नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्

2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam

9. siṃhādivargaḥ

(Über Tiere)

6. Vers 19a - 21d
(Vögel III)


Übersetzt von Alois Payer

mailto:payer@payer.de 


Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 9. siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 6. Vers 19a - 21d (Vögel III) -- Fassung vom 2011-01-18. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa2/amara209f.htm                

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2011-01-18

Überarbeitungen:

©opyright: Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Meinem Lehrer und Freund

Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron

ist die gesamte Amarakośa-Übersetzung

in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.

Meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die all meine Interessen teilt und fördert

ist das Tierkapitel in Dankbarkeit besonders gewidmet


Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.


"Those who have never considered the subject are little aware how much the appearance and habit of a plant become altered by the influence of its position. It requires much observation to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the low country, small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye they appear to be different plants. The Jatropha curcas grows to a tree some 15 or 20 feet on the Neilgherries, while the Datura alba is three or four times the size in>n the hills that it is on the plains. It is therefore with much diffidence that I have occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub. The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering seasons, especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstroemia Reginae, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, previous to the commencement of the rains, in blossom more or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endeavoured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in contradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little success; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a lifetime would scarcely suffice."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- S. VIII f.]


2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam - Zweiter Teil


2.9. siṃhādivargaḥ - Abschnitt über Löwen und andere Tiere



Abb.: Asiatische Tierwelt
[Bildquelle: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversationslexikon, 1906]


Referenzwerke:

Dave, K. N. <1884 - 1983>: Birds in Sanskrit literature. -- Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. -- XXIV, 481 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0-89581-676-8. [Referenz für Sanskritbezeichnungen von Vögeln]

Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan : together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka ; [in 10 vol.] / Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley. -- Delhi : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1968 - 1974 [Referenzwerk für Vögel Indiens]

Kazmierczak, Krys [Text] ; Berlo, Per van [Ill.]:  A field guide to the birds of the Indian subcontinent. -- New Haven : Yale University Press, ©2000. -- 352 S. : Ill. -- . ISBN 0300079214. [Neue, durchgehend farbig illustrierte Übersicht über 1330 Vogelarten Indiens]

Rasmussen, Pamela C. ; Anderton, John C.: Birds of South Asia : the Ripley Guide. -- Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian, 2005. -- 2 Bde. -- ISBN 84-87334-67-9. [DAS Standardwerk]


Übersicht



2.9.45. Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 - Demoiselle Crane - Jungfernkranich

95 cm


19. a./b. karkareṭuḥ kareṭuḥ syāt kṛkaṇa-krakarau samau

कर्करेटुः करेटुः स्यात् कृकण-क्रकरौ समौ ।१९ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 - Demoiselle Crane - Jungfernkranich:]

  • कर्करेटु - karkareṭu m.: Karkareṭu = "Pelargopsis capensis, (Brown-headed) Stork-billed Kingfisher; Grus virgo [= Anthropoides virgo], Demoiselle Crane." (Dave, 487)
  • करेटु - kareṭu m.: Kareṭu

Colebrooke (1807): "Numidian crane."



Abb.: कर्करेटुः । Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 - Demoiselle Crane - Jungfernkranich
[Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: कर्करेटुः । Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 - Demoiselle Crane - Jungfernkranich, Daman-e-Koh, Islamabad - اسلام آباد, Pakistan
[Bildquelle: Muzaffar Bukhari. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mbukhari/2964168998/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: कर्करेटवः । Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 - Demoiselle Crane - Jungfernkranich, Tal Chhapar Sanctuary, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: Koshy. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/kkoshy/5138194824/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.:  कर्करेटवः । Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 - Demoiselle Crane - Jungfernkranich, Above Marpha - मार्फा, Mustang Region, Nepal
[Bildquelle: Andrew Purdam. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/apurdam/275377193/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: कर्करेटुः । Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 - Demoiselle Crane - Jungfernkranich, Novouzensky - Новоузенский, Saratovskaya Oblast - Сара́товская о́бласть, Russland
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/496888333/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Throughout the greater part of India ; rare in Sind. Occurs in Rajputana, Kutch, Kattiawar, N. Guzerat, Deccan, the Nizam's dominions, where it is rare ; also in Assam, N.-W. and Central Provinces, Central India, Khandeish and Oudh. Occurs also in Afghanistan and Beluchistan and probably also in Persia. In the Deccan, about the Satara and Belgaum districts, as well as in the Concan and South India, it is said to be fairly common, arriving about December."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 602.]

"This beautiful Crane is found throughout the greater part of India, is more rare in the extreme South, and is never seen in Malabar, nor in Lower Bengal : one writer says that it is never met with below Dinapore. It is a cold weather visitor generally, only coming in late in October, and its arrival, like that of the last, is hailed with joy as a sure sign that the cold weather is indeed come. It associates in numerous flocks, from fifty to five hundred, and chiefly frequents the vicinity of rivers, as it invariably, according to ray own experience, betakes itself during the heat of the day to rivers to drink and rest, and never to tanks or jheels, as the Sarus and common Crane do. One writer however states that he has seen and shot them in a jheel. It is very destructive to grain fields, especially to wheat in Central India, and to chenna (Cicer arietinum) in the Deccan. They fly with great regularity, either in a long continuous line, or in a double wedge-shaped line, and then utter their fine clanging note frequently.

The Demoiselle Crane breeds on the ground in Northern Asia, laying two olive grey eggs speckled with rufous. The male bird watches whilst the female is incubating, and fights boldly if attacked. They are said to dance among themselves, and will often seize hold of any small article, toss it up in the air, and catch it as it descends. It is also stated that they occasionally eat mice, snakes, &c., lifting them up and dashing them down on the ground till quite dead.

The Karkarra makes a fine flight with a Bhyri, occasionally two or three miles ; it never uses its beak in self-defence, but is very apt to injure the falcon with its sharp inner claw. A well trained Bhyri therefore always strikes this Crane on the back and never on the head. The mate of the stricken quarry often turns and comes to the rescue of its companion. It is shy and difficult to approach when resting, but less so when feeding, and it is well worth a little trouble, as it is one of the best birds in India for the table, and the praises of "roast coolen" are sung by many sportsmen.

The name Kllung, transformed into Coolen, is wrongly applied to this species by many sporting writers, it being always used for the common Crane by falconers and the best shikarees. The name Karkarra appears to be nearly the same word as is used by the Mongols of Central Asia according to Pallas, viz., Karkarror, and is evidently an imitation of its call.

This species is common in Northern Africa, and is occasionally killed in the South of Europe."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 666f.]


2.9.46. Pterocles orientalis Linnaeus, 1758 - Imperial Sandgrouse (Black-bellied Sandgrouse) - Sandflughuhn

39 cm


19. a./b. karkareṭuḥ kareṭuḥ syāt kṛkaṇa-krakarau samau

कर्करेटुः करेटुः स्यात् कृकण-क्रकरौ समौ ।१९ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Pterocles orientalis Linnaeus, 1758 - Imperial Sandgrouse (Black-bellied Sandgrouse) - Sandflughuhn:]

  •  कृकण - kṛkaṇa m.: Kṛkaṇa (kṛk-er, kṛk-Macher)
  • क्रकर - krakara m.: "Kra-Macher" = "Pterocles orientalis, Imperial Sandgrouse (Black-bellied Sandgrouse)." (Dave, 491)

Colebrooke (1807): "Caer. Perhaps Perdix Sylvatica [= Francolinus gularis Temminck, 1815 - Swamp Francolin / Swamp Partridge - Sumpffrankolin]."


Pterocles orientalis Linnaeus, 1758 - Imperial Sandgrouse (Black-bellied Sandgrouse) - Sandflughuhn



Abb.: कृकणः । Pterocles orientalis Linnaeus, 1758 - Imperial Sandgrouse (Black-bellied Sandgrouse) - Sandflughuhn, Alentejo, Portugal
[Bildquelle: Joaquim Coelho. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/11289449@N00/565129915/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Habitat. The desert regions of Asia, Southern Europe and North Africa ; Asia Minor and Palestine. Everywhere common in Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh and Bengal ; Kutch, throughout Rajputana, Kattiawar and North Guzerat ; Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan and Eastern Turkistan."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 524.]

"This fine Sand-grouse is found, within our limits, only in the N. W. Provinces and Sindh, rarely extending so low as Allahabad, tolerably abundant in the Punjab, and said to be very numerous towards the edges of the great desert. It is recorded in the Bengal Sporting Magazine as common in the Doab between the Ganges and Jumna, near Futteyghur, in Rohilcund, but more common west of the Jumna, near Ferozepore, in Hurriana, and in various parts of the Punjab. I have heard of its having been killed near Nusseerabad, and also in Khandeish.

It is only a winter visitant to India, arriving towards the end of September, and leaving in March. It frequents extensive open sandy plains, flies in vast flocks, being said to be more abundant than P. exustus in those parts where it does occur. Like the others of this tribe, it goes regularly to certain spots on the banks of rivers or tanks to drink, which it does twice a day, and it is fond of basking in the sun and rolling on the sand. One writer records that he saw them about sunrise leave their roosting places among sand hills, and collect in thousands on a hard bare plain, close to where they usually drank, but that they were neither feeding nor drinking at that early hour, and came there, he suggests, for the sake of basking in the early sun's rays. It feeds on grassy plains, and also on stubble fields, and does so especially immediately after drinking.

The flight of this Sand-grouse is said to be amazingly strong and rapid, and, when roused, it flies to great distances. It is generally said to be a shy and wary bird, and difficult to approach closely, from the open nature of the country it affects. It is highly esteemed as a game-bird, and much sought after by many sportsmen, as well for the difficulty of close access, as for its qualities on the table. It is stated that from the closeness and firmness of its plumage, it takes a good gun and heavy shot to bring it down. A writer records the great preponderance of one sex in every flock, sometimes killing seven or eight females and not one male, and vice versa. The flesh is mixed brown and white on the breast, and though somewhat tough when fresh, and perhaps requiring to be skinned, it is reckoned delicious eating ; indeed, one writer says that it is the finest game bird for the table in India. Shooting them from a hole dug in the ground near their drinking spots is said to be a very deadly way of making a good bag, and this I can readily believe. It is caught in the neighbourhood of Peshawur and other places in horse-hair nooses.

