvarṇa-kāya, 'golden bodied;' Gaganeśwara, 'lord of the sky;' Khageśwara, 'king of birds;' Nāgāntaka, and Pannaga-nāśana, 'destroyer of serpents;' Sarpārāti, 'enemy of serpents;' Taraswin, the swift;' Rasāyana, 'who moves like quicksilver;' Kāma-chārin, 'who goes where he will;' Kāmāyus, 'who lives at pleasure;' Chirād, 'eating long;' Vishnu-ratha, 'vehicle of Vishnu;' Amṛtaharaṇa and Sudhā-hara, 'stealer of the Amṛita;' Surendra-jit, 'vanquisher of Indra;' Vajra-jit, 'subduer of the thunderbolt,' &c."

[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]


2.9.34.2. Haubenadler und Habichtsadler


śaśādana m.: verschiedene Adler (Hawk Eagles = Spizaetus sp. bzw. Nisaetus sp. - Haubenadler & Hieraaetus sp. <jetzt = Aquila> - Habichtsadler)


Nisaetus cirrhatus Gmelin, 1788 (I, 262) - Changeable Hawk Eagle

71 cm



Abb.: Nisaetus cirrhatus Gmelin, 1788 (I, 262) - Changeable Hawk Eagle
[Bildquelle: Birds of Asia, Vol. III, Parts XIII-XVIII / by John Gould, 1861-66.]


Abb.: Nisaetus cirrhatus Gmelin, 1788 (I, 262) - Changeable Hawk Eagle, Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Central and Southern India, the Central Provinces, Guzerat, Ceylon and Nepal. It has been found in Travancore, the Western Ghauts, Madras, the Neilgherries, Seone, Raepoor, Etawah, Mundla and other localities in the Central Provinces ; also at Mount Aboo, in Guzerat and South Concan.

Mr. Bourdillon in Stray Feathers, iv. 356, says of it, that it is very daring, frequently making a dash amongst chickens, when, if it misses, it retires to some neighbouring tree to concert a fresh plan of attack. It usually keeps to well-wooded tracts and feeds generally upon small birds as quail and pigeons, and at times on snakes and lizards ; and Mr. Vidal in Stray Feathers, vol. vii. p. 31, adds that he had heard of one having been seen attacking a mongoose. Mr. Vidal has taken the eggs of this Hawk Eagle in the South Concan. He says it breeds during December and January and as late as April."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 41]

"The crested Eagle is found throughout Central and Southern India. I have got it in Malabar, on the Eastern Ghats, and in central India, near Nagpore ; and it has been killed in the Midnapore jungles. According to Horsfield, it has been procured also in the Himalayas, in Kumaon, and Bootan, but very probably mistaken for the last, or perhaps the next species. It is generally seen seated on the top of a high tree, where it watches for hares, partridges, young pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, &c., on which it pounces. It is said to breed on trees. It extends to Ceylon, where it has been known to kill fowls and ducks."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 73.]


Aquila fasciata Vieillot, 1822 (I, 266) - Bonelli' (Hawk) Eagle - Habichtsadler

70 cm



Abb.: Aquila fasciata Vieillot, 1822 (I, 266) - Bonelli' (Hawk) Eagle - Habichtsadler, Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Lebensräume von Aquila fasciata Vieillot, 1822 (I, 266) - Bonelli' (Hawk) Eagle - Habichtsadler
[Bildquelle: R. Altenkamp / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Habitat. Found in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Breeds nearly throughout India. In Sind and the Punjab during December and January and in the Himalayas according to Hume in April and May. It occurs in the N.-W. Provinces, also in Persia, Beloochistan, and Southern Afghanistan, Kutch, Guzerat, the Deccan, Concan, Central and Southern India, Kattiawar, the Carnatic, Nepal, Assam, and in fact the entire Indian Peninsula.

This Eagle breeds on trees, or on ledges of precipitous rocky cliffs."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 36]

"This magnificent Eagle is found throughout all India, from the Himalayas to the extreme South, but only in hilly or jungly districts in general, though it is occasionally seen in cultivated country and near tanks, if not very distant from some hilly region. I have observed it chiefly on the Neilgherries, on the crest of the Western Ghats, in Central India, and occasionally in the Carnatic and Deccan. The individual from which the drawing in my Illustrations was taken was killed in Guindy Park at Madras.

It is much on the wing, sailing at a great height, and making its appearance at certain spots in the district it frequents, always about the same hour. It may often be seen seated on the summit of a lofty tree, or on some over-hanging rock.

It preys by preference on various kinds of game, hares, jungle fowl, spur-fowl, and partridges, and even on pea-fowl ; also on ducks, herons, and other water-fowl, and, according to the testimony of Shikarees, it has been known to strike down the douk (Tantalus leucocephalus). Most Native falconers, too, have stories to relate of it's having carried off a favorite hawk. On one occasion, on the Neilgherries, I observed one stoop successively at a spur-fowl, a hare, and a pea-fowl, each time unsuccessfully, however, owing to the thickness of the jungle. A pair were also wont to resort regularly to a village on the hills and carry off fowls. Mr. Elliot, too, mentions "that he once saw a pair of them nearly surprise a peacock, pouncing on him on the ground." Great havoc was committed among several pigeon-houses on the Neilgherries in 1840-1841, by a pair of these Eagles, and I heard that one or two were completely devastated by them. The manner in which they captured the pigeons was described to me by two or three eyewitnesses to be as follows :—On the pigeons taking flight, one of the Eagles pounced down from a vast height on the flock, but directing its swoop rather under the pigeons, than directly at them. Its mate, watching the moment when, alarmed by the first swoop, the pigeons rose in confusion, pounced unerringly on one of them, and carried it off, and the other Eagle having risen again, also makes another, and, this time, a fatal stoop. One of these Eagles, shot in the act, was presented to me by a gentleman, who had been a great sufferer by them.

