नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्

2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam

9. siṃhādivargaḥ

(Über Tiere)

7. Vers 22a - b
(Vögel IV)


Übersetzt von Alois Payer

mailto:payer@payer.de 


Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 9. siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 7. Vers 22a - b  (Vögel IV) -- Fassung vom 2011-01-19. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa2/amara209g.htm                 

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2011-01-19

Überarbeitungen:

©opyright: Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Meinem Lehrer und Freund

Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron

ist die gesamte Amarakośa-Übersetzung

in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.

Meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die all meine Interessen teilt und fördert

ist das Tierkapitel in Dankbarkeit besonders gewidmet


Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.


"Those who have never considered the subject are little aware how much the appearance and habit of a plant become altered by the influence of its position. It requires much observation to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the low country, small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye they appear to be different plants. The Jatropha curcas grows to a tree some 15 or 20 feet on the Neilgherries, while the Datura alba is three or four times the size in>n the hills that it is on the plains. It is therefore with much diffidence that I have occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub. The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering seasons, especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstroemia Reginae, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, previous to the commencement of the rains, in blossom more or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endeavoured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in contradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little success; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a lifetime would scarcely suffice."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- S. VIII f.]


2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam - Zweiter Teil


2.9. siṃhādivargaḥ - Abschnitt über Löwen und andere Tiere



Abb.: Asiatische Tierwelt
[Bildquelle: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversationslexikon, 1906]


Referenzwerke:

Dave, K. N. <1884 - 1983>: Birds in Sanskrit literature. -- Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. -- XXIV, 481 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0-89581-676-8. [Referenz für Sanskritbezeichnungen von Vögeln]

Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan : together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka ; [in 10 vol.] / Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley. -- Delhi : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1968 - 1974 [Referenzwerk für Vögel Indiens]

Kazmierczak, Krys [Text] ; Berlo, Per van [Ill.]:  A field guide to the birds of the Indian subcontinent. -- New Haven : Yale University Press, ©2000. -- 352 S. : Ill. -- . ISBN 0300079214. [Neue, durchgehend farbig illustrierte Übersicht über 1330 Vogelarten Indiens]

Rasmussen, Pamela C. ; Anderton, John C.: Birds of South Asia : the Ripley Guide. -- Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian, 2005. -- 2 Bde. -- ISBN 84-87334-67-9. [DAS Standardwerk]


Übersicht



2.9.54. Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich

114 cm


22. a./b. kruṅ krauñco 'tha bakaḥ kahvaḥ puṣkarāhvas tu sārasaḥ

क्रुङ् क्रौञ्चो थ बकः कह्वः पुष्कराह्वस् तु सारसः ।२२ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich:]

  • क्रुञ्च् - kruñc m.: Kruñc = "Phoenicopterus ruber, Common (Greater) Flamingo; Phoenicopterus minor, Lesser Flamingo." (Dave, 491) [siehe unten!]
  • क्रौञ्च - krauñca m.: Krauñca = "Grus grus, Common Crane."

Colebrooke (1807): "A curlew."



Abb.: क्रौञ्चाः । Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: क्रौञ्चौ । Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich, Jungtiere, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: क्रौञ्चाः । Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: क्रौञ्चाः । Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich, Sultanpur National Park, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: क्रौञ्चौ । Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich, Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/440571186/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: क्रौञ्चः । Lebensräume von Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Crane - Kranich
[Bildquelle: Devilm25 / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Europe, India, N. Africa. In India it is a winter visitant everywhere. Besides occurring in Sind, it is recorded from Rajputana, Kutch, Kattiawar, Deccan, N. Guzerat, Rajputana, Central India, Khandeish, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh and Bengal. It has also been found in Afghanistan, Beloochistan and Persia.

When feeding the Common Crane has always a sentinel posted to give the alarm of danger, and hence it is extremely difficult to get within gunshot of the flock. The ordinary procedure is to walk alongside a bullock or horse, as if passing by them, and to fire immediately they rise ; a duck gun with large shot usually brings down 2 or 4 out of a flock. In Sind and probably in other parts of India too, the food of this Crane consists of grain of all kinds ; when in large parties they commit great havoc in wheat fields."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 602.]