This Sand-grouse is common in Afghanistan, where it is called Tuturuk and Boora-kurra, or black breast, and in various other parts of Central and Western Asia, particularly in Arabia, where it is seen in flocks of millions, according to Col. Chesney ; also in Northern Africa, and the South of Europe, especially in Spain, where it is said to be tolerably abundant in winter, and to be often brought to the market at Madrid. It breeds in Central Asia, and also in Africa according to Tristram, and even in Spain. This last writer states the rather strange facts that it chiefly feeds towards sunset, and that it is almost domesticated in the Court-yards of the Arabs. He also says that the flesh is white and dry. Can he be writing of the same bird ?"

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 497f.]


Francolinus gularis Temminck, 1815 - Swamp Francolin / Swamp Partridge - Sumpffrankolin


"Habitat. Bengal from Tirhoot and Goruckpoor to the Sunderbuns, extending eastwards into Assam, Sylhet, Cachar, and Tipperah. In the Western Provinces of Bengal, it is found on the north bank of the Ganges, crossing in a few suitable localities from Monghyr to Rajmahal. It is also found up to the base of the Himalayas and in the Oudh Terai. Jerdon adds that its favourite grounds are thick beds of reeds and long grass, along the banks of rivers, jheels and watercourses, and especially in those swampy patches of reeds where the creeping rose bushes form thickets impenetrable to aught but an elephant. It is said to breed from March to May. The eggs, 5 in number, are, it is said, laid under some thick bush in a dry spot, and to be white, like those of the Grey Partridge."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 555.]

"The Kyah Partridge is found throughout Bengal, from Tirhoot and Goruckpoor to the Sunderbuns, and extending eastwards into Assam, Sylhet, Cachar and Tipperah. South of this it is not recorded, but it may occur in Chittagong. In the Western Provinces of Bengal, it is chiefly found on the north bank of the Ganges, crossing in a few suitable localities from Monghyr to Rajmahal, and also found between the Bhagirutty and the Ganges ; but not extending to Kishnagur, It is said, nor to the vicinity of Calcutta. It is stated that it used to be found along the banks of the Roopnarain River, but is so no longer. It is found up to the base of the Himalayas, and I have heard of its occurring in the Oude Teral, but It apparently does not go further west.

The favorite grounds for this Partridge are thick beds of reeds and long grass along the banks of rivers, jheels, and water-courses ; and especially in those swampy patches of reeds where the creeping Rose-bushes form thickets impenetrable to ought but an Elephant, though hardly "frequenting swampy churs and reedy waters, the same as the Bittern, Snipe and Heron" as one writer states. "The strongest depths" says a. writer in the Beng. Sport. Mag. "whether in patches, or In continuous, wavy, thick grass, or seas of jungle hold them." If cultivated land be near, so much the better, for this Partridge loves to feed on open patches of Mustard, Dhal and other pulses, and indeed during the cold weather may frequently be found in the fields at all hours of the day. Occasionally it resorts to dry grassy plains with scattered bushes, but much more generally grassy churs near water. During the rains, and when some of its usual haunts are flooded, it betakes itself to the fields, hedgerows and bush jungle, and at this time affords good sport even to the Sportsman on foot ; and, in some localities when flooded, the Kyah may be seen flying from tree to tree

This Partridge is generally, except when breeding, met with in somewhat scattered coveys, which rise three or four at a time with a cackling scream ; they fly strong and straight with outstretched neck, seldom going to any distance, but dropping into some thick covert, and thence often dislodged with difficulty ; for it runs much, even among the thick reeds. It very generally, however, especially in swampy thickets, perches on the high reeds, and generally roosts there.

The call of the Kyah is quite similar in character to that of the Grey Partridge, though in a somewhat different tone, and not uttered so hurriedly, and the preliminary chuck is exactly that of its congener. It is one of the earliest birds astir, crowing at day-light, as well as frequently also during the day.

The Kyah breeds early in the spring, in some localities, at all events, from March to May, and at this time is very difficult to put up ; indeed, I have seen an Elephant almost break down a bush before the Partridge would rise. The eggs are said to be laid under some thick bush, in a dry spot, and to be white like those of the Grey Partridge. It is a very quarrelsome bird, fighting much with his own species, and one writer states that "the scars of former fights disfigure the breasts of almost every bird you kill." It drives off the Black Partridge if it comes across it.

Shooting the Kyah is, in many parts of the country, only possible on Elephants, as the high grass and reed jungles it frequents are impenetrable to man or dog; and moreover Tigers are occasionally found in the heavy jungles they frequent. But where the patches of reeds and rose bushes are thinner, and of small extent, and with fields and moderately high grass at hand, the sportsman may manage to get a good many shots if aided by a few strong and determined beaters and a good spaniel. Early in the morning too, by walking down the reedy bank of a jheel or river, bordered by fields, and having a beater or two, with a good dog, you will get several shots as the birds fly across you into their cover. "The scent of this bird" says a writer in the Beng. Sport. Mag. "is most gratefully warm to pointers. My dogs would stand to the dead birds as staunchly as to the living ones."

The flesh is excellent if kept, though somewhat more dry than an English Partridge. The same writer above quoted says : "Of all the game birds of India known to me, cold roast Chikore, in my opinion, bears away the palm for delicacy of flavour and texture in the meat. During the months of November and December, it forms an unrivalled dish for the Epicure in gamey flavour, and an additional inducement to the sportsman to fag and find."

This Partridge has had the name of Chickore erroneously applied to it by sportsmen in Bengal, and various writers in the Indian Sporting Magazines have kept up the error.  [...]

The Kyah is easily reconciled to confinement, even when taken old, and eats greedily of almost every thing, but having a special preference for white ants. "They are" says the same writer previously quoted, "the most restless creatures imaginable, always on the move and trying to get out at any cranny and bar of the cage. Those which I had, called regularly at day break, sometimes in the afternoon, and in the middle of the night, when there was bright moonlight, and I have heard the wild ones answer them in the night from the borders of the jungle.""

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 572ff.]


2.9.47. Cuculidae - Kuckucke - Cuckoos


19. c./d. vanapriyaḥ parabhṛtaḥ kokilaḥ pika ity api

वनप्रियः परभृतः कोकिलः पिक इत्य् अपि ॥१९ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Kuckucke - Cuckoos:]

  • वनप्रिय - vanapriya m.: den Wald Liebender
  • परभृत - parabhṛta m.: von Fremden Aufgezogener = "parasitic Cuckoos (family Cuculidae)." (Dave, 501)
  • कोकिल - kokila m.: Kokila ("Kuckuckchen") = "Eudynamys scolopacea, (Asian) Koel; also Cuculus canorus, European or Grey (Eurasian) Cuckoo; Cuculus saturatus, Himalayan or Asiatic (Oriental) Cuckoo." (Dave, 491)
  • पिक - pika m.: Pika = "Eudynamys scolopaceus, (Asian) Koel; also Cuculus canorus, European or Grey (Eurasian) Cuckoo; Cuculus saturatus, Himalayan or Asiatic (Oriental) Cuckoo." (Dave, 501)


Colebrooke (1807): "The black cuckoo."


Also u. a.:


Eudynamys scolopaceus Linnaeus, 1758 - (Asian) Koel - Koël

43 cm



Abb.: कोकिलः । Eudynamys scolopaceus Linnaeus, 1758 - (Asian) Koel - Koël, Männchen, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: पिकी । Eudynamys scolopaceus Linnaeus, 1758 - (Asian) Koel - Koël, Weibchen, Jungtier, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: पिकी । Eudynamys scolopaceus Linnaeus, 1758 - (Asian) Koel - Koël, Weibchen, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कोकिलः । Lebensraum (schwarz) von Eudynamys scolopaceus Linnaeus, 1758 - (Asian) Koel - Koël
[Bildquelle: L Shyamal / Wikimedia. -- Public domain

Klicken: Ruf von Eudynamys scolopaceaus

Klicken! Ruf von Eudynamys scolopaceus Linnaeus, 1758 - (Asian) Koel - Koël, Singapur
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: Jappalang / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout India, extending to Nepaul, Ceylon, Burmah, Malayana and the Philippines ; common in the Deccan and Concan, Kutch, Guzerat and Kattiawar. In Sind it is rare, and occurs only during the rains, laying its eggs in the nest of the common crow, Corvus splendens."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 418.]

"This well-known species is found throughout India, extending to Ceylon, the Burmese countries, and parts of Malayana to the Philippines.

It frequents gardens, groves, avenues, and open jungles; and feeds almost exclusively, I believe, on fruit of various kinds, especially on those of the banian, peepul, and other figs ; also, says Mr. Blyth, much on that of Mimusops elengi. Several may often be seen together on one tree; but it is not gregarious. Mr. Blyth states that it ejects by the mouth the large seeds of any fruit that it has eaten.

The Koel is by no means a shy bird ; but has the usual quiet unobtrusive habits of the ordinary Cuckoos, gliding about the branches of trees : when it takes wing, however, it is remarkable for its noisy cries. About the breeding season the Koel is very noisy, and may be then heard at all times, even during the night, frequently uttering its well-known cry of ku-il ku-il, increasing in vigour and intensity as it goes on. The male bird has also another note, which Blyth syllables as Ho-whee-ho, or Ho-a-o, or Ho-y-o. When it takes flight, it has yet another somewhat melodious and rich liquid call; all thoroughly Cuculine.

