नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्

2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam

9. siṃhādivargaḥ

(Über Tiere)

8. Vers 22c - 25d
(Vögel V)


Übersetzt von Alois Payer

mailto:payer@payer.de 


Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 9. siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 8. Vers 22c - 25d  (Vögel V) -- Fassung vom 2011-01-19. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa2/amara209h.htm                  

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2011-01-19

Überarbeitungen:

©opyright: Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Meinem Lehrer und Freund

Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron

ist die gesamte Amarakośa-Übersetzung

in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.

Meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die all meine Interessen teilt und fördert

ist das Tierkapitel in Dankbarkeit besonders gewidmet


Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.


"Those who have never considered the subject are little aware how much the appearance and habit of a plant become altered by the influence of its position. It requires much observation to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the low country, small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye they appear to be different plants. The Jatropha curcas grows to a tree some 15 or 20 feet on the Neilgherries, while the Datura alba is three or four times the size in>n the hills that it is on the plains. It is therefore with much diffidence that I have occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub. The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering seasons, especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstroemia Reginae, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, previous to the commencement of the rains, in blossom more or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endeavoured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in contradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little success; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a lifetime would scarcely suffice."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- S. VIII f.]


2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam - Zweiter Teil


2.9. siṃhādivargaḥ - Abschnitt über Löwen und andere Tiere



Abb.: Asiatische Tierwelt
[Bildquelle: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversationslexikon, 1906]


Referenzwerke:

Dave, K. N. <1884 - 1983>: Birds in Sanskrit literature. -- Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. -- XXIV, 481 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0-89581-676-8. [Referenz für Sanskritbezeichnungen von Vögeln]

Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan : together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka ; [in 10 vol.] / Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley. -- Delhi : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1968 - 1974 [Referenzwerk für Vögel Indiens]

Kazmierczak, Krys [Text] ; Berlo, Per van [Ill.]:  A field guide to the birds of the Indian subcontinent. -- New Haven : Yale University Press, ©2000. -- 352 S. : Ill. -- . ISBN 0300079214. [Neue, durchgehend farbig illustrierte Übersicht über 1330 Vogelarten Indiens]

Rasmussen, Pamela C. ; Anderton, John C.: Birds of South Asia : the Ripley Guide. -- Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian, 2005. -- 2 Bde. -- ISBN 84-87334-67-9. [DAS Standardwerk]


Übersicht



2.9.57. Tadorna ferruginea Pallas, 1764 - Ruddy Shelduck - Rostgans

66 cm


22. c./d.  kokaś cakraś cakravāko rathāṅgāhvaya-nāmakaḥ

कोकश् चक्रश् चक्रवाको रथाङ्गाह्वय-नामकः ॥२२ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Tadorna ferruginea Pallas, 1764 - Ruddy Shelduck - Rostgans:]

  • कोक - koka m.: Koka
  • चक्र - cakra m.: "Rad" = "Tadorna ferruginea, Ruddy Sheldrake (Common Shalduck)." (Dave, 494)
  • चक्रवाक - cakravāka m.: "Rad-Geschnatter" = "Tadorna ferruginea, Ruddy Sheldrake (Common Sheduck)." (Dave, 494)
  • रथाङ्गाह्वय - rathāṅgāhvaya: alle Bezeichnungen für "Wagenrad"

Colebrooke (1807): "The ruddy goose."



Abb.: चक्रवाकौ । Tadorna ferruginea Pallas, 1764 - Ruddy Shelduck - Rostgans
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: चक्रवाकः । Tadorna ferruginea Pallas, 1764 - Ruddy Shelduck - Rostgans, Weibchen, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/3272282698/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: चक्रवाकः । Tadorna ferruginea Pallas, 1764 - Ruddy Shelduck - Rostgans, Weibchen, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: चक्रवाकाः । Tadorna ferruginea Pallas, 1764 - Ruddy Shelduck - Rostgans, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Sind, Persia, Beloochistan, Afghanistan, E. Turkistan, Punjab, N.-W, Provinces, Oudh, Nepaul, Bengal, Rajputana, Central India, Kutch, Guzerat, the Concans, Deccan and Southern India.

The Ruddy Shelldrake is a winter visitant to India. In Sind it is found on all the large lakes and brooks and along the Indus river in great numbers ; and on the Munchur especially ; like geese, large parties resort to the fields of sprouting wheat in the early morning and at night-fall, and do much damage. They are extremely shy and wary birds, and as Mr. Reid, in Game Birds, remarks "It will not only keep a sharp look-out on its own account, but will fly along the Jheel side before the gunner, uttering its warning note and put every bird on the qui vive""

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 680.]

"The Ruddy Shieldrake or Braminy Duck, as it is called in India, is a well known winter visitant to all parts of the country. It is generally seen, even at this season, in pairs or small parties, frequenting alike rivers, brooks, jheels, and lakes. It walks well on the ground and grazes in the young cornfields just like Geese ; it also picks up seeds of grass, grain, &c. A writer in the Indian Sporting Review for 1854 states, that "it Is often found devouring carrion on the banks of rivers, and is frequently seen banqueting in company with Vultures, and associating with such other villainous companions." This must be a very rare occurrence; I have constantly, when on the Ganges and other large rivers, been on the watch to verify this observation, but as yet have never seen anything approaching to such a habit, and I have moreover questioned many sportsmen on the subject with a like result. Towards the close of the cold weather, the Braminy Ducks assemble in numbers, and on the Chilka lake I have seen thousands in one flock in April. The call is peculiar and Goose-like, (like a clarionet, says Pallas) sounding something like ā-oung, and hence the name of Aangir, which, according to Pallas, is given to this bird among the Mongols, by whom it is held sacred.

It is found over the greater part of Central Europe, being occasionally even killed in Britain ; also in Northern Africa, and great part of Asia, not extending however far north. It breeds across the Himalayas on rocks near lakes, as observed by Hooker and Adams respectively in Sikim and Ladakh ; also in holes of walls, and occasionally in deserted holes in the ground. Salvin found it breeding on almost inaccessible cliffs in Northern Africa far from water, along with Kites and Ravens, and he states that he procured four white eggs ; other observers say that it lays from eight to ten. It has bred in the Zoological gardens, and reared four young ones.

The Hindoos have a legend that two lovers for some indiscretion were transformed into Braminy Ducks, that they are condemned to pass the night apart from each other on opposite banks of the river, and that all night long each, in its turn, asks its mate if it shall come across, but the question is always met by a negative—''Chakwa, shall I come ? No, Chakwi." "Chakwi, shall I come ? No Chakwa."

Pallas states that it does not extend beyond 50° N. L., and that it usually nestles in Marmot's holes, also in rocks, and occasionally even in hollow trees. It is held sacred by the Mongols and Calmucs."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 792f.]


2.9.58. Anser sp. - Feldgänse - Geese


23. a./b. kādambaḥ kalahaṃsaḥ syād utkrośa-kurarau samau

कादम्बः कलहंसः स्याद् उत्क्रोश-कुररौ समौ ।२३ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Anser sp. - Feldgänse - Geese:]

  • कादम्ब - kādamba m.: "Kādamba-Gras, Pfeil" = "Anser indicus, Bar-headed Goose." (Dave, 488)
  • कलहंस - kalahaṃsa m.: "zart-tönende Gans" = "stays for all grey Geese; esp. Anser anser, Greylag Goose; also Anser fabalis, Bean Goose; Anser albifrons, (Greater) White-fronted Goose."

Colebrooke (1807): "A drake."


