नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्

2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam

12. manuṣyavargaḥ III

(Über Menschen)

1. Vers 1 - 11

(Schmuck)


Übersetzt von Alois Payer

mailto:payer@payer.de 


Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 12. manuṣyavargaḥ III. (Über Menschen). -- 1. Vers 1 - 11. (Schmuck).  -- Fassung vom 2011-02-23. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa4/amara212a.htm                         

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2011-02-23

Überarbeitungen:

©opyright: Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Meinem Lehrer und Freund

Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron

ist die gesamte Amarakośa-Übersetzung

in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.


Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.


2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam - Zweiter Teil


2.12. manuṣyavargaḥ III - Abschnitt über Menschen III


Übersicht




Abb.: Einbandtitel

Zum Folgenden siehe:

Untracht, Oppi <1922 - 2008>: Traditional jewelry of India. -- 1. paperback ed. [of the 1997 ed.]. -- New York : Thames & Hudson, 2008. -- 432 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 978-0-500-28749-1. -- [Reich bebildert!]


2.12.1. Schmuck, Putz


1a./b. ākalpa-veṣau nepathyaṃ pratikarma prasādhanam

आकल्प-वेषौ नेपथ्यं प्रतिकर्म प्रसाधनम् ।१ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Schmuck, Putz:]

  • आकल्प - ākalpa m.: Schmuck, Putz (zu ā-kḷp 1: zu etwas passen, zurechtgemacht)
  • वेष - veṣa m.: "Tracht, Anzug, das durch Kunst erzeugte Äußere des Menschen." (PW)
  • नेपथ्य - nepathya n.: Garderobe, Kostüm
  • प्रतिकर्म - pratikarma n.: Aufmachung, Putz
  • प्रसाधन - prasādhana n.: Ordnen, Pflege, Putz, Schmuck

Colebrooke (1807): "Dress or embellishment."


आकल्प - ākalpa m.: Schmuck, Putz (zu ā-kḷp 1: zu etwas passen, zurechtgemacht sein)



Abb.: आकल्पः । Sikh-Hochzeit, Punjab
[Bildquelle: Rabbi4455 / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


वेष - veṣa m.: "Tracht, Anzug, das durch Kunst erzeugte Äußere des Menschen." (PW)



Abb.: वेषौ । Mahratta-Fürst und Gattin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


नेपथ्य - nepathya n.: Garderobe, Kostüm



Abb.: नेपथ्यम् । Kuchipudi-Tänzerin (కూచిపూడి) Mihira Pathuri, Kṛṣṇa darstellend
[Bildquelle:
Jean-Pierre Dalbéra. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/2427751760/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


प्रतिकर्म - pratikarma n.: Aufmachung, Putz



Abb.: प्रतिकर्म । Braut, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa
[Bildquelle:
Anubhav Gaurav. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/anubhav_gaurav/4336763839/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


प्रसाधन - prasādhana n.: Ordnen, Pflege, Putz, Schmuck



Abb.: प्रसाधनम् । Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Dhyanji. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dhyanji/131433199/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


2.12.2. Schmucksüchtig, putzsüchtig


1c./d. daśaite triṣv alaṃkartālaṃkariṣṇuś ca maṇḍitaḥ
 

दशैते त्रिष्व् अलंकर्तालंकरिष्णुश् च मण्डितः ॥१ ख॥

Die folgenden 10 Wörter kommen in den drei grammatischen Geschlechtern vor (d.h. sind Adjektive).

[Bezeichnungen für schmucksüchtig, putzsüchtig:]

  • अलंकर्तृ - alakartṛ 3: schmucksüchtig, putzsüchtig
  • अलंकरिष्णु - alaṃkariṣṇu 3: schmucksüchtig, putzsüchtig

Colebrooke (1807): "Adorned. The ten following nouns admit the three genders. Some restrict the two first terms to signify a person disposed to decoration ; others make the three first signify one who adorns."