The Mhorungi breeds on high rocky cliffs. I am acquainted with the site of one eyrie on the eastern slope of the Neilgherries; but at the time I paid it a visit the young birds had flown. It was on a broad ledge of rock, not more than 20 feet from the top of the cliff, and could have easily been visited with the aid of a rope. I have very little doubt that this Eagle could be trained to kill hares, antelopes, fawns, and probably bustards also, and if so would afford magnificent sport."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 68ff.]


2.9.34.3. Falken und Habichte


Dave benennt (S. 220):

Dave (S. 235) gibt folgende Sanskritsystematik der Habichte:

  • Hawks - वाजि-प्क्षिणः
    • Genus Astur (jetzt: Accipiter)
      • Goshawk - Accipiter gentilis Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 233)  - Habicht: वाज, वाजी, प्राजिक
      • Crested Goshawks Accipiter trivirgatus ssp. Temminck (I, 240): चूलाङ्क-वाजि
        • Crested Goshawk - Accipiter trivirgatus ssp. Temminck (I, 242): माणिक, अधम-वेसर
        • Northern Crested Goshawk - Accipiter trivirgatus indicus Hodgson, 1836 (I, 240): मध्यम-वेसर, यवल-कण्ठिक
      • Shikras - Accipiter badius ssp. Gmelin (I, 235): सञ्चान-वाजि
    • Genus Accipiter
      • Asiatic Sparrow Hawk Accipiter nisus nisosimilis Tickell (I, 243), 1833 & Indian Sparrow-Hawk - Accipiter nisus melschistos Hume, 1869 (I, 245): वासा-वाजि, औरङ्गन
      • Southern Besra Sparrow-Hawk - Accipiter virgatus besra Jerdon, 1839 (I, 249): शुद्ध-बेसर
      • Northern Besra Sparrow Hawk - Accipiter virgatus affinis Hodgson, 1836: धावन-वाजि
      • Japanese - Accipiter gularis Temminck & Schlegel, 1844, Pale Eastern, Indochinese Sparrow Hawks: प्रतिष्ठान-वाजि

Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 - Wanderfalke  - Peregrine Falcon + Falco peregrinus peregrinator Sundevall, 1837  - Shaheen Falcon

43 cm



Abb.: Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 - Wanderfalke  - Peregrine Falcon
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: शालिव - śaliva m.: Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 - Wanderfalke  - Peregrine Falcon, Bharatpur - भरतपुर, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Brutgebiete der Unterarten von Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 - Wanderfalke  - Peregrine Falcon
[Bildquelle: MPF / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Falco peregrinus

"Very widely distributed species, A winter visitant to India Occurs in Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajpootana, Kutch, Central and South India, Guzerat, Concans and Deccan, also Beloochistan, Persia, and S. Afghanistan. Rare in Pegu and Tennaserim. Has been found in Nepaul, and also in Ceylon.

The peregrine is believed to breed below Ferozepoor along the banks of the Indus, but nothing certain is known."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 69]

Falco peregrinus peregrinator

"Habitat. The whole of India, the Himalayas, Ncpaul, Ceylon, S. Burmah, Afghanistan, and extending into Western Asia.

The Shaheen Falcon, like the Peregrine, is much prized in falconry. All the peculiarities which are sought for in the Peregrine are also exhibited in this species which is considered a better bird. Its native habits have not been studied much. It however affects both rocky hills and forest land, and destroys much game. It has been found breeding in Central and Southern India during March and April, building on inaccessible cliffs."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 70]

Falco peregrinus

"If we except Latham's description of F. Calidus, taken from an Indian drawing, there was no record of the existence of the Peregrine Falcon in India before my Catalogue of Birds was published in 1839. Franklin's and Sykes' Catalogues do not contain it. Plodgson, in 1844, gave it as found in NepaL It is found throughout the whole continent of India, from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, during the cold weather only. I have found it near Trichinopoly, and at Calicut, on the West Coast, and I know that many used to be captured at Ramnad still further South. It is abundant all along the East Coast, less so perhaps on the West Coast and inland, is found in suitable localities, especially where there are lakes and large rivers, or where hilly tracts occur, up to the Himalayan range. It prefers here (as elsewhere, I believe,) the sea coast, perhaps by reason of the greater abundance of food, as the water birds are much preyed on by this Falcon.

I have seen the Bhyri strike down various water birds, teal, duck, &c.; and on one occasion I saw a pair pursue and kill a snipe. Often a large flock of duck has been forced to come within reach of my gun at some small tank by the downward swoop of a Bhyri, which the hapless fowl dread more than man even, and I have often had wounded teal, snipe, and other birds carried off by them.

The Bhyri has particular haunts that it frequents for days or weeks together, and near some of their feeding grounds there is often a particular tree to which they invariably resort to eat the birds they have caught. In their untrained state they seldom fly at larger birds than duck, to which however they arc very partial, so that their representative in America, F. Anatum, is there popularly called the duck hawk.

The Bhyri does not breed In this country, nor even, I believe, in the Himalayas, but migrates to the north in April, and returns about the first week of October. Mr. Layard mentions the Peregrine as breeding in Ceylon in January, and Dr. Adams says that he found the nest on a tree on the banks of the Indus below Ferozepore; but I imagine in both cases an old Laggar has been mistaken for the Bhyri. The  Peregrine breeds in Europe and Northern Asia, on high cliffs, often on the sea coast, or overhanging a river or lake. The eggs, three or four in number, are reddish colored with brown spots.

