नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्

2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam

9. siṃhādivargaḥ

(Über Tiere)

5. 15c - 18d
(Vögel II)


Übersetzt von Alois Payer

mailto:payer@payer.de 


Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 9. siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 5. Vers 15c - 18d  (Vögel II) -- Fassung vom 2011-01-18. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa2/amara209e.htm                

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2011-01-18

Überarbeitungen:

©opyright: Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Meinem Lehrer und Freund

Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron

ist die gesamte Amarakośa-Übersetzung

in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.

Meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die all meine Interessen teilt und fördert

ist das Tierkapitel in Dankbarkeit besonders gewidmet


Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.


"Those who have never considered the subject are little aware how much the appearance and habit of a plant become altered by the influence of its position. It requires much observation to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the low country, small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye they appear to be different plants. The Jatropha curcas grows to a tree some 15 or 20 feet on the Neilgherries, while the Datura alba is three or four times the size in>n the hills that it is on the plains. It is therefore with much diffidence that I have occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub. The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering seasons, especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstroemia Reginae, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, previous to the commencement of the rains, in blossom more or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endeavoured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in contradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little success; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a lifetime would scarcely suffice."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- S. VIII f.]


2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam - Zweiter Teil


2.9. siṃhādivargaḥ - Abschnitt über Löwen und andere Tiere



Abb.: Asiatische Tierwelt
[Bildquelle: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversationslexikon, 1906]


Referenzwerke:

Dave, K. N. <1884 - 1983>: Birds in Sanskrit literature. -- Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. -- XXIV, 481 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0-89581-676-8. [Referenz für Sanskritbezeichnungen von Vögeln]

Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan : together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka ; [in 10 vol.] / Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley. -- Delhi : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1968 - 1974 [Referenzwerk für Vögel Indiens]

Kazmierczak, Krys [Text] ; Berlo, Per van [Ill.]:  A field guide to the birds of the Indian subcontinent. -- New Haven : Yale University Press, ©2000. -- 352 S. : Ill. -- . ISBN 0300079214. [Neue, durchgehend farbig illustrierte Übersicht über 1330 Vogelarten Indiens]

Rasmussen, Pamela C. ; Anderton, John C.: Birds of South Asia : the Ripley Guide. -- Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian, 2005. -- 2 Bde. -- ISBN 84-87334-67-9. [DAS Standardwerk]


Übersicht



2.9.36. Lerchen - Larks


15. c./d. vyāghrāṭaḥ syād bharadvājaḥ khañjarīṭas tu khañjanaḥ

व्याघ्राटः स्याद् भरद्वाजः खञ्जरीटस् तु खञ्जनः ॥१५ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Lerchen:]

  • व्याघ्राट - vyāghrāṭa m.: "bei Tigern Umherschweifender" = "Calandrella rufescens, Lesser (Rufous) Short-toed Lark." (Dave, 511)
  • भरद्वाज - bharadvāja1 m.: Lerche = "Alauda gulgula, Indian Small Skylark (Oriental Skylark); or Alauda arvensis, (Eurasian) Skylark." (Dave, 504)

Colebrooke (1807): "A sky-lark."


1 भरद्वाज - bharadvāja m.: Lerche

Bharadvāja ist auch der Name eines Ṛṣi:

"BHARADWĀJA. A Rishi to whom many Vedic hymns are attributed. He was the son of Bṛhaspati and father of Droṇa, the preceptor of the Pāṇḍavas. The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa says that "he lived through three lives" (probably meaning a life of great length), and that "he became immortal and ascended to the heavenly world, to union with the sun." In the Mahābhārata he is represented as living at Hardwār ; in the Rāmāyaṇa he received Rāma and Sītā in his hermitage at Prayāga, which was then and afterwards much celebrated. According to som of the Purāṇas and the Hari-vaṃśa, he became by gift or adoption the son of King Bharata, and an absurd story is told about his birth to account for his name : His mother, the wife of Utathya, was pregnant by her husband and by Bṛhaspati. Dīrgha-tamas, the son by her husband, kicked his half-brother out of the womb before his time, when Bṛhaspati said to his mother, Bhara-dwā-jam, 'Cherish this child of two fathers'."

[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]


Umfasst also nach Dave mindestens folgende Arten:


Calandrella rufescens Vieillot, 1820 - Lesser (Rufous) Short-toed Lark - Stummellerche

14 cm



Abb.:
व्याघ्राटः । Calandrella rufescens Vieillot, 1820 - Lesser (Rufous) Short-toed Lark - Stummellerche, Tarragona, Spanien
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/13861029@N00/752179717. -- Zugriff am 201012-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"This species is widely distributed throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa, and has even been once killed in Britain. It is found throughout India, more rare to the extreme south, and it has not been observed in Ceylon, but numerous in the Deccan, and thence northwards to the foot of the Himalayas, but not in the countries to the eastward.

The short-toed Lark appears in India in October and November, in flocks, frequenting the bare grass downs, frequently damp spots near tanks, also grain fields and ploughed land, and it almost always retires to cornfields or grass for shelter during the heat of the day, whence it does not in general issue again till next morning, for they are seldom seen flying about or feeding in the afternoon or evening. It feeds almost entirely on seeds ; both runs and hops on the ground, and has a call note like that of the real Larks. Towards the end of March in the south, April in the north of India, different flocks often unite into vast troops, containing many thousand birds, and quite darkening the air, so close do they keep together, even when flying. Great numbers are netted in some parts of the country, or taken by bird-lime, or shot ; for when feeding, they keep close to each other. On one occasion, on the cavalry parade-ground at Kamptee, I bagged twelve dozen birds after discharging both barrels, and many wounded birds escaped. They get quite fat about this time, and are really very excellent eating, and they are always called Ortolan by Europeans in India. They leave the north of India about the end of April, or beginning of May, and they breed in the steppes of Central Asia, Eastern Russia, and also in Northern Africa, placing their nest on the ground at the edge of a scrub or bush, and laying four to six eggs, usually marked with grey and rufous spots, but sometimes, it is said, unspotted yellow brown."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 426f.]


Alauda gulgula Franklin, 1831- Indian Small Skylark (Oriental Skylark)

16 cm



Abb.: भरद्वाजः । Alauda gulgula Franklin, 1831- Indian Small Skylark (Oriental Skylark), Kolleru Lake - కొల్లేరు సరస్సు, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: भरद्वाजः । Alauda gulgula Franklin, 1831- Indian Small Skylark (Oriental Skylark), Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout India to Cashmere and Nepaul ; Sind, Kutch, Rajputana, N. Guzerat, Concan, Deccan, Beloochistan, Afghanistan, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces and Cashmere. It is said by Blyth to occur in Arracan. Gates found it abundant in Southern Pegu, and according to Dr. Armstrong it is said to be spread over the whole Irrawady delta. Davison observed it in the plains between the Sittangand Salween rivers and in the immediate neighbourhood of Moulmein. It ranges throughout India, also the Indo-Burmese countries, and Ceylon. Frequents cultivated lands. Breeds during December. The nest is not unlike that of other larks, and is made in depressions in the ground under the shelter of a stone or tuft of grass. Eggs 3 - 4, white, or greyish-white mottled with brown. Eggs have been taken in the Nilgherries, in the Central Provinces, Central India, Punjab, and N.-W. Provinces."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 360.]

"The Indian Sky-lark is found throughout the whole of India, frequenting grassy hills, meadows, and fields ; the grassy edges of tanks are favorite spots, and also the bunds of rice fields, in which they often breed. It rises into the air singing, but does not perhaps soar so high as the Lavrock of England. It breeds from March to June, making its nest of grass and hair, on the ground under a tuft of grass ; and laying three or four greenish-grey eggs, with numerous brown and dusky streaks and spots. In the cold weather they associate more or less in flocks, and are taken in great numbers for the table. It is particularly abundant on the Neilgherries, and also in Wynaad, and in Lower Bengal. I did not procure it at Darjeeling. "The song," says Mr. Blyth, "very closely resembles that of the British Sky-lark."

Comparatively few residents in India are aware that a Skylark is common in almost every part of India, and when they go to a hill station, observe this bird, perhaps for the first time, with equal surprise and delight. About February many are brought to the Calcutta market, and sold as Ortolan."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 435.]


Alauda arvensis  Linnaeus, 1758 - (Eurasian) Skylark - Feldlerche

19 cm



Abb.: भरद्वाजः । Alauda arvensis  Linnaeus, 1758 - (Eurasian) Skylark - Feldlerche
[Bildquelle: Wilhelm von Wright (1810 - 1887) / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Gesang von Alauda arvensis

भरद्वाजः । Klicken! Gesang von Alauda arvensis  Linnaeus, 1758 - (Eurasian) Skylark - Feldlerche
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: Guido Gerding / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


2.9.37. Motacilla sp. - Stelzen - Wagtails


15. c./d. vyāghrāṭaḥ syād bharadvājaḥ khañjarīṭas tu khañjanaḥ

व्याघ्राटः स्याद् भरद्वाजः खञ्जरीटस् तु खञ्जनः ॥१५ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Motacilla sp. - Stelzen - Wagtails:]

  • खञ्जरीट - khañjarīṭa m.: (zu khañj 1: hinken) "yellow Wagtails : Motacilla flava, Yellow Wagtail (and subspecies); Motacilla citreola, Yellow-headed Wagtail (Citrine Wagtail); but may also designate white Wagtails." (Dave, 492)
  • खञ्जन - khañjana m.: "Hinker" = "any of the Passeridae, subfamily Motacillinae, genus Motacilla (Wagtail); white Wagtail, esp. Motacilla alba, Pied Wagtail (White Wagtail) (and subspecies." (Dave, 492)

Colebrooke (1807): "A wagtail."