Anser indicus Latham, 1790 - Bar-headed Goose - Streifengans

75 cm



Abb.: कादम्बौ । Anser indicus Latham, 1790 - Bar-headed Goose - Streifengans
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: कादम्बाः । Anser indicus Latham, 1790 - Bar-headed Goose - Streifengans, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कादम्बः । Anser indicus Latham, 1790 - Bar-headed Goose - Streifengans, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/3272103362/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: कादम्बाः । Anser indicus Latham, 1790 - Bar-headed Goose - Streifengans, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Central Provinces, and Bengal. A winter visitant.

This is certainly the most abundant Goose in Sind, and during the winter may be met in flocks of thousands on the large lakes, and on the Indus. On the Munchur it simply swarms, and not unlike the two other species, albifrons and cinereus, feeds during the night and in the early morning till about 9 or 10 o'clock. They feed exclusively on tender shoots of grass, and do much damage to the sprouting corn crops, especially in the neighbourhood of the Munchur, also in Lower Sind. Taking Upper India (including Sind), Hume says "This species enormously outnumbers all the other species of Geese put together." I think at least five of the Barred-heads visit India to every one of the Grey Lags, and as for all the rest of the Geeser they are apparently so rare, that when one comes to consider numbers, they are not worth speaking about. * * * Their habits are similar to those of the Grey Lags. Where frequently disturbed they feed inland only at night ; where rarely molested they will be found feeding up to eight or nine in the morning and again long before sunset. Preferentially they feed in fields in the neighbourhood of the larger rivers, browsing on the young wheat, vetches, lentils, &c. They are not difficult to bag, especially in localities where they are not disturbed by shooting. Walking besides a pony, or bullock, one can always get within 35 or 40 yards of a flock, and bag at least a dozen birds with a couple of effective shots. In localities which have been frequently shot over the birds are very wary, and unless there is plenty of cover a buffalo or pony becomes a necessity."In such cases," as Mr. Hume says, "it is best to make sure of your one en two birds on the ground with the first shot, as you will seldom have time for more than one shot after they rise." Mr. Hume, in his Game Birds of India, gives many hints as to shooting geese and wild fowl generally. The habits of the Duck tribe and the various methods adopted for netting them are very interesting, and of much value to sportsmen generally."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 676.]

"This Goose appears to be peculiar to India, and probably the adjacent countries north of the Himalayas, where it breeds, as it is not recorded by Pallas as a bird of Northern or Central Asia. It is chiefly a winter visitant to India, arriving in Northern India towards the end of October or beginning of November, and leaving in March. It is occasionally met with in immense flocks of many hundreds, usually in smaller parties. It grazes on the river banks and fields of corn, chenna, &c., retiring about 10 or 11 a. M. to some tank or river, where it reposes during the greater part of the day, returning to the fields in the afternoon. A writer in the Bengal Sporting Magazine states that this Goose is found in immense abundance both in Bundlekund and in the country between Agra and Gwalior ; but that the larger kind (A. cinereus) is not met with in the latter locality. I once saw a couple of these Geese in the extreme south of India in August, in a small sequestered tank. This pair may have been breeding there, but perhaps they were wounded or sickly birds. This Goose probably breeds in the large lakes beyond the Himalayas, where swarms of water-birds have been observed by various travellers in summer. It is excellent eating, but perhaps in this respect inferior to the Grey Goose."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 782f.]


Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758 - Greylag Goose - Graugans

81 cm



Abb.: कलहंसौ । Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758 - Greylag Goose - Graugans
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: कलहंसः । Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758 - Greylag Goose - Graugans, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


 Abb.: कलहंसाः । Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758 - Greylag Goose - Graugans, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कलहंसः । Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758 - Greylag Goose - Graugans, Keoladeo National Park - केवलादेव राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/3271282773/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. Sind, Afghanistan, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Rajputna, Kutch and Guzerat. Occurs throughout Europe. About the Munchur Lake in Sind they are met with in large parties, also along the canals, and especially the river."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 673.]

"The common wild Goose, or grey lag Goose of England, is a common winter visitant to the North of India, extending its migrations to Central India, but rarely seen further South. It is sometimes met with in small parties of from four to twenty ; occasionally in vast flocks, which feed on young corn, grass, &c., and, during the heat of the day, rest on some sand-bank in the large rivers, or in the middle of a tank. This Goose is a wary bird, approached with difficulty when feeding, but may occasionally be stalked when on the bank of a river or tank ; I have often killed it from a boat. The flesh is excellent. In the wild state it breeds in Northern Europe and Asia, making a large nest among the rushes, and laying from eight to twelve whitish eggs. It is the origin of the domestic Goose. It is very similar to, and is occasionally confounded with the Bean-goose of England, A. segetum, but that species is smaller, with the bill proportionally smaller and differing in colour."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 779f.]


Anser fabalis Latham, 1787 - Bean Goose - Saatgans

76 cm



Abb.: कलहंसौ । Anser fabalis Latham, 1787 - Bean Goose - Saatgans
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: कलहंसः । Anser fabalis Latham, 1787 - Bean Goose - Saatgans, Moscow region, Vinogradovo flood-lands, Russland
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/4506446650/in/photostream/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Anser albifrons Scopoli, 1769 - White-fronted Goose - Blässgans

68 cm



Abb.: कलहंसौ । Anser albifrons Scopoli, 1769 - White-fronted Goose - Blässgans
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]


Abb.: कलहंसाः । Anser albifrons Scopoli, 1769 - White-fronted Goose - Blässgans, Moscow region, Lovtsy, Russland
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/2401769940/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Habitat. Sind, Beloochistan (Quetta), Persian Gulf (Bussorah), Afghanistan (Arghandab), Punjab, N.-W. Provinces and Oudh. In Sind the White-fronted Goose is much more rare than the Grey Lag. Mr. Hume says "that about one bird of this species visits this empire, for every thousand of Grey Lags, or every five thousand of the Barred-headed Geese." In Egypt it is most abundant, also at Fao in Mesopotamia, and on the Caspian."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 675.]

"The white-fronted Goose has, within our territories, only been observed hitherto in the Punjab, Adams stating that it is a winter visitant to the lakes and rivers of that province. It is found throughout Europe, Northern Asia, and North America. It is stated to frequent marshes and rarely to visit corn-fields."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 781.]


2.9.59. Seevögel:

Laridae - Möwen - Gulls

& Sternidae - Seeschwalben - Terns

& Pandionidae - Fischadler - Ospreys

& Haliaeetus sp. - Seeadler - See Eagles


23. a./b. kādambaḥ kalahaṃsaḥ syād utkrośa-kurarau samau

कादम्बः कलहंसः स्याद् उत्क्रोश-कुररौ समौ ।२३ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Seevögel: Laridae - Möwen - Gulls & Sternidae - Seeschwalben - Terns & Pandionidae - Fischadler - Ospreys & Haliaeetus sp. - Seeadler - See Eagles:]

  • उत्क्रोश - utkrośa m.: "Schreier" = "any of the Laridae, Larini and Sternini tribes (Gull, Tern); also Fishing (Fish) and Sea Eagles." (Dave, 485)
  • कुरर - kurara m.: Kurara = "Pandion haliaetus, Osprey; also Fisching (Fish) Eagles or Sea Eagles; any Laridae of the Larini tribe (Gull), and sometimes the Sternini tribe (Tern); Numenius arquata, (Eurasian) Curlew; Grus virgo, Demoiselle Crane; according to Dave, Terns, or Numenius arquata, (Eurasian) Curlew; are the birds whose calls may be compared to the sorrowful wail of women." (Dave, 489)

Colebrooke (1807): "An osprey."


Im Folgenden einige Beispiele.