The Bhyri is still trained in some parts of the country for the purposes of falconry, and used to be so much more extensively than now. The birds were mostly captured on the coast, and sold for a few Rupees, from two or three to ten, to the falconers who came to purchase them. It is trained to strike egrets, herons, storks, cranes, the Anastomus, Ibis papillosa, Tantalus leucocephalus, &c. It has been known though very rarely to strike the Bustard. Native falconers do not train it to hunt in couples, as is done in Europe sometimes. I may here mention that the idea of the Heron ever transfixing the hawk with its bill is scouted by all native falconers, many of whom have had much greater experience than any Europeans. After her prey is brought to the ground indeed, the Falcon is sometimes in danger of a blow from the powerful bill of the heron, unless she lays hold of the Heron's neck with one foot, which an old bird always does. Whilst on this subject, I may state that our best artists, Landseer included, represent the Falcon when stopping on her quarry as striking with her beak, whereas, as is well known, she strikes only with her talons, and chiefly with the powerful hind claw, backed by the impetus of her stoop, when she contracts the foot, and thus clutches her prey. When the Kulung, (Grus virgo) is the quarry, the Bhyri keeps well on its back to avoid a blow from the sharp, curved, inner claw of the crane, which can, and sometimes does, inflict a severe wound."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 23ff.]

Falco peregrinus peregrinator

"Sundevall first described this Falcon in his paper on the Birds of Calcutta, published at Lund in Sweden, 1838, which, however, was not known in England till Strickland had it translated in 1846. I was the first English writer who noticed it. This was in 1839. Sundevall obtained his specimen on boardship in N. L. 6° between Ceylon and Sumatra, about 70 miles from the Nicobar Islands.

The Shahin Falcon is found throughout the whole of India from the Himalayas to the extreme South, extending into Afghanistan and Western Asia. It is, however, far from being a common bird. Its habitual resorts are high rocky hills, in the neighbourhood of jungle and forest land, whether in a low or mountainous country, though the latter is always preferred. In the Carnatic, which is nearly devoid of forest, the Shahin is but seldom met with, yet there are certain spots even there, where individuals of the species resort to after the breeding season, being chiefly young birds, and they are known to breed in various parts of the range of Eastern Ghauts. Its habits in a wild state vary somewhat according to the kind of country frequented. If a denizen of a forest, it watches on some lofty tree at the skirts of a glade, or hovers over it, ready to pounce on any unlucky bird that ventures to cross. In more open country it is necessitated to take a wider circuit in search of its prey, and is of course much more on the wing. Such birds are more highly prized for training than forest-bred birds, which are therefore seldom sought for. This Falcon destroys large quantities of game, partridges, quails, &c., and it is said to be very partial to parroquets. This assertion is corroborated by the fact of my having first obtained a specimen of the Alexandrine parroquet by the agency of a Shahin, which pounced on a flock crossing a glade of a forest in Malabar, and carried one off, but dropped it on my firing at it. Very lately, too, one belonging to me having lost a partridge at which it was flown, took a long, though unsuccessful flight after some parroquets it spied high up in the air. One I shot in Travancore just after sunset, was busily devouring a oatsucker it had captured.

The Shahin breeds on steep and inaccessible cliffs. I have seen three eyries, one on the Neilgherries, another at Untoor, and a third at the large water-fall at Mhow. It lays its eggs in March and April, and the young fly in May and June, when they are caught by the Falconers.

The Royal Falcon of the East (as its Indian name implies) is very highly prized by the natives for hawking, and it is esteemed the first of all the Falcons, or black-eyed birds of prey (as they are called in native works on Falconry), the large and powerful Bhyri (the Peregrine) even being considered only second to it. Although hawking is now comparatively at a low ebb in India, yet many individuals of this species are annually captured in various parts of the Peninsula, and taken for sale to Hydrabad, and other places where the noble sport of Falconry is yet carried on, and they sell for a considerable price. The Shahin and other Falcons are usually caught by what is called the Eerwan. This is a thin strip of cane of a length about equal to the expanse of length of the bird sought for. The ends of the stick are smeared with bird-lime for several inches, and a living bird is tied to the centre of it. On observing the hawk, the bird, which has its eyes sewn up to make it soar, is let loose, and the Falcon pounces on it, and attempts to carry it off, when the ends of its wings strike the limed twig, and it falls to the ground. The birds usually selected for this purpose are doves, either Turtur risorius or T. humilis.

The Shahin is always trained for what, in the language of Falconry, is called a standing gait, that is, is not slipped from the hand at the quarry, but made to hover and circle high in the air over the Falconer and party, and when the game is started, it then makes its swoop, which it does with amazing speed. It is indeed a beautiful sight to see this fine bird stoop on a partridge or florikin, which has been flushed at some considerable distance from it, as it often makes a wide circuit round the party. As soon as the Falcon observes the game which has been flushed, it makes two or three onward plunges in its direction, and then darts down obliquely with half-closed wings on the devoted quarry, with more than the velocity of an arrow. This is of course a very sure and deadly way of hunting, but though infinitely more exciting than the flight of short-winged hawks, is certainly not to be compared in interest to the flight of a Bhyri from the hand after the heron, or the Douk ( Tantalus leucccephalus ). The Shahin is usually trained to stoop at partridges and florikin (Otis aurita), also occasionally at the stone plover (Oedicnemus crepitans) and the jungle fowl. It will not hover in the air so lonog as the Laggar, which being of a more patient and docile disposition, will stay up above an hour.