Also u.a.:


Motacilla alba Linnaeus, 1758 - Pied Wagtail (White Wagtail) - Bachstelze, und Unterarten

18 cm



Abb.: खञ्जनः । Motacilla alba Linnaeus, 1758 - Pied Wagtail (White Wagtail) - Bachstelze
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: खञ्जनः । Motacilla alba Linnaeus, 1758 - Pied Wagtail (White Wagtail) - Bachstelze, Pune - पुणे, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Arun Prabhu. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/29801206@N07/4358111847/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: खञ्जनः । Motacilla alba Linnaeus, 1758 - Pied Wagtail (White Wagtail) - Bachstelze, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Aditi-the-Stargazer. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/aditithestargazer/3259576120/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: खञ्जनः । Brutstätten von Motacilla alba Linnaeus, 1758 - Pied Wagtail (White Wagtail) - Bachstelze, und Unterarten
[Bildquelle: L Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. The whole of Europe and Northern Asia, wintering in N.-E. Africa and Senegambia, also the plains of India."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 272.]


Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 - Yellow Wagtail - Schafstelze,  und Unterarten

17 cm



Abb.: खञ्जरीटः । Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 - Yellow Wagtail - Schafstelze
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: खञ्जरीटः । Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 - Yellow Wagtail - Schafstelze, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: खञ्जरीटः । Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 - Yellow Wagtail - Schafstelze, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: खञ्जरीटः । Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 - Yellow Wagtail - Schafstelze, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 - Yellow-headed Wagtail (Citrine Wagtail) - Zitronenstelze

17 cm



Abb.: खञ्जरीटः । Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 - Yellow-headed Wagtail (Citrine Wagtail) - Zitronenstelze, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: खञ्जरीटः । Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 - Yellow-headed Wagtail (Citrine Wagtail) - Zitronenstelze, Kolkata -কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. E. Europe, Africa ; Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Kutch, Kattiawar, Rajputana, Deccan ; Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, and E. Turkestan ; Nepaul, Gilgit, N.-W. and Central India, Darjeeling, Assam and Bhamo. Breeds in Cashmere, where Mr. Theobald found the nest placed in a depression in soft earth beneath a rock. Eggs, four in number, pale grey, dotted with greyish brown."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 280.]

"This species is remarkable for the great length of the hind claw. It is found all over India in the cold weather, being migratory, and probably breeding in North-Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is not very abundant, and is never found in dry places like the last, but on the banks of rivers and lakes, and more particularly in swampy ground, or in inundated rice fields, apparently affecting concealment more than the others of this group. It has been obtained in breeding plumage at Mussooree, and is then a very beautiful bird."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 226.]


2.9.38. Haliastur indus Boddaert, 1783 - Brahminenweih - Brahmany Kite

48 cm


16. a./b. lohapṛṣṭhas tu kaṅkaḥ syād atha cāṣaḥ kikīdiviḥ

लोहपृष्ठस् तु कङ्कः स्याद् अथ चाषः किकीदिविः ।१६ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Haliastur indus Boddaert, 1783 - Brahminenweih - Brahmany Kite:]

  • लोहपृष्ठ - lohapṛṣṭha m.: "Rotrücken" = "Haliastur indus, Brahmany Kite." (Dave, 509)
  • कङ्क - kaṅka m.: Kaṅka = "Haliaeetus leucoryphus, Pallas's Sea Eagle (Pallas's Fish Eagle) ; Ardea cinerea, Grey Heron; Haliastur indus, Brahmany Kite." (Dave 486)

Colebrooke (1807): "A heron."



Abb.: लोहपृष्ठः । Haliastur indus Boddaert, 1783 - Brahminenweih - Brahmany Kite, Chalakudy - ചാലക്കുടി, Kerala
[Bildquelle: Challiyil Eswaramangalath Vipin. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/11852045@N08/2209189778/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: लोहपृष्ठः । Haliastur indus Boddaert, 1783 - Brahminenweih - Brahmany Kite, Chalakudy - ചാലക്കുടി, Kerala
[Bildquelle: Challiyil Eswaramangalath Vipin. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/11852045@N08/2281826702/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: लोहपृष्ठाः । Haliastur indus Boddaert, 1783 - Brahminenweih - Brahmany Kite und Möwen, Point Calimere (கள்ளி மேடு) Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu
[Bildquelle: Marcus334 / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. India and Ceylon. Recorded from Sind, the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Kutch, Kattiawar, Ajmere, Concan, Deccan, Tranvancore, Upper Pegu, Nepal. Breeds wherever it occurs from the middle of February to the beginning of April, The nest is always on a tree near by water, and is not unlike that of Milvus govinda. The normal number of eggs is two, but it is not uncommon to find three. In shape they vary much ; but typically they are very perfect, moderately broad ovals, slightly compressed towards one end ; in colour greyish white, speckled or spotted with pale dingy brown or reddish brown."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 56.]

"The Brahminy Kite is found throughout all India, abundant on the sea coasts, and in the vicinity of lakes and wet cultivation ; rare in the dry plains of Central India and the Deccan. Colonel Sykes says that it "usually seizes whilst on the wing, but occasionally dips entirely under water, appearing to rise again with difficulty." This I have never witnessed, nor has any one I have questioned on the subject, and their name is legion. He also says, "it is quite a mistake to suppose it feeds on carrion." Mr. Smith, as quoted in Notes on Indian Birds, P. Z. S., 1857, p. 85, says—"This bird is among the first objects which attracts the eye of a stranger, for they swarm about the shipping at Calcutta, and are useful in removing any offal which may be thrown away ; but though their usual food is carrion, yet they kill fish, and not unfrequently carry off a snipe which the sportsman has levelled." Hodgson says, it chiefly feeds on insects and quests like a Circus. From my own observations it certainly prefers aquatic food, and is most numerous in the vicinity of sea-shores, large rivers, tanks, and rice cultivation. About large cities and towns, and where there is much shipping, it gets its chief food from garbage and offal thrown overboard, or, occasionally, from what is thrown out in the streets and roads. Near large rivers or lakes it manages to pick off the surface of the water small fishes, or a prawn occasionally ; but its chief food, away from towns and cantonments, is frogs, and crabs, which abound in all rice fields, and the remains of which last, picked clean, may be found so abundantly along the little bunds that divide the fields from each other. It will also eat water insects, mice, and shrews, and young or sickly birds ; and many a wounded snipe I have seen carried off by the Brahminy Kite. In wooded countries I have seen it questing over the woods, and catching insects, especially large Cicadas, and I have also seen it whip a locust off standing grain. Now and then it gives hot chase to a crow, or even to a common kite, and forces them to give up some coveted piece of garbage or dead fish; when thus employed, it exhibits considerable speed and great energy. It is much on the wing, soaring lazily about cantonments, or up and down rivers; but after a time seats itself on some palm or other tree, on the mast of a ship, and even on the ground. Near cities it is very tame and fearless, and I have often seen one catching fish thrown up to it by some pious Hindoo. It is said sometimes to carry off young chickens and pigeons, but I have not myself witnessed this. If the food it has seized be small, it devours it as it flies; but if large, it generally sits down on the ground, or the bund of a paddy field, or carries it off to a lofty tree.

The Brahminy Kite breeds on trees, in February and March, making a not very large nest of sticks, sometimes lined with mud, and laying generally only two eggs, which are sometimes dirty white, at other times white, with a few rusty brown spots. In the Carnatic it usually selects a palm tree to build in. Layard says that it makes several false nests, and that, whilst the female is incubating, the male generally occupies one of the nests first made.

It has a peculiar, rather wild, squeal ; but it is not so noisy a bird as its more plebeian relation, the pariah-kite. It is, as is well known, sacred to Vishnu ; hence the name of Brahminy Kite given it by Europeans in India. The Mussulman name Rumbarik, or lucky face, arises from an idea that when two armies are about to engage the appearance of one of these birds over either party prognosticates victory to that side."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 102ff.]


2.9.39. Coraciidae - Racken - Roller


16. a./b. lohapṛṣṭhas tu kaṅkaḥ syād atha cāṣaḥ kikīdiviḥ

लोहपृष्ठस् तु कङ्कः स्याद् अथ चाषः किकीदिविः ।१६ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Coraciidae - Racken - Roller:]

  • चाष - cāṣa m.: Cāṣa = "all Coraciidae (Roller) : Coracias benghalensis, Indian Roller ; Coracias garrulus, European Roller ; Eurystomus orientalis, Broad-billed Roller (Dollarbird)." (Dave, S. 495)
  • किकीदिवि - kikīdivi m.: Kikīdivi = Coracias benghalensis, Indian Roller ; Pelargopsis capensis, (Brown-headed) Stork-billed Kingfisher ; Halycon smyrnensis, White breasted Kingfischer." (Dave, 488)

Colebrooke (1807): "A blue jay. Coracias Indica and Bengalensis ; or as otherwise explained, a different bird."


d.h. u. a.:

Evtl. auch:


Coracias benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Roller - Hinduracke

31 cm



Abb.: चाषः । Coracias benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Roller - Hinduracke, Bharatpur - भरतपुर, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: चाषः । Coracias benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Roller - Hinduracke, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

 
Abb.: चाषः । Coracias benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Roller - Hinduracke, Bharatpur - भरतपुर, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: चाषः । Lebensraum von Coracias benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Roller - Hinduracke
[Bildquelle: Ulrich prokop / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The whole of India and Ceylon ; the Himalayas, Nepaul, N.-W. Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, S. Persia (Bushire), Beloochistan, Kutch, Kattiawar, Jodhpore, Jeypore, North Guzerat, the Concans and the Deccan. In Sind it is a resident and breeds in holes of decayed trees, and sometimes in the deep forks of acacia trees, in April and May. Eggs two in number, round, pure white."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 476.]

"The Indian Roller is distributed throughout the whole of India, from Ceylon and Cape Comorin to the base of the Himalayas ; towards the North-east of our limits it begins to disappear, and is replaced by the next species, and in the extreme North-west its place is taken by C. garrula of Europe and Western Asia. Adams asserts that it is also found in Ladakh and Tibet, and he ignores the existence of C. garrula in the North-west.