The female Koel, as has long been known in India, deposits her eorgs almost exclusively in the nest of the Common Crow ( Corvus splendens), more rarely in that of the Carrion Crow (C. culminatus). She only, in general, lays one egg in each Crow's nest, and mostly, but not always, destroys the eggs of the Crow at the time of depositing her own. It is a popular belief that the Crow discovers the imposture when the young Koel is nearly full-grown, and ejects It from the nest; but this I do not think is usually, or ever the case, for I have frequently seen Crows feeding the young Koel after it had left the nest. Some observers have declared that the old female Koel often watches the nest in which she has deposited her eggs, and when the birds are full grown, entices them away, or, if expelled, looks after them, and feeds them for a few days ; but I greatly doubt if this be the general practice. The egg of the Koel is pale olive-green, with numerous reddish-dusky spots, having a tendency to form a zone near the large end. The Crows appear to know full well that they are cuckolded by the Koel ; for at times you see them pursuing these Cuckoos with the utmost energy, and Mr. Frith, as quoted by Blyth, states that one dashed itself against a window and was killed, when pursued by a Crow.

The flight of the Koel is not so quiet and gliding as that of the true Cuckoos, but is performed with more numerous strokes of the wings."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 343f.]


Cuculus canorus Linnaeus, 1758 - European or Grey (Eurasian) Cuckoo - Kuckuck

33 cm



Abb.: कोकिलः । Cuculus canorus Linnaeus, 1758 - European or Grey (Eurasian) Cuckoo - Kuckuck
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: कोकिलः । Cuculus canorus Linnaeus, 1758 - European or Grey (Eurasian) Cuckoo - Kuckuck, Männchen
[Bildquelle: Jürgen Schmidt / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: परभृतः । Junges von Cuculus canorus Linnaeus, 1758 - European or Grey (Eurasian) Cuckoo - Kuckuck, als Schmarotzer im Nest eines Teichrohrsängers (nicht in Indien aufgenommen)
[Bildquelle: Per H. Olsen / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Europe, N. Africa, China, Formosa, Beloochistan, Persia, S. Afghanistan, Eastern Turkistan, and India generally ; Nepaul, Burmah, Ceylon, Upper Pegu, and throughout Western, Central, and Southern India as a migrant. It arrives in Sind during August and September. Breeds in the Himalayas, round Almorah, Kumaon, and Kotegurh during the latter half of May, selecting the nests of Pipits and Stone-chats, also Malacocirci. The eggs are variable in size and colouring, but the general colour is pure white, thinly freckled and streaked with brownish red and pale purple. Length from 0.88 to 0.95 inch, breadth 0.68 to 0.73."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 408.]

"The Common Cuckoo of Europe is found, though rarely, throughout all India. I procured a young specimen in N. Lat. 11° at the Tapoor Pass ; and I have seen it at Hyderabad, Nagpore, Mhow (where very abundant in the rains, frequenting bushes on grassy plains), Saugor, and in Goomsoor. Major Franklin states that it is common in Bengal. Sykes procured it in the Deccan ; Tickell in Chota Nagpore; and I have lately seen and heard it tolerably common at Darjeeling, Blyth has occasionally obtained it near Calcutta, and an example in immature plumage recently at Moulmein, in October : and it has been found, though rarely, in Ceylon. Its well known call has given rise to many of its names in different languages, and it will be seen above that the Lepcha name nearly corresponds with the English. In Southern India, it is only (apparently) a very straggling and rare visitor. In Central India it remains two or three months in the spring, and may breed, as its call has been heard by me, at Goomsoor, Saugor, and Nagpore, in May and June: but I suspect that most of the birds that pass that way have completed their task for the season in the hills, and then left them to straggle over the plains of the South. I could not ascertain what bird it selected at Darjeeling to bring up its young.

Mr. Blyth kept a pair alive, and was, at one time, inclined to imagine that the note was its familiar note until it was separated from female, somewhat harsher and less musical that that of the English bird. The male never uttered its familiar note until it was separated from the female."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 322f.]


Cuculus saturatus Blyth, 1843 - Himalayan or Asiatic (Oriental) Cuckoo - Hopfkuckuck

31 cm



Abb.: पिकः । Cuculus saturatus Blyth, 1843 - Himalayan or Asiatic (Oriental) Cuckoo - Hopfkuckuck, Australien (hier eine andere Unterart als Himalayan Cuckoo)
[Bildquelle: Aviceda / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat The greater portion of Asia, Australia, Siberia, Pegu, Sikkim, Khasia hills, Pegu and Tenasserim ; also the Nicobars and Cashmere. (Brooks.) Oates says it is rare in Pegu, but, according to Davison, not so in Tenasserim. It lays during June in the Himalayas, depositing its eggs in the nest of Trochalopteron lineatum. The egg is a nearly perfect oval, pure white, with minute specks and tiny lines of dingy olive brown and very pale inky purple or purplish grey."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 409.]

"This species has been found in the Himalayas, and also in Malacca; and it probably extends along the higher ranges of hills between the Himalayas and the Malayan peninsula. Drapiez's specimen was from Java. Whether it has a distinct note from the last species remains to be determined ; but its voice is probably very similar in character."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 328.]


2.9.48. Corvus sp. - Crows - Krähen


20. kāke tu karaṭāriṣṭa-balipuṣṭa-sakṛtprajāḥ
dhvāṅkṣātmaghoṣa-parabhṛd-balibhug-vāyasā api

काके तु करटारिष्ट-बलिपुष्ट-सकृत्प्रजाः ।
ध्वाङ्क्षात्मघोष-परभृद्-बलिभुग्-वायसा अपि ॥२०॥

Bezeichnungen für काक - kāka m.: "Corvus splendens, House Crow; Corvus corone, Carrion Crow; Corvus macrorhynchos, Jungle Crow (Large-billed Crow)." (Dave, 487):

  • करट - karaṭa m: Karaṭa = "any of the Corvidae, tribe Corvini, genus Corvus (Crow)" (Dave, 486)
  • रिष्ट - ariṣṭa m.: Unglücks-Loser, Unversehrter
  • बलिपुष्ट - balipuṣṭa m. vom Bali-Opfer1 Ernährter = "Corvus splendens, House Crow." (Dave, 504)
  • सकृत्प्रज - sakṛtpraja m.: ein einziges Mal gebärend = "any Corvidae, tribe Corvini, genus Corvus (Crow)" (Dave, 513)
  • ध्वाङ्क्ष - dhvāṅkṣa m.: Dhvāṅkṣa = "any of the Corvidae, genus Corvus (Crow) [...] Threskiornis aethiopicus (T. melanocephalus), White Ibis (Black-headed Ibis) (considered to be a "water crow")" (Dave, 499)
  • आत्मघोष - ātmaghoṣa m.: der sich selbst ruft
  • परभृत् - parabhṛt m.: der Fremde (Kuckucke) aufzieht
  • बलिभुज् - balaibhuj m.: der das Bali-Opfer1 frisst.
  • वायस - vāyasa m.: Krähe

Colebrooke (1807): "A crow."


"Auf diese Spenden folgt b) das baliharaṇa, Deponierungsopfer, bestehend aus Gaben von jeglicher Speise (Gobhila I, 4, 20), die er außerhalb oder innerhalb des Hause:; an verschiedenen Stellen nach sorgfältiger Reinigung der Erde niederlegt. Die erste gebührt der Erde, die zweite Vāyu, die dritte den Viśve devāḥ, die vierte Prajāpati. Drei weitere Bali's finden ihren Platz am Wassebehälter. de, mittleren Pfosten und der Haustür für die Gottheit des Wasser, für Pflanzen und Bäume und drittens für den Äther; eine siebente an Bett oder Abort für Kāma resp. Manyu, eine achte am Kehrichthaufen für die Rakṣas - das der bhütayajna nach Gobhil. Andere Sūtren geben andere Namen. [...] Wenn der Hausherr verreist, können Sohn, Bruder, Gattin, auch Schüler das baliharaṇa vollziehen (Śaṅkhāyana. 2, 17, 3; Gobhila sagt, dass Mann und Frau die Balis darbringen, jener morgens, dieser abends § 39). Den Rest der Balispeisen besprengt er mit Wasser und schüttet ihn im Süden aus, das ist c) der pitṛyajña (über dessen Einzelheiten Caland, Totenverehrung 10)."

[Quelle: Hillebrandt, Alfred <1853 - 1927>: Ritual-Litteratur : vedische Opfer und Zauber. -- Straßburg : Trübner, 1897. -- (Grundriss der Indo-arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde ; III. Bd., 2. Heft). -- S. 74f.]


Also u. a.


Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 - House Crow - Glanzkrähe

43 cm



 Abb.: काकौ । Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 - House Crow - Glanzkrähe, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: काकाः । Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 - House Crow - Glanzkrähe, am Abend, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: काकाः । Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 - House Crow - Glanzkrähe, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: काकः । Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 - House Crow - Glanzkrähe, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: काकः ।  Lebensräume von Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 - House Crow - Glanzkrähe
[Bildquelle: Laurens / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"The Indian House Crow like its congeners, is extremely social, and lives about towns feeding on almost anything and everything ; dead mice, rats, putrid flesh, fruit, &c., in fact, is a general scavenger. Breeds from the middle of March to the beginning of June, laying generally four eggs of a greenish, colour, marked with various shades of brown. The nest is made of twigs, lined with grass, hair, rags, or any other soft material."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 130.]

"The common Crow of India is found from the foot of the Himalayas to Ceylon, and eastwards in Assam and part of Arracan. Adams states that it occurs in the Valley of Cashmere, and it is found in Nepal, but it does not extend into the interior of the hills, and is at present quite unknown in Sikhim. It is one of the best known and familiar birds in India, being found in vast numbers in every city, town, village, and cantonment or camp ; and the scientific traveller in India often regrets that such an inappropriate specific name should have been applied to this species, for it tends to bring into ridicule, among the unscientific, the system of nomenclature.

This Crow, though eminently social, is not strictly gregarious, but it roosts in company in vast numbers, and there are certain spots near all large towns or stations, where they nightly congregate for this purpose, coming from a distance varying from three to ten miles of radius. Great is the clamour in selecting a spot, and numerous are the squabbles, and prolonged to a late hour, before all are settled for the night ; and this noise is increased by the swarms of Parrakeets, Mynas, and other birds, that all have their night's lodgings together.