अलंकर्तृ - alakartṛ 3: schmucksüchtig, putzsüchtig



Abb.: अलंकर्त्री । Nach dem Bade, 1775


अलंकरिष्णु - alaṃkariṣṇu 3: schmucksüchtig, putzsüchtig



Abb.: अलंकरिष्णवः । Wildschweinjagd (!).
Lepākshī-Tempel, Hindupur - హిందూపురము, Andhra Pradesh, um 1540


2.12.3. Geschmückt


1c./d. daśaite triṣv alaṃkartālaṃkariṣṇuś ca maṇḍitaḥ
2a./b. prasādhito 'laṃkṛtaś ca bhūṣitaś ca pariṣkṛtaḥ

दशैते त्रिष्व् अलंकर्तालंकरिष्णुश् च मण्डितः ॥१ ख॥
प्रसाधितो
ऽलंकृतश् च भूषितश् च परिष्कृतः ।२ क।

[Bezeichnungen für geschmückt:]

  • मण्डित - maṇḍita 3: geschmückt
  • प्रसाधित - prasādhita 3: zubereitet, geschmückt, aufgeputzt, vollendet
  • लंकृत - alṃkṛta 3: geschmückt
  • भूषित - bhūṣita 3: geschmückt
  • परिष्कृत - pariṣkṛta 3: ausgerüstet, zugerüstet, geschmückt

Colebrooke (1807): siehe zum Vorhergehenden.


मण्डित - maṇḍita 3: geschmückt



Abb.: मण्डितः । Baṅgala-Rāginī, um 1660


प्रसाधित - prasādhita 3: zubereitet, geschmückt, aufgeputzt, vollendet



Abb.: प्रसाधिता । Frau eines Schlangenfängers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


लंकृत - alṃkṛta 3: geschmückt



Abb.: अलंकृता । Frau eines Outcast-Kochs
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


भूषित - bhūṣita 3: geschmückt



भूसितौ । Bengalen-Fürst mit Gattin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


परिष्कृत - pariṣkṛta 3: ausgerüstet, zugerüstet, geschmückt



Abb.: परिष्कृतौ । Patanen-Fürst mit Gattin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


2.12.4. Glänzend, strahlend


2c./d. vibhrāḍ bhrājiṣṇu rociṣṇu bhūṣā tu syād alaṃkriyā

विभ्राड् भ्राजिष्णु रोचिष्णु भूषा तु स्याद् अलंक्रिया ॥२ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für glänzend, strahlend:]

  • विभ्राज् - vibhrāj 3: glänzend, strahlend
  • भ्राजिष्णु - bhrājiṣṇu 3: glänzend, strahlend
  • रोचिष्णु - rociṣṇu 3: strahlend, glänzend

Colebrooke (1807): "Elegant."


विभ्राज् - vibhrāj 3: glänzend, strahlend



Abb.: विभ्राट् । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


भ्राजिष्णु - bhrājiṣṇu 3: glänzend, strahlend



Abb.: भ्राजिष्णू । Hochzeit, Delhi
[Bildquelle:
Michael Vito. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/michaelvito/5281426879/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


रोचिष्णु - rociṣṇu 3: strahlend, glänzend



Abb.: रोचिष्णुः । Bräutigam, Mumbai- मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle:
Andy Morris. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/andy_morris/5375002878/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


2.12.5. Schmücken


2c./d. vibhrāḍ bhrājiṣṇu rociṣṇu bhūṣā tu syād alaṃkriyā

विभ्राड् भ्राजिष्णु रोचिष्णु भूषा तु स्याद् अलंक्रिया ॥२ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für das Schmücken:]

  • भूषा - bhūṣā f.: Schmuck, Schmücken
  • अलंक्रिया - alṃkriyā f.: Schmücken, Schmuck

Colebrooke (1807): "Act of adorning. Some omit the last three lines."


अलंक्रिया - alṃkriyā f.: Schmücken, Schmuck



Abb.: अलंक्रिया । Yaśodhā schmückt Kṛṣṇa
[Bildquelle: Raja Ravi Varma - രാജാ രവി വര്‍മ <1848 - 1906> / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


2.12.6. Schmuck


3. alaṃkāras tv ābharaṇaṃ pariṣkāro vibhūṣaṇam
maṇḍanaṃ c
ātha mukuṭaṃ kirīṭaṃ puṃnapuṃsakam

अलंकारस् त्व् आभरणं परिष्कारो विभूषणम् ।
मण्डनं चा
थ मुकुटं किरीतं पुंनपुंसकम् ॥३॥

[Bezeichnungen für Schmuck:]

  • अलंकार - alaṃkāra m.: Schmücken, Schmuck, Schmuckmittel
  • आभरण - ābharaṇa n.: Schmuck ("was man an sich trägt")
  • परिष्कार - pariṣkāra m.: Ausrüstung, Zurüstung, Schmücken, Schmuck
  • विभूषण - vibhūṣaṇa n.: Schmuck, Schönheit
  • मण्डन - maṇḍana n.: Schmücken, Schmuck

Colebrooke (1807): "Ornaments, jewels or trinkets."