It frequents alike open jungles, groves, avenues, gardens, clumps of trees in the open country, and, except in thick forest, is to be found everywhere, and is sure to be met with about every village. It generally takes its perch on the top, or outermost branch, of some high tree, and, on spying an insect on the ground, which it can do at a very great distance, it flies direct to the spot, seizes it, and returns to its perch to swallow it. A favourite perch of the Roller is a bowrie pole, or some leafless tree whence it can see well all around ; also old buildings, a haystack, or other elevated spot; sometimes a low bush, or a heap of earth, or of stones. When seated it puffs out the feathers of its head and neck. I have, on several occasions, seen one pursue an insect in the air for some distance, and when the winged termites issue from their nest after rain, the Roller, like almost every other bird, catches them on the wing. It flies in general with a slow, but continued, flapping of its wings, not unlike the Crow, though more buoyant ; but it has the habit of occasionally making sudden darts in the air in all directions. Its food is chiefly large insects, grass-hoppers, crickets, mantidae, and even beetles ; occasionally a small field-mouse, or shrew.

It is often caught by a contrivance, called the Chou-gaddi. This consists of two thin pieces of cane, or bamboo, bent down at right angles to each other to form a semicircle, and tied in the centre. To the middle of this the bait is tied, usually a mole cricket, sometimes a small field mouse, (Mus lepidus) ; the bait is just allowed tether enough to move about in a small circle. The cane is previously smeared with bird-lime, and it is placed on the ground, not far from the tree where the bird is perched. On spying the insect moving about, down swoops the Roller, seizes the bait, and on raising its wings to start back, one, or both, are certain to be caught by the viscid bird-lime. By means of this very simple contrivance, many birds that descend to the ground to capture insects are taken, such as the King-crows (Dicruri), common Shrikes, some Thrushes, Fly-catchers, and even the large Kingfishers (Halcyon).

The Roller has a very harsh grating cry or scream, which it always utters when disturbed, and often at other times also. Mr. Blyth states that in spring the male has a pleasing dissyllabic cry, repeated at intervals : this I cannot say I have heard. As previously mentioned, it is often selected as the quarry for the Turumti Falcon (Falco chicquera), and its extraordinary evolutions to escape the hawk, and its harsh cries, are noticed under the description of that falcon.

It breeds towards the end of the hot weather and beginning of the rains, in holes of trees, old walls, old pagodas, laying three or four round rather pure white eggs. Tickell says that they are four or five, full deep antwerp-blue. In this case a Myna's eggs were probably brought to him, as that bird builds in similar places, and its eggs are blue. What eggs Layard can have got as those of the Roller I am at a loss to imagine ; he describes the eggs as greenish, profusely speckled with dark brown spots, taken from hollow trees. Captain Irby says that it breeds in the roofs of houses in Oudh, as well as in holes of trees, and that it sometimes makes a hole for its nest in the thatch of bungalows. I have not seen it so familiar in the south of India, but Adams also states that it breeds in the thatch of bungalows, and in chimneys. Does not he refer to the Coracias garrula ? It is very quarrelsome and pugnacious in the breeding season.

The Nilkant is sacred to Siva, who assumed its form ; and at the feast of the Dasserah, at Napgore, one, or more, used to be liberated by the Rajah, amidst the firing of cannon and musketry, at a grand parade attended by all the officers of the station.

Buchanan Hamilton also states that before the Durga Puja, the Hindoos of Calcutta purchase one of these birds, and at the time when they throw the image of Durga into the river, set the Nilkant at liberty. It is considered propitious to see it on this day, and those who cannot afford to buy one, discharge their matchlocks to put it on the wing.

The Telugu name of the Roller, signifying Milk-bird, is given because it is supposed that when a cow gives little milk, if a few of the feathers of this bird are chopped up and given along with grass to the cow, the quantity will greatly increase. It is one of the birds on whose movements many omens depend. If it cross a traveller just after starting, it is considered a bad omen."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 215ff.]


Coracias garrulus Linnaeus, 1758 - European Roller - Blauracke

31 cm


 
Abb.: चाषः । Coracias garrulus Linnaeus, 1758 - European Roller - Blauracke
[Bildquelle: John Gould, 1832 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: चाषः । Albrecht Dürer: Flügel einer Blauracke, 1512
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: चाषः । Coracias garrulus Linnaeus, 1758 - European Roller - Blauracke, Estremadura, Spanien
[Bildquelle: Christian Svane / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike]


Abb.: चाषः । Brutgebiete (gelb) und Überwinterungsgebiete von Coracias garrulus Linnaeus, 1758 - European Roller - Blauracke
[Bildquelle: Scops / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Central and South Europe, Madagascar, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, N.-E. Africa, Western and Central Asia. It is said to breed in Persia, Afghanistan, and Turkistan. In Beloochistan, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces and Sind it occurs as a migrant."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 476.]

"The European Roller is only found, in our province, in the extreme North-west; and even there (it would seem) but rarely. It has been taken at Moultan, and in other parts of the Punjab, also in Cashmere. It is common in Western and Central Asia, and Northern Africa, and is said to breed usually in holes of trees, but sometimes in holes in river banks, laying two pure-white eggs. Pallas says that, in Central Asia, it feeds chiefly on beetles, and often fights with the Magpie."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 218f.]


Eurystomus orientalis Linnaeus, 1766 - Broad-billed Roller (Dollarbird) - Dollarvogel

31 cm



Abb.: चाषः । Eurystomus orientalis Linnaeus, 1766 - Broad-billed Roller (Dollarbird) - Dollarvogel, Zoo
[Bildquelle: divemasterking2000. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/15775662@N00/4507826657. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: चाषः । Lebensräume von Eurystomus orientalis Linnaeus, 1766 - Broad-billed Roller (Dollarbird) - Dollarvogel: grün: Jahresvogel; gelb: Brutvogel
[Bildquelle: Ulrich Prokop / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The base of the Himalayas, Lower Bengal, Assam, the Burmese countries, extending to China, Ceylon, Siam, Cochin-China, and down the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. According to Gates, it is rare, though locally distributed over the greater part of Burmah. It has been got in Pegu, in the hills north of that town, also at Tonghoo and at Shwaygheen. Capt. W. Ramsay got it on the Karin hills, and Mr. Blanford at Bassein, and Davison's experience is that it is confined to the southern portion of Tenasserim. Gates adds that it is almost crepuscular in its habits. It breeds in the Terai during May in holes of the higher branches of lofty trees. Nothing appears to be known of its eggs, but they also are probably white."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 477.]

"This handsome Roller is found at the base of the Himalayas, in Lower Bengal, Assam, and the Burmese countries, extending to Ceylon, Malayana, and China. It has not yet been met with in Southern India ; but I heard of a species of Roller which ray Shikarees called the Pindarya nilkant, which could have been no other than this bird. It was said to visit Central India, occasionally, in the cold weather. This Roller is stated to take its prey more on the wing than the common Rollers, and keeps much to the thick and lofty forests, though occasionally found in well-wooded regions, as about Calcutta. Layard says that it clings to trees like a Woodpecker, and that he saw it tearing away the decayed wood round a hole in a dead tree. "Their stomachs were," says he, " full of wood-boring Coleoptera, swallowed whole, merely a little crushed ; and I saw them beat their food against the trees." These are rather anomalous habits for a Roller."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 219f.]


Pelargopsis capensis Linnaeus, 1766 - (Brown-headed) Stork-billed Kingfisher - Storchschnabelliest

38 cm



 Abb.: किकीदिविः । Pelargopsis capensis Linnaeus, 1766 - (Brown-headed) Stork-billed Kingfisher - Storchschnabelliest
[Bildquelle: Keulemans 1868 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: किकीदिविः । Pelargopsis capensis Linnaeus, 1766 - (Brown-headed) Stork-billed Kingfisher - Storchschnabelliest, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: किकीदिविः । Pelargopsis capensis Linnaeus, 1766 - (Brown-headed) Stork-billed Kingfisher - Storchschnabelliest, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Southern India and Ceylon to Bengal and the Himalayas, affecting well-wooded forests. In Malabar Jerdon says it is common; rare in the Carnatic ; found occasionally in Central India and the Northern Circars. Breeds in the lower Himalayas during June. Eggs, 4 in number, round, pure white ; size 1.09 x 1.02 inch."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 487.]

"This large Kingfisher is found over all India, from the extreme South, and Ceylon, to Bengal ; but only is general where there is much jungle or forest, or where the banks of rivers are well wooded. It is common in Malabar ; rarely seen in the Carnatic and upon the Table Land ; occasionally found in Central India and the Northern Circars ; and most abundant in Bengal, but apparently not found, or rare, in the North-west. It extends likewise to all the countries east of the Bay of Bengal, even to the islands of Malayana, but varying slightly from the peninsular bird.

[...]

Our bird is found along rivers, streams, and back-waters ; but only where tolerably well shaded by trees. It sits on a branch overhanging the water, and pounces on fish, crabs, and occasionally frogs. It has rather a peculiar call (peer peer pur), several times repeated. Layard, however, calls it a loud, harsh note, not unlike the cracking of castanets.

It is said to build in hollow trees, or in holes in mud-walls. Mr. Smith, as quoted in Horsfield's Catalogue, says that he once observed a contest between a bird of this species and a Hawk of considerable size, in which the latter was worsted and obliged to leave his hold, from the effects of a severe blow which the other administered to him on the breast."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 223.]


Halcyon smyrnensis Linnaeus, 1758 - White breasted Kingfischer - Braunliest

28 cm



Abb.: किकीदिविः । Halcyon smyrnensis Linnaeus, 1758 - White breasted Kingfischer - Braunliest
[Bildquelle: Keulemans 1868 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: किकीदिविः । Halcyon smyrnensis Linnaeus, 1758 - White breasted Kingfischer - Braunliest, Bharatpur - भरतपुर, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The Peninsula of India and Ceylon to the base of the Himalayas, extending to the Indo-Burmese countries, Singapore and China. Recorded from the Concans and Deccan, Kutch, Kattiawar, Jodhpore, Sambur, N. Guzerat, Travancore and Nepaul. Breeds all over India nearly, from March to July, laying 4 - 7 eggs in a hole excavated by itself in banks of tanks, and canals or streams, also in the interior of wells, or on cliffs overlooking rivers. Eggs spherical ; some are slightly oval. Like those of its congeners, they are pure white. In length they vary from 1.05 to 1.27 inch and in breadth from 0.97 to 1.12 inch."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 483.]