"The common Crane of Europe visits India in numerous flocks during the cold weather. In the Deccan and Central India it is generally seen in small flocks of from six or eight to twenty, now and then in much larger numbers, especially in the Punjab and the N. W. Provinces. It feeds chiefly on grain, committing great havoc in the wheat fields, and in rice fields in Bengal, but it also eats shoots of plants and flowers, and occasionally, it is said, insects and reptiles. On one occasion, I found that the flowers of Carthamus tinctorius had been the only food partaken of ; it is stated in China to devour sweet potatoes. It feeds chiefly in the morning, and rests during the day in some river or tank, returning to the fields for a short time in the afternoon. It has a fine loud trumpet-like call chiefly heard during its flight. It leaves this country early, generally before the end of March, and breeds in Northern Asia and Europe, in marshy ground generally, occasionally it is said, on the roofs of deserted houses. The eggs are two in number, of a greenish colour, with some brownish spots ; and Mr. Wolly, in the 1st vol. of the Ibis, has given an interesting account of its nidification. In former years it used to visit England regularly and even to breed there.

This Crane is occasionally hawked at and killed by a good Bhyri (Falco peregrinvs), and gives a fine chase. It is tolerably good eating, though not equal to the next species ; it was considered a great delicacy by our ancestors. It inhabits the greater part of Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa, but is replaced in Northeastern Asia and Japan by a species with a longer bill, G. longirostris."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 665.]


2.9.55. Ciconiidae - Störche & Threskornithidae - Ibise
& Ardeidae - Kraniche


22. a./b. kruṅ krauñco 'tha bakaḥ kahvaḥ puṣkarāhvas tu sārasaḥ

क्रुङ् क्रौञ्चो थ बकः कह्वः पुष्कराह्वस् तु सारसः ।२२ क।

[Bezeichnungen für 2.9.55. Ciconiidae - Störche & Threskornithidae - Ibise & Ardeidae - Kraniche:]

  • बक - baka m.: Baka =  "a generic term for all Ciconiidae (Stork), Threskornithidae (Ibis) and Ardeidae (Heron); esp. Leptoptilos dubius, Adjutant Stork (Greater Adjutant); Threskiornis aethiopicus (T. melanocephalus), White Ibis (Blackheaded Ibis); or Phoenicopterus ruber, Common (Greater) Flamingo (due to its superficial resemblance to a Stork)." (Dave, 503f.) [siehe unten!]
  • कह्व - kahva m.: Kahva = "eine Kranichart, Ardea nivea [= ???]." (PW)

Colebrooke (1807): "A crane."


Leptoptilos dubius Gmelin, 1789 - Adjutant Stork (Greater Adjutant) - Argala-Marabu

130 cm



Abb.: बकः । Leptoptilos dubius Gmelin, 1789 - Adjutant Stork (Greater Adjutant) - Argala-Marabu
[Bildquelle: Latham, 1801 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: बकाः । Leptoptilos dubius Gmelin, 1789 - Adjutant Stork (Greater Adjutant) - Argala-Marabu, Guwahati, Assam
[Bildquelle: Yathin. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yathin/2186428798/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: बकः । Gang von Leptoptilos dubius Gmelin, 1789 - Adjutant Stork (Greater Adjutant) - Argala-Marabu
[Bildquelle: Eadweard J. Muybridge (1830 – 1904) / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: बकः । Lebensräume von Leptoptilos dubius Gmelin, 1789 - Adjutant Stork (Greater Adjutant) - Argala-Marabu (dunkelgrün: Brutgebiete; dunkelgrün: Jahresvogel außerhalb Brutzeit; blau: Zugvogel)
[Bildquelel: Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Sind and throughout the greater part of India ; rare in the South ; absent in Malabar, where it is replaced by L. javanicus, spread throughout North and N.-E. India to Burmah and the Malayan Peninsula. In the Deccan, also in Guzerat and Bengal, it is of much service as a scavenger. Its food is very various. Lizards and frogs, and insects too ; refuse from dung heaps also does not come amiss to it. From the craw of three specimens collected about 80 miles east of Kurrachee, lizards (Uromastix hardwickii) were extracted. In each an entire animal in four pieces was found which had evidently not been long swallowed. The pieces were very neatly cut ; the head making one, the body in two longitudinal halves, and the tail entire being the fourth piece.