Very early in the morning, the Crows are on the alert, occasionally before daylight, but generally shortly afterwards ; and, after a considerable, amount of cackling and flying hither and thither, probably to compare notes of yesterday's success in foraging, perhaps to propose an interchange of locality for the day, they disperse in parties, varying from two or three to twenty, thirty, or more ; those that have a distance to go, starting early, and those whose hunting grounds are at hand, taking it more leisurely, chatting with their neighbours, or making themselves smart by a little extra pruning of their feathers.

The food of this Crow is greatly varied ; but, as a rule, it may be said that it lives on the crumbs that fall from the food of man. Many natives eat habitually out of doors, and the remnants of boiled rice or other grain are thrown away, whilst, in those that feed within doors, the fragments are pitched out at certain stated intervals, well known to the Crows of the vicinity, who proceed from house to house, warned by some watchful member of their community when the feast is at hand. So well known is the process of cooking, that a small fire, or rather its attendant smoke, even in some unusual spot, far away from their daily haunt, will at once attract one or two hungry Crows, who, if the symptoms of food are favorable, remain for the expected leavings. In the intervals between the meals of mankind, some betake themselves early in the morning to some plain that has perhaps been flooded, to pick up a crab, a frog, a fish, or insect. Others hunt for grubs in ploughed lands, or in pastures, along with cattle, and others may be seen ridding cattle of the ticks or other insects that infest them ; some betake themselves to the side of a river or tank ; a few, in the vicinity of large rivers or creeks, follow vessels, and hunt with the gulls and terns ; and not a few, about Calcutta and other large cities, find a plentiful repast on the corpse of some dead Hindoo, or on that of a dead bullock. A banian tree, a peepul, or other tree with ripe fruit, will always be visited by many Crows ; and, if a flight of winged termites takes place, morning or evening, there are the Crows to be found in abundance, and adroitly catching them in company with Bee-eaters, Kites, King-crows, and, mayhap, Bats. In the hot weather the Crows take a long siesta, and evidently feel the mid-day heat much, as they may be seen seated with open beaks, gasping for a mouthful of cool air. When their daily avocations are over, they retire, as they issued forth, in various sized parties, picking up stragglers by the way from small hamlets or single huts.

The Crow breeds from April to July, according to the locality, and, occasionally, two or three build in the same tree, though, in general, there is not more than one. Now and then they select a corner of a house or some convenient nook, but generally build in trees, making a moderate fabric of sticks, occasionally thinly lined with some softer materials. An instance is recorded by Mr. Blyth, where a pair of Crows, in Calcutta, had built their nest of the wires taken off from soda-water bottles, which must have been purloined from some native slop-seller. The eggs are usually four in number, and are greenish blue, spotted and blotched in various degrees with brown. They are figured in Jardine's Contrib. to Ornithology. As related under the head of the Coel, vol. I. p. 343, this Crow's nest is almost exclusively selected by that Cuckoo, to deposit her eggs in. In defence of her young the Crow is very bold, and I have been struck on the head by one for carrying off a young bird that had fallen from the nest. The young are fed by their parents for long after they quit their nest.

The flight of this Crow is easy and moderately quick, but, when pursued by a Brahminy Kite or a Luggur, it is capable of considerable speed, and exhibits wonderful activity and cleverness in dodging its pursuer. The cunning, familiarity, and intelligence of these birds is so great, that pages could be filled with anecdotes about them, but my space forbids me to prolong this account.

Their great abundance and familiarity is one of the first objects that strike the attention of the stranger on landing in India, and they often enter rooms through open windows, and carry off food, or any object that attracts them. With a very little encouragement they may be induced to enter a room in numbers, and take food almost from the hand. "About large towns," says Mr. Blyth, "they walk and hop like domestic birds, just stepping aside out of the way of the passers-by, and regardless of the ordinary throng ; but they still retain all the craft and wariness of their tribe, and are ever vigilant, making off on the least suspicious movement, or even on the fixed glance of a stranger. Their noise is incessant, and if any thing, as the sight of a dead crow, excites them, is most uproarious and annoying. Eager, bustling, and busy, their flight is always singularly hurried, as if time were a matter of some consequence to them ; and in short every trait of the Crow tribe is prominently developed in this species. The report of a gun excites a grand commotion among the community of crows ; they circle and cross rapidly to and fro' overhead, for the most part out of range, cawing lustily, and dodging when the gun is pointed at them, whilst others sit observantly on the neighbouring house-tops, &c., all launching on the wing on the next discharge with clamourous outcry, and then by degrees returning to their place of observation."

The Crow appears to possess the element of fun, for it may often be seen, evidently in sport, to make a swoop at one of its own kind, or some other bird, and then fly off, when it has alarmed the bird, with loud caws of success at the joke. Many anecdotes of the cunning of this Crow are to be found in the notes of Sykes, Tickell, Burgess, Layard, and Philipps."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 298ff.]


Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758 - Carrion Crow - Aaskrähe

47 cm




Abb.: काकौ । Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758 - Carrion Crow - Aaskrähe
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]



Abb.: करटः । Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758 - Carrion Crow - Aaskrähe, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2434518592/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: करटः । Lebensräume von Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758 - Carrion Crow - Aaskrähe
[Bildquelle: Steve nova / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout Europe ; ranging into the Punjab and the N.-W. Provinces, It has as yet only been found in the Punjab, and on the borders of the N.-W. Provinces.

The Carrion Crow, as its name implies, feeds on all sorts of animal food, alive and dead. Young pigeons, chickens, sparrows, Crustacea, shellfish, fruit, vegetables, frogs, mice, and insects, it is very partial to, as well as garbage. House refuse of every kind does not come amiss to it. It is a predaceous bird, and a relentless destroyer of everything it can devour. Its sense of perception, too, is very acute. Nidificates on rocks or on trees, during March. Nest of twigs, cemented with clay, and unsparingly lined with rags, grass, hair, wool, or any other soft material within its reach. Eggs 4 - 6 in number, greenish spotted, and streaked with various shades of brown."

Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 131.]

"On the authority of Dr. Adams, I insert the Corby or Carrion Crow of Britain among the birds of India, for it is not in Blyth's Catalogue, nor in that of Horsfield, as from India ; but the latter naturalist has it from Afghanistan, where it was obtained by Griffith. Adams says that it is very common in Cashmere."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 295.]


Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827 - Jungle Crow (Large-billed Crow) - Dickschnabelkrähe

48 cm



Abb.: Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827 - Jungle Crow (Large-billed Crow) - Dickschnabelkrähe
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 80.]


Abb.: Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827 - Jungle Crow (Large-billed Crow) - Dickschnabelkrähe, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827 - Jungle Crow (Large-billed Crow) - Dickschnabelkrähe,  Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Lebensraum von Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827 - Jungle Crow (Large-billed Crow) - Dickschnabelkrähe
[Bildquelle: Steve nova / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The whole Continent of India, Ceylon, Andaman Islands, the Indo-Burmese countries and China, extending to Eastern Siberia. Southerly it extends down the Malayan Peninsula to Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Timor. In India it is found in Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Rajputana, Central India, the Central Provinces, Concan, Deccan and South India, also in British Burmah and Nepaul.

[...]

The Jungle Crow does not affect forests only, but it also frequents towns and villages, associated with the House Crow. Nesting and breeding season the same ; also the eggs, though slightly larger."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 131f.]

"The common Carrion Crow of India is found throughout the whole country, from the extreme south and Ceylon, to the Himalayas as far west as Cashmere ; and, eastward, it occurs in Assam, Burmah, and the Malayan Peninsula. Adams states that it is not found in the Punjab. Though not nearly so numerous as C. splendens, this Crow is yet very abundant and generally spread, less affecting the neighbourhood of man, and often found in the most wild and unfrequented spots, in dense forests or bleak mountains. In the south of India, as at Madras, the Neilgherries, and elsewhere, it is almost as familiar and impudent as the common Crow, but, towards the north, it is perhaps less seen about towns and villages. It is eminently a Carrion Crow, and Mr. Blyth remarks that it "especially frequents the vicinity of the great rivers." It is often the first to discover the carcass of any dead animal. Like the rest of its tribe, however, it will partake of any kind of food, and Sundevall states that he found nothing but larvae and butterflies in those that he examined. Its voice is the usual harsh caw, but hoarser and shorter than that of the European Crow, according to Sundevall. It is very destructive, in some places, to young chickens, pigeons, &c., and, I am informed, will occasionally destroy a young kid. It also pilfers the eggs and nestlings of many birds, on which account, perhaps, the King Crow (Dicrurus macrocercus) pursues it more relentlessly than it does the common Crow.

It breeds, according to the locality, from April to June, or later generally on some isolated tree, making the usual nest of sticks, which is, sometimes, in colder countries, lined with hair. ( Vide Hutton, Oology of India, J. A. S. XVII. pt. 2, p 9). The eggs are three or four, dull green, thickly spotted with dusky brown. Occasionally the Koel (Eudynamijs orientalis) drops an egg in the nest of this Crow, in place of that of the common Crow (vide vol. I. p. 343). I have often heard it called the Raven by Europeans in Bengal. Occasionally the Luggur is flown at it, but in general it makes such a stout resistance, and shows such fight, that Falconers do not like slipping their Hawks at it."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 296f.]


Threskiornis melanocephalus Latham, 1790 - White Ibis (Black-headed Ibis) - Schwarzkopfibis

60 cm



Abb.: ध्वाङ्क्षौ ।  Threskiornis melanocephalus Latham, 1790 - White Ibis (Black-headed Ibis) - Schwarzkopfibis, Uppalapadu Bird Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: ध्वाङ्क्षाः । Threskiornis melanocephalus Latham, 1790 - White Ibis (Black-headed Ibis) - Schwarzkopfibis, Uppalapadu Bird Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: ध्वाङ्क्षाः । Threskiornis melanocephalus Latham, 1790 - White Ibis (Black-headed Ibis) - Schwarzkopfibis, Garapadu, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Sind, Mekran Coast, Persia, Rajputana, Kutch, Guzerat, Concan, Deccan, and nearly throughout India, Ceylon and Burmah. A resident wherever found ; breeds from July to September. Eggs, 4 - 6, white, or dingy white, with a slight bluish tinge when fresh; size 2.5 x 1.75."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 667.]