Numenius arquata Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Curlew - Großer Brachvogel

58 cm



Abb.: कुरराः । Numenius arquata Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Curlew - Großer Brachvogel
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: कुररः । Numenius arquata Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Curlew - Großer Brachvogel, Rann of Kutch - કચ્છનું મોટું રણ, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Tarique Sani. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tariquesani/4329065559/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: कुरराः । Numenius arquata Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Curlew - Großer Brachvogel, Mangalore - ಮಂಗಳೂರು, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: wildxplorer. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/krayker/3087839763/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

Klicken: Balzruf von Numenius arquata

उत्क्रोशः । Klicken! Balzruf von Numenius arquata Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Curlew - Großer Brachvogel
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: Guido Gerding / Wikimeadia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Throughout most parts of Europe, India, Burmah, Ceylon, N. Africa, Egypt, Abyssinia and Palestine. Common along the sea coast and backwaters in great numbers during winter; also along the banks of the Indus and Punjab rivers, and on all large inland sheets of water."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 630f.]

"The Curlew is found throughout India, most abundantly perhaps near the sea coast, but also far inland, frequenting marshes, lakes, and rivers. It is generally seen in small flocks, often alone, but at the times of its arrival or departure sometimes in great numbers. It arrives in September and leaves in March or April. It is a very wary bird, and has a fine wild whistle. It is excellent eating. It breeds in Northern Europe and Asia (spreading in winter into Africa and Southern Asia,) laying four eggs of the usual blotched green colour. The Curlew is stated to perch on trees occasionally in Northern Europe."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 684.]


Chroicocephalus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 - Black-headed Gull - Lachmöwe

38 cm



Abb.: उत्क्रोशाः । Chroicocephalus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 - Black-headed Gull - Lachmöwe
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशाः । Chroicocephalus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 - Black-headed Gull - Lachmöwe und Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840 - Brown-headed Gull - Braunkopf-Lachmöwe, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Dr. S. Natarajan / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Chroicocephalus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 - Black-headed Gull - Lachmöwe, Deutschland
[Bildquelle: AxelHH / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Chroicocephalus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 - Black-headed Gull - Lachmöwe, Frankreich
[Bildquelle: Jean-Pierre Bazard / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Lebensräume von Chroicocephalus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 - Black-headed Gull - Lachmöwe (dunkelrot = Brutgebiet; orange und blau: Vorkommen nur im Winter)
[Bildquelle: Viktor Kravtchenko (Виктор Кравченко) / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Sind, in the Kurrachee harbour, and on the inland lakes ; the Mekran Coast, Persian Gulf, rivers of the Punjab and Bengal, at Bombay, also the Mediterranean Coast to Egypt, Asia Minor, the Red Sea and Arabian Coast."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 718.]

"The Laughing Gull is not so common as the last species, but it is found in the Bay of Bengal, and at the mouths of the Ganges and the Hooghly in considerable numbers. It appears to be less common in the South of India, where I never observed it. This Gull is stated by Adams to breed on the lakes of Ladakh.

The Laughing Gull inhabits temperate and Northern Europe and Asia, breeding abundantly in Britain, and, in company with the common Gull, often feeding on ploughed lands. The eggs are said to be nearly as good as those of Plovers. The note is a hoarse cackle compared by some to a laugh ; hence its specific name."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 833.]


Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840 - Brown-headed Gull - Braunkopf-Lachmöwe



Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840 - Brown-headed Gull - Braunkopf-Lachmöwe, Pangong Lake, Ladakh
[Bildquelle: Praveenpn / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Habitat. Sind, along the coast and inland, Mekran Coast, Persian Gulf, Bengal, Kutch, Guzerat and the Deccan. Occurs also in Burma and Ceylon."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 717.]

"This Gull is very abundant throughout the whole of India, frequenting the sea coasts and ascending rivers for many miles ; it is often found also in large lakes. It has the usual habits of its tribe, and frequently follows ships for miles to pick up any garbage that may be thrown overboard. Occasionally, but not often, I have seen it feeding in newly ploughed fields and in marshes. It does not, that I know of, breed here ; its nidificaton indeed is unknown, but probably is in Cashmere and parts of Central Asia."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 832.]


Sterna aurantia Gray, 1831 - River Tern - Hindu-Seeschwalbe



Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Sterna aurantia Gray, 1831 - River Tern - Hindu-Seeschwalbe, Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary - ರಂಗನತಿಟ್ಟು ಪಕ್ಷಿಧಾಮ, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Ananda Debnath. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/heizenberg/93895622/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Sterna aurantia Gray, 1831 - River Tern - Hindu-Seeschwalbe, Pocharam Lake, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Sterna aurantia Gray, 1831 - River Tern - Hindu-Seeschwalbe, Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary - ರಂಗನತಿಟ್ಟು ಪಕ್ಷಿಧಾಮ, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Sandeep Somasekharan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/sandyclix/4340418931/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. --  Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Habitat. Throughout India, Burmah and Ceylon, also in Beloochistan and Persia. A permanent resident in Sind; affects the river and lakes, also jheels. In Sind it breeds in June and July ; March and April in Tenasserim, depositing three eggs in a slight depression in the sand. Considerable numbers breed together. Eggs, various shades of buff, streaked, blotched and spotted with brown. Size 1.5 to 1.75 inch x 1.17 to 1.32."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 724.]

"This Tern is very common throughout the greater part of India, chiefly frequenting rivers, but now and then hunting over large tanks or inundated ground. It breeds on churrs and sand-banks throughout the country, laying generally three eggs. It hunts usually singly or in pairs, or in very small parties, and does not congregate much.

Its geographical distribution is somewhat limited, as it does not appear to occur out of India, including Ceylon and Burmah, though it may perhaps be met with in the South of China. Mr. Brooks informs me that he found a large regular deposit of these Tern's eggs, upwards of a hundred, mixed with those of other species and also of the Skimmer, on a sand-bank in the Ganges. "I suppose," he writes, "that these were laid by birds which had not time to prepare a nest.""

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 839.]


Chlidonias hybridus Pallas, 1811 - Whiskered Tern - Weißbart-Seeschwalbe

25 cm



Abb.: उत्क्रोशौ । Chlidonias hybridus Pallas, 1811 - Whiskered Tern - Weißbart-Seeschwalbe
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Chlidonias hybridus Pallas, 1811 - Whiskered Tern - Weißbart-Seeschwalbe, Kolleru Lake - కొల్లేరు సరస్సు, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: उत्क्रोशः । Chlidonias hybridus Pallas, 1811 - Whiskered Tern - Weißbart-Seeschwalbe, Kovalam Beach - കോവളം, Kerala
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/986120569/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"This Tern is exceedingly abundant in India, frequenting marshes, tanks, and rivers, usually preying on aquatic food, not unfrequently hunting over fields, beds of reeds, and marshy ground, where it captures grasshoppers, caterpillars, and other insects. During the night, in some parts of the country, it roosts on thick beds of reeds, congregating in vast numbers ; for some time after sunset, till nearly dark, indeed, it may be seen flying in scattered flocks in an excited and hurried manner over the surface of the water. I do not think that the birds which I saw thus occupied were at the time engaged in capturing food.

This little Tern breeds in large churrs on the Ganges, and probably on most other large rivers. Mr. Brooks sent me the eggs procured near Mirzapore. It is found over the greater part of Europe, temperate Asia, and Africa. Bonaparte and others separate the Indian and African races from the European birds."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 837f.]


Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 - Osprey - Fischadler

56 cm



Abb.: कुररौ । Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 - Osprey - Fischadler
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: कुररः । Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 - Osprey - Fischadler, Goa
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/3087383008/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]
 


Abb.: कुररः । व्Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 - Osprey - Fischadler, Goa
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/3079597228/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]
 


Abb.: कुररः । Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 - Osprey - Fischadler, Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कुररः । Lebensräume von Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 - Osprey - Fischadler
[Bildquelle: Zoologist / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Klicken: Ruf von Pandion haliaetus

कुररः । उत्क्रोशः । Klicken! Ruf von Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 - Osprey - Fischadler
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: http://www.nps.gov/archive/wica/Bird_List.htm / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Sind, Beloochistan, and Persia ; also the Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Bengal, British Burmah, Nepaul, Kutch, Kattiawar, Concan and Deccan, and nearly throughout the Indian Peninsula in suitable localities. Occurs also all over Europe and Africa, N. and S. America, China and Japan. Very widely distributed. Most abundant along the coasts, large rivers and lakes. In Sind it is a winter visitant.

Mr. Sharpe (Cat. Acc. p. 450) remarks that "Ospreys seem to get whiter on the head with age ; the mottling on the breast is strongly marked in all old birds, and that the tail becomes more uniform brown with age, so that a strongly barred tail is a sure sign of immaturity."

It is believed the Osprey breeds in the Valley of Kumaon, where Mr. Hume saw the nest of one, and Mr. Thompson believes it breeds on the Ganges above Hurdwar. Nothing certain is however known. In the British Isles it is said to make a large nest either on trees, on rocks, or about old ruins near large pieces of water, and to lay 2 or 3 eggs, oval in form, and typically have a white ground, here and there clouded with pale purple and very richly blotched and streaked, most densely towards the large end with deep red, becoming in its intensity almost black. Size 2.52 X 1.89 to 1.93."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 81.]

"The Fish-hawk of Europe is spread over all India, most abundant of course along the coast, where there are numerous backwaters and lagoons, but common along all the large rivers of India, and generally found at most of the larger lakes and tanks, even far inland. As is well known, it plunges from a great height into the water, and bears forth a goodly-sized fish, which its sharp claws and prickly soles enable it to carry easily, and if too heavy to be carried with ease, it can be readily dropped, owing to the rounded talons. It builds in this country on trees, but I have not procured their eo-o-s, though I have seen their nests. It is frequently robbed of its well-earned prey by the Halicetus leucogaster. The Osprey is found over Europe, Asia, and Africa."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 80.]


Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 - White-bellied Fish Eagle - Weißbauch-Seeadler

68 cm



Abb.: कुररः । Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 - White-bellied Fish Eagle - Weißbauch-Seeadler, Goa
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/3122877783/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: कुररः । Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 - White-bellied Fish Eagle - Weißbauch-Seeadler, Goa
[Bildquelle: Sergey Yeliseev. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/3188784566/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


 Abb.: कुररः । Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 - White-bellied Fish Eagle - Weißbauch-Seeadler, Mangalore - ಮಂಗಳೂರು, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: wildxplorer. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/krayker/2989019862/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: कुररः । Lebensraum von Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 - White-bellied Fish Eagle - Weißbauch-Seeadler
[Bildquelle: Scops nach Ferguson-Lees, 2001 / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Habitat. The whole of India, including British Burmah and the Tennaserim province, also Assam and the Malay Archipelago, the Andamans and Nicobars. Occurs in the Concan, Deccan, Central, Northern and Southern India, Punjab, N.-W. P. and Bengal. A permanent resident in most parts, breeding on lofty trees.

Mr. Vidal has taken the eggs, in October, November and December, in the Southern Concan. The nests are gigantic platforms, built of strong, thick sticks, and are fully 5 feet in diameter. The normal number of eggs is one, and sometimes two have been found ; they are greenish white, unspotted and glossless, from 2.7 X 2.04 to 3 X 2.06 inches. Mr. Vidal's experience is that the same nests are used year after year, after being repaired, and that they build on large trees in cocoanut and other gardens. As its English name implies, it feeds chiefly upon fish."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 54.]

"This Sea Eagle is found over all India, but chiefly on the coast, and for a short distance up some of the larger rivers. It lives chiefly on sea snakes, also on fish, which it picks up on the beach, or near the surface of the water, not diving for them. It also eats rats, crabs, and anything living it can catch, and will eat dead fish. It habitually preys on the osprey, pursuing it, and robbing it of its well-earned food. The natives assert, but probably without actual foundation, that when breeding, it makes a larder of fresh boughs with leaves, to place the fish on, to keep them fresh.

In Pigeon Island, 30 miles or so south of Honore, which is well wooded with large forest trees, a whole colony of these birds have their nests, at least thirty or forty of them ; and the ground below their nests is strewed and whitened with bones of sea snakes chiefly, and also of fish. They breed in December, January, and February.

This species extends through Burmah, Malayana, and the Islands to Australia."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 85.]


Haliaeetus leucoryphus Pallas, 1771 - Pallas's Fish Eagle - Bindenseeadler

80 cm



Abb.: कुररः । Haliaeetus leucoryphus Pallas, 1771 - Pallas's Fish Eagle - Bindenseeadler, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2478486868/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: कुररः । Haliaeetus leucoryphus Pallas, 1771 - Pallas's Fish Eagle - Bindenseeadler, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Lip Kee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/2439213124/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: कुररः । Haliaeetus leucoryphus Pallas, 1771 - Pallas's Fish Eagle - Bindenseeadler, Kaziranga National Park - কাজিৰঙা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান, Assam
[Bildquelle: Pete Favelle. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/ganders/4505394020/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

"Habitat. Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh and Bengal ; Kutch, Rajputana, the Western Coast and the Cancan; also Beloochistan, Persia and Afghanistan. Ascends the Ganges and other large rivers ; found also in Nepal and Cashmere. In the Concan and along the Sind, Kutch and Kattiawar Coasts, it is known as the Mutchee Mar or Mutchlee Mung.

The Ring-tailed Sea Eagle is found throughout the year in Sind, along the Indus., and on the larger lakes. It breeds in the winter months (November, December and January), building a nest of twigs, &c., from 4 to 5 feet in diameter, inclusive of the outer thin layer, usually on high trees in the vicinity of water. Eggs usually 2, but I have found a third and fourth laid by the same bird a fortnight after taking the two first ones. In colour they are white or greyish white and unspotted, and measure 2 3/4 - 3 inches x 2 1/4 to 2 1/2."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 1, S. 55.]

"This fine Fish Eagle is found throughout the North of India, most abundant in Bengal, and the countries to the westward. It ascends the Ganges and other large rivers to some distance, and is found in Nepal, and as far north-west as Cashmere, where Dr. Adams has observed it on the lakes and rivers. It is also common on the Indus. It is said to be found in the Crimea, and to be identical with F. leucoryphus of Pallas. But Mr. Newton on examining the sterna of H. Macei from India, and so called leucoryphus from the Crimea, found a considerable difference between them.—Vide Ibis, vol. 3, p. 223.

I have only seen it myself on the Ganges and Hooghly, and a few of their tributaries. It lives chiefly on fish, also on turtle, and snakes ; and most probably will take other food, and often carries off a wounded duck. It does not, however, dive for fish like the two last birds. It may often be seen seated on the high bank, or on a sand chur in the Ganges, or in a decayed tree near the edge of the river. It builds its nest in general on large trees, but I have also found it building on trees not more than 30 or 40 feet high, on the banks of the Ganges. It has a wild clanging cry. "

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 1. -- S. 83f.]