Breeds in inaccessible places in parts of Bengal and Burmah, constructing a large nest of sticks, and laying 2 - 3 whitish eggs, not unlike those of the Vultures ; huge broad ovals, in size from 2.87 to 3.3 in length, and from 2.1 to 2.55 in breadth."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 647f.]

"The Adjutant is found throughout the greater part of India, is rare in the South, but extremely common in part of Northern India, and more especially in Bengal and North-eastern India. I never saw it in the Carnatic nor in Malabar ; it is occasionally met with in Mysore, and is not rare in Hyderabad, thence becoming more common and abundant northwards. It spreads through Burmah to the Malayan peninsula. It is only a temporary resident in India, coming in towards the close of the hot weather in April or May, and remaining till October. A very few barren or unpaired birds remain occasionally in parts of the country.

In Calcutta, and some other large towns, the Adjutant is a familiar bird, unscared by the near approach of man or dog, and protected in some cases by law. It is an efficient Scavenger, attending the neighbourhood of slaughter-houses, and especially the burning grounds of the Hindoos, where the often half-burnt carcasses are thrown into the rivers. It also diligently looks over the heaps of refuse and offal thrown out in the streets to await the arrival of the scavenger's carts, where it may be seen in company with dogs, kites, and crows. It likes to vary its food, however, and may often be seen searching ditches, pools of water, and tanks, for frogs or fish. In the Deccan it soars at an immense height in the air along with Vultures, ready to descend on any carcass that may be discovered. After it has satisfied the cravings of its appetite, the Adjutant reposes during the heat of the day, sometimes on the tops of houses, now and then on trees, and frequently on the ground, resting often on the whole leg (tarsus). The Adjutant occasionally may seize a Crow or a Myna, or even, as related, a small cat ; but these are rare bits for it, and indeed it has not the opportunity, in general, of indulging its taste for living birds, notwithstanding Cuvier's statement that its large beak enables it to capture birds on the wing. A writer in Chambers' Journal for 1861, describes an Adjutant swallowing a Crow, and states that he 'saw it pass into the sienna-toned pouch of the gaunt avenger. He who writes saw it done.' Again, 'the Adjutant's cry very much resembles water flowing from a narrow-necked bottle, and he invariably utters it when about to swallow a piece of offal.' These utterly unfounded statements called up Mr. Blyth in the Ibis, vol. 3, p. 268, who showed that both the passing of the Crow into the pouch and the call of the Adjutant were simply impossible, in consequence of structural peculiarities which have been described in previous pages.

The Adjutant breeds in trees on rocky cliffs, occasionally, it is said, in lofty trees away from hills. The neighbourhood of Moulmein is one of the best known localities ; the nests were found by Colonel Tickell on trees near the summit of some of the remarkable limestone rocky hills near that place. Captain Sparks had previously found the nest in the same locality ; and Mr. Frith found them breeding in the south-east part of the Sunderbuns. The Adjutant lays two white eggs, and the young are covered with white down.

The feathers known as- Marabou, or Comercolly feathers, and sold in Calcutta, are the under tail-coverts of this and the following species. There is a popular superstition that if you split the head of this bird before death, you will extract from it the celebrated stone called Zahir-mora, or poison killer, of great virtue and repute as an antidote to all kinds of poison."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 731f.]


Threskiornis melanocephalus Latham, 1790 - White Ibis (Blackheaded Ibis) - Schwarzkopfibis

60 cm


siehe Vers 20!