अलंकार - alaṃkāra m.: Schmücken, Schmuck, Schmuckmittel



Abb.: अलंकारः । Frau eines Hindu-Wäschers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


आभरण - ābharaṇa n.: Schmuck ("was man an sich trägt")



Abb.: आभरणम् । Frau eines malabarischen Schusters
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


परिष्कार - pariṣkāra m.: Ausrüstung, Zurüstung, Schmücken, Schmuck



Abb.: परिष्कारः । Śūdra-Frauen, um 1856
[Bildquelle: Robert Schlagintweit <1833 - 1885>]


विभूषण - vibhūṣaṇa n.: Schmuck, Schönheit



Abb.: विभूषणम् । Sikh-Fürst mit Gattin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


मण्डन - maṇḍana n.: Schmücken, Schmuck



Abb.: मन्दनम् । Meghwal-Frau, Ludiya, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Meena Kadri. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/393538547. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


2.12.7. Krone


3c./d. maṇḍanaṃ cātha mukuṭaṃ kirīṭaṃ puṃnapuṃsakam

मण्डनं चाथ मुकुटं किरीतं पुंनपुंसकम् ॥३॥

[Bezeichnungen für Krone:]

  • मुकुट - mukuṭa n.: Krone, Diadem
  • किरीत - kirīta n.: (eine bestimmte) Krone (siehe unten), Diadem

Colebrooke (1807): "A crest. An ornament of the head ; worn upon a diadem or Tiara."


मुकुट - mukuṭa n.: Krone, Diadem



Abb.: मुकुटम् । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.:
मुकुटम् । Kṛṣṇa


Abb.: मुकुटम् । Mahārāja von Rewa - रीवा (heute in Madhya Pradesh),  um 1877
[Bildquelle: Samuel Bourne <1834 - 1912>]


Ikonographisches


जटामकुट - jaṭāmakuṭa n.



Abb.: जटामकुटम् - jaṭāmakuṭam: Krone aus Asketen-Haarflechten ।
[Bildquelle: Gopinatha Rao, T. A.  <1872 - 1919>: Elements of Hindu iconography. -- Vol. I,1,  1914. -- Pl. VII.]


Abb.: जटामकुटम् - jaṭāmakuṭam । Śiva, 1940er Jahre
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


किरीत - kirīta n. = किरीटमकुट - kirīṭamakuṭa n.: : (eine bestimmte) Krone, Diadem



Abb.: किरीटमकुटम् - kirīṭamakuṭam ।
[Bildquelle: Gopinatha Rao, T. A.  <1872 - 1919>: Elements of Hindu iconography. -- Vol. I,1,  1914. -- Pl. IV.]


Abb.: किरीटमकुटम् - kirīṭamakuṭam । Viṣṇu, 8./9. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: PHGCOM / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


करण्डमकुट - karaṇḍamakuṭa n.



Abb.: करण्डमकुटम् - karaṇḍamakuṭam ।
[Bildquelle: Gopinatha Rao, T. A.  <1872 - 1919>: Elements of Hindu iconography. -- Vol. I,1,  1914. -- Pl. VIII.]


Abb.: करण्डमकुटम् - karaṇḍamakuṭam । Lakṣmī
[Bildquelle: Biswarup Ganguly / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


"Head-gear. The commonly known Sanskrit name for the head-gear is mauḷi. There are various well-known varieties of head-gear such as jaṭā-makuṭa, kirīta-makuṭa, and karaṇḍamakuṭa; and the minor varieties thereof are śirastraka, kuntaḷa, keśabandha, dhammilla and alāka-chūḍaka. In the formation of these minor varieties the plaits of hair are bound by what are called patra-paṭṭa, puṣpa-paṭṭa and ratna-paṭṭa.

The jaṭā-makuṭa is, as the name indicates, made up of twists of matted hair done into the form of a tall cap. The Uttara-kāmikāgama gives the following rather long and somewhat unintelligible description of the uṣṇīṣa in which the jaṭā-makuṭa is included. [...] (see Pl. VII, figs. 1, 2 and 3). This jaṭā-makuṭa is prescribed for Brahmā and Rudra among the gods, and for Manonmaṇi among the goddesses.