"The White Ibis is not uncommon in many parts of the country throughout India, is chiefly met with during the cold season, frequenting rivers, tanks, marshes, paddy-fields, and pools of water, in small or moderate flocks, and feeding on molluscs, Crustacea, insects, worms, &c., in search of which it moves its bill about in the water.

I have seen it occasionally at most seasons, but have not observed its nidification in this country, though Layard states that he found it in Ceylon in company, laying 5 or 6 white eggs, sparingly blotched with rusty. It is exceedingly fishy in taste, and, according to a writer in the Bengal Sporting Review, 'execrable' eating.

It is stated by Blyth to be rare in Arrakan, but I have seen it common near Rangoon. We have no record of its distribution out of India."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 768f.]


2.9.49. Corvus corax - Linnaeus, 1756 - (Common) Raven - Kolkrabe

69 cm


21. a./b. droṇakākas tu kākolo dātyūhaḥ kālakaṇṭhakaḥ

द्रोणकाकस् तु काकोलो दात्यूहः कालकण्ठकः ।२१ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Corvus corax - Linnaeus, 1756 - (Common) Raven - Kolkrabe:]

  • द्रोणकाक - droṇakāka m.: "Trog-Krähe" = "Corvus corax, (Common) Raven." (Dave, 499)
  • काकोल - kākola m.: "Krähen-Wildtier" = "any of the Corvidae, tribe Corvini, genus Corvus (Crow); Corvus corone, Carrion Crow; Corvus macrorhynchos, Jungle Crow (Large-billed Crow); Corvus corax, (Common) Raven; all black Corvidae." (Dave, 487f.)

Colebrooke (1807): "A raven."



Abb.: द्रोणकाकः । Corvus corax - Linnaeus, 1756 - (Common) Raven - Kolkrabe
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: द्रोणकाकः । Corvus corax - Linnaeus, 1756 - (Common) Raven - Kolkrabe, Kumarakom - കുമരകം, Kerala
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/534733481/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: द्रोणकाकः । Lebensraum von Corvus corax - Linnaeus, 1756 - (Common) Raven - Kolkrabe
[Bildquelle: Engineer111 / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"The Raven of Europe is stated to occur in the Punjab, about Ferozepore, on this side of the Indus, and also in Upper Sindh, during the cold weather only, migrating to Afghanistan and the neighbouring hills to breed, which it is said to do in the N. W. Himalayas, and in the neighbourhood of Cashmere. Dr. Stewart states that at Wuzeerabad (in the Punjab) it is as common and as impudent as Corvus splendens ; and that it appears to replace C. culminatus entirely in the Punjab. Hutton, on the contrary, says that he never saw it in India, but that it is common in Afghanistan. Adams confirms Dr. Stewart's statement, and says that it "is an inhabitant of the Northern countries of India, commencing at Upper Sindh ; it is found all over the Punjab, at every season of the year, where they frequent camps and cantonments with Govind Kites, and Egyptian Vultures." Many interesting accounts of the docility and intelligence of Ravens are to be found in all popular treatises on Ornithology, and it is considered to imitate the human voice as perfectly as any known bird."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 294.]


2.9.50. Pseudibis papillosa Temminck, 1824 - Black Ibis - Warzenibis

73 cm


21. a./b. droṇakākas tu kākolo dātyūhaḥ kālakaṇṭhakaḥ

द्रोणकाकस् तु काकोलो दात्यूहः कालकण्ठकः ।२१ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Pseudibis papillosa Temminck, 1824 - Black Ibis - Warzenibis:]

  • दात्यूह - dātyūha m.: "Gaben-Bemerker" = "Cuculus varius, Common Hawk Cuckoo (Brainfever Bird); Pseudibis papillosa, Black Ibis." (Dave, 498)
  • कालकण्ठक  - kālakaṇṭhaka m.: Schwarz-Halsiger "Pseudibis papillosa, Black Ibis." (Dave, 488)


Colebrooke (1807): "A gallinule. [= Gallinula sp. - Moorhens - Teichrallen.]"



Abb.: कालकण्ठकः । Pseudibis papillosa Temminck, 1824 - Black Ibis - Warzenibis, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: दात्यूहाः । Pseudibis papillosa Temminck, 1824 - Black Ibis - Warzenibis, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Sind, Beloochistan, Persia, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajputana, Kutch, Central India, Khandeish, Guzerat, Concan and Deccan. Occurs on the Western Coast generally. A resident in Sind ; breeds from July to September."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 667.]

"This Curlew, as it is generally called, is common throughout the greater part of India, and is met with generally in pairs or small parties, now and then congregating in flocks. It feeds chiefly on dry land, over grass plains, ploughed lands, stubble fields, dry paddy-fields, &c., now and then at the edge of a river or tank. It eats beetles, crickets, and all sorts of insects, occasionally crabs, prawns, and aquatic insects. Adams (No. 262, Birds of India,) under the head of Falcinellus igneus, has evidently this bird in view ; he states that it feeds on carrion, (?) beetles, scorpions, &c., and associates with Rooks on the frontier of the Punjab, it is accused by many natives of consuming much grain.

It breeds on the tops of high trees, making a large nest of sticks, and laying two to four white eggs. It has a wild, melancholy scream, which it often utters from the top of some tree, or occasionally during its circling flights. It makes an excellent chase with a Bhyri, flying strongly and rapidly, and often escaping from its pursuer. The flesh is very good, at times really excellent."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 769f.]


2.9.51. Milvus migrans Boddaert 1783 - Pariah Kite (Black Kite) - Schwarzmilan

61 cm


21. c./d. ātāyi-pillau dākṣāpya-gṛdhrau kīra-śukau samau

आतायि-पिल्लौ दाक्षाप्य-गृध्रौ कीर-शुकौ समौ ॥२१ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Milvus migrans Boddaert 1783 - Pariah Kite (Black Kite) - Schwarzmilan:]

  • आतायिन् - ātāyin m.: sich besonders Ausbreitender = "Milvus migrans, Pariah Kite (Black Kite)." (Dave, 485)
  • पिल्ल - pilla m.: triefende Augen habend

Colebrooke (1807): "A kite."



Abb.: आतायी । Milvus migrans Boddaert 1783 - Pariah Kite (Black Kite) - Schwarzmilan
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: आतायी । Milvus migrans Boddaert 1783 - Pariah Kite (Black Kite) - Schwarzmilan, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాదు, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: आतायी । Milvus migrans Boddaert 1783 - Pariah Kite (Black Kite) - Schwarzmilan, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: पिल्लौ । Milvus migrans Boddaert 1783 - Pariah Kite (Black Kite) - Schwarzmilan, Nest in Palmyra Palme (Borassus flabillifer), Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: आतायी । Lebensräume von Milvus migrans Boddaert 1783 - Pariah Kite (Black Kite) - Schwarzmilan (orange: Sommervogel; grün: Jahresvogel; blau: Ausschließlich Winterquartiere)
[Bildquelle: Ulrich Prokop / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout India. A resident scavenger. Breeds on house tops, old mosques, and flat-roofed buildings, seldom on trees, during January, February, and March. It occurs also in Beloochistan, Afghanistan, and Nepal."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 57.]

"The common Indian Kite is very closely related to M. ater of Europe, and was considered the same by Mr. Blyth in his Catalogue. It is, however, now recognised as distinct. It extends through all India, Burmah, and Malayana, but in China appears to be replaced by a very closely affined race, M. melanotis, Tem. and Schl.

It is one of the most abundant and common birds in India, found at all elevations up to 8,000 ft. at least, especially near large towns and cantonments, and its vast numbers and fearlessness are among the first objects that strike the stranger from England, where birds of prey are so rare. Every large town, cantonment, and even village, has its colony of Kites, which ply their busy vocation from before sunrise to sometime after sunset. Every large camp, too, is followed by these useful scavengers, and the tent even of the single traveller is daily visited by one or more, according to the numbers in the neighbourhood. As is well known. Kites pick up garbage of all kinds, fragments of meat and fish, and generally the refuse of man's food. When a basket of refuse or offal is thrown out in the streets to be carted away, the Kites of the immediate neighbourhood, who appear to be quite cognizant of the usual time at which this is done, are all on the look-out, and dash down on it impetuously, some of them seizing the most tempting morsels by a rapid swoop, others deliberately sitting down on the heaps along with crows and dogs, and selecting their scraps. On such an occasion, too, there is many a struggle to retain a larger fragment than usual, for the possessor no sooner emerges from its swoop, than several empty-clawed spectators instantly pursue it eagerly, till the owner finds the chase too hot, and drops the bone of contention, which is generally picked up long before it reaches the ground, again and again to change owners, and perhaps finally revert to its original proprietor. On such occasions there is a considerable amount of squealing going on.

The vast numbers of these Kites in large towns can hardly be realised by strangers. Capt. Irby mentions having seen one hundred together, but in Calcutta and elsewhere two or three hundred may be seen at one time. They are excessively bold and fearless, often snatching morsels off a dish en route from kitchen to hall, and even, according to Adams, seizing a fragment from a man's very mouth ; and several anecdotes illustrative of this are told by different observers, —vide Blyth, Sykes, Adams, and Burgess. At our sea ports many Kites find their daily sustenance among the shipping, perching freely on the rigging, and, in company with the Brahminy Kite, which rarely enters towns, snatching scraps of refuse from the surface of the water.

Away from the haunts of man, some seek their reptile or insect food over the fields and hedgerows, or, with the Brahminy Kites, hunt the edges of tanks, rivers, and marshes, for frogs, crabs, and fish.

The flight of the Indian Kite is bold, easy, and graceful when once mounted aloft, though somewhat heavy on first taking wing ; and it soars slowly about, in greater or less numbers, in large circles. When in pursuit of another Kite it is capable of considerable speed, and shows great dexterity in suddenly avoiding any obstacle, and changing its course ; in this, its long tail is, of course, a great help. Occasionally one may be seen dropping down almost perpendicularly from the top of a house on a piece of offal in a narrow street, but, in general, it reaches the ground from a height by a series of oblique plunges.