Phoenicopterus ruber Pallas, 1811 - Common (Greater) Flamingo - Rosaflamingo

110 cm



Abb.: कुञ्चः । बकाः । Phoenicopterus ruber Pallas, 1811 - Common (Greater) Flamingo - Rosaflamingo, Runn of Katch - કચ્છનું મોટું રણ, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Tarique Sani. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tariquesani/4329066603/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: कुञ्चः । बकाः । Phoenicopterus ruber Pallas, 1811 - Common (Greater) Flamingo - Rosaflamingo, Pocharam lake, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कुञ्चः । बकाः । Phoenicopterus ruber Pallas, 1811 - Common (Greater) Flamingo - Rosaflamingo, Pocharam lake, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Central India, Rajputana, Kutch, Guzerat, Concan, Deccan, South India and Ceylon. Everywhere in flocks of thousands on all the lakes, rivers, &c., especially in Sind. Mr. Hume (Str. F. i. p. 257) truly describes them "as occurring in countless myriads, seen either massed upon the water, as huge rosy islands, or floating above it like a sunset cloud in all the large lakes of Sind. On taking flight, the exposure of the rosy upper and under wing coverts turns the mass into a gigantic brilliant rosy scarf, waving to and fro in mighty folds as it floats away." They are also common about the Kurrachee harbour, chiefly on the mud flats and in Clifton Bay; usually they are in large parties drawn up in line. When feeding they have their necks and heads bent down in such a position, that the upper mandible rests on the ground ; with it they stir up the limpid ooze in search of animalculae, minute Crustacea, fish, &c., on which they live. Like the Cranes the Flamingoes also have sentinels posted to give warning of danger ; their flesh is not considered good, but the Mohannas or fishermen caste on the Indus consider it palatable, the fishy taste being lost on their palates, owing to their principal diet being fish. The ancients considered it choice food, and the Egyptians, at the present day, are partial to the flesh. From the tongue they are said to extract an oil which they use for flavouring certain viands.

They have been found breeding at Fao in Mesopotamia; the nest is as curious as the structure of the bird, being a truncated cone, built entirely of stiff clayey mud, on which the parent bird sits either astride or with its long legs folded under it. Eggs, 2 in number, white, and very chalky."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 670.]

"The Flamingo is found, here and there, throughout India, is very rare in some parts, and is perhaps chiefly found not far from the seacoast. It is very abundant near Madras, in the Pulicat lake; also between Madras and Pondicherry, and south towards Tuticoreen ; it is also met with in the Northern Circars, at the great Chilka lake, south of Cuttack, and occasionally near the mouth of the Hooghly and some of the Soonderbun rivets. In Central India and the Deccan, flocks generally visit some of the larger tanks during the cold weather, and they are also now and then met with in Northern India. Adams states that they are not uncommon on the Punjab rivers and lakes, during the cold weather.

The Flamingo appears to be found throughout the south of Europe, Africa, and great part of Asia. It feeds on minute molluscs, small insects and Crustacea, worms, &c., which it scoops up by its inverted bill together with the soft mud from the bottom of lakes, salt water lagoons, &c., subsequently rejecting the inorganic matter with the water through the laminae of its bill ; I have however generally found some mud in the stomachs of those that I have examined. It also eats confervae, and other soft vegetable matter, and, in confinement, will eat bran mixed with water, boiled rice, &c.

It is said to form a large conical nest of mud, or mud and grass, and to sit astride on the top of it. A late writer, however, states that it lays its eggs on any slight elevation in swamps, generally on a narrow path between two ditches, and that many nests are placed together in a line. The eggs are two in number, dull white and with a very rough chalky surface. Flamingoes do not, that I am aware of, nidificate in this country.

Flamingoes are very wary birds ; during the heat of the day they rest in the water, drawn up in long lines, with sentinels on either side which give warning of danger by a trumpet-like call, something like the cry of the wild goose, a cry which is occasionally repeated during flight. When feeding, they are more easily approached. They are excellent eating. I have seen Flamingoes kept alive at Hyderabad in the Deccan. It has been stated that they sleep on one leg, with the neck bent back, and the head under the wing. Nuttall says that they run swiftly, but I have never seen them, even when in danger, move at any other pace than a stately, moderately rapid walk. They are said to swim well with the port of Swans, but I have never seen them do so."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 776f.]


Casmerodius albus Linnaeus, 1758 - Great Egret - Silberreiher

90 cm



Abb.: बकौ । Casmerodius albus Linnaeus, 1758 - Great Egret - Silberreiher
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: बकः । Casmerodius albus Linnaeus, 1758 - Great Egret - Silberreiher, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकः । Casmerodius albus Linnaeus, 1758 - Great Egret - Silberreiher, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकाः । Casmerodius albus Linnaeus, 1758 - Great Egret - Silberreiher und Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 - Grey Heron - Graureiher, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकः । Lebensräume von Casmerodius albus Linnaeus, 1758 - Great Egret - Silberreiher
(gelb: Brutplatz; grün: Jahresvogel; blau: Überwintern)
[Bildquelle: Cephas / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Klicken: Casmerodius albus