"This well-known Kingfisher is very abundant in most parts of India, and is found throughout the whole peninsula and Ceylon, up to the base of the Himalayas, and extending through all the countries to the east, as far as China.

It prefers a wooded country, but is not found in thick forests ; and is to be met with about most large villages and cantonments. It frequents banks of rivers and brooks, edges of tanks, as also the neighbourhood of wells and wet paddy-fields ; but it is as frequently found away from water, in groves of trees, gardens, open jungle, and dry cultivation ; perching upon trees, poles, walls, old buildings, and any similar situation. Here it watches for a land-crab, mouse, lizard, grasshopper, or other insect ; and pounces down on it, returning to its perch to devour it. Near water it catches fish (for which it sometimes though rarely dives), frogs, tadpoles, and water-insects. Layard states that he has seen it seizing butterflies. It has a loud, harsh, rattling scream, which it almost always utters when flying. It is stated to build its nest sometimes under a projecting stone on the bank of a nullah ; sometimes in a hole in a bank ; at other times in holes in decaying trees; and to lay from 2 to 7 round fleshy-white eggs."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 225.]


2.9.40. Dicruridae - Drongos - Drongos


16. c./d. kaliṅga-bhṛṅga-dhūmyāṭā atha syāc chatapatrakaḥ

कलिङ्ग-भृङ्ग-धूम्याटा अथ स्याच् छतपत्रकः ॥१६ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Dicruridae - Drongos - Drongos:]

  • कलिङ्ग - kaliṅga m.: Kaliṅga1 = "Dicrurus adsimilis (macrocerus), (Common) Black Drongo (or Kingcrow.)." (Dave, 487)
  • भृङ्ग - bhṛṅga m.: "Biene" = "any of the Dicruridae (Drongo), esp. Dicrurus adsimilis (macrocerus), (Common) Black Drongo (or Kingcrow.)." (Dave, 505)
  • धूम्याट - dhūmyāṭa m.: "in dichtem Rauch Umherschweifender" = "Dicrurus adsimilis (macrocerus), (Common) Black Drongo (or Kingcrow.)." (Dave, 499)

Colebrooke (1807): "The fork-tailed shrike. Lanius Coerulescens [= ???] and Corvus Balicassius [= Dicrurus balicassius Linné, 1766; ein Drongo, der nur auf den Philippinen vorkommt!]."


1 कलिङ्ग - kaliṅga m.: Kaliṅga

Kaliṅga = ein Volk im heutigen Orissa


Abb.: Lebensraum der Kaliṅga
[Bildquelle: Deepak gupta / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Dicrurus macrocerus Vieillot, 1817 - Black Drongo

31 cm



Abb.: कलिङ्गः । Dicrurus macrocerus Vieillot, 1817 - Black Drongo, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: धूम्याटः । Dicrurus macrocerus Vieillot, 1817 - Black Drongo, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: भृङ्गौ । Dicrurus macrocerus Vieillot, 1817 - Black Drongo, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The whole of India and Ceylon, extending to Assam, the Indo-Chinese region, China, Formosa and Burmah. Occurs also in Java, Siam, Cochin-China, the N.-W. Himalayas, Nepaul, Beloochistan and Afghanistan. If is found throughout the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajpootana, Central India, Kutch, Guzerat, Konkan, Deccan, Travancore and South India generally. According to Gates it is a common bird in Burmah and Pegu. In the latter it is common from October to January. Dr. Armstrong found it common in the Irrawaddy delta ; Davison found it common in Tennaserim from Moulmein to Malewoon, and Captain Bingham met with it at Tounghoo.

The King Crow is chiefly found in open jungle, and seldom or never in forests. It is a conspicuous bird everywhere about a station. Its presence is readily known simply by its cheerful and pretty notes. Perched on a telegraph wire, wall, or on a bare branch, its sweet notes are uttered, not forgetting now and again its rather harsh cry. A couple of pairs within one's grounds often make their chattering, as if one to another for half an hour at a time, sound disagreeable. Its loquacity is unsurpassed, especially in the early morn. It is often seen on the backs of cattle, sheep and goats when out grazing in company with Acridotheres tristis or ginginianus, the common crow, and not unfrequently Neophrons.

The food of the King Crow is chiefly insects of sorts, as grasshoppers, mantises, bees, wasps, ants, dragon flies, moths and butterflies. I don't know that it has a predilection for anything higher than members of the Invertebrates. During the breeding season, which lasts from May to July, March to April, and August and September, according to locality, the King Crow is very pugnacious. It pursues and drives away every bird it suspects, even hawks, kites, and crows, especially when the female is sitting for incubation. It places its nest generally in the fork of the outer branches of a tree, selecting generally an Acacia. It is cup-shaped and shallow, and made of fine twigs and grass. In some instances lined outside with cobwebs and inside with a little hair or feathers. Eggs generally 4 in number, reddish or pinkish white, prettily streaked, spotted and blotched with brick red or brown."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 155.]

"This Drongo Shrike is found throughout the whole of India and Ceylon, extending through Assam and Burmah into China, and is to be met with in every part of the country, except in dense and lofty jungle. It perches generally on some bare branch, whence it can have a good look-out, or the top of a house or post or telegraph-wire, frequently also on low bushes, hedges, walls or ant-hills ; and very generally on the backs of cattle, sheep, or goats, hence one of its popular Telugu names.

It feeds chiefly on grasshoppers and crickets, which, as Sundeval remarks, appears to be the chief insect food for birds in India ; also now and then on wasps or bees, hence the Bengal name ; on dragon-flies, and occasionally moths or butterflies. It generally seizes its insect prey on the ground, or whips one off a stalk of grain, frequently catching one in the air ; now and then, when the grasshopper, having flown off, alights in a thick tuft of grass, the King-crow hovers for a few seconds over the spot like a Kestrel. When it has seized an insect, it generally, but not always, returns to the same perch. On an evening, just about sunset, it may often be observed seated on the top of a tree, taking direct upward flights, and catching some small insects that take wing at that time. Like most other birds, when a flight of winged termites takes place, it assembles in numbers to partake of the feast.

The King-crow obtains his familiar name in this country from its habit of pursuing Crows and also Hawks and Kites, which it does habitually ; and at the breeding season, especially when the female is incubating, with increased vigilance and vigour. If a Crow or Kite approach the tree in which their nest is placed, the bold little Drongo flies at them with great speed and determination, and drives them off to a great distance ; but although it makes a great show of striking them, I must say that I have very rarely seen it do so, and certainly I have never seen it fix on the back of a Hawk with claws and beak for some seconds, as Mr. Philipps asserts that he has seen. Occasionally, others will join the original assailant, and assist in driving off their common enemy. From this habit the bird has received the name of Kotwal in some parts of the country. Blyth assures me that he has seen these birds attack and pursue the little Palm Squirrel. At the pairing season, they are exceedingly pugnacious : and four or five may not unfrequently be seen entangled together on the ground, fighting both with beak and claws.

The Drongo is lively, active, and loquacious, constantly uttering its well known, somewhat harsh, but cheerful cry ; it is one of the earliest birds to greet the coming morn, and not unfrequently keeping up an occasional conversation with a neighbour for the greater part of a moonlight night. I have known people in India who professed to find it monotonous and disagreeable, and have heard it profanely called the Scotch Nightingale ; but I confess to liking its cheerful voice, and to hear it herald in the pleasant dawn of day.

During the breeding season it has a more pleasing and melodious song, which Sundevall calls a charming song, something like that of Sylvia trochilus.

The King-crow breeds at various seasons, a good deal according to the locality ; from March and April in some places, to August and September in other. It is possible it may have two broods in the year, but I do not know this. The nest is a slight, shallow structure, carelessly put together, of a few small twigs and roots, and generally placed in a rather conspicuous place, on the fork of a branch at no great elevation, generally without any lining, or sometimes with a few hairs. The eggs, three or four in number, are reddish-white, with a few largish spots or blotches of purplish-red, brick-red, or red-brown. It appears to leave some parts of the country during the rains, for Mr. Elliot states that "it migrates from the Southern Mahratta country during the monsoon;" but it only retires a short distance to some more convenient place for breeding.

Its flight in general is undulating, not very rapid, and performed but with few flappings ; but when it exerts itself after a Crow it is capable of great speed, and always overtakes its enemy with ease.

Mr. Philipps relates a curious instance of sagacity or reasoning this bird, once witnessed by himself. Another bird was pursuing a large locust which the King-crow evidently coveted, for he made one or two dashes after it, but apparently did not dare to seize it; when he suddenly gave his cry of alarm, betokening the presence of some bird of prey ; the original pursuer of the insect quitted the chase, and the King-crow carried off the locust as his lawful booty.

Mr. Swinhoe relates that he found this species breeding in company on bamboos in Formosa.

This is the most common and abundant species of Dicrurus, and is met with over the whole of India, from the font of the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, and from the Punjab to Arrakan, Burmah, and even to Java."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 427ff.]


2.9.41. Picidae - Woodpecker - Spechte


16. c./d. kaliṅga-bhṛṅga-dhūmyāṭā atha syāc chatapatrakaḥ
17. a./b. dārvāghāṭo
'tha sāraṅgaḥ stokakaś cātakaḥ samāḥ

कलिङ्ग-भृङ्ग-धूम्याटा अथ स्याच् छतपत्रकः ॥१६ ख॥
दार्वाघाटो
थ सारङ्गः स्तोककश् चातकः समाः ।१७ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Picidae - Woodpecker - Spechte:]

  • शतपत्रक - śatapatraka m.: "Hundertfedriger" = "Psittacula eupatria, Large Indian Parakeet (Alexandrine Parakeet); Pavo cristatus, Peacock; various Picidae (Woodpecker)." (Dave, 511)
  • दार्वाघाट - dārvāghāṭa m.: "auf Hölzernes Schlagender" = "a generic term for any of the Picidae (Woodpecker)." (Dave, 498)

Colebrooke (1807): "A woodpecker."