Kirīṭa-makuṭa is a conical cap sometimes ending in an ornamental top carrying a central pointed knob. It is covered with jewelled discs in front or on all sides, and has jewelled bands round the top as well as the bottom. The kirīṭa-makuṭa should be worn exclusively by Nārāyaṇa among the gods. Among human beings the kirīṭa may be worn by sarvabhauma cakravartins or emperors and by adhirājas or superior governors of provinces (see Pl. IV, figs. 20 and 21).

For all the other gods what is called the karaṇḍa-makuṭa is prescribed. It is a crown made in the shape of a karaṇḍa which is generally a bowl-shaped vessel (see Pl. VIII, fig. 2). It is short in height and small in size, and is, as pointed out above, indicative of subordination in status. This is the headgear of all the various kinds of goddesses ; it is prescribed, among human beings, to adhirjas also, Sometimes even cakravartins are seen to wear only the karaṇḍa-makuṭa.

The remaining kinds of head-gear mentioned above are mostly modes of dressing the hair."

[Quelle: Gopinatha Rao, T. A.  <1872 - 1919>: Elements of Hindu iconography. -- Vol. I,1,  1914. -- S. 26ff.]


2.12.8. Kopfjuwel


4a./b. cūdāmaṇiḥ śiroratnaṃ taralo hāramadhyagaḥ

चूडामनिः शिरोरत्नं तरलो हारमध्यगः ।४ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Kopfjuwel:]

  • चूडामनि - cūḍāmaṇi m.: "ein von Männern und Frauen auf dem Scheitel getragenes Juwel" (PW)
  • शिरोरत्न - śiroratna n.: ein auf dem Kopf getragenes Juwel, Diadem

Colebrooke (1807): "A gem on the crest."


चूडामनि - cūḍāmaṇi m.: "ein von Männern und Frauen auf dem Scheitel getragenes Juwel" (PW)



Abb.: चूडामनिः । Braut, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Deepa. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mumbaiphotographer/3911958291/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nützung, share alike)]


शिरोरत्न - śiroratna n.: ein auf dem Kopf getragenes Juwel, Diadem



Abb.: शिरोरत्नम् । Nordwestindien, 9./10. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle:
Peter Roan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjr1961/2920979748/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


2.12.9. Mittelstück einer Perlenschnur u. ä.


4a./b. cūdāmaṇiḥ śiroratnaṃ taralo hāramadhyagaḥ

चूडामनिः शिरोरत्नं तरलो हारमध्यगः ।४ क।

Das Mittelstück einer Perlenschnur (hāra) heißt तरल - tarala m.: was sich hin und her bewegt, Baumelndes, Anhänger, Halsschmuck


Colebrooke (1807): "The middle of a string."



Abb.: तरलः । Frau eines Hindu-Bankers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: तरलः । Frau aus einer Diebs-Kaste
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
तरलः (?)। Thanjavur - தஞ்சாவூர், Tamil Nadu, 19. Jhdt.
[Bildquelle:
Mary Harrsch. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mharrsch/350673901/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: तरलः (?)। Varanasi, Indien
[Bildquelle:
Celeste Goulding. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/celeste33/84192237/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


Abb.: तरलः (?)। Ohrputzlöffel und Zahnstocher als Anhänger, Rabari-Stamm, Gujarat
[Bildquelle:
Meena Kadri. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/392076628/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


2.12.10. Haarschmuck


4c./d. vālapāśyā pāritathyā patrapāśyā lalāṭikā

वालपाश्या पारितथ्या पत्रपाश्या ललाटिका ॥४ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Haarschmuck:]

  • वालपाश्या - vālapāśyā f.: Haarband
  • पारितथ्या - pāritathyā f.: Pāritathya

Colebrooke (1807): "A trinket for the hair. A plate, or a flat chain, of gold or silver, with or without jewels set in it ; worn between the divided hair on the head. Some expound the first term a string of pearls binding the hair."