बकः । Klicken! Casmerodius albus Linnaeus, 1758 - Great Egret - Silberreiher, Italien
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: Dr. Marco Dragonetti / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"The large Egret is distributed throughout India to Ceylon, extending, if Gould's syrmatophorus be rightly identified with this species, from Europe through most of Asia and Africa to Australia. It is of course most abundant in the better watered districts, but is found everywhere, feeding in rivers and tanks, and roosting on trees. It breeds, in company, on trees, often in, or close to some village, making the usual nest of sticks, and laying three or four eggs of a bluish-green colour.

This species is said to make its nest in Europe, among reeds, but this is quite opposed to the habits of all the Egrets."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 745.]


Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, 1766 - Purple Heron - Purpurreiher

86 cm



Abb.: बकः । Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, 1766 - Purple Heron - Purpurreiher
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: बकः । Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, 1766 - Purple Heron - Purpurreiher, Goa
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/3080188191/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: बकः । Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, 1766 - Purple Heron - Purpurreiher, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकः । Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, 1766 - Purple Heron - Purpurreiher, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकः । Lebensräume von Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, 1766 - Purple Heron - Purpurreiher
(gelb: Brutgebiete; grün: Überwinterung)
[Bildquelle: Cephas / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"The purple Heron is very abundant in the well-watered districts of India, frequenting marshes, reedy ground, rice fields, and the like, but is rarely or never seen on the bare and open spots frequented by the common Heron. It may often be observed with its head and long neck just protruded above the grass, looking remarkably like the head of a snake, which has suggested its Telugu name of Snake Heron. It rises with a loud harsh cry, which it repeats as it flies along, especially if it has been alarmed. Unlike most of the other Herons, this species breeds among lofty reeds ; I have seen several of its breeding places, but the nests were quite inaccessible, and I have not procured its eggs. It feeds on fish, frogs, &c.

It is found throughout India and Ceylon, extending into Burmah and Malayana, and is spread throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 743f.]


Ardeola grayii Sykes, 1832 - Pond Heron - Paddyreiher

46 cm



Abb.: बकः । Ardeola grayii Sykes, 1832 - Pond Heron - Paddyreiher
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 104.]


Abb.: बकः । Ardeola grayii Sykes, 1832 - Pond Heron - Paddyreiher, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकः । Ardeola grayii Sykes, 1832 - Pond Heron - Paddyreiher, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकाः । Ardeola grayii Sykes, 1832 - Pond Heron - Paddyreiher, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकः । Ardeola grayii Sykes, 1832 - Pond Heron - Paddyreiher, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बकः । Lebensräume von Ardeola sp. - Schopfreiher
[Bildquelle: L Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Sind and throughout India, Ceylon, and the Burmese countries. Breeds from May to August nesting in trees. Eggs, 4 - 6, pale bluish green, elongated ovals, 1.35 to 1.62 in length by 1.1 to 1.25 in breadth. Abundant in all moist localities, at the edges of ponds, ditches, marshes, and lakes, and especially in rice fields."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 658.]

"This is one of the best known and most abundant of its tribe in India, seen at the side of every river, tank, ditch, or pool of water throughout India. It is so confiding and familiar as to have received the name of Blind Heron in all parts of the country. Its especial food is crabs, for which it watches patiently, either in the water or in the fields, and especially on the small raised bunds or divisions between rice-fields. It will, of course, also eat fish, frogs, and various aquatic insects. It begins to change its plumage about May, and in June and July all individuals have assumed the handsome plumage, which differs so materially from that of the cold weather, as to have been considered by many to constitute a perfectly distinct species ; such indeed was the opinion of Sykes. It breeds on trees, in all parts of the country, sometimes alone, sometimes several on the same tree, making a rough nest of sticks, and laying four or five pale greenish-blue eggs. It is a favorite quarry for the Shikra, (Micronisus badius)."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 751.]