Now and then one will seize a chicken or wounded bird of any kind, and Mr. Blyth mentions that he once knew one to kill a full-grown hen. Mr. Phillips says it is "a very cowardly bird ; for though it will carry off parrots and chickens, it is yet afraid of the crows and sparrow-hawks. It will allow crows to pull to pieces a bit of meat before it, which it is evidently desirous to obtain." This hardly accords with my observation ; for though it is in general on sufficiently good terms with the crows in company with it on a heap of garbage, yet I have frequently seen it pursue a crow, and force it to relinquish some coveted morsel. Blyth, too, mentions that he had been told on good authority that a kite will sometimes seize a crow. The crows, however, often tease a kite, apparently without any object, but that of a little amusement to themselves. The food of the kite is usually devoured on the wing, or, if too large, carried to the nearest house or tree.

Mr. Blyth notices their collecting in numbers without any apparent object, especially towards evening. This I have frequently observed at all large stations, where the whole kites of the neighbourhood, before retiring to roost, appear to hold conclave. They are said to leave Calcutta almost entirely for three or four months during the rains. I have not noticed this at other places. As remarked by Buchanan Hamilton, they may often be seen seated on the entablatures of buildings, with their breast to the wall, and wings spread out, exactly as represented in Egyptian monuments.

The Kite breeds from January to April, beginning to couple about Christmas, and great is the squealing going on at this time, more felino. Their cry is a prolonged tremulous squeal, whence the Indian name Chil (Cheel).

The nest is made of sticks, often lined with rags, and placed on trees, or on houses and other high buildings, more rarely on rocks ; and  the eggs, two or three in number, are generally dirty or greenish white, with or without a few pale brownish or rusty blotches."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 105ff.]


2.9.52. Geier - Vultures


21. c./d. ātāyi-pillau dākṣāyya-gṛdhrau kīra-śukau samau

आतायि-पिल्लौ दाक्षाय्य-गृध्रौ कीर-शुकौ समौ ॥२१ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen Geier - Vultures:]

  •  दाक्षाय्य - dākṣāyya m.: (zu: dakṣāyya 3: einer, dem man es recht machen muss, einer dem man sich gefällig erweisen muss; Geier") = "Geier" (PW)
  • गृध्र - gṛdhra m.: Gierling = "all diurnal birds of prey, including Eagles; esp. Vultures; Milvus migrans, Pariah Kite (Black Kite); various Eagles or Hawk Eagles." (Dave, 493)

Colebrooke (1807): "A vulture."


Dave (S. 188) nennt folgende Arten von Geiern:


Aegypius monachus Linnaeus, 1766 - Cinereous Vulture - Mönchsgeier

105 cm



Abb.: कालगृध्रः । Aegypius monachus Linnaeus, 1766 - Cinereous Vulture - Mönchsgeier, Zoo
[Bildquelle: Julius Rückert / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.:  कालगृध्रः । Aegypius monachus Linnaeus, 1766 - Cinereous Vulture - Mönchsgeier, Zoo
[Bildquelle: Sebastian Wallroth / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
 


Abb.: कालगृध्रः । Lebensräume von Aegypius monachus Linnaeus, 1766 - Cinereous Vulture - Mönchsgeier
(grün: Brutgebiete; blau: Überwinterung; dunkelgrau: frühere Brutgebiete)
[Bildquelle: Engineer111 / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. A native of Europe. Found on the lofty mountains of Italy, the Tyrol, and also in Africa. In India it affects the hilly ranges of Central India, Guzerat, Sind, Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajpootana, Central India, Kutch, Tennaserim, and the Nepal Valley. In the Himalayas it is fairly abundant ; also in Assam and Bhootan.

There is no positive information as to the breeding of this Vulture in India, but from facts collected by Mr. A. O. Hume and recorded in his "Rough Notes on Indian Ornithology and Oology," it is probable that it breeds in the Himalayas from January to March. The Rev. H. B. Tristram, "Ibis," 1865, and Mr. C. Farman give interesting particulars of its nidification in Central Bulgaria and Palestine. In the Pyrenees it is said to lay two eggs, varying from a more or less pure white with scarcely any trace of markings, to a reddish or fulvous white, richly marked with reddish brown ; in shape a very blunt slightly pyriform oval ; texture coarse and rough ; size 3.48 x 2.75 inches."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 4.]

"This fine Vulture is found, though rarely in the Himalayas, occasionally descending to the plains. I saw it at Saugor in Central India, and also at Mhow. It is found in the lofty hill ranges of Southern Europe and N. Africa."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 7.]


Sarcogyps calvus Scopoli, 1785 - Black Vulture - Kehlkopfgeier

84 cm



Abb.: सुमुखगृध्रः । Sarcogyps calvus Scopoli, 1785 - Black Vulture - Kehlkopfgeier, Zoo
[Bildquelle: schizoform. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/84175980@N00/3839651253/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: सुमुखगृध्रः । Sarcogyps calvus Scopoli, 1785 - Black Vulture - Kehlkopfgeier, Jim Corbett National Park - जिम कार्बेट राष्ट्रीय अभ्यारण्य, Uttarakhand
[Bildquelle: Vishal Sabharwal / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सुमुखगृध्रः । Sarcogyps calvus Scopoli, 1785 - Black Vulture - Kehlkopfgeier, Nagpur - नागपूर, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Tarique Sani. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tariquesani/4419557564/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Habitat. This is spread nearly all over the continent of India and not unlike V. monachus affects the hilly districts in Sind. It is a permanent resident wherever it occurs. Nest varies from 2 1/2 to 4 feet in length and breadth, with usually a lining of leaves. It lays a single egg, pale greenish white, spotted or unspotted with purplish ; generally a round oval, varying in size from 3.2 inches to 3.5 in length, and from 2.45 to 2.8 inches in breadth. It is said to breed on inaccessible cliffs from January to April."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 9.]

"The Black Vulture is found commonly throughout India, extending into Burmah, but is by no means abundant in individuals. It is usually seen solitary, or in pairs, occasionally four or five together, hunting over some rocky hill. It is dreaded by the other common vultures. Gyps Indicus and G. Bengalensis, who always give way to one of these black vultures, as recorded by Buchanan, Hamilton, and Blyth, and as I have frequently witnessed ; hence its Indian name of King Vulture. It is said usually to breed on inaccessible cliffs, but Lieutenant Burgess found its nest on two or three occasions on trees, with a single white egg."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 8.]


Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783 - Griffon - Gänsegeier

100 cm



Abb.: पाण्डरगृध्रः । Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783 - Griffon - Gänsegeier, Zoo
[Bildquelle: MatthiasKabel / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: गृध्रौ । Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783 - Griffon - Gänsegeier, Zoo
[Bildquelle: Vassil / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: पाण्डरगृध्रः । Lebensräume von Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783 - Griffon - Gänsegeier
[Bildquelle: Engineer111 / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"This fine Vulture is nearly confined to the Himalayan ranges in India. In Europe it frequents the mountains of the Alps and Pyrenees, extending into Northern Africa and Western Asia. It breeds on rocky cliffs, laying only one egg, which is said to be sometimes white, with a few reddish spots ; at other times richly marked with red. Salvin says it is a cleanly, docile, and good-tempered bird."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 9.]


Gyps bengalensis J. F. Gmelin, 1788 - Indian White-rumped Vulture - Bengalgeier

85 cm



Abb.: गृध्रः । Gyps bengalensis J. F. Gmelin, 1788 - Indian White-rumped Vulture - Bengalgeier, Turiya, Madhya Pradesh
[Bildquelle: Tarique Sani. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tariquesani/4459526454/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: गृध्रः । Gyps bengalensis J. F. Gmelin, 1788 - Indian White-rumped Vulture - Bengalgeier, Ahmedabad - અમદાવાદ, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Umang Dutt. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/snapflickr/2391708878/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: गृध्रः । Gyps bengalensis J. F. Gmelin, 1788 - Indian White-rumped Vulture - Bengalgeier, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/4346633800/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: गृध्रः । Lebensraum von Gyps bengalensis J. F. Gmelin, 1788 - Indian White-rumped Vulture - Bengalgeier (vor der Diclofenac-Katastrophe)
[Bildquelle: Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb. गृध्रघातकम् । Strukturformel von Diclofenac (2-[2-[(2,6-Dichlorphenyl)amino]phenyl]essigsäure): die indischen Geier sind am Aussterben, weil die Tierkadaver Diclofenac enthalten
[Bildquelle: Harbin / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"This is the most common Vulture of India, and is found in immense numbers all over the country, extending into Assam and Burmah, (and said to be also found in Africa,) congregating where ever any dead animal is exposed. At Calcutta one may frequently be seen seated on the bloated corpse of some Hindoo floating up or down with the tide, its wings spread, to assist in steadying it, and as soon as it has finished its repast, giving place to another. I have seen one washed off in mid-stream, and flap its way to shore. It walks and even runs with facility, though awkwardly. It breeds by preference on rocky cliffs, but also not unfrequently on large trees, laying usually one dirty white egg. Capt. Hutton, J. A. S., VI., gives an interesting account of a young one he reared from the nest."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 11.]


Gyps himalayensis Hume, 1869 - Himalayan Vulture - Schneegeier

120 cm



Abb.: पाण्डरगृध्रः । Gyps himalayensis Hume, 1869 - Himalayan Vulture - Schneegeier, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: पाण्डरगृध्रौ । Gyps himalayensis Hume, 1869 - Himalayan Vulture - Schneegeier, Paniola, Jammu and Kashmir
[Bildquelle: Muzaffar Bukhari. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mbukhari/3741764749/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Himalayas, Bhootan, Afghanistan, Nepal. Breeds in January, February, and March. Mr. Hume says, the nest is a huge platform of sticks placed on a rocky ledge of some bold precipice in the Himalayas at least 3,000 feet above the sea. It lays a single egg, larger than that of any of the other Indian Vultures, oval, or a broad oval, the ground colour being of the usual greenish or greyish white of all the true Vultures, unspotted or richly blotched and mottled chiefly towards the small end with brownish red. Size 3.78 x 2.8 inches to 3.98 x 2.85 inches."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 6.]