वालपाश्या - vālapāśyā f.: Haarband



Abb.: वालपाश्या । Hindufrau beim Opfer
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
Abb.: वालपाश्या (?)।Frau eines Fürsten aus Patan - પાટણ, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


पारितथ्या - pāritathyā f.: Pāritathya



Abb.:
पारितथ्या । Lepākshī-Tempel, Hindupur - హిందూపురము, Andhra Pradesh, um 1540


Abb.:
पारितथ्या । Braut, Mumbai, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle:
Maciek Merkur. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mavx/1845109654/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


Abb.:
पारितथ्या । Karnataka
[Bildquelle:
Anne Roberts. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/pondspider/2009940314/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


2.12.11. Stirnschmuck


4c./d. vālapāśyā pāritathyā patrapāśyā lalāṭikā

वालपाश्या पारितथ्या पत्रपाश्या ललाटिका ॥४ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Stirnschmuck:]

  • पत्रपाश्या - patrapāśyā f.: "Blätter-Band" (wohl eine Art Stirnband)
  • ललाटिका - lalāṭikā f.: Stirnmal, goldener Stirnschmuck

Colebrooke (1807): "A trinket for the forehead. A jewel, or a golden or other trinket, worn on the forehead, below the partition of the hair ; a star on the forehead. Some make these and the preceding terms synonymous."


ललाटिका - lalāṭikā f.: Stirnmal, goldener Stirnschmuck



Abb.: ललाटिका । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: ललाटिका । Bengalin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
ललाटिका । Braut, Delhi
[Bildquelle:
YoungDoo Moon. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/youngdoo/4149796173/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


2.12.12. Ohrschmuck


5a./b. karṇikā tālapatraṃ syāt kuṇḍalaṃ karṇaveṣṭanam

कर्णिका तालपत्रं स्यात् कुण्डलं कर्णवेष्टनम् ॥५ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Ohrschmuck:]

  • कर्णिका - karṇikā f.: Ohrschmuck
  • तालपत्र - tālapatra n.: Blatt der Palmyrapalme (Borassus flabellifer L. 1753)1

Colebrooke (1807): "A trinket for the ear. A holow cylinder thrust through the lobe of the ear."


1 तालपत्र - tālapatra n.: Blatt der Palmyrapalme (Borassus flabellifer L. 1753)


Abb.: कुण्डलानि ।
15: पत्रकुण्डलम् - patrakuṇḍalam: blattförmiger Ohrring । 16: शङ्खपत्रकुण्डलम् - śaṅkhapatrakuṇḍalam: Muschelblatt । 17: रत्नकुण्डलम् - ratnakuṇḍalam: Juwelen-Ohrring । 19: सर्पकुण्डलम् - sarpakuṇḍalam: schlangenförmiger Ohrring ।
[Bildquelle: Gopinatha Rao, T. A.  <1872 - 1919>: Elements of Hindu iconography. -- Vol. I,1,  1914. -- Pl. IV.]


Abb.: मकरकुण्डलम् - makarakuṇḍalam: Ohrring in Form eines Makara ।

[Bildquelle: Gopinatha Rao, T. A.  <1872 - 1919>: Elements of Hindu iconography. -- Vol. I,1,  1914. -- Pl. IV.]

"The ear-ornament is known by the general name of kuṇḍala. At least five different kinds of kuṇḍalas are known, namely, the patrakuṇḍala, the nakrakuṇḍala, which is the same as the makara-kuṇḍdala, the śaṅkhapatra-kuṇḍala, the ratnakuṇḍala, and the sarpa-kuṇḍdala. It appears to be probable that in the early periods of Indian civilization men and women considered it a beauty to have large ear-ornaments attached to the ear-lobes, which were often specially bored and dilated for the purpose. Even today we may see on the Malabar Coast ladies with specially bored pendant ear-lobes, in which there shine large, but light, golden discs. In the earlier stages of causing the dilatation of the lobes of the ear, cylindrical rolls of cotton cloth or flattened spirals of cocoanut-leaf or palmyra-leaf are thrust in to produce the required internal pressure. In course of time, these spirals came to be made of a thin sheet of gold m imitation of the leaf. This form of golden ear-ornament is known, rightly indeed, by the name of patra-kuṇḍala (see Pl. IV, fig. 16). Its Tamil name ōlai is interesting in this connection. Again conch shells were extensively employed in making ornaments for the ear as well as the forearm. When the shell is cut cross-wise, it produces a spiral ring which may be thrust into the distended ear-lobe. This kuṇḍala is called the śaṅkha-patra (see Pl. IV, fig. 16). A jewelled circular ear-ring is called a ratna-kuṇḍala. (see Pl. IV, fig. 17). Ear-ornaments made in the form of the mythical makara and in the form of a cobra are called respectively the makara-kuṇḍala and the sarpa-kuṇḍalas (see Pl. IV, figs. 18 and 19)."