Dave (s. 120 ff.) nennt folgende Arten:


Mulleripicus pulverulentus Temminck, 1826 - Great Slaty Woodpecker - Puderspecht

51 cm



Abb.: दार्वाघाटः । Mulleripicus pulverulentus Temminck, 1826 - Great Slaty Woodpecker - Puderspecht, Ramnagar forest, near Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand
[Bildquelle: raman. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/cyornis/3870218401/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.:  दार्वाघाटः । Lebensraum von Mulleripicus pulverulentus Temminck, 1826 - Great Slaty Woodpecker - Puderspecht
[Bildquelle: Scops / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. British Burmah, in Pegu, Arracan, the Karin hills and Tenasserim. It extends southwards through the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Cochin-China. Northwards it is recorded from the Khasia hills, and it is said to occur at the foot of the Himalayas, in Oudh and Nepaul. Captain Bingham is said to have found the nest of this great Slaty Woodpecker, one of the Oriental giants of the family, in Tenasserim during April. Eggs, two in number only, white and glossy."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 451.]

"This large Woodpecker has been found within our province only in the Dehra Doon ; but it is stated to have been seen at Darjeeling. It inhabits Arrakan and Burmah, extending down the coast to Malaccca, Java, and other islands of Malayana. It is the largest of Oriental Woodpeckers."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 284.]


Dinopium javanense Ljungh, 1797 - Golden-backed Woodpecker - Feuerrückenspecht

28 cm



Abb.: शतपत्रकः । Dinopium javanense Ljungh, 1797 - Golden-backed Woodpecker - Feuerrückenspecht, Singapur
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/3124000727/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: शतपत्रकः । Dinopium javanense Ljungh, 1797 - Golden-backed Woodpecker - Feuerrückenspecht, Singapur
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/1330297431/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Throughout the greater part of India to the foot of the Himalayas, Cashmere, Nepaul and Ceylon. Occurs also in the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Kelat and Afghanistan. Breeds all over the plains of India during April, May, June and July, in holes in mango, siris, or other soft-wooded trees, which they excavate themselves. There is no nest except the fine chips which fall in the act of boring, on which the eggs, generally three in number, are laid. The eggs are a lengthened pyriform oval, milk-white, and glossy, In length they vary from 1.0 to 1.2 inch, and in breadth from 0.77 to 0.85 inch. I agree with Mr. Hume, who very properly points out (Str. F. vol. i. p. 171) that the Sind species, B. dilutus, is not specifically separable."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 439f.]

"The Golden-winged Woodpecker is found throughout the greater part of India and Ceylon, but is replaced in some districts of the South by the next species. Adams states that it occurs in Sindh, the Lower Himalayas, and Cashmere ; but with regard to the first-named province, see B. dilutus, page 297. In Ceylon it inhabits the northern region, being replaced in the south by another species. It inhabits alike thin forest-jungle, groves, gardens, and avenues, and is to be found about every large town or station. It has a loud screaming call, which it frequently utters as well when perched, as when flying in great undulations from tree to tree. It breeds, like all other Woodpeckers, in holes in trees, laying three or four white eggs. Philipps, indeed, states, though of course erroneously, that its eggs are light green."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 296.]


Picumnus innominatus Burton, 1836 - Speckled Piculet - Tüpfelzwergspecht

10 cm



Abb.: दार्वाघाटः । Picumnus innominatus Burton, 1836 - Speckled Piculet - Tüpfelzwergspecht, Dehradun - देहरादून, Uttarakhand
[Bildquelle: Raman Kumar. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/cyornis/3870218301/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"This interesting little bird is found throughout the Himalayas, and in no other locality that I am aware of. Its range extends, so far as known, from 3,000 to 6,000 feet or so. It is found in tangled brushwood, and among dead and fallen trees in damp spots, hunting about among the decaying bark for various insects. It is said to breed in holes of trees."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 301.]


Sasia ochracea Hodgson, 1836 - Rufous Piculet - Rötelmausspecht

9 cm


"Habitat. The Himalayas, from Assam to Nepaul ; Cachar, Assam, Khasia hills, Arracan, and British Burmah, in Pegu and Tenasserim."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 436.]

"This little bird is found in Nepal and the Eastern Himalayas, as also in Assam, Sylhet, and Arakan. It is not rare at Darjeeling, from about 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet or so. Like the last, it chiefly hunts among the brush-wood, or more especially among fallen and decayed trees, near the banks of streams. It lives entirely on insects. I never saw it climb on large trees. It is said to breed in holes of trees."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 302.]


2.9.42. Clamator jacobinus Boddaert 1783 - Pied (Crested) Cuckoo - Jakobinerkuckuck


17. a./b. dārvāghāṭo 'tha sāraṅgaḥ stokakaś cātakaḥ samāḥ

दार्वाघाटो थ सारङ्गः स्तोककश् चातकः समाः ।१७ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Clamator jacobinus Boddaert 1783 - Pied (Crested) Cuckoo - Jakobinerkuckuck:]

  • सारङ्ग - sāraṅga m.: "Gefleckter, Gesprenkelter" = "Clamator jacobinus, Pied (Crested) Cuckoo." (Dave, 513)
  • स्तोकक - stokaka m.: "Geringer, Tröpfchen" = "Clamator jacobinus, Pied (Crested) Cuckoo." (Dave, 514)
  • चातक - cātaka m.: Cātaka = "may refer to: Cuculus varius, Common Hawk Cuckoo (Brainfever Bird); Clamator jacobinus, Pied (Crested) Cuckoo; also Cuculus (Hierococcyx) sparverioides, Large Hawk Cuckoo,; Cacomantis passerinus, Plaintive Cuckoo (Gray-bellied Cuckoo); Cacomantis sonneratii, Banded Bay Cuckoo." (Dave, 494f.)

Colebrooke (1807): "Pipiha. Cuculus Radiatus. But it is not certain wheter the cātaka be not a different bird."



Abb.: सारङ्गः । Clamator jacobinus Boddaert 1783 - Pied (Crested) Cuckoo - Jakobinerkuckuck, zwei Unterarten
[Bildquelle: John Gerrard Keulemans (1842-1912) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: स्तोककः । Clamator jacobinus Boddaert 1783 - Pied (Crested) Cuckoo - Jakobinerkuckuck, Kolleru Lake - కొల్లేరు సరస్సు, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: स्तोककः । Clamator jacobinus Boddaert 1783 - Pied (Crested) Cuckoo - Jakobinerkuckuck, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్,  Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सारङ्गः । Lebensräume von Clamator jacobinus Boddaert 1783 - Pied (Crested) Cuckoo - Jakobinerkuckuck (dunkelgrün: das ganze Jahr; gelb: Sommer; blau: Winter; creme: nur auf Durchzug)
[Bildquelel: L Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Throughout India to Nepaul. Common in Central and Southern India, Bengal, Upper Pegu and Ceylon, rare on the Malabar Coast. In Sind, Kutch, Kattiawar, Rajputana and North Guzerat, and in fact wherever it is found, it lays according to the breeding season of the various Babblers, in whose nests it deposits its eggs, from January to July. The eggs, like those of the Malacocirci, are a spotless sky blue, and highly glossy, round ovals, varying in length from 0.9 to 0.98 inch, and in breadth from 0.72 to 0.82 inch."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 417.]

"This Pied Cuckoo is found over all India, being rare on the Malabar coast, common in the Carnatic, and not uncommon throughout Central India to Bengal, where it is only at all common in the rains. It is more abundant in Upper Pegu than anywhere else that I have observed it. I mention this, because Mr. Blyth was informed that it was rare on the Eastern side of the Bay of Bengal. I have seen it on the Neilgherries up to 5,000 feet. It frequents jungles, groves, gardens, hedges and avenues, generally alone, sometimes in pairs or small parties.

At the breeding season it is very noisy, two or three males (apparently) often following a female, uttering their loud peculiar call, winch is a high pitched wild metallic note. It utters this very constantly during its flight, which is not rapid, from one tree to another, and occasionally at a considerable height. As Mr. Blyth has remarked, it does not at all affect concealment, perching often on a bare branch, or on the top of a bush, and not unfrequently alighting on the ground.

It feeds on insects, chiefly mantides, grasshoppers, caterpillars, &c. The female lays her egg usually in the nest of the Malacocerci. I found a young one in the nest of M. griseus, in a thick Euphorbia hedge at Coimbutore ; and Layard, in Ceylon, found a pair of the Malacocerci of Ceylon, feeding a young one. Theobald also obtained the egg from the nest of M. caudatus ; and Blyth from that of M. bengalensis : it is deep greenish-blue, and bluntly oval at both ends. Latham mentions that it is said to lay its egg in the nest of tire Chatarrhaea, Malacocercus bengalensis.

This bird, remarks Mr. Phillips, makes a great figure in Hindu poetry, under the name of Chatak."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 340f.]


2.9.43. Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red Junglefowl - Bankivahuhn


17. c./d. kṛkavākus tāmracūḍaḥ kukkuṭaś caraṇāyudhaḥ

कृकवाकुस् ताम्रचूडः कुक्कूतश् चरणायुधः ॥१७ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red Junglefowl - Bankivahuhn:]

  • कृकवाकु - kṛkavāku m.: wohl "Kräher" = "Gallus gallus, Red Junglefowl." (Dave, 490)
  • ताम्रचूड - tāmracūda m.: "der einen kuperroten Schopf hat" = "tāmra-cūḍa cf. carma-cūḍa" "carmacūḍa, refers to two species of Junglefowl: Gallus gallus, Red Junglefowl (Common or Wild Cock); Gallus sonneratii, Grey Junglefowl." (Dave 494)
  • कुक्कूत - kukkuṭa m.: Kukkuṭa = "Gallus gallus, Red Junglefowl (Common or Wild Cock)." (Dave 489)
  • चरणायुध - caraṇāyudha m.: "dessen Waffe seine Füße sind"

Colebrooke (1807): "A gallinaceous fowl."


Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red Junglefowl - Bankivahuhn



Abb.: कुक्कूतौ । Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red Junglefowl - Bankivahuhn
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: चरणायुधः । Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red Junglefowl - Bankivahuhn, Hahn, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2423589442/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red Junglefowl - Bankivahuhn, Henne, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2423589442/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: Lebensraum von Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red Junglefowl - Bankivahuhn
[Bildquelle: Kristof vt / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Himalayas, in the lower ranges, the Dhoons, Terais, and sub-montane districts. The whole of Assam, Oudh, Central and N.-W. Provinces, Eastern Bengal, including the Sunderbuns, Arracan, Pegu, Tenasserim ; all the hilly portions of Western Bengal and Northern and Central Provinces. Southwards and eastwards, it occurs north of the Godavery, Orissa, the Tributary Mehals, Ganjam, Vizagapatam, Joonaghur, Nowagur, Jeypore. There is no description of jungle from which it is absent. In the dry, level, alluvial plains and semi-deserts of Upper India it is absent. It is very partial to bamboo jungle, broken ground and ravines with dense vegetation. It breeds from January to July, according to locality. Eggs, a pale yellowish, café au lait colour, 8 to 12 in number."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 546.]

"The well known Jungle-fowl is found from the Himalayas southwards, on the west of India, as far at all events, as the range of Vindhian hills ; and as I have been informed by Mr. W. Blanford since the above remarks were penned, also south of the Nerbudda on the Raj-peepla hills. Col. Sykes' variety found in the Western Ghats with much red in its plumage must be this species, but it is to be wished he had noted the particular locality. On the east, it occurs through Central India and the Northern Circars to near the north Bank of the Godavery. I have heard of its having been killed even south of this, at Cummum, but I cannot speak positively on this head. I have not seen it myself further south than the banks of the Indrawutty, not far from its junction with the Godavery, and there both this species and the next were heard crowing a few yards from each other. I shot one bird, an undoubted hybrid between the two races. In Central India, this Jungle-fowl is rare, especially towards the Western portion, at Jubbulpore, Saugor, Mhow, &c., but it is very abundant to the East, and particularly so in the Northern Circars. It is not uncommon, too, in the Rajmahal hills, extending to the south bank of the Ganges. Towards the North-west it occurs in the range of hills South of Cashmere, and to the West of Jummoo, but is rare there, though common in the lower ranges near Simla, and thence along the Himalayas to Assam, Sylhet, Chittagong and Burmah. Malayan specimens are decidedly darker in tint, and have the ear-coverts rufous, and perhaps may be considered to be a distinct race or species, which, in that case, would bear Temminck's name, Bankiva. This race appears to extend over many of the Malayan islands, as far as Timor, at all events; and Mr. Blyth drew my attention to the statement of Jungle-fowl occurring in the Bonin islands. Certain pale-colored birds from the lower Himalayan ranges were noticed in the Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XX., p. 389.

The Jungle-fowl is very partial to Bamboo jungle, but is found as well in lofty forests and in dense thickets. When cultivated land is near their haunts, they may, during the harvest season and after the grain is cut, be seen morning and evening in the fields, often in straggling parties of ten to twenty.

Their crow which they give utterance to morning and evening, all the year round, but especially at the pairing season, is quite like that of a Bantam cock, but shorter, and never prolonged as in our domestic cocks.

The hen breeds from January to July, according to the locality, laying eight to twelve eggs, of a creamy white color, often under a bamboo clump, or in some dense thicket, occasionally scraping a few leaves or dried grass together to form a nest. Sooner or later after the breeding season is over, the neck hackles of the male sometimes fall off, and are replaced by short blackish grey feathers.

Where detached clumps of Jungle or small hills occur in a jungly district where these Fowl abound, very pretty shooting can be had by driving them by means of dogs and beaters ; and in travelling through a forest country, many will always be found near the roads, to which they resort to pick up grain from the droppings of cattle, &c. ; dogs will often put them up when they at once fly on to the nearest trees. Young birds, if kept for a few days, are very excellent eating, having a considerable game flavour."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 537ff.]


Gallus sonneratii Temminck, 1813 - Grey Junglefowl - Sonnerathuhn



Abb.: ताम्रचूडः । Gallus sonneratii Temminck, 1813 - Grey Junglefowl - Sonnerathuhn
[Bildquelle: John Gould <1804 – 1881> / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: ताम्रचूडः । Gallus sonneratii Temminck, 1813 - Grey Junglefowl - Sonnerathuhn
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: ताम्रचूडः । Gallus sonneratii Temminck, 1813 - Grey Junglefowl - Sonnerathuhn, Punajur State Forest, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Tarique Sani. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tariquesani/5345784046/. -- Zugriff am 2011-01-18. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


 
Abb.: ताम्रचूडः । Lebensräume und aktuelle Beobachtungen (schwarze Punkte) von Gallus sonneratii Temminck, 1813 - Grey Junglefowl - Sonnerathuhn
[Bildquelle: Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Gallus Sonnerati, Tem., Pl. Col. 232, 233; Jerd., B. Ind. iii. p. 539, No. 813; Elliot, Mon. Phas. ii. pl. 34 ; Hume, Nests and Eggs Ind. B. p. 531 ; id., Str. F. iv. pp. 5, 404; Hume and Marsh., Game Birds i. p. 231, pl.

The GREY JUNGLE FOWL.

[...]

Habitat. Throughout the peninsula of India in suitable localities, extending northwards in the Central Provinces to Puchmurree, and on the west as far north as Mount Abu. It ascends the Neilgherries to 5,000 feet. Breeds wherever found in March and April, making a nest in woods on the ground. Eggs, 7 to 13, dirty white or buff colour, from 1.7 to 2.05 inches in length, and from 1.35 to 1.5 inches in breadth."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 546f.]

"Gallus Sonneratii, Temminck.

[...]

The Grey Jungle-fowl.

[...]

This handsome Jungle-fowl is found in Southern India only, extending on the east coast to a little north of the Godavery, inCentral India to the Pachmarri or Mahadeo hills, north of Nagpore, and on the west coast to the Rajpeepla hills, where it meets the Red Jungle-fowl. Its occurrence on the Pachmarri hills is most probably its eastern extension from the Western Ghats and the Kajpeepla hills, and it will probably be found all along the Sathpoora range. I do not know of its occurrence east of the Mahadeo hills, till the neighbourhood of the lower part of the Godavery is reached. It is very abundant on the Malabar Coast, especially in the more elevated districts, as in the Wynaad, and it ascends to the summit of the Neilgherries ; it is also common in suitable localities on the Eastern Ghats, and in the various isolated ranges of hills in the south of India. It is not rare in the Naggery hills near Madras, and is constantly brought for sale to the Madras market.

Like the last, it is particularly partial to bamboo jungles. Early in the morning, throughout the Malabar Coast, the Wynaad, &c.. Jungle-fowl may always be found feeding on the roads, and, with dogs, you are certain of getting several shots on the road side, the birds perching at once on being put up by dogs. In some districts where they can be beaten out of the woods, and especially on the Neilgherries, very pretty shooting is to be had at this Jungle-cock, the sharply defined woods, or 'sholas' as they are called, being well adapted to being beaten for game. The Hen lays from February to May, generally having from seven to ten eggs, of a pinky cream colour, under a bamboo clump. The call of the Cock is very peculiar, being a broken and imperfect kind of crow, quite unlike that of the Red Jungle-cock, and impossible to describe. When taken from the jungles they are more wild and not so easily domesticated as the Red Jungle-fowl ; but they have bred in confinement with Hens of the common breed. I have already noticed the occurrence, in a wild state, of hybrids between this and the Red Jungle-fowl.

Ceylon possesses a separate species of Jungle-fowl, Gallus Stanleiji, Gray, (G. Lafayetti, Lesson ; lineatus, Blyth), something like Bankiva, but red beneath ;"

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 539f.]


2.9.44. Spatzenähnliche - Sparrow-like birds


18. caṭakaḥ kalaviṅkaḥ syāt tasya strī caṭakā tayoḥ
pumapatye cāṭakeraḥ stryapatye caṭakaiva hi

चटकः कलविङ्कः स्यात् तस्य स्त्री चटका तयोः ।
पुमपत्ये चाटकेरः स्त्र्यपत्ये चटकैव हि ॥१८॥

[Bezeichnungen für Spatzenähnliche:]

  • चटक - caṭaka m.: Caṭaka = "birds in general; small birds, esp. House Sparrow, Finches, Buntings, etc.; Hirundinidae (Swallow) and Apodidae (Swift)." (Dave, 494)
  • कलविङ्क - kalaviṅka m.: (zu kala 3: zart tönend) = "a generic term for Sparrow-like birds, with a sweet voice; Turdus boulboul, Grey winged Blackbird; Turdus merula, (Eurasian) Blackbird; any of the Passeridae subfamily Ploceinae (Weaver); Galerida cristata, Crested Lark; Copsychus saularis, (Oriental) Magpie Robin; Copsychus malabaricus, (White-rumped) Shama; Pyrrhula erythrocephala, Red-headed Bullfinch; other birds of the genus Pyrrhula (Bullfinch); Pyrrhoplectus epauletta, Gold-headed Black Finch (Gold-naped Finch)." (Dave, 487)

Das Weibchen heißt चटका - caṭakā f.

Ihre männlichen Nachkommen nennt man चाटकेर - cātakera m.

Die weiblichen Nachkommen nennt man चटका - caṭakā f.


Colebrooke (1807): "A sparrow." [b:] "Its female." [c/d:] "their offspring male and female."


Hierher gehören u. a.:

Gattung Passer

Gattung Petronia - Steinsperlinge

Sowie u. a.