Gyps indicus Scopoli, 1786 - Long-billed Vulture - Indischer Geier

92 cm



Abb.: शकुनगृध्रः । Gyps indicus Scopoli, 1786 - Long-billed Vulture - Indischer Geier, Nagpur - नागपूर, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Tarique Sani. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tariquesani/4426068943/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: शकुनगृध्रः । Gyps indicus Scopoli, 1786 - Long-billed Vulture - Indischer Geier, Chaturbhuj Tempel - चतुर्भुज मंदिर, Orcha - ओरछा, Madhya Pradesh
[Bildquelle: Brian Gratwicke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke/3597002520/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Habitat. The Indian Peninsula, Burmah, Nepal, Siam and the Malayan Peninsula. Ajmere and Mount Aboo are places where this species has been known to breed from December to March on inaccessible and precipitous cliffs. Eggs vary in length from 3.48 to 3.9 inches in length and from 2.62 to 2.85 in breadth, larger than those of G. Bengalensis ; texture finer, as a rule unspotted pale greyish or greenish white, thinly spotted or blotched with pale reddish brown and purplish brown."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 7.]

"This Vulture is found over all India, more rarely towards the south, and then chiefly near mountains. It is very abundant in Burmah. It does not in general enter towns and villages like the next species. It is not rare on the Neilgherries, and breeds on some of the cliffs on their northern face, also on the cliffs bounding the valley in which are situated the celebrated caves of Ajanta."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 10.]


Neophron percnopterus Linnaeus, 1758 - White Scavenger Vulture - Schmutzgeier

64 cm



Abb.: शकुन्तौ । Neophron percnopterus Linnaeus, 1758 - White Scavenger Vulture - Schmutzgeier
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: शकुन्तः । Neophron percnopterus Linnaeus, 1758 - White Scavenger Vulture - Schmutzgeier
[Bildquelle: Album of Abyssinian Birds and Mammals from Paintings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes <1874 - 1927> / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: शकुन्तः । Neophron percnopterus Linnaeus, 1758 - White Scavenger Vulture - Schmutzgeier, Taj Mahal - : تاج محل , Agra - आगरा, UP
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/3185094124/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: शकुन्तः । Neophron percnopterus Linnaeus, 1758 - White Scavenger Vulture - Schmutzgeier, Taj Mahal - : تاج محل , Agra - आगरा, UP
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/3184254109/in/photostream/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: शकुन्तः । Lebensräume von Neophron percnopterus Linnaeus, 1758 - White Scavenger Vulture - Schmutzgeier
[Bildquelle: L. Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Throughout India and a permanent resident. Breeds from February to April on cliffs, old mosques, &c., seldom on trees, making a rude nest of twigs, lined with rags, &c. Eggs variously coloured, the ground colour usually a dirty white, blotched and smeared with reddish brown, or marked all over with deep red, with blotches at the larger end."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 10.]

"This well-known bird is abundant throughout the greater part of India, being more rare in Central and Northern India and unknown in Lower Bengal. As is well known in India, its chief food is human ordure, and some of its popular names signify this. It also partakes of carrion, but its feeble bill is less qualified for this kind of food. It walks with ease, stalking about with a peculiar gait, lifting its legs very high ; and it also runs with facility. It breeds on rocky cliffs, also on large buildings, pagodas, mosques, tombs, &c., and occasionally on trees. It forms a large nest of sticks and rubbish, often lined with old rags, and lays generally two eggs, sometimes white, with a few rusty brown spots, at other times so richly covered with them as to appear quite red, with a few liver-brown blotches.

This Vulture is preserved in Egypt, where it goes by the name of Pharoah's Chicken. It is common throughout the North of Africa, Western Asia, and even the South of Europe, a straggler finding its way to England now and then."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 12f.]


Gypaetus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 - Bearded Vulture - Bartgeier

122 cm


भासगृध्रः । अलजगृध्रः । आजगृध्रः ।

wird auch zu den Adlern gerechnet

siehe Vers 15c-16b


2.9.53. Psittacidae - Sittiche und Papageien - Parakeets


21. c./d. ātāyi-pillau dākṣāyya-gṛdhrau kīra-śukau samau

आतायि-पिल्लौ दाक्षाप्य-गृध्रौ कीर-शुकौ समौ ॥२१ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Sittiche und Papageien - Parakeets:]

  • कीर - kīra m.: "there is reason to believe that the larger members of the group [Parrots] were designated as शुक (śuka) and the smaller varieties like the Blossom-headed and the Slaty-headed Paroquets, which have a softer voice than the former, as किर [kīra] (कीति अव्यक्तं शब्दं ईरयति)." (Dave, 143)
  • शुक - śuka m.: "any of the Psittacidae (Parakeet), except the Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot) Indian Loriquet." (Dave 512)

Colebrooke (1807): "A parrot"


Im einzelnen nennt Dave (S. 143f.):




Abb.: Mädchen mit Papagei (Ausschnitt), Mogulschule, 1580/85


Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus, 1766 - Large Indian Parakeet - Alexandersittich

53 cm



Abb.: राजशुकः । Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus, 1766 - Large Indian Parakeet - Alexandersittich
[Bildquelle: Russ: Speaking parrots, 1884]


Abb.: शतपत्रशुकः । Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus, 1766 - Large Indian Parakeet - Alexandersittich, Qutb Minar - قطب مینار, Delhi - दिल्ली
[Bildquelle: Ramakrishna Reddy y. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/ramkrsna/247776550/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: राजशुकौ । Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus, 1766 - Large Indian Parakeet - Alexandersittich, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Vishal Bhave. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/29480496@N05/3699532802/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: राजशुकः । Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus, 1766 - Large Indian Parakeet - Alexandersittich, an Nest, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: राजशुकः । Psittacula eupatria Linnaeus, 1766 - Large Indian Parakeet - Alexandersittich, an Nest, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Lower Himalayas to Sikkim, the forests of Malabar, Central and South India, Northern Circars, Carnatic, Deccan, Punjab, British Burmah, and Cochin-China. Breeds during January and February in holes of trees which the birds excavate for themselves, and lay 3 - 4 white eggs, long ovals, pointed towards one end, and from 1.5 to 1.52 x 0.95 inch in size. Generally found in small colonies."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 466.]

"The Alexandrine Parrakeet is found in the Lower Himalayas, in the forests of Malabar, also in the hilly region of Central India, and the northern Circars. It is occasionally found in parts of the Carnatic; but it is not till you get far north, that it is at all common. It is by no means confined to hill regions, for I have found it breeding in a grove of trees in the Deccan, not far, however, from some low hills ; and it often comes into the open country to feed, but generally returns at night to the hills or jungles. It is said to be the ordinary Parrakeet of the Punjab, and was thence, doubtless, taken to Europe by Alexander ; but Adams says it is not so common there as the next species. It is abundant in Ceylon, and in Northern Burmah. This species is not nearly so common in the south of India, as the next ; and the first time I became aware of its occurring in the extreme south, was finding one dropped by a Shahin (Falco peregrinator), which I fired at in an open space in the jungles of Malabar. It feeds both on fruits and grain, and sometimes returns great distances to roost in trees near the hills. At such times it flies at a great height. The call of this species is full and rich. It breeds in the cold weather, December and January, in holes of trees, and lays usually four white eggs."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 257.]


Psittacula krameri Scopoli, 1769 - Rose-ringed Parakeet - Halsbandsittich

42 cm



Abb.: बाहुजशुकौ । Psittacula krameri Scopoli, 1769 - Rose-ringed Parakeet - Halsbandsittich, links Weibchen, rechts Männchen, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: काष्ठशुकः । Psittacula krameri Scopoli, 1769 - Rose-ringed Parakeet - Halsbandsittich, Nordindien
[Bildquelle: Thomas Schoch / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: काष्ठशुकौ । Psittacula krameri Scopoli, 1769 - Rose-ringed Parakeet - Halsbandsittich, Gujarat - ગુજરાત
[Bildquelle: Aditi-the-Stargazer. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/aditithestargazer/3252007508/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Throughout India, part of Burmah, Ceylon, Punjab and Sind ; extends to the lower Himalayas, Upper Pegu, and Nepaul. Occurs abundantly in the Concan and Deccan, Kutch, Kattiawar, Jodhpore, and N. Guzerat. Breeds throughout India in colonies. Eggs, pure white, 4 in number."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 467.]

"The Rose-ringed Parrakeet is found over all India, from the foot of the Himalayas to the extreme south and Ceylon, but it is rare to the east of the Bay of Bengal. It is found in other parts of western Asia, and throughout tropical Africa.

It is one of the most common and familiar birds in India, frequenting cultivated ground and gardens, even in the barest and least wooded parts of the country, and it is habitually found about towns and villages, constantly perching on the house top. It is very destructive to most kinds of grain, as well as to fruit gardens. Burgess says that they carry off the ears of corn to trees to devour at leisure, and I have observed the same sometimes. When the grains are cut and housed, it feeds, on the ground, on the stubble corn fields, also on meadows, picking up what seeds it can ; and now and then takes long flights, hunting for any tree that may be in fruit, skimming close to and examining every tree ; and when it has made a discovery of one in fruit, circling round, and sailing with outspread and down-pointing wings, till it alights on the tree. It associates in flocks of various size, sometimes in vast numbers, and generally many hundreds roost together in some garden or grove. Mr. Layard has given an interesting account of the roosting of this species in Ceylon. At Saugor all the Parrakeets, Mynas, Crows, Bee-eaters, &c., of the neighbourhood, for some miles around, roost in company in a large grove of bamboos ; and the deafening noise heard there from before sunset till dark, and from the first dawn of day till long after sunrise, give to the listener the idea of numberless noisy steam-machines at work. Many of the flocks of Parrots are very late in returning, and fly along quite low, skimming the ground, and just rising over a tree, house, or any obstacle in the way, and, for several nights in succession, several Parrakeets flew against the wall of a house, on the top of a hill in Saugor, and were killed.