[Quelle: Gopinatha Rao, T. A.  <1872 - 1919>: Elements of Hindu iconography. -- Vol. I,1,  1914. -- S. 24f.]


Abb.: तालपत्राणि ।
Borassus flabellifer L. 1753 - Palmyrapalme
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/1128939018/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


 तालपत्र - tālapatra n.: Blatt der Palmyrapalme (Borassus flabellifer L. 1753)



Abb.: तालपत्रम् । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: तालपत्रम् । Mahrattin, Frau eines Buchhalters
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: तालपत्रम् । Frau eines Hindu-Frisörs
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


2.12.13. Ohrring


5a./b. karṇikā tālapatraṃ syāt kuṇḍalaṃ karṇaveṣṭanam

कर्णिका तालपत्रं स्यात् कुण्डलं कर्णवेष्टनम् ॥५ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Ohrring:]

  • कुण्डल - kuṇḍala n.: Ohrring
  • कर्णवेष्टन - karṇaveṣṭana n.: am Ohr Hängendes, was sich ums Ohr windet, Ohrring

Colebrooke (1807): "An ear ring."


कर्णवेध - karṇavedha: Sakrament des Stechens der Löcher für Ohrringeव्



Abb.: कर्णवेधः - karṇavedhaḥ: Sakrament des Stechens der Löcher für Ohrringe, Kottakarai, Tamil Nadu
[Bildquelle:
داود / David. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/david-trattnig/2732082752/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


कुण्डल - kuṇḍala n.: Ohrring



Abb.: कुण्डलानि । Indien
[Bildquelle:
yue. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/chinogypsie/3844170343/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: कुण्डलानि । Frau eines malabarischen Schneiders
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


कर्णवेष्टन - karṇaveṣṭana n.: am Ohr Hängendes, was sich ums Ohr windet, Ohrring



Abb.: कर्णवेष्टने ।
[Bildquelle: Daderot / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: कर्णवेष्टनानि । Hindu-Musiker
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: कर्णवेष्टनानि । Schlangenbeschwörer
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


2.12.14. Kollier, Halsschmuck


5c./d. graiveyakaṃ kaṇṭhabhūṣā lambanaṃ syāl lalantikā

ग्रैवेयकं कण्ठभूषा लम्बनं स्याल् ललन्तिका ॥५ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Kollier, Halsband:]

  • ग्रैवेयक - graiveyaka n.: zum Hals Gehöriges, Halsschmuck
  • कण्ठभूषा - kaṇṭhabhūṣā f.: Halsschmuck

Colebrooke (1807): "A collar. Or short necklace."


ग्रैवेयक - graiveyaka n.: zum Hals Gehöriges, Halsschmuck



Abb.: ग्रैवेयकम् । Frau eines Hindu-Sattlers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
ग्रैवेयकम् । Kollier in Form des Kopfs von Gaṇeśa, Kerala, 19. Jhdt.
[Bildquelle:
Mary Harrsch. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mharrsch/350688579/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.:
ग्रैवेयकम् । Hochzeitshalsband, Madurai - மதுரை, Tamil Nadu, 19. Jhdt.
[Bildquelle: Valerie McGlinchey. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/33676549@N04/3311815527. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.: ग्रैवेयकम् । Hochzeits-Halsschmuck, Tamil Nadu, 19./20. Jhdt.
[Bildquelle: Valerie McGlinchey. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/33676549@N04/3311812795. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.:
ग्रैवेयकम् । Hochzeits-Halsschmuck, Tamil Nadu, 19./20. Jhdt., Detail
[Bildquelle: Valerie McGlinchey. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/33676549@N04/3311812795. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Abb.:
 ग्रैवेयकम् । Wäscher (Dhobi) mit Halskette und Amulett, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: Meena Kadri. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/3217719219/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung)]