Of its range out of India we have at present no correct information ; but in several works on Falconry, which I have seen in this country, Persian, Toorkish, and Arabic names are assigned it, so that it may occur in other parts of Asia. In these works the name Shahin is said to be that by which it is known in Persia, as well as among the Mussulmans of India, Kohi being the name given to it by the Hindoos of the north of India, whence, in all probability, comes the name of the male bird in general use, viz., Koela, or Kohela, though it is said to be called Shahin bacha in Persia. It is said to bear the name of Lahin in Toorkistan, and Kabarsh in Arabic. Among the localities for it given in the native works of Falconry, are Koordistan, Khorasan, Moultan, and Cabool.

Several varieties are enumerated, viz., the red, the white, the blue, and the black, but these are merely shades of difference in the colors, and in the more or less distinctness of the markings. These variations however, I may remark, are very considerable in this Falcon, as well as in the Peregrines found in India, and are probably in some measure owing to the long domestication, if I may so speak, of these birds, which are always liberated by the natives when no longer required, as it is well known that birds moulting in confinement vary somewhat in the shades of their plumage from those subject to the more vigorous actions of a wild state of life."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 26ff.]


Falco jugger J. E. Gray, 1834 (I, 208) - Laggarfalke - Laggar Falcon

45 cm



Abb.: लग्नः । lagna m.: Falco jugger J. E. Gray, 1834 (I, 208) - Laggarfalke -  Laggar Falcon
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 60.]


Abb.: लग्न - lagna m.: Falco jugger J. E. Gray, 1834 (I, 208) - Laggarfalke - Laggar Falcon, Wüste Thar, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: AshLin / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"The Luggur Falcon is the most common of the Lanners, and very generally distributed. It has been recorded from the whole of India; also from Beloochistan and Afghanistan. In the more moist climate, and wooded districts of Malabar, it is found, but not in any numbers. Jerdon remarks, that while the Byri prefers the sea-coast and the neighbourhood of lakes, rivers, and wet cultivation, and the Shaheen delights in hilly and wooded regions, the Luggur, on the contrary, frequents open, dry plains and the vicinity of cultivation. It breeds during January, February and March, particularly in Sind, Punjab, and N.-W. Provinces ; also in the Deccan ; but is partial, for this purpose, to a dry climate. The nest is placed either on a high tree or on a rocky ledge, but in Sind almost always on ledges of high buildings and mosques or church steeples. [...]

The Luggur Falcon preys chiefly on small birds, also field rats, for which it may be often seen hawking over plains infested by them. It is trained by natives to bring down water-birds of kinds, as, the herons generally, also partridges, floriken, quail and snipe, but at this latter it is not dexterous. Jerdon has a footnote stating that it is also used to strike the Houbara, Otis macqueeni, and hares."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 72]

"The Laggar is the most common and generally distributed of the large Falcons of India, being found over the whole continent, from Cape Comorin to the Himalayas, and from Calcutta to Scinde and the Punjab. It is rare in the forest countries of the Malabar coast, and most abundant in open cultivated districts. From my Illustrations of Indian Ornithology, I extract the following notice of the habits of this Falcon. Whilst the Bhyri prefers the sea-coast and the neighbourhood of lakes, rivers, and wet cultivation, and the Shahin delights in hilly and wooded regions; the Laggar, on the contrary, frequents open, dry plains, and vicinity of cultivation. It makes its nest in some lofty tree, generally one standing alone, among some grain fields, and lays four eggs, white, more or less blotched with red and brown. In a wild state it preys on a great variety of small birds, often snatching up a chicken, even in the midst of a Cantonment. It is trained to hunt crows, paddy birds, night herons, partridges, and florikin ; and, it is said, has been trained to kill the heron (A. cinerea). In hawking crows, C. splendens chiefly, it is slipped from the hand; and the crow, when aware of its danger, uses every artifice to escape, taking refuge among cattle, horses, vehicles, and even entering houses. I once had a Laggar, whose wing feathers were burnt off by a washerman's fire, close to which the crow was attempting to take refuge when it was struck. After paddy birds (Ardea bubulcus) it is also slipped from the hand, and, as this bird is always found on the plains feeding among herds of cattle, it affords considerable sport by its dexterity in diving among and under the cattle, and the venturous Hawk is occasionally trodden under their feet. When the quarry is a partridge or a florikin, the standing gait is used, as described under the head of Shahin. Laggars, as well as Shahins, are always caught after they have left the nest, and have had some instruction by their parents, our native Falconers considering them better than when taken from the nest, contrary, I believe, to the opinion of our English Adam Woodcocks."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 31.]


Accipiter gentilis Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 233)  - Habicht - Goshawk

50 / 61 cm



Abb.: प्राजिक - prājika m.: Accipiter gentilis Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 233)  - Habicht - Goshawk (in Indien andere Unterart!)
[Bildquelle:
Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Lebensräume von Accipiter gentilis Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 233)  - Habicht - Goshawk (gelb: Brüten; grün: Jahresvogel; blau: Überwinterung)
[Bildquelle: Cephas / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"The Goshawk is found in the Himalayas, and I think also on the Neilgherries, though rare there. If it ever occurs in the plains, it is only a straggler, or a bird of passage. I saw, on more than one occasion on the Neilgherries, near the top of Dodabet, the highest hill of the group, a large bird of prey, dashing impetuously into a thick wood. Its manner of flight, and the way with which it dived into the wood, made me conclude at once that it was a Goshawk. The only other large bird of prey that I could have mistaken it for is the Buzzard, a bird of very different flight.