2.9.60. Anatidae - Entenvögel (Schwäne, Gänse, Enten) -  Swans, Geese, Ducks


23. c./d. haṃsās tu śvetagarutaś cakrāṅgā mānasaukasaḥ

हंसास् तु श्वेतगरुतश् चक्राङ्ग मानसौकसः ॥२३ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Anatidae - Entenvögel (Schwäne, Gänse, Enten) -  Swans, Geese, Ducks:]

  • हंस - haṃsa m.: Haṃsa = "a generic term for a large part of the Anatidae family. Swans, Geese, Ducks." (Dave, 515)
  • श्वेतगरुत् - śvetagarut m.: "Weiß-Flügel" = "white-winged, a Swan alone has white wing quills:" (Dave, 428)
  • चक्राङ्ग - cakrāṅga m.: "Wagen-Gliedrig" = "refer[s] to the circular or spiral flight of the birds as they survey their landing ground or water, and also to the vigorous rotary motion of their wings preparatory to settling down." (Dave, 429)
  • मानसौकस् - mānasaukas m.: "im Mānasa1 wohnend" = "All the Swans and Geese come across the Himalayas and as the Bar-headed Geese were known to have their breeding grounds at the Himalayan lakes including the मानसरोवर (Mānasarovara)1 the Swans also have been placed there and the name merely signifies their northern home across the Himalayas." (Dave, 429)

Colebrooke (1807): "Geese."


1 मानसौकस् - mānasaukas m.: "im Mānasa wohnend"


Abb.: Lage des मानसरोवरः । མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ
Mānasasarovara
[Bildquelle: ©MS Encarta]


Abb.: मानसरोवरः । མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ
Mānasasarovara
[Bildquelle: Prateek / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"MĀNASA, MĀNASA-SAROVARA. The lake Mānasa in the Himalayas. In the Vāyu Purāṇa it is stated that when the ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru, it ran four times round the mountain, then it divided into four rivers which ran down the mountain and formed four great lakes, Aruṇoda on the east, Sitoda on the west, Mahā-bhadra on the north, and Mānasa on the south. According to the mythological account, the river Ganges flows out of it, but in reality no river issues from this lake, though the river Satlej flows from another and larger lake called Rāvaṇa-hrāda, which lies close to the west of Mānasa."

[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]

"Der See Mānasarovar, tibetisch Mapham Yutsho (མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ)།, befindet sich im Kreis Purang, Regierungsbezirk Ngari auf dem Dach der Welt im Südwesten des Autonomen Gebiets Tibets in der Volksrepublik China.

Geografie

Der zwischen den Gebirgsketten Transhimalaya (im Norden) und Himalaya (im Süden) gelegene Manasarovar ist einer der höchstgelegenen Süßwasserseen der Welt mit einer Höhe von 4490 Metern über Normalnull. Er hat eine Wasseroberfläche von durchschnittlich 412 km² und ist bis zu 77 Meter tief. Der See liegt auf einer Hochebene, die durch die markanten Berge Kailash (6714 m) und Gurla Mandhata (7728 m) eingerahmt wird.[1]

Vier große Flüsse entspringen in unmittelbarer Nähe des Sees:

  • Satluj im Westen (bei Hochwasser gibt es auch eine direkte Verbindung über die Verbindungs-Wadi Ganga Chu zwischen Manasarovar und Rakshastal),
  • Indus im Norden,
  • Brahmaputra (Yarlung Zangbo) im Osten und
  • Karnali im Süden.
Namen

Auf Tibetisch heißt der See Mapham Yutsho (tib.: ma pham g.yu mtsho); der Name bedeutet "unbesiegbarer Türkis-See". Die chinesische Bezeichnung Mǎpáng Yōngcuò 玛旁雍错 (auch: Mǎfǎ Mùcuò 玛法木错) ist aus dem Tibetischen entlehnt. Weitere tibetische Namen für den See sind Tshochen Mapham Yutsho, Tsho Mapham, Tsho Rinpoche, Pema Lhatsho und ("göttlicher Lotos-See"). "Manasarovar" ist Sanskrit, zusammengesetzt aus manas "Geist" und sarovar "See"; eine weiterer Sanskrit-Name ist Anavatapta.

Der See wird "unbesiegbar" bzw. "unübertroffen" genannt, weil nur sein Wasser die "Acht Eigenschaften perfekten Wassers" besitzen soll: kühl, süß, leicht, weich, klar, rein, weder Magen noch Hals reizend. Er heißt auch "ewig kühl", weil der Wassergott (naga) Anavatapta (Pali: Anotatta, Tibetisch: Mazhoiba; "der sich niemals erhitzt") hier leben soll. Die Bezeichnung "göttlicher Lotos-See" geht auf einen Vergleich seiner Wasserfläche mit einer geöffneten Lotosblüte zurück.

Religiöse Bedeutung

Der Manasarovar ist ein Heiligtum der Hindus und der Buddhisten und so auch wichtiges Ziel von Pilgern. Er zählt zu den drei heiligen Seen in Tibet. Nach der hinduistischen Mythologie wurde der See vom Gott Brahma erdacht ("manas"). Im hinduistischen Epos Ramayana heißt es:

»Wann immer einer den Boden um den Manasarovar berührt oder wenn er in dem See badet, so wird er ins Paradies des Brahma eingehen; und der, der von seinen Wassern trinkt, wird in Shivas Himmel eingehen und wird von den Sünden von hundert Wiedergeburten erlöst werden.« 

Entlang des Seeufers befanden sich früher entsprechend der acht Speichen des buddhistischen Lebensrads die Gompas (Klöster) Chiu (auf einem Felsen gebaut), Cherkip, Langpona, Bönri, Seralung, Yerngo, Trügo und Gösul, von denen fünf noch existieren. Der Rundweg auf dem traditionellen Pilgerweg misst 103 km (Manasarovar Parikrama), für den die Pilger zwischen zwei und vier Tagen benötigen.[2]

Während in der Mystik mit dem Manasarovar die Attribute leicht, positiv und männlich verbunden werden, sind dies beim westlichen Nachbarn Raksastal die Attribute dunkel, negativ und weiblich. Da die beiden Seen von den Tibetern auch als Bräutigam und Braut angesehen werden, wird es als glücksverheißend angesehen, wenn der Verbindungskanal Ganga Chu Wasser führt.[3]

Sonstiges

Der See ist Namensgeber des Bollywood-Films Wiedersehen am See Manasarovar, Anup Kurian (2004).

Manasarovar ("Ozean der Gedanken") lautet des weiteren der Titel einer Sammlung von 205 der insgesamt etwa 350 Kurzgeschichten des indischen Schriftstellers Premchand (1880-1936)."

[Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manasarovar. -- Zugriff am 2011-01-19]


Schwäne kommen nur ganz gelegentlich in Indien vor!

Schwäne: siehe den nächsten Vers

Gänse: siehe Vers 22c - 23a

Hier einige Beispiele von Enten (meist Anas sp.)


Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 - Northern Pintail - Spießente

57 - 74 cm



Abb.: हंसौ ! Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 - Northern Pintail - Spießente
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]

Klicken: Ruf von Anas acuta

हंसः । Klicken! Ruf von Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 - Northern Pintail - Spießente
[Quelle der .ogg-Datei: http://www.nps.gov/archive/wica/Bird_List.htm / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

"Habitat. Sind, Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab, N.-W. and Central Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Kutch, Concan, Deccan, Guzerat, Central and Southern India and Ceylon. Hume says "There is no district in the Empire, from Ceylon to Kashmir, and from Kashmir to Sadya, Munipoor and Moulmein, where the Pintail does not occur in greater or less abundance except in south Tenasserim."