कण्ठभूषा - kaṇṭhabhūṣā f.: Halsschmuck



Abb.: कण्ठभूषा । Frau eines Hindu-Bettlers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
कण्ठभूषा । Braut, Kolkata, West Bengal
[Bildquelle:
Lokendra Nath Roychoudhury. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lokenrc/196318367/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-20. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.:
कण्ठभूषाः । Juweliergeschäft, Indien
[Bildquelle: annemorgan71. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/23281382@N05/3504097838/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


मङ्गलसूत्र - maṅgalasūtra = Tāḷī - தாலி - ತಾಳಿ - తాళి



Abb.: मङ्गलसूत्रे । (geknotete Schnur und Anhänger), Hindu-Hochzeit, USA
[Bildquelle:
Girish Gopi. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/thegman/4624936238/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"According to Hindu cultural ethos, mangalsutra symbolizes the inseparable bond between a husband and a wife. During the wedding ceremony, the bridegroom ties the mangalsutra to the neck of the bride uttering- “May you live long by wearing this sacred Mangalsutra, the reason of my life”. Married women are entitled to wear Mangalsutra throughout their life as it is believed that the practice enhances the well-being of her husband and family and cannot be shown in public. It is also considered that the mangalsutra protects the marriage from any evil. A Hindu marriage is incomplete without the mangalsutra. Three knots symbolize three different aspects of a married woman - the first knot represents her obedience to her husband, the second to her parents and the third represents her respect for God."

[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangalsutra. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21.]


2.12.15. Lange Halskette


5c./d. graiveyakaṃ kaṇṭhabhūṣā lambanaṃ syāl lalantikā

ग्रैवेयकं कण्ठभूषा लम्बनं स्याल् ललन्तिका ॥५ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für eine lange Halskette:]

  • लम्बन - lambana n.: Herunterhängendes
  • ललन्तिका - lalantikā f.: "Spielende", "ein lang herabhängender (spielender, bummelnder) Halsschmuck."

Colebrooke (1807): "A necklace. A loose one, reaching below the breast."


लम्बन - lambana n.: Herunterhängendes



Abb.: लम्बनम् । Frau eines malabarischen Pilgers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: लम्बनानि । Kanaresische Brahmanin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: लम्बनम् । Familienoberhaupt, Jodhpur - जोधाणा, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: Shreyans
Bhansali. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/thebigdurian/29884831/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


ललन्तिका - lalantikā f.: "Spielende", "ein lang herabhängender (spielender, bummelnder) Halsschmuck."



Abb.: ललन्तिका । Indischer Adliger
[Postkarte]


2.12.16. Lange goldene Halskette


6a./b. svarṇaiḥ prālambikāthoraḥsūtrikā mauktikaiḥ kṛtā

स्वर्णैः प्रालम्बिकाथोरःसूत्रिका मौक्तिकैः कृता ।६ क।

Eine lange Halskette aus Gold heißt प्रालम्बिका - prālambikā f.: Herabhängende


Colebrooke (1807): "A golden one."



Abb.:
प्रालम्बिकाः । Madurai - மதுரை, Tamil Nadu
[Bildquelle: Sistak / Kirsten. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/94801434@N00/3844062966/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)] 


2.12.17. Lange Perlen-Halskette


6a./b. svarṇaiḥ prālambikāthoraḥsūtrikā mauktikaiḥ kṛtā

स्वर्णैः प्रालम्बिकाथोरःसूत्रिका मौक्तिकैः कृता ।६ क।

Eine aus Perlen verfertigte lange Halskette heißt उरःसूत्रिका - uraḥsūtrikā f.: Brust-Schnur


Colebrooke (1807): "One of pearls."



Abb.:
उरःसूत्रिका । Shravanabelagola - ಶ್ರವಣಬೆಳಗೊಳ, Karnataka
[Bildquelle:
matthew logelin / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.:
उरःसूत्रिका । Perlenketten als Männerschmuck


Abb.: उरःसूत्रिका । Frau eines Hindu-Teich-Gräbers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


2.12.18. Perlenschnur


6c./d. hāro muktāvalī devacchando 'sau śatayaṣṭikā

हारो मुक्तावली देवच्छन्दो ऽसौ शतयष्टिका ॥६ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Perlenschnur:]

  • हार - hāra m.: "(Herz-)Raubender", Perlenschnur
  • मुक्तावली - muktāvalī f.: Perlenreihe, Perlenschnur

Colebrooke (1807): "A garland of pearls &c."