Aus der Fülle der hierher gehörigen Arten können nur einige wenige beispielhaft vorgestellt werden.


Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 - House Sparrow - Haussperling / Spatz

15 cm



Abb.: चटकश्चाटकेरश्च । Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 - House Sparrow - Haussperling / Spatz
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: चटकः । Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 - House Sparrow - Haussperling / Spatz, Ahmedabad - અમદાવાદ, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Umang Dutt. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/snapflickr/2674513390/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: चटकः । Lebensräume von Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 - House Sparrow - Haussperling / Spatz (dunkelgrün: ursprünglich; hellgrün: durch Menschen eingeführt)
[Bildquelle:
Cactus26 / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Klicken: Zirpen eines Passer domesticus

कलविङ्कः । Klicken! Zirpen eines Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 - House Sparrow - Haussperling / Spatz
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: QWerk / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"The Sparrow.

To the native of India the sparrow seems to stand as the type of a thing of naught, an intrusive feathered fly to be brushed aside but on no account to be starved or harmed. Our bird is a size smaller than his Western brother, and is tolerated both by Hindu and Muhammadan. In mosque courts one sometimes sees pretty troughs made of brick with divisions for water and food ; and in trees near shrines, or over the places where devotees sit, earthen saucers are slung with food and water, all for the sparrow.

A Hindu proverb quoted in Fallon's Dictionary says : "God's birds in God's field ! eat, birds, eat your bellies full." This pious and kindly word is easily reconciled in practice with a just appreciation of the essential triviality and impertinence of the bird. A large toll is daily taken all over the country from field and garden, and the equally accessible grain-dealer's basket. The most devout Hindu alive waves them off from his stores, for he also must live. But though the sparrow is a nuisance, it is seldom you hear the bird reckoned a downright plague, as is undoubtedly the case in America, where it is a type of the worst kind of immigrant from which the country has suffered. The reason may be that the same law of protection which leaves the sparrow free to plunder, is also extended to the hawk, the shrike, the weasel, and the wild cat, who keep the balance fairly even among them. Yet. when you listen closely you may hear, in spite of the vast Oriental tolerance, many an angry word about bird depredations.

London sparrows are said to be familiar, but when compared with their Indian brethren, their manners are marked by dignity and cold reserve. Being much given to marriage, they make a tremendous fuss over their housekeeping, and when in search of a nesting-place nothing is sacred to them. Above all, the nest must be sheltered from the heat, and the coolest places in the land are the interiors of men's houses. An Englishman's house is the coolest of all, so newly-joined couples, conversing loudly, are constantly finding their way indoors, creeping like mice through bath -water channels and under the bamboo blinds that keep out flies, bringing with them straw and other rubbish for their untidy beds. When making a morning call, you may stumble into a darkened drawing-room to find the lady of the house perched on a chair, madly thrashing up to the roof-beams with a carriage-whip, while a servant pulls the long cord of an upper window, crying "sho !" A bird in church is a rare and delightful incident to a bored child in the West, but the Indian sparrow perches on the organ-pipes in full blast, and chatters loudly through the sermon. Its note is a constant part of the out-door orchestra of Indian life, accompanying the caw of the crow, the thin squeal of the squirrel and scream of the kite, the groan of the Persian wheel, the wailing song of the ox-driver at the well, the creak of the ungreased cart axle, and the bark of the village dog."

[Quelle: : Kipling, John Lockwood <1837-1911>: Beast and man in India : a popular sketch of Indian animals in their relations with the people. -- London ; New York : Macmillan, 1904. -- xii, 401 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- S. 47 - 49. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/beastmaninindiap00kipliala. -- Zugriff am 2007-10-25]


Petronia xanthocollis Burton, 1838 - Chestnut-shouldered Petronia - Gelbkehlsperling

14 cm



Abb.: चटकः । Petronia xanthocollis Burton, 1838 - Chestnut-shouldered Petronia - Gelbkehlsperling, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus, 1766 - Baya Weaver - Bajaweber

15 cm



Abb.: कलविङ्काः । Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus, 1766 - Baya Weaver - Bajaweber, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कलविङ्कः । Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus, 1766 - Baya Weaver - Bajaweber, Kotaballappalli, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Rajeev B / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus, 1766 - Baya Weaver - Bajaweber, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout India to Ceylon, Assam, Burmah and Nepaul. Common everywhere in Sind with the two next species, as well as in the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces and Bengal, also Central and Southern India, the Concan and Deccan, Kutch, Kattiawar, Jodhpore and N. Gujerat. Breeds freely in company with manyar and bengalensis. Nest non-pensile, being attached lo the upper stalks of reeds, with the leaves interwoven, and smaller than that of bengalensis or manyar, less large in the body, and generally with a long and narrow tubular entrance. The unfinished-like nests are inhabited by the males. Breeds wherever found from April to June. Eggs white, 3, 4 or 5 in number.

All the species of this genus are taken young by natives, and taught to perch on the hands and to perform various feats."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 338f.]

"The common Weaver-bird is found throughout the whole of India from Cape Comorin and Ceylon to the foot of the Himalayas, and extending into Assam, Burmah, and Malayana. It is most abundant in the well wooded parts of the country, and in the bare table land of the Deccan you may travel for days without seeing one. It appears to wander about in some localities, for some observers have stated that it is migratory, but it is certainly a permanent resident in most parts of the country ; and their roosting places on certain trees are well known. Grain of all kinds, especially rice and various grass seeds, form the chief food of the Weaver-bird, and I never observed it feeding on fruit, as Sykes asserts he has known it do on the fig of the Banian tree. Whilst feeding, particularly, as well as at other times, the whole flock keeps up a perpetual chirruping. I have seen it feeding in grain fields in company with flocks of Emberiza melanocephala ; and Sykes relates that he has seen it associate with the common Sparrow.

The Baya breeds during the rains, according to the locality, from April to September, but I am not aware if they ever have more than one brood. Its long retort-shaped nest is familiar to all, and it is indeed a marvel of skill, as elegant in its form, as substantial in its structure, and weather-proof against the downpour of a Malabar or Burmese Monsoon.

It is very often suspended from the fronds of some lofty Palm-tree, either the Palmyra, Cocoanut, or Date, but by no means so universally so as Mr. Blyth would imply, for a Babool (Acacia arabica, or Vachellia Farnesiana), or other tree will often be selected, in preference to a Palm-tree growing close by, as I have seen within a few miles from Calcutta en the banks of the canal. Very often a tree overhanging a river or tank, or even a large well is chosen, especially, as Tickell says, if it have spreading branches and scanty foliage. In India I have never seen the Baya suspend its nests except on trees, but in some parts of Burmah, and more particularly in Rangoon, the Bayas usually select the thatch of a bungalow to suspend their nests from, regardless of the inhabitants within. In the cantonment of Rangoon, very many bungalows may be seen with twenty, thirty, or more of these long nests hanging from the end of the thatched roof, and, in one house in which I was an inmate, that of Dr. Pritchard, Garrison Surgeon there, a small colony commenced their labors towards the end of April, and, in August, when I revisited that station, there were above one hundred nests attached all round the house ! In India, in some localities, they appear to evince a partiality to build in the neighbourhood of villages or dwellings; in other places they nidificate in most retired spots in the jungle, or in a solitary tree in the midst of some large patch of rice cultivation.

The nest is frequently made of grass of different kinds plucked when green, sometimes of strips of plantain leaf ; and not unfrequently of strips from the leaves of the date palm, or cocoanut ; and I have observed that nests made of this last material are smaller and less bulky than those made with grass, as if the little architects were quite aware that with such strong fibre less amount of material was necessary. The nest varies much in the length both of the upper part or support, and the lower tube or entrance, and the support is generally solid from the point whence it is hung for two or three inches, but varies much both in length and strength. When the structure has advanced to the spot where the birds have determined the egg compartment to be, a strong transverse loop is formed, not in the exact centre, but a little at one side. If then taken from the tree, and reversed, the nest has the appearance of a basket with its handle, but less so in this than in the next two species, which have seldom any length of support above. Various authors have described this loop or bar as peculiar to the male nest, or sitting nest, whereas it exists primarily in all, and is simply the point of separation between the real nest and the tubular entrance, and, being used as a perch both by the old birds and the young (when grown sufficiently), requires to be very strong. Up to this time both sexes have worked together indiscriminately ; but when this loop is completed, the female takes up her seat on it, leaving the cock bird to fetch more fibre and work from the outside of the nest, whilst she works on the inside, drawing in the fibres pushed through by the male, re-inserting them in their proper place, and smoothing all carefully. Considerable time is spent in completing this part of the nest, the egg chamber being formed on one side of the loop and the tubular entrance at the other ; after which there appears to be an interval of rest. It is at this stage of the work, from the formation of the loop to the time that the egg compartment is ready, that the lumps of clay are stuck on, about which there are so many and conflicting theories. The original notion, derived entirely, I believe, from the natives,* was that the clay was used to stick fire-flies on, to light up the apartment at night. Layard suggests that the bird uses it to sharpen its bill on ; Burgess that it serves to strengthen the nest. I of course quite disbelieve the fire-fly story, and doubt the other two suggestions. From an observation of several nests, the times at which the clay was placed in the nests, and the position occupied, I am inclined to think that it is used to balance the nest correctly, and to prevent its being blown about by the wind. In one nest lately examined, there was about three ounces of clay in six different patches.

* See the interesting and almost unique Natural History by a native, Akbar Ali Khan of Delhi, of the Baya, in the Asiatic Researches, vol. 2.

It is generally believed that the unfinished nests are built by the male for his own special behoof, and that the pieces of clay are more commonly found in it than in the complete nests. I did not find this the case at Rangoon, where my opportunities of observing the bird were good, and believe rather that the unfinished nests are either rejected from some imperfect construction, weak support, or other reason, if built early in the breeding season ; or, if late, that they are simply the efforts of that constructive faculty which appears, at this season, to have such a powerful effect on this little bird, and which causes some of them to go on building the long tubular entrance long after the hen is seated on her eggs.