The Pintail affects the large broads or dhunds and lakes, and is seldom seen except in large parties. It is held in much esteem for the table, and for this purpose is netted in great numbers with the Gadwall and other water birds. On the Munchur Lake the fowlers net from 100 to 200 daily, and a sportsman in suitable localities could obtain two or three dozens at least as a good day's sport, besides other game. Hume, like myself, thinks that on the whole, next to the Mallard, the Pintail is the best duck for the table in India, the Gadwall ranking third."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 690f.]

"The Pintail is one of the most numerous winter visitants to India in the present sub-family, frequenting large tanks and jheels, often in immense flocks, and flying with great rapidity. Its long brown neck and lengthened tail causes it to be readily distinguished when in flight. Its call is soft and subdued, and it is by no means garrulous. Few Ducks are brought to the different markets for sale in such abundance as this species, and it is very excellent eating. Like most of the Ducks, it has a wide geographical distribution throughout both Continents, and breeds in northern regions, laying eight or ten bluish-white eggs."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 804.]


Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Teal - Krickente

38 cm



Abb.: हंसाः । Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Teal - Krickente
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]

"Habitat. Sind, Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab, N. W and Central Vovinces, Rajputana, Kutch and throughout India and Burmah.

Abundant wherever it occurs, frequenting tanks, rivers, ponds and jheels, &c."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 693.]

"The well known Teal is one of the most abundant as well as the earliest of the visitors to India. I have seen it early in September, and it is late before it leaves the country. It frequents both tanks and rivers, often in immense flocks, and its flight is amazingly rapid. Large numbers are netted or caught in various ways to supply the Tealeries. It is a strictly night-feeding species, and about sunset flocks may be seen and heard flying in different directions to their feeding grounds. Its geographical distribution is similar to that of most of the Ducks of this sub-family, and it breeds in northern and temperate regions."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 807.]


Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758 - Gadwall - Schnatterente

51 cm



Abb.: हंसौ । Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758 - Gadwall - Schnatterente
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]

"Habitat. Central and South Europe, and nearly throughout India ; found in Sind, Beloochistan, Afghanistan, and Persia; also in the Punjab, N.-W. and Central Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Central India, Kutch, Guzerat, the Concans and Deccan; recorded also from Nepaul, Gilgit, and E. Turkestan; it is also let with on the Continent of Europe, in Spain and Italy, also in Iceland and Liberia, as well as in the northern parts of Africa and India generally. In Sind it is numerous on the lakes, dhunds, &c., during winter, and especially in the Munchur, arriving about the middle of November.

Gadwall are considered excellent for the table, especially during the first two months of their arrival, when they usually feed on rice and young shoots of the sprouting wheat crops. Later on they affect the jheels and feed on Crustaceans and fry of fish, and though then rather fishy in taste, the flesh is not despised when better game is not to be had. The localities preferred by the Gadwall after dusk are generally lakes, jheels and ponds covered with long herbage, but during the day it frequents open water, as the broads of the Indus."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 687.]

"The Gadwall is by no means a rare bird in any part of India, in the cold weather, generally frequenting the more open and larger tanks in moderately large parties. Its flight is rapid, and its voice not unlike that of the common Duck. It is found over the greater part of the Old Continent, and also in America. It is justly considered one of the best wild Ducks for the table. No other species of Gadwall is recorded."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 802.]


Anas penelope Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Wigeon - Pfeifente

49 cm



Abb.: हंसौ । Anas penelope Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Wigeon - Pfeifente
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]

"Habitat. Sind, Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab, N.-W. and Central Provinces, Oudh, Bengal and throughout Western and Central India, rare in Southern India and Burmah, and not yet recorded from Ceylon. In Kattiawar, Rajputana, the Deccan and Concan it is not uncommon during the winter months. It is considered excellent eating for the first two months after arrival, but after this the flesh is said to become of a muddy flavour and unpalatable."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 692.]

"The Wigeon cannot be said to be either common or abundant in India, although it is met with occasionally in every part of the country, in small or moderate flocks. It has a peculiar shrill whistling call chiefly heard during flight. Its geographical distribution is over the northern and temperate regions of the Old Continent. It breeds far north, and, though very abundant in Britain, is only a winter visitant there."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 805.]


Anas querquedula Linnaeus, 1758 - Garganey - Knäkente

41 cm



Abb.: हंसाः । Anas querquedula Linnaeus, 1758 - Garganey - Knäkente
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]

"Habitat. The same as Q. crecca.

Not found in as great numbers as Q. crecca, affects the same situations, and is considered excellent for the table. It is chiefly a nocturnal feeder, concealing itself in the jheels and dhunds, among the high grass, during the day; when disturbed it usually returns to the same spot. Hume says "that at nights they come in some parts of the country in such crowds into paddy fields as to destroy acres of crop at one visit ; their food, like Q. crecca, is chiefly vegetable, as tender shoots and leaves of water plants, seeds, bulbs, &c., but on the sea coasts, especially the Sind and Mekran Coast, where they are frequently found in some numbers, Crustacea, slugs, fry of fish and algae form their diet.""

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 694.]

"The Blue-winged or Garganey Teal is, perhaps, still more abundant in India, than the common Teal, but is somewhat later in its arrival here. It occurs in vast flocks, feeding at night chiefly, and has a swift flight. Like the last, numbers are caught and fed throughout the summer in our Tealeries, and both this and the last are most excellent food. The Garganey Teal does not extend to America, but is distributed over the greater portion of the Old Continent.

I have once or twice procured birds with the whole head, neck, and under parts, deep ferruginous, but I consider this to be an individual variation.

Vast quantities of this and the previous species are annually caught alive, some by large flap-nets, others by nooses fixed to a long line across a jheel; and in some places, by a man wading with his head above water concealed in a large earthen chatty, several of which have previously been set afloat."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 808.]


Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758 - Northern Shoveler - Löffelente

51 cm



Abb.: हंसौ । Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758 - Northern Shoveler - Löffelente
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]

"Habitat. Sind, Belochistan, Persia, Afghanistan, Nepaul, Cashmere, Eastern Turkestan, Punjab, N -W. Provinces and Oudh, Bengal, Central India, Rajputana, Kutch, Guzerat, Concan, Deccan, South India, and Ceylon.

Winter visitors to India, affecting all the lakes, marshes, ponds, &c., feeding on worms, larvae, tadpoles, seeds, and young shoots of aquatic plants.

They are not naturally shy, as in village ponds they are frequently seen dabbling about, or standing in the shallow edge of ponds, while the inhabitants are drawing water or bathing."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 683.]

"The Shoveller is found throughout India in the cold weather in small parties, often mixed with Gadwalls and other species ; feeding near the edges of tanks in shallow water among weeds, chiefly on minute worms and larvae, which it sifts from the mud. It is often late in leaving this country. It is found over both Continents, breeding, in temperate as well as in northern regions, in marshes, and laying ten to twelve oil-green eggs. The intestines of this Duck are very long, from 9 to 10 feet."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 797.]


Aythya nyroca Güldenstädt, 1770 - Ferruginous Pochard - Moorente

41 cm



Abb.: हंसाः । Aythya nyroca Güldenstädt, 1770 - Ferruginous Pochard - Moorente
[Bildquelle: Indian sporting birds. -- 1915.]

"Habitat. Sind, Beloochistan, Persia, Afganistan and throughout India, except South India and Ceylon. Occurs in Nepaul, Gilgit and Eastern and Western Turkistan, in which latter it breeds. In the lakes of Cashmere, Hume says, "they breed most abundantly, and that boat-loads of their eggs are brought to market at Srinuggar." The White Eye affects chiefly jheels with thick cover, where they sport about in the early morning, afternoon and at night, retiring during the middle of day. It is not sought for by sportsmen, being very indifferent eating at the best of times."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 702.]