The Baz is the most highly esteemed bird of prey in India, and a trained bird used to be sold for a large sum in former days. They are caught when young, and sold on the skirts of the N. W. Himalayas, to falconers from different parts of India, for prices varying from 20 to 50 Rs. for the female, and from 10 to 20 or 30 for the male. The Baz is trained to strike the Houbara bustard, Kites, and Neophrons, Duck, and many other large water birds, as Cormorants, Herons, Ibises, &c. It is, however, chiefly trained to catch hares. For this purpose she is booted or furnished with leather leggings to prevent her legs being injured by thorns, as the hare generally drags the hawk some yards after being struck. She strikes with one leg only, and stretches the other one out behind to clutch grass, twigs, or any thing on the ground, to put the drag, as it were, on the hare. The Jurra is trained to strike partridges, rock pigeon, crows, teal, &c., &c. The Goshawk flies direct at its prey, and gets its speed at once; and if it does not reach the quarry within a reasonable distance, say from 100 to 200 yards, it generally gives up the chase ; and either returns to the falconer's fist, or perches on some neighbouring tree, or on the ground.

In a wild state the Goshawk is said to be very destructive to pheasants and other game birds. It breeds on trees, laying from two to four eggs. It is found throughout the wooded parts of Europe and Asia, and is occasionally killed in Scotland. A nearly allied species is A. atricapilla of N. America, and other species are found in all countries."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 45f.]


Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 365) - Turmfalke - Kestrel

36 cm



Abb.: Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 365) - Turmfalke - Kestrel
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.:  लङ्गण - laṅgaṇa m.: Überwinternder Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 365) - Turmfalke - Kestrel, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Gesang / Ruf von Falco tinnunculus

Klicken! Gesang / Ruf von Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 (I, 365) - Turmfalke - Kestrel, Italien
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: Dr. Marco Dragonetti / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"The Kestril is a cold weather visitant to India, one of our earliest, indeed; and It does not leave till April. It is most abundant, being found in every part of the country, and at all elevations. Its chief food is lizards, but it also eats rats and mice, insects, especially grasshoppers and locusts, and rarely young or sickly birds. It constantly hovers over a spot where it has observed something move, and when certain of its presence, drops down on It with noiseless wing. Blyth mentions that parties of twenty or thirty individuals may be seen together beating over the cultivated lands in Lower Bengal. This I have never witnessed. It does not breed in this country. Dr. Horsfield in his Catalogue, apparently quoting from Mr. Blyth, says,—"It breeds in April in lofty trees, and also on the top of minarets." I imagine he must have been quoting from some other naturalist, not an observer in India. In England it breeds on shelves of rocks, in ravines ; also in old ruined buildings, churches, &c.

It used to be trained occasionally in Europe to hunt larks, quails, and other small birds, but It is scouted by the Indian Falconers as an ignoble race."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 39.]


Accipiter badius Temminck 1824 (I, 235) - Shikra Hawk

35 cm



Abb.: सञ्चण - sañcāṇa m.: Accipiter badius Temminck 1824 (I, 235) - Shikra Hawk, Pune - पुणे, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Avadhesh Malik / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: सञ्चण - sañcāṇa m.: Accipiter badius Temminck 1824 (I, 235) - Shikra Hawk, Kolkatta - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"The Shikra is very common throughout the whole of India, spreading to Ceylon, Assam, Burmah, and Malayana ; also to Afghanistan, and probably other parts of Asia. It frequents open jungles, groves, gardens, and avenues. It either takes a low stealthy flight along the edges of a wood, garden, or hedge row, and pounces on any unwary bird or lizard, or soars high in circles and pounces down when it sees any prey. Its general food appears to be lizards, but it frequently seizes small birds, rats or mice, and sometimes does not disdain a large grasshopper. It is more commonly trained than any other hawk in India. It is very quickly and easily reclaimed, and, though not remarkable for speed, can yet seize quails and partridges if put up sufficiently close. It is, however, a bird of great courage, and can be taught to strike a large quarry, such as the common crow, the small grey hornbill, the crow pheasant, (Centropus), young pea fowl, and small herons.

The Shikra breeds on trees from April to June, making a large nest of sticks; and has usually four eggs, white, much blotched with reddish brown."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 49f.]


Accipiter virgatus Temminck (I, 246) - Besra Hawk und Verwandte

32 cm



Abb.: केसर - kesara m.: Accipiter virgatus Temminck (I, 246) - Besra Hawk
[Bildquelle: Robert tdc. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/16942101@N06/2061316690/. -- ZUgriff am 2010-12-16. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Throughout the Indian Peninsula nearly. Occurs in the Concan and Deccan, Rajpootana, in South and Central India ; also in the Punjab, N.-W. and Central Provinces, the Himalayas, and S. Andamans. Mr. Wallace gives it from Malacca, Timor, and Java, and Dr. Jerdon says extends to Assam, Burmah, and Malayans. Mr. Thompson (Rough Notes) is confident that it breeds in the forests of Gurhwal from March to May, but nothing certain is known. It is caught wherever fairly numerous and much used by falconers for the quarry. It is said however to be a difficult bird to train, but when trained fetches a considerable price, being speedy and active, especially at partridges, quails, doves and snipe."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 23]

"The Besra, or Jungle Sparrowhawk, is comparatively rare, though well-known throughout India to all who take an interest in hawking. It is found in all the large forests of India; in the Himalayas, on the slopes of the Neelgherries, in the Malabar forests, and here and there on the Eastern Ghats, and the forests of Central India. It extends to Assam, Burmah, Malayana, and the Isles. After the breeding season is over, about July, a few birds, usually young ones, straggle to various portions of the more wooded parts of the country. Mr. Elliot says he has only met with it in the Soonda Jungles (in Canara.)