I have generally found that the Baya lays only two eggs, which are long, cylindrical, and pure white, but other observers record a larger number. Sundevall states that he found three in one nest. Layard says from two to four ; Burgess six to eight ; Tickell six to ten. Blyth thinks that four or five is the most usual number. From many observations, I consider two to be the usual number, but have found three occasionally. In those exceptional instances where six or more eggs have been found, I imagine they must have been the produce of more than one bird. The Baya, is stated not to use the same nest for two years consecutively, and this I can quite understand, without having actually observed it.

The Baya is frequently taken when young, tamed, and taught to pick up rings, or such like articles, dropped down a well ; or to snatch the Ticca mark off the forehead of a person pointed out. It is also taught occasionally to carry a note to a particular place, on a given signal. Mr. Blyth, in an unpublished paper, has the following interesting account of some of this bird's performances: "The truth is that the feats performed by trained Bayas are really very wonderful, and must be witnessed to be fully credited. Exhibitors carry them about, we believe, to all parts of the country ; and the usual procedure is, when ladies are present, for the bird, on a sign from its master, to take a cardamom or sweetmeat, in its bill, and deposit it between a lady's lips, and repeat this offering to every lady present; the bird following the look and gesture of its master. A miniature cannon is then brought, which the bird loads with coarse grains of powder one by one, or more commonly with small balls of powder made up for the purpose; it next seizes and skilfully uses a small ramrod; and then takes a lighted match from its master which it applies to the touch-hole. All this we have personally witnessed in common with most persons who have resided in or even visited India; and we have seen the little bird apply the match five or six times successively before the powder ignited, which it finally did with a report loud enough to alarm all the crows in the neighbourhood, while the little Baya remained perched on the gun, apparently quite elated with its performance." Captain Tytler mentions also "the twirling of a stick with a ball of fire at each end. This the bird turns in several ways round its head, making luminous circlets in imitation of a native practice ; the stick being held by the beak in the middle."

In an ordinary cage or aviary, they will employ themselves constantly, if allowed the chance, in intertwining thread or fibres with the wires of their prison, merely gratifying the constructive propensity, with apparently no further object ; unless, indeed, the sexes are matched, when they breed very readily in captivity ; of course, provided they are allowed sufficient room, as in a spacious aviary.

This bird has currently passed as P. philippinus, Auct., but on a reference to the figure in the Pl. Enl. of Buffon, the type of that species, I am convinced that it refers to the species named hypoxantha by Daudin."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 344ff.]


Galerida cristata Linnaeus, 1758 - Crested Lark - Haubenlerche

18 cm



Abb.: कलविङ्कौ । Galerida cristata Linnaeus, 1758 - Crested Lark - Haubenlerche
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: कलविङ्कः । Galerida cristata Linnaeus, 1758 - Crested Lark - Haubenlerche, Sultanpur National Park, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Universally distributed from sea level to nearly 8,000 feet above the sea ; S.-E. Europe, Asia, Africa, throughout India, Persia, Beloochistan, and Afghanistan. Like A. gulgula it rises in the air to a great height, soaring up to the sun often so high that the eye cannot follow it, all the while singing, as it advances higher, as if springing up into the higher regions. This is chiefly noticed during the breeding season (April and May). It however descends rapidly, but continues its song till within a few feet of the ground.

As remarked by Mr. Hume, this species is variable in size and colouration, so much so, that at least half-a-dozen species have been made by Franklin, Sykes, Jerdon and Blyth. "The examination of a large series," Mr. Hume says, "proves that it is impossible to draw a line anywhere between the largest and the smallest examples. A perfect series of the wings occurs, and as for the difference in tone of plumage, big and little examples are alike met with amongst the brown, rufous, sandy, grey or desert colour types.""

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 361.]

"The crested Lark is widely spread over all the South of Europe, North Africa, and a great part of Asia ; and it is found throughout all India, most abundant in the North and North-west. It is rare in the Carnatic, not found in Malabar, more common in the Deccan, and thence spreading from Behar in the East, to Sindh and the Punjab, where very common. It is not known in Bengal, nor in the Himalayas, nor in the countries to the eastwards.

It prefers dry open sandy plains, or ploughed land, to grass, wet meadows, or cultivation. It rises in the air singing, though not so high as A. gulgula, nor is its song so fine. In winter, it may be seen in small parties, or sometimes in considerable flocks, occasionally on roads and barren places. Theobald found the nest and eggs, the former, a little grass, in a hole in the ground, the eggs four, yellowish-white, uniformly freckled with greyish-yellow and neutral-tint.

It is frequently caged in all parts of the country, and the bird is kept in darkness by several layers of cloth wrapped round the cage ; the custom being to wrap an additional cover round the cage every year. In this state it sings very sweetly, and learns to imitate most exactly the notes of various other birds, and of animals, such as the yelping of a dog, the mewing of a cat, the call of a hen to the chickens, &c., &c.

Examples from different parts of the country differ somewhat in the depth of colour, some being lighter than others ; and Mr. Blyth, from a small and caged specimen, considered that there was a second and smaller race in India, which he named G. Boysii."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 437f.]


Copsychus saularis Linnaeus, 1758 - (Oriental) Magpie Robin - Dajaldrossel

20 cm



Abb.: कलविङ्कः । Copsychus saularis Linnaeus, 1758 - (Oriental) Magpie Robin - Dajaldrossel, Weibchen, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कलविङ्कः । Copsychus saularis Linnaeus, 1758 - (Oriental) Magpie Robin - Dajaldrossel, Männchen, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कलविङ्कः । Copsychus saularis Linnaeus, 1758 - (Oriental) Magpie Robin - Dajaldrossel, Weibchen in Nest, Narendrapur - নরেন্দ্রপুর, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. All over India and Ceylon, eastward to Assam and as far south as Pegu. It is recorded from Central and South India, also from Nepaul, Darjeeling, Kumaon, Pegu and the Andamans, and as a race (musicus) Malacca, Penang, Siam and Java.

The geographical distribution of the Dhayal bird, Sharpe says, is of great interest ; so gradual is the transition of one supposed species to the other, and so uncertain are the characters for their specific separation, that he has deemed it best to recognize but a single actual species, and in this I agree, especially when hybrids have to be given consideration to.

Jerdon says it is generally seen alone or in pairs, usually seeks its prey from a low perch or hops a few steps to pick up insects, which are its chief food.

It breeds, according to Hume, but sparingly throughout the plains of Upper India. The majority resort to the Dhoons and Terais that skirt the Himalayas. They lay from the end of March to the end of July, building their nests in holes in trees, banks or walls, or under the eaves of huts. The nest is composed of coarse grass or flower-stalks intermixed with fine roots and dry tendrils of climbing plants. Eggs, 5 - 6 in number, of a pale bluish green, thickly spotted and blotched with purplish brown, and showing an imperfect ring of nearly confluent blotches at the larger end."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 66.]

"The Magpie-robin is found throughout all India, from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin and Ceylon ; and eastwards to Arrakan and Tenasserim. Hutton says that at Mussooree it occurs up to 5,000 feet. It is rare near Darjecling, and I never saw it above 3,000 feet. It affects chiefly wooded districts, but does not inhabit the deep jungles. Towards the South of India it is less familiar than it is in the North, for in Central India, Bengal &c., it is often seen feeding close to houses.

It is generally seen alone or in pairs, usually seeks its prey on the ground from a low perch, often hopping a few steps to pick up an insect. When it returns to its perch, it generally elevates its tail and often utters a pleasing warble. Though it frequently raises and depresses its tail, both when perched and on the ground, I cannot say that I have observed the Wagtail-like flirtation of its tail noted by Hodgson, or that it throws its tail back till it nearly touches its head, as Layard has seen. Towards the evening it may often be seen near the top of some tolerably large tree, or other elevated perch, pouring forth its song.

I have always found its food to consist of insects of various kinds, small grasshoppers, beetles, worms, &c. Hodgson asserts that in winter they like unripe vetches, and such like ; but this is quite opposed to the usual habits of this group.

It breeds generally in thick bushes, or hedges ; sometimes in a hole in a bank or tree, and occasionally in a hole in a wall, or on the rafter of a house. The nest is made of roots and grass ; and the eggs, four in number, are bluish white, or pale bluish, with pale brown spots and blotches. Layard says that the eggs arc bright blue, and Hutton that they are carneous cream color, but these observers must, I think, have been mistaken in the identity of the owner of the nest.

The Dayal is often caged, as well for its song, as for its pugnacious qualities, which, according to Hodgson, are made use of to capture others. "Fighting these tame birds," says Hodgson, "is a favorite amusement with the rich (in Nepal), nor can any race of game-cocks combat with more energy and resolution than do these birds." Latham called it the Dial bird from its native name, and Linnaeus, apparently thinking that it had some connection with a sundial, called it Solaris, by lapsus pennae, saularis. I may here state that in my Catalogue published in 1839, I called it the Magpie-robin, by which name Mr. Layard says it is now known in Ceylon."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 115f.]


Pyrrhula nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 - Brown Bullfinch - Schuppenkopfgimpel

17 cm



Abb.: कलविङ्कः । Pyrrhula nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 - Brown Bullfinch - Schuppenkopfgimpel
[Bildquelle: PeiWen Chang. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/23032104@N00/892520671/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: कलविङ्कः । Pyrrhula nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 - Brown Bullfinch - Schuppenkopfgimpel
[Bildquelle: pseudolapiz. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/pseudolapiz/2621958484/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)] 

"Habitat. S.-E. Himalayas, Nepaul and Sikkim."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 325.]

"This plain-colored Bull-finch differs from the typical species by its firmer plumage, longer and more forked tail, the feathers of which are slightly truncated. It has been procured only in the South-east Himalayas, in Nepal, and Sikim, where it is not very rare in winter, in summer seeking the higher elevations."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 390.]


Zu siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 6. Vers 19a - 21d (Vögel III)