"This little Duck is exceedingly common in Northern and Central India, less so in the South. It frequents both tanks and rivers, and prefers grassy tanks and wooded jheels and rivers. It appears to feed a good deal during the day, and is met with in large parties scattered among the grass or weeds, the birds often rising singly.

This Pochard inhabits the same countries as the other species, and is occasionally killed in Britain. It is stated to breed in Northern Africa. One or two allied species are recorded from Australia, and another from the Marianne islands."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 813.]


2.9.61. Cygnus sp. - Swans - Schwäne


24. rājahaṃsās tu te cañcucaraṇair lohitaiḥ sitāḥ
malinair mallikākṣāsa te dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ sitetaraiḥ

राजहंसास् तु ते चञ्चुचरणैर् लोहितैः सिताः ।
मलिनौर् मल्लिकाक्षास् ते धार्तराष्ट्राः सितेतरैः ॥२४॥

a mallikākhyās - मल्लिकाख्यास् Coleb.

Die Weißen mit roten Schnäbeln und Füßen heißen राजहंस - rājahaṃsa m.: "Königs-Gans" = "any of the Anatidae, genus Cygnus (Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan; Cygnus olor, Mute Swan); Anser anser, Greylag Goose." (Dave, 508);

die mit grauschwarzen [Schnäbeln und Füßen] heißen मल्लिकाक्ष - mallikākṣa m.: "Jasmin1-Äugige" = "Aythya nyroca, White-eyed Pochard or Ferruginuous Duck (Ferruginous Pochard)." (Dave, 506);

die mit schwarzen [Schnäbeln und Füßen] heißen  धार्तराष्ट्र - dhārtarāṣṭra m.: "auf Dhṛtarāṣṭra2 bezogen, Nachkomme des Dhṛtarāṣṭra" =  "Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan." (Dave, 499) Dave 427 f. identifiziert dies als "Mute Swan" = Cygnus olor.


Colebrooke (1807): "Varieties of geese." [rājahaṃsa:] "A white gander with red legs and bill." [mallika:] "with brown legs and bill." [dhārtarāṣṭra:] "with black legs and bill."

Schwäne kommen nur ganz gelegentlich in Indien vor!


1 मल्लिकाक्ष - mallikākṣa m.: "Jasmin-Äugige"

mallikā f. = Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine


Abb.: मल्लिका । Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: Biswarup Ganguly / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


2 धार्तराष्ट्र - dhārtarāṣṭra m.: "auf Dhṛtarāṣṭra bezogen, Nachkomme des Dhṛtarāṣṭra"

"DHṚTA-RĀSHṬRA. 1. The eldest son of Vichitra-vīrya or Vyāsa, and brother of Pāṇḍu. His mother was Ambikā. He married Gāndhārī, and by her had a hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Dur-yodhana. Dhṛta-rāshṭra was blind, and Pāṇḍu was affected with a disease supposed, from his name, "the pale," to be a leprous affection. The two brothers in turn renounced the throne, and the great war recorded in the Mahā-bhārata was fought between their sons, one party being called Kauravas, from an ancestor, Kuru, and the other Pāṇḍavas, from their father Pāṇḍu. Dhṛta-rāshṭra and his wife were burned in a forest fire. (See Mahā-bhārata.)

2. An enormous serpent of many heads and immense strength."

[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]



Abb.: von links nach rechts: Cygnus olor Gmelin, 1789 - Mute Swan - Höckerschwan, Cygnus cygnus Linnaeus, 1758 - Whooper Swan - Singschwan, Cygnus columbianus Ord., 1815 - Bewick's Swan - Zwergschwan
[Bildquelle: The British bird book, 1910. -- Pl. 155]


Cygnus cygnus Linnaeus, 1758 - Whooper Swan - Singschwan

152 cm


nur gelegentliches Vorkommen in Indien.


Abb.:
Cygnus cygnus Linnaeus, 1758 - Whooper Swan - Singschwan
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]


Abb.: Lebensräume von Cygnus cygnus Linnaeus, 1758 - Whooper Swan - Singschwan
[Bildquelle:
Jniemenmaa / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"The Hooper Swan, Cygnus musicus, is said to have been met with in Nepal, and a head and a foot, stated to be from that country, are in the British Museum ; if killed there, however, it could only have been a very accidental visitor, and was more probably brought from the Tibet side of the Hills."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 778.]


Cygnus olor Gmelin, 1789 - Mute Swan - Höckerschwan



Abb.: धार्तराष्ट्राः । Cygnus olor Gmelin, 1789 - Mute Swan - Höckerschwan
[Bildquelle: Gould, Birds of Great Britain, 1862 - 1873]

"This species was obtained on the Munchur Lake during an unusually severe winter in Sind, by Mr. H. E. Watson, Deputy Collector of Sehwan, shortly after I left the Lake in the same year (1878). In every instance, where the species has occurred, it was during an unusually severe winter. Mr. Hume, in his Game Birds, says "It may be considered a pretty regular, though somewhat rare, cold weather visitant to the Peshawar and Hazara Districts, and an occasional straggler to the Kohat and Rawul Pindee Districts, and to the Trans-Indus portions of Sind.

It has occurred near Peshawar in 1857. In 1871, Captain Unwin obtained a specimen in the Rawul Pindee District. Dr. Stolickza in J. A. S. B., 1872, p. 229, says "While crossing the Runn of Cutch he noticed several swans but at too great a distance for it to be possible to form an idea as to the species the birds belonged to," " and from its occurrence in Sind," Mr. Hume says, "renders it not improbable that Dr. Stolickza was right."

Outside our limits this species has been seen in the Kabul river, near Jellalabad, and is known to visit Northern Afghanistan pretty regularly. Breeds in Western Turkistan."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 672.]


2.9.62. Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 - Indian Skimmer - Halsband-Scherenschnabel
{& Pseudibis papillosa Temminck, 1824 - Black Ibis - Warzenibis}


25. a./b. śarārir āṭir āḍiś ca balākā bisakaṇṭhikā

शरारिर् आटिर् आडिश् च बलाका बिसकण्ठिका ।२५ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 - Indian Skimmer - Halsband-Scherenschnabel {& Pseudibis papillosa Temminck, 1824 - Black Ibis - Warzenibis}:]

  • शरारि - śarāri m.: "Feind des Śara-Grases1, Feind des Pfeils" = "Rhynchops albicollis, Indian Skimmer." (Dave, 511)
  • आटि - āṭi m.: "Herumschweifer" = "Pseudibis papillosa, Black Ibis." (Dave 485)
  • आडि -  āḍi m.: Āḍi =  "Pseudibis papillosa, Black Ibis." (Dave 485)

Colebrooke (1807): "Sarali. Perhaps Turdus Ginginianus [= Acridotheres ginginianus Latham, 1790 - Bank Myna - Ufermaina]."


1 शरारि - śarāri m.: "Feind des Śara-Grases, Feind des Pfeils"

śara m. = Saccharum bengalense Retz. 1789 - Munja-Gras - Munj Sweetcane


Abb.: शरः । Saccharum bengalense Retz. 1789
[Bildquelle: LRBurdak / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 - Indian Skimmer - Halsband-Scherenschnabel

40 cm



Abb.: शरारिः । Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 - Indian Skimmer - Halsband-Scherenschnabel, Indien
[Bildquelle: Jayanth Sharma / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: शरारयः । Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 - Indian Skimmer - Halsband-Scherenschnabel, auf dem Ganges, Allahabad - इलाहाबाद -  اللہآباد, UP
[Bildquelle: ptwo. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/ptwo/2991241224/. -- Zugriff am 2010-12-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Habitat. Throughout India nearly, on the larger rivers and lakes. Occurs in large flocks of several hundreds or in small companies of 6 or a dozen. Breeds throughout the Empire on sandbanks ; the ground colour of the eggs is very variable, from a pale pinky buff to stone colour, and the markings are bold blotches, streaks and spots of chocolate and reddish brown. In size they vary from 1.45 to 1.76 inches in length and from 1.08 to 1.28 in breadth."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 731.]