The Besra and other short-winged Hawks, as well as occasionally the Lugger and some of the Falcons, are usually caught by what is called among Falconers the Do Guz. This is a small thin net from four to five feet long, and about three feet broad, stained of a dark colour, and fixed between two thin pieces of bamboo, by a cord on which it runs. The bamboos are fixed lightly in the ground, and a living bird is picketed about the middle of the net, and not quite a foot distant from it. The Hawk makes a dash at the bird, which it sees struggling at its tether, and in the keenness of its rush, either not observing the net from its dark colour, or not heeding it, dashes into it, the two side sticks give way, and the net folds round the bird so effectually as to keep it almost from fluttering.

The Besra is said to be somewhat more difficult to train than most of the Hawks, and it is a delicate bird, and requires great care and attention, especially during the hot season. It is highly esteemed among native Falconers, and sells for a considerable price. It is very speedy, and is particularly active and clever in jungle, being a denizen of the forests in its wild state. It is chiefly flown at the partridge, which it seizes in general with great ease and certainty ; also occasionally at quails, snipes, and doves. The male or dhoti, is but seldom trained, and is then flown at sparrows, brahminy mynas (Pastor pagodarum), and other small birds.

From the concurrent testimony of all falconers in India, there is another species of Sparrow-hawk, well known as the Khandesra, occasionally found in certain parts of the country. Among other localities pointed out to me, as occasionally resorted to by thi hawk, is the tract of jungly country in South Arcot and Chingleput, bordering on Tanjore and Trichinopoly. Here this hawk has been captured within the last twenty years, according to my informants; but I was unable to procure one, in 1843, when I sent my Meer Shikar there for that purpose. It is stated to be a migratory bird, only found occasionally. It is known to the Telugu Meer Dhikars, as Kansara-pu-dega. It is very probably Blyth's A. nisoides, Cat. 95., J. A. S., XVI., 727., which differs from A. Nisus in its smaller size, in the throat being streakless white, except a narrow median line, and the usual lateral lines, which, however, are very inconspicuous. Length of wing 7 1/4 inches ; tail 5 1/2.

It may, however, be Micronisus soloensis, said by some writers to have been taken on the Coats of Coromandel.

Other species of Sparrow-hawk are found all over the world."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 53ff.]


2.9.35. Eulen


15. a./b. patrī śyena ulūke tu vāyasārāti-pecakau

पत्री श्येन उलूकस् तु वायसाराति-पेचकौ ।१५ क।

Bezeichnungen für उलूक - ulūka m.: "any of the large typical Strigidae (Owl)" (Dave, 485):

  • वायसाराति - vāyasārāti m.: Feind der Vögel
  • पेचक - pecaka m.: (große) Eule: "any large hooting Strigidae (Owl)" (Dave, 503)

Colebrooke (1807): "An owl."


In Indien verbreitete Großeulen sind u.a.:

Verbreitete Kleineulen sind u.a.:


Tyto alba Scopoli, 1769 - Barn Owl - Schleiereule

36 cm



Abb.: Tyto alba Scopoli, 1769 - Barn Owl - Schleiereule
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: Tyto alba Scopoli, 1769 - Barn Owl - Schleiereule
[Bildquelle: Luc Viatour / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Lebensräume von Tyto alba Scopoli, 1769 - Barn Owl - Schleiereule
[Bildquelle: Achim Raschka / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Strix ocellata Lesson, 1839 - Mottled Wood Owl - Mangokauz

48 cm



Abb.: Strix ocellata Lesson, 1839 - Mottled Wood Owl - Mangokauz
[Bildquelle: Gould: Birds of Asia, 1867-1872 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Throughout the greater part of India, east of the Sutlej, and of the Indus below its junction with the former, and west of the Ganges. It is recorded from the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Central and Southern India, the sub-Himalayan Valleys, the Central Provinces, Kutch, Kattiawar, Guzerat, Mount Aboo, the Concans and Deccan. According to Jerdon in the Carnatic, in parts of Mysore and the forests of Malabar, but not in Ceylon nor in Lower Bengal.

This beautifully plumaged species is only found in well-wooded districts at no great elevation. Its hoot is loud, harsh and resonant. Of its nidification little is known. The normal number of eggs is two, deposited, like as in the previous species, in large depressions or in the fork of trees, generally peepul or mango at about from 10 to 20 feet from the ground. There is no nest, so to speak, but a little dry touchwood, and a few dead leaves. The eggs are round, oval, white, and in some instances with a delicate creamy tinge. In length they vary from 1.94 to 2.1 inches and in breadth from 1.63 to 1.75. The months in which the young are hatched are generally April and May, sometimes at the end of March. Lieut. Barnes, however, says he took full fledged nestlings from a large hole in a tree at Saugor, Central Provinces, as early as the 22nd February."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 119f.]

"This very beautifully plumaged Owl is found throughout the greater part of India, but has not yet been found in Ceylon or Burmah ; nor are we aware of its extending to China, as its name implies. It is only found in well-wooded districts at no great elevation. I have found it most numerous in the Carnatic, and in parts of Mysore, frequenting groves of trees and avenues, rare in Central India, and the forests of Malabar, and not found in Lower Bengal. It has a loud, harsh, dissonant hoot. Its plumage is very beautiful, but it is surpassed by that of its near affine, S. seloputo, of Burmah and Malayana. Another allied species is S. leptogrammica, Tem., from Borneo."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 123f.]