2.9.56. Grus sp. - Kraniche - Crane


22. a./b. kruṅ krauñco 'tha bakaḥ kahvaḥ puṣkarāhvas tu sārasaḥ

क्रुङ् क्रौञ्चो थ बकः कह्वः पुष्कराह्वस् तु सारसः ।२२ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Grus sp. - Kraniche - Crane:]

  • पुष्कराह्व - Bezeichnungen für पु्ष्कर - puṣkara m. "Trommel". puṣkara m.: "Grus leucogeranus, (Great White) Siberian Crane." (Dave, 502) 
  • सारस - sārasa m.: "Circus aeruginosus (Eurasian) Marsh Harrier; Grus grus, Common Ceane; Grus antigone, Sarus (or Indian) Crane." (Dave, 513)

Colebrooke (1807): "The Indian crane.


Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 - Sarus Crane - Saruskranich

152 cm



Abb.: सारसौ । Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 - Sarus Crane - Saruskranich
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: सारसौ । Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 - Sarus Crane - Saruskranich, Sultanpur National Park, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सारसः । Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 - Sarus Crane - Saruskranich, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सारसः । Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 - Sarus Crane - Saruskranich, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सारसः । Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 - Sarus Crane - Saruskranich, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: सारसः । Lebensräume von Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 - Sarus Crane - Saruskranich
[Bildquelle: Shyamal / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Throughout the greater part of India. It is rare in Sind. In the Punjab it is found in the Delhi and other district, also in the N.-W. Provinces, Rajputana, Kutch, Concan and Deccan. It has also been found occasionally in Khandesh. Throughout the Central Provinces, also the Madras Presidency, north of the Godavery, Chota Nagpur and Lower Bengal it is common in suitable localities. Breeds over the whole of the N.-W. Provinces, Upper Bengal, British Burmah, Assam, Oudh and Guzerat ; also Central India and Khandeish, during August and September, laying 2 eggs, of a pale green colour, speckled with yellowish brown purple or purplish pink. Many are quite unspotted."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 600.]

"The Sarus is found throughout the greater part of India and Burmah ; is rare South of the Godavery, and also apparently in the Punjab, for Adams states that he did not see it there, but common in Central India, Bengal, and parts of the N. W. Provinces, and still more so in Candeish. It is chiefly found in pairs, occasionally several together.

It feeds less exclusively perhaps on grain than the other Cranes met with in India, and is very generally found not far from water. It breeds on some island or spot nearly surrounded by water, laying two eggs only, of a very pale bluish green colour, with a few reddish spots. The eggs are figured by Blyth in Jardine's Illustrations of Ornitholgy, and he states that it has bred in captivity. The nest is sometimes commenced below water, and is raised some inches above the surface. The young have the head and neck dull ferruginous. The old birds, when sitting, or with their young, are very bold, facing an intruder, be it dog or man, lowering their head and spreading out their large wings in a most formidable looking manner. Its fine trumpet-like call, uttered when alarmed or on the wing, can be heard a couple of miles off. A young Sarus is not bad eating, but old birds are worthless for the table. Some epicures assert the liver to be peculiarly fine. In most parts of the country it is so confiding and fearless in its habits as to preclude the sportsman from shooting it ; and in the territories of Holkar it is, if not venerated, esteemed so highly as to be held sacred from the Shikaries, and I have known complaints made against officers for shooting them."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 663.]


Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 - Siberian Crane - Nonnenkranich

135 cm



Abb.: पु्ष्करौ । Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 - Siberian Crane - Nonnenkranich
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: पु्ष्करः । Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 - Siberian Crane - Nonnenkranich
[Bildquelle: BS Thurner Hof / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: पु्ष्करौ । Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 - Siberian Crane - Nonnenkranich, Vogelpark
[Bildquelle: Alois staudacher / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. A winter migrant to India ; occurs in the N.-W. Provinces, Punjab, Sind, parts of the Central Provinces and the Himalayas ; also in Afghanistan, Eastern Turkistan and Siberia. Uncommon in Sind. I have never met with it. Mr. Hume has however seen and recorded it."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 600f.]

"This fine Crane appears to be a rare winter visitant to several parts of North- Western India. A figure of it is among the drawings of Sir A. Burnes, and it has been observed occasionally by sportsmen in the Punjab, in Rajasthan, and in the interior of the Himalayas. Mountaineer particularly notices 'a large white Crane.' It is an inhabitant of Northern Asia and Japan."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 664.]


Zu siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 8. Vers 22c - 25d  (Vögel V)