"This remarkable bird is found throughout India, frequenting rivers, especially the larger ones. It associates in flocks of from twenty to fifty or more, and skims up and down the river with a peculiar flight, keeping close to the water, and now and then dipping its bill into the stream. It is asserted that it picks up small fish and Crustacea, and it is quite possible that it does so occasionally, but I have examined several and never found any remains of those animals in their stomachs. I have generally discovered merely a little oily fluid, and I confess that I am ignorant of what it actually lives on. Some travellers have asserted that the African species feed on the ground, searching the soft mud with their beaks, but I have never seen the Indian birds so engaged, and doubt their doing so. At one time I was Inclined to think that these birds perhaps feed at night, and had such a rapid digestion, that no remains of their food were to be seen during the day, but on one occasion I shot several, in company with Mr. W. Blanford, on the Irrawaddy, rather early one morning, and we found nothing but the usual oily fluid, and that in very small quantity.

The Skimmer breeds in April and May on sandy churrs, laying four, occasionally five eggs, of a pale stone-yellow colour with blotches of gray and brown, quite Tern-like. The young when hatched are stated by Burgess to be clad in a whity-brown down with dark spots. Mr. Brooks writes me that he found the young Skimmers hatched by the 15th April at Mirzapore, and that "it was amusing to see an army of some hundreds of these little fellows (Tortoise-shell looking things) running steadily a couple of hundred yards before us. They run well, and when we reached the end of the sand- bank, they attempted to swim off, while many squatted down. They did not make much way swimming, and sank very deep in the water.""

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,2. -- S. 847f.]


Pseudibis papillosa Temminck, 1824 - Black Ibis - Warzenibis

73 cm


Siehe Vers 21. a./b.


Acridotheres ginginianus Latham, 1790 - Bank Myna - Ufermaina

23 cm



Abb.: Acridotheres ginginianus Latham, 1790 - Bank Myna - Ufermaina, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Acridotheres ginginianus Latham, 1790 - Bank Myna - Ufermaina, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. India, generally to Assam and Burmah ; common in Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Oudh, Bengal, Central India, Deccan, Concan, Kutch, Kattiawar and Jodhpore. Breeds in nearly every locality it is found, either in holes in earthen banks and cliffs, from April to August ; eggs generally 4 - 5. Like the rest of the family the eggs are spotless, very glossy, and of different shades of very pale sky and greenish blue."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 366.]

"The Bank Myna is found throughout Bengal, the Upper Provinces, and Sindh, extending into Central India as far as the NeRbudda and the Mahanuddy. I got it at Mhow and Saugor, though rare, and on the banks of the Nerbudda. It is also found in the lower Himalayas, extending, it would appear, into Affghanistan, as Horsfield has one specimen from Gritlith, stated to be from Candahar, but it is possible there may be some mistake about this, especially as Adams says that it is not found in the Punjab, nor in the Himalayas. It also extends into Assam and Burmah. It certainly does not occur in Southern India, notwithstanding its specific name taken from Gingi, south of Madras. It is especially abundant in the Gangetic provinces, not occurring, says Mr. Blyth, so low down the Hooghly as Calcutta, but abounds as soon as the banks of the river become of suflicient height for it to burrow in with tolerable security. It has the usual habits of the group, feeding much with cattle, and partaking alike of insects, grain, and fruit. It breeds in holes in river banks, usually in large societies ; also in holes in wells, as I saw commonly at Ghazeepore and neighbouring country ; and lays, according to Theobald, as many as seven or eight eggs of the usual greenish blue colour."

[Quelle: Jerdon, T. C. (Thomas Claverhill) <1811-1872>: The birds of India. -- Calcutta, 1862. -- Vol 2,1. -- S. 327.]


2.9.63. Egretta intermedia Wagler, 1827 - Intermediate Egret - Mittelreiher

80 cm


25. a./b. śarārir āṭir āḍiś ca balākā bisakaṇṭhikā

शारारि आटिर् आडिश् च बलाका बिसकण्ठिका ।२५ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Egretta intermedia Wagler, 1827 - Intermediate Egret - Mittelreiher:]

  • बलाका - balākā f.: Balākā = "Mesophoyx intermedia [= Ardea intermedia Wagler, 1827], Smaller Egret (Intermediate Egret)." (Dave, 504)
  • बिसकण्ठिका - die einen Hals wie eine Lotuswurzel (bisa)1 hat

Colebrooke (1807): "A small crane. Feminine, even when the male bird is intended."


1 बिसकण्ठिका - die einen Hals wie eine Lotuswurzel (bisa) hat


Abb.: बिसम् । Lotuswurzel (von Nelumbo nucifera)
[Bildquelle: westwind / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Egretta intermedia Wagler, 1827 - Intermediate Egret - Mittelreiher



Abb.: बिसकण्ठिका । Egretta intermedia Wagler, 1827 - Intermediate Egret - Mittelreiher, im Brutkleid (schwarzer Schnabel!)
[Bildquelle: Hardwicke II, 1833. -- S. 106.]


Abb.: बिसकण्ठिका । Egretta intermedia Wagler, 1827 - Intermediate Egret - Mittelreiher, Hodal - होडाल, Haryana
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: बलाका । Egretta intermedia Wagler, 1827 - Intermediate Egret - Mittelreiher, bei Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Habitat. Generally distributed throughout India, Ceylon and Burma, but rare in the latter and in Southern India. Breeds during July and part of August, in colonies and generally in company of other kinds of Herons, Ibises, &c. The nest is not unlike that of its congeners, composed of thin twigs, lined or not with coarse sedge, but generally more closely packed. Eggs, 4 in number, broad ovals, rather pointed towards one end ; pale sea or bluish sea-green, 1.68 to 2.08 in length, and 1.3 to 1.52 in breadth."

[Quelle: Murray, James A.: The avifauna of British India and its dependencies. -- London : Trübner, 1888-1890. -- 2 Bde. -- Bd. 2, S. 655.]


2.9.64. Weibchen


25. c./d. haṃsasya yoṣid varaṭā sārasasya tu lakṣmaṇā

हंसस्य योषिद् वरटा सारसस्य तु लक्ष्मणा ॥२५ ख॥

Das Weibchen eines हंस - hamsa m.: Haṃsa = "a generic term for a large part of the Anatidae family. Swans, Geese, Ducks." (Dave, 515), heißt वरटा - varaṭā f.: Varaṭā.

Das Weibchen des सारस - sārasa m.: Saras-Kranich1, heißt लक्ष्मणा - lakṣmaṇā f.: Merkmale Habende


Colebrooke (1807): "A duck or goose." [d:] "A female crane."


1 सारस - sārasa m.: Saras-Kranich: siehe Vers 22.a/b.

सारस - sārasa m.: "Circus aeruginosus (Eurasian) Marsh Harrier; Grus grus, Common Ceane; Grus antigone, Sarus (or Indian) Crane." (Dave, 513)

Hier ist wohl Grus antigone gemeint.


Zu siṃhādivargaḥ.  -- 9. Vers 26a (Fledermäuse)