It breeds both in holes in trees, and very commonly, in the south of India, about houses, in holes in old buildings, pagodas, tombs, &c. Like the last, it lays four white eggs. Its breeding season is from January to March. Adams states that "he has seen this Parrakeet pillage the nests of the Sand Martin ; but with what intent, he does not guess at. Its ordinary flight is rapid, with repeated strokes of the wings, somewhat wavy laterally, or arrowy. It has a harsh cry, which it always repeats when in flight, as well as at other times. Mr. Philipps remarks that the Kite will sometimes swoop down on them when perched on a tree, and carry one off in its talons ; also that owls attack these birds by night."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 258f.]


Psittacula roseata Biswas, 1951 - Blossom-headed Parakeet - Rosenkopfsittich

36 cm



Abb.: कृष्णोत्तमाङ्गशुकः । Psittacula roseata Biswas, 1951 - Blossom-headed Parakeet - Rosenkopfsittich
[Bildquelle: Birds of Asia, 1873 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: कृष्णाङ्गशुकः । Psittacula roseata Biswas, 1951 - Blossom-headed Parakeet - Rosenkopfsittich, Bandipur National Park - ಬಂಡಿಪುರ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಉದ್ಯಾನವನ, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Balaji B. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostalgicmemories/2257754879/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: कृष्णाङ्गशुकः । Psittacula roseata Biswas, 1951 - Blossom-headed Parakeet - Rosenkopfsittich, Bandipur National Park - ಬಂಡಿಪುರ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಉದ್ಯಾನವನ, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Balaji B. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostalgicmemories/2258556452/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Throughout India, extending into the Himalayas and Assam, also Ceylon. On the Malabar Coast it is extremely common ; also on the Eastern Ghauts, the Carnatic, Northern Circars, Central India, Midnapoor, and Lower Bengal. Breeds, according to Hume, throughout the plains of Continental India, high up on Mount Aboo, also throughout the salt range and the lower ranges of the Himalayas, up to heights of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet, from Murree to the Ganges. They commonly lay in April, excavate holes for themselves, and lay from 4 to 6, pure white, but rather soiled, glossless eggs, varying in length from 0.9 to 1.05 inches, and in breadth from 0.75 to 0.86 inch."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 468.]

"The Rose-headed Parrakeet is found more or less through all India, extending into the Himalayas, Assam, Burmah, and Ceylon. It is common in the Malabar coast, and on the Eastern Ghats, in jungles in the Carnatic, also in the forests of the Northern Circars and Central India, Midnapoor, and Lower Bengal. It frequents jungly districts in preference to the more open parts of the country ; but occurs in all the more richly-wooded cultivated districts, and it generally visits those parts of the country that are tolerably wooded, during the rains. It usually breeds in the jungles, but I have found its nest in my own garden at Saugor.

It has similar habits to the others, feeding on fruits and grains, which it picks off the standing corn, or in the stubble-fields, off the ground. It is less noisy, and has a much more pleasant call than the last. Its flight is very swift indeed, much more so that of the two last. It breeds in holes of trees, from December to March, and has usually four white eggs.

Vast numbers are taken in all parts of the country where it breeds, and are sold for caging, especially in Calcutta, where many are carried off by the shipping annually. Hence, no doubt, China and other countries where these birds have been seen in captivity, have been erroneously given as habitats for this, as well as sundry other Psittacidae."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 260.]


Psittacula himalayana Lesson, 1832 - Slaty-headed Parakeet - Schwarzkopf-Edelsittich

41 cm



Abb.: पतिचञ्चुशुकः । Psittacula himalayana Lesson, 1832 - Slaty-headed Parakeet - Schwarzkopf-Edelsittich, auf Pinus roxburghii, Kullu-District - कुल्लू, Himachal Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. The lower ranges of the Himalayas as far as Darjeeling, Assam, Sylhet and Arracan. Occurs also in abundance throughout British Burmah. Breeds throughout the Himalayas south of the first snowy range at heights of from 4000 to 7000 feet. The majority, according to Hume, lays during the latter half of March and April. They nest in holes of trees excavated by themselves, making the egg chamber deep and large. Eggs generally 4 - 5 in number, pure white and glossless, often much soiled. In length they vary from 1.08 to 1.17 inch, and in breadth from 0.89 to 0.94 inch."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 467.]

"This Parrakeet is found throughout the lower ranges of the Himalayas, rare in the South-east, for I never saw it myself, and got but one young specimen whilst at Darjeeling. It is, however, found in some of the hill ranges in Assam or Sylhet, for Tytler obtained living specimens at Dacca. Adams says : "its favorite food is seeds of wheat, apricots and pomegranates ; very noisy and gregarious." It is closely allied to P. rosa; but larger, with a plum-blue instead of a peach-coloured cap."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 261.]


Psittacula alexandri Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Read-breasted Parakeet - Bartsittich

38 cm



Abb.: पीतवर्णशुकः । Psittacula alexandri Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Read-breasted Paroquet - Bartsittich
[Bildquelle: Selby, 1836. -- Tab. 2]


Abb.:  पीतभद्रशुकः । Psittacula alexandri Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Read-breasted Parakeet - Bartsittich, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.:  किङ्किराजशुकः । Psittacula alexandri Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Read-breasted Paroquet - Bartsittich
[Bildquelle: Balaji B. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostalgicmemories/4492309837/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

 
Abb.: पीतवर्णशुकौ । Psittacula alexandri Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian Read-breasted Paroquet - Bartsittich, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2428523134/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. The sub-Himalayan region as far as Kumaon, extending into Assam, Sylhet, Arracan, the whole of British Burmah nearly, and southward to the Malay Peninsula and Java. It has been procured in some parts of Lower Bengal as Goruckpore and Rungpore. It affects well-wooded districts, and is usually found in small flocks, till the rice is nearly ready for cutting, when they descend to the fields in large numbers and cut the ears of corn. They breed on the tops of lofty trees, in holes and crevices, during March and April. The eggs are dull glossless white in colour, as are those of all the species. The young are taken before they are able to fly and sold in the markets ; they are much prized by the natives as being good talkers, and easily taught to repeat long sentences, and incantations."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 465.]

"This Parrakeet is found in the sub-Himalayan region, and, it is said, in the Rajmahal hills; but I think this is somewhat doubtful, and it certainly does not extend into Central India. Out of India it is abundant in Assam, Sylhet, Arakan, and Tenasserim, extending into the Malay peninsula and Java. In some part of Lower Bengal, as in Gorruckpore and Kungpore, it visits the plains, when the rice is ripe, in large flocks. It is brought to Calcutta, caged, in great numbers, from Tipperah, (Chittagong), and other places to the East, &c., and is rather a favorite with the natives. Its call is much more agreeable than that of torquatus, or Alexandri. At Thyet-myo in upper Burniah, in ]May, I observed large flocks of what I presume was this species, though the only specimens I obtained were in immature plumage. They were feeding on the ground on cow-dung, on the dry bed of the Irrawaddy. Blyth observed this species and P. rosa exceedingly numerous in upper Martaban."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 263f.]


{Loriculus vernalis Sparrman, 1787- Indian Loriquet (Vernal Hanging Parrot) - Frühlingspapageichen}

14 cm



Abb.: पत्नशुकः । Loriculus vernalis Sparrman, 1787- Indian Loriquet (Vernal Hanging Parrot) - Frühlingspapageichen, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary - ഡോ. സാലിം അലി പക്ഷിസങ്കേത, Kerala
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/1556638363/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: पर्णशुकः । Loriculus vernalis Sparrman, 1787- Indian Loriquet (Vernal Hanging Parrot) - Frühlingspapageichen, Kerala
[Bildquelle: Sandeep. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/sandeepak/2661914699/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: पत्नशुकः । Loriculus vernalis Sparrman, 1787- Indian Loriquet (Vernal Hanging Parrot) - Frühlingspapageichen, Singapur
[Bildquelle: Melvin Yap. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mjmyap/2854912279/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Habitat. The sub-Himalayan region, Assam, Sylhet, Sikkim, Eastern Bengal, Bhootan and the Andamans, British Burmah, the Deccan, Palani hills, Khandalla ghauts, the jungles of Malabar, Travancore, and the Southern Mahratta Country. Over all these places it is found in small flocks. It is said by Jerdon to be fond of drinking the toddy of the cocoanut palm, and to be sometimes caught stupefied from the effects. They are much prized as cage birds, and are sold as Love birds. The birds breed wherever they are found, laying 3 - 5 eggs in holes and hollows of trees. Eggs dirty white, and entirely glossless. Size 0.7 to 0.75 in length and 0.58 to 0.6 in breadth."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 464.]

"This pretty little Lorikeet is found in the Sub-Himalayan region, and in the jungles of Malabar; but in no intervening part of the country, that I am aware of. Mr. Blyth, in his catalogue, has mentioned a specimen from the Rajmahal hills ; but with a query, and it was probably a caged individual. It is also found abundantly in Assam, Sylhet, and Burmah.

I have only found this species in open spaces of the forests in Malabar, occasionally coming into well-wooded gardens near the coast. It is most numerous in Travancore and South Malabar, becoming rarer towards the North. Mr. Elliot, however, mentions it as visiting Dharwar, above the Ghats, during the rains only. It is found in small flocks, and keeps up a continual chirping when feeding, which it does on fruit and flower-buds, partly probably for the nectar contained in the latter. It is said to be fond of the toddy of the cocoanut-palm, and to be sometimes taken stupified at the toddy-pots ; and I have had them brought me alive at Tellicherry, said to have been taken in that situation. They are occasionally caged, and become very tame, sleeping with their heads downward. Great numbers are often to be seen in the shops of the Calcutta bird-dealers. They are popularly known as "Love-birds;'' a name which is also applied to the birds belonging to Agapornis of Africa, Psittacula of S. America, and to the small Trichoglossus pumilus of Australia."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 265f.]


Zu: siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 7. Vers 22a - b  (Vögel IV)