Strix leptogrammica Temminck, 1831 - Brown Wood Owl - Malaienkauz

50 cm



Abb.: Strix leptogrammica Temminck, 1831 - Brown Wood Owl - Malaienkauz, Zoo
[Bildquelle: Mohd Nor Azmil Abdul Rahman. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/23596957@N02/3205677914. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-17. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"The Brown Wood Owl is found throughout Southern India, in Ceylon, and the Malayan peninsula ; but has not yet been procured in Burmah. It frequents the forest only, and is most common at a considerable elevation. Col. Sykes found it in the dense woods of the ghats. I procured it first on the Neilgherries, and afterwards along the Western ghats in the Wynaad and Coorg. It has also been sent from Goomsoor. It is quite nocturnal in its habits, and, according to Layard, utters the most doleful cries."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 121f.]


Bubo coromandus Latham, 1790 - Dusky Eagle Owl - Koromandeluhu

58 cm



Abb.: Bubo coromandus Latham, 1790 - Dusky Eagle Owl - Koromandeluhu
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke I, 1830. -- S. 52.]


Abb.: Bubo coromandus Latham, 1790 - Dusky Eagle Owl - Koromandeluhu, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Sind, N.-W. Provinces (Futtehgur, Delhi), Oudh, Nepaul, Lower Bengal, Arrakan, Lower Himalayas, the Carnatic, Malabar Coast, Rajputana and North Guzerat. Like the last it is a resident in India. Breeds in December, constructing nests of sticks in the fork of trees, lined with some soft material as grass or green leaves. Eggs, 2, 3, varying in size and shape."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 86.]

"The dusky horned-Owl is found throughout the greater part of India, having been obtained in lower Bengal, where not very rare, in the Carnatic in the more wooded parts, and near hills, and in the lower Himalayas. It frequents thick groves and forest jungle, and is said to kill fish ; but it may have been mistaken for Ketupa Ceylonensis, which it resembles much in the style of its markings, though of greatly duller tints."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 130.]


Bubo bubo Linnaeus, 1758 - European Eagle Owl - Uhu

56 cm



Abb.: Bubo bubo Linnaeus, 1758 - European Eagle Owl - Uhu
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: Bubo bubo Linnaeus, 1758 - European Eagle Owl - Uhu
[Bildquelle: Achim Raschka / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Ketupa zeylonensis Gmelin, 1788 - Brown Fish Owl - Wellenbrust-Fischuhu

56 cm



Abb.: Ketupa zeylonensis Gmelin, 1788 - Brown Fish Owl - Wellenbrust-Fischuhu, Madhya Pradesh
[Bildquelle: Dr. Tarak N Khan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/89128995@N00/2111719003/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-17. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Habitat. India, Ceylon, Assam and Tenasserim. I have had it at Khandalla and Poona in the Deccan. At Madras it is not uncommon, as also in Nepaul and Behar, Sind, Beloochistan, Afghanistan, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Punjab ; also Rajpootana (scarce) Central India, the Central Provinces, Concan, Deccan, South India, British Burmah and Nepaul. There is no record of its occurrence in Kutch and Guzerat.

Breeds throughout India from December to March or April, making its nest on a shelf of rock, clay cliffs, or high banks near water. Normally this species lays two eggs, very perfect broad ovals, white, with in most specimens the faintest possible creamy tinge. The shell is close-grained, and compact, freely pitted over its surface, but more or less glossy. In size they vary from 2.29 to 2.44 in length, and from 1.84 to 1.94 in breadth. In Sind it affects the forests and breeds in holes of decayed trees. Of its food it is not particular. Fish, young birds, quails and partridges, it is quite partial."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 83f.]

"The Brown Fish-Owl is found throughout India and Ceylon, extending into Burmah, and perhaps to China (vide Swinhoe, Ornith. of Hongkong), but not to Malayana. It frequents both forests, and groves and gardens in well-wooded districts, and is found to a considerable elevation, it being not rare at Ootacamund on the Neilgherries.

It roosts during the day in the densest part of the jungle, coming forth to feed shortly after sunset, and generally making its way to the nearest water, be it a tank, brook, or river. Here it may be seen seated on some overhanging rock, or bare tree, occasionally uttering its loud dismal cry, which Tickell well likens to haw, haw, haw, ho, calling it a repulsive laugh. It feeds much on fish, as was first pointed out by Hodgson, and more particularly, I found, on crabs. Layard says that he has kept this bird alive, and that it fed greedily on fish. The natives assert that it will kill cats. It is said to breed in holes of trees or in rocks, and to lay two white eggs."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 134.]


Otus bakkamoena Hodgson, 1836 - Collared Scops

23 cm



Abb.: Otus bakkamoena Hodgson, 1836 - Collared Scops, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: Santosh Namby Chandran / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Glaucidium radiatum Tickell, 1833 - Jungle Owlet

20 cm



Abb.: Glaucidium radiatum Tickell, 1833 - Jungle Owlet, Kerala
[Bildquelle: Sandeep. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/23285057@N04/2610471868. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-17. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Habitat. India generally, from the Himalayas southwards through the Peninsula, but not extending far below the Neilgherries. Recorded from the N.-W. Provinces, Bengal, the Central Provinces, the Concan, Malabar and Travancore, also Rutnagherry, South India on the Neilgherries, British Burmah (?) and Nepaul. Whether this species is distinct from Malabaricum or not, has not been quite settled. Much has been written on the various phases of plumage of both these species, and it is argued that this is due to climatic influence. Sharpe, however, keeps the northern and southern forms distinct, calling Malabaricum a sub-species of radiata. I have not had a sufficient number of specimens of the two forms, and hence cannot give an opinion. I follow Sharpe in keeping both separate till some one with enough materials will decide the points raised.

The Jungle Owlet breeds in the early part of the summer in holes of trees, during April, May, and June.

The eggs are pure white, round, and measure 1.2 by 1.0. The young are generally fully fledged by the end of June. It is easily tamed, and in confinement will eat readily of raw or cooked meat, insects, frogs, &c. Both adults and young are excessively noisy, and when teased make a peculiar hissing chattering tremulous noise. The cry, according to Mr. R. Thompson, is a too-roo-roo-roo, &c., drawn out to a considerable length, and resembles that of the Common Goanna or Monitor Lizard."

[Glaucidium malabaricum:]

"Habitat. Southern India. Recorded from the Malabar Coast, Cochin, Wynaad, Southern Mysore, Travancore, Madras and the Conean.

Habits like the last.

Mr. Frank Bourdillon, writing to Mr. Hume, says, this is a resident in Travancore, preferring the low jungles, though he has often heard one as high as 2,500 feet in heavy jungle. Feeds during the hour after sunrise and before sunset."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 111ff.]

"This Owlet is dispersed throughout India in all large forests, in Malabar habitually frequenting gardens and groves ; and also found in Bengal in similar situations, but not on the alluvial soil of lower Bengal. It is probably the bird called A. cuculoides in the list of birds observed in North-West India by Mr. Phillips. It is very active in the day time, always on the alert, though not feeding. It is very clamorous, especially in spring, and its very peculiar protracted call must be familiar to many individuals, and is frequently heard in the day time as well as at night. It feeds chiefly on beetles, also on lizards, centipedes, &c. It is rather shy, flying readily in the day time when disturbed. It is sometimes found single, or in pairs, or in small families. It breeds in hollow trees, and lays two or three white eggs."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 144.]


Athene brama Temminck, 1821 - Spotted Owlet - Brahma-Kauz

21 cm



Abb.: Athene brama Temminck, 1821 - Spotted Owlet - Brahma-Kauz,  Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Athene brama Temminck, 1821 - Spotted Owlet - Brahma-Kauz, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Lebensraum von Athene brama Temminck, 1821 - Spotted Owlet - Brahma-Kauz
[Bildquelle: L Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. India generally to the foot of the Himalayas and Nepaul. Extends into Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, Burmah and Ceylon. Extremely common in Sind, the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajputana, Jodhpoor, Kattiawar, Central India, the Central Provinces, Kutch, Guzerat, Concan, Deccan, and South India.

Breeds during February, March, and April wherever found in holes of old trees, or in old buildings and clefts of rocks ; nest scantily lined with leaves and feathers. Eggs 4-5 in number, pinkish when fresh, white when blown, of a satiny texture. In shape oval and varying in size from 1.15 to 1.45 in length, and from 0.93 to 1.1 in breadth.

The species always issues from its hiding place at about dusk, when it may be seen perched either on the branch of a withered tree, or on the telegraph wire. Barnes, in his Birds of the Bombay Presidency, says if they can affect an entrance beneath the eaves of a bungalow they do so, and there rear their families ; in such cases they become an intolerable nuisance, being noisy disagreeable birds, and not easily driven away. Lt. Barnes has even taken the eggs of this species from holes in haystacks.

In the Mahratta Country it is known as Pinglee. Mr. W. F. Sinclair, the Collector of Alibag, says it has a habit of hovering over one spot and dropping on its prey like a kestrel or kingfisher. He has noticed this in the dry bed of the Sabarmati near Ahmedabad, and thinking them (there were 5 or 6) kingfishers, went out to see what they were catching on the sand."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 104.]

"This spotted Owlet is one of the most common and universally spread birds in India, from the Punjab to Burmah and Ceylon. It also extends to Persia and other parts of Asia. It is found everywhere, except in the dense forests ; and it does not ascend the hills to any great height. Every clump of trees, and often a large single tree, especially near a village, is sure to be tenanted by a pair, or a small colony of these noisy birds. It often takes up its abode and roosts during the day in the eaves of houses, or under the roof ; and if anything disturbs its rest, comes forth with its noisy, chattering, and disagreeable chorus. About sunset it is always on the alert, and soon after sunset it sallies forth to feed. It takes short flights, frequently seating itself on the ground or a paling, or low branch, or outhouse ; and thence captures beetles and other insects on the wing, or snatches one off the branch of a tree ; now and then taking a low and undulating flight over the plain or garden, and dropping on any small mice, shrew, lizard, or insect it may spy on the ground. I have seen it capturing white ants on the wing, along with bats, &c. Its usual call is a double note, which is frequently heard at all hours ; and when there are several together they all take it up, appearing to be squabbling among themselves. It is a very familiar bird, not easily driven away from the quarters it has taken up. It breeds in holes of trees, or holes in walls, or old buildings, or in the caves of houses occasionally.

I got some eggs from the roof of my own house at Trichinopoly. It lays usually two to four eggs, which arc white and round, from February to June.

"The Maharattas," according to Sykes "have a superstition regarding this species, and a class of people, called 'Pingleh,' live on the credulity of the people by pretending to consult it and predict events," In Southern India it is regarded with aversion. It is used by some Shikarees for catching small birds. They snare one, or catch one with a rod and bird-lime, and taking it to the jungle where the wished-for birds reside, tie it on the ground, near a low bush, and smear most of the outer twigs of the shrub with bird-lime. The little Owlet is soon espied by some bird, and as it is notoriously held in dislike by all small birds, a chatter of alarm is loudly given forth, and joined in by all new comers, some of which perch on the well-limed branches, and when the Shikaree sees those he wishes caught, he runs from his place of concealment, and secures the captives. I am told that this mode of capturing small birds is often resorted to in Italy and the South of Europe."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 142f.]


Zu siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 5. Vers 15c - 18d  (Vögel II)