हार - hāra m.: "(Herz-)Raubender", Perlenschnur



Abb.: हारः । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: हाराः । Brahmanin aus Gujarat
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: हाराः । Vornehme Hindufrau
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


मुक्तावली - muktāvalī f.: Perlenreihe, Perlenschnur



Abb.: मु्क्शावली । Straßen-Juwelier, Pune - पुणे, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle:
Yogendra Joshi. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogendra174/5243088377/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


2.12.19. Ein Schmuck aus 100 Perlenschnüren


6c./d. hāro muktāvalī devacchando 'sau śatayaṣṭikā

हारो मुक्तावली देवच्छन्दो ऽसौ शतयष्टिका ॥६ ख॥

Eine Perlenkette aus hundert Perlenschnüren heißt  देवच्छन्द - devacchanda m.: Götter-Lust


Colebrooke (1807): "One composed of 100 strings."


2.12.20. Schmuck aus 4 bis 64 Perlenschnüren


7. hārabhedā yaṣṭibhedā gutsa-gutsārdha-gostanāḥ
ardhahāro māṇavaka
ekāvaly ekayaṣṭikā

हारभेदा यष्टिभेदा गुत्स-गुत्सार्ध-गोस्तनाः ।
अर्धहारो माणवक
एकावल्य् एकयष्टिका ॥७

Nach der Anzahl der Perlenketten bzw. Anzahl der Perlenschnüre unterscheidet man:

  • गुत्स - gutsa m.: Büschel, Bund, Strauß, Perlenschmuck aus 32 Schnüren
  • गुत्सार्ध - gutsārdha m.: Hälfte (!) eines gutsa, Perlenschmuck aus 24 Schnüren
  • गोस्तन - gostana m.: Zitze der Kuh, Perlenschmuck aus vier Schnüren (Kuheuter hat 4 Zitzen)
  • अर्धहार - ardhahāra m.: "Halb-Perlenkette", Perlenschmuck aus 64 Schnüren, nach anderen: aus 40 Schnüren
  • माणवक - māṇavaka m.: Perlenschmuck aus (je nach Kommentator) 16 oder 20 oder 48 Schnüren

Colebrooke (1807): "Garlands of various sorts. In their order: distinguished by the number of strings or rows. [gutsa:] It consists of 32 rows. [gutsardha:] It contains 24 rows. [gostana:] Composed either of 4 or of 34 strings. [ardhahāra;] Including 64 strings. [māṇavaka:] Comprising 20 rows."


माणवक - māṇavaka m.: Perlenschmuck aus (je nach Kommentator) 16 oder 20 oder 48 Schnüren



Abb.: माणवकः ।
Die Tochter des Nizam (نظام‌) von Hyderabad - హైదరాబాదు - حیدر آباد
[Bildquelle: Raja Lala Deen Dayal <1844 - 1905>, 1890]


2.12.21. Einzelne Perlenschnur


7c./d. ardhahāro māṇavaka ekāvaly ekayaṣṭikā

अर्धहारो माणवक एकावल्य् एकयष्टिका ॥७ ख॥

Eine Perlenkette aus nur einer einzigen Schnur heißt एकावली - ekāvalī f.: Einreihige


Colebrooke (1807): "A single string."



Abb.: एकावली । Hindu-Salzverkäufer
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


2.12.22. Eine Perlenschnur mit so vielen Perlen wie es Mondhäuser gibt, nämlich 27


8a./b. saiva nakṣatramālā syāt saptaviṃśatimauktikaiḥ

सैव नक्षत्रमाला स्यात् सप्तवींशतिमौक्तिकैः ।८ क।

Eine einreihige Perlenkette mit 27 Perlen heißt नक्षत्रमाला - nakṣatramālā f.: Nakṣatra-Kranz1


Colebrooke (1807): "One containing 27 pearls."


1 Es gibt 27 Nakṣatra (Mondhäuser).


Abb.: Nakṣatra
[Bildquelle: Asiatick Researches II (1799). -- Vor S. 293]

Siehe:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Dharmashastra : Einführung und Überblick. -- 10. Sakramente und Übergangsriten (samskara). -- Anhang A: Mondhäuser (Nakṣatra). -- URL: http://www.payer.de/dharmashastra/dharmash10a.htm


2.12.23. Armband


8c./d. āvāpakaḥ pārihāryaḥ kaṭako valayo 'striyām

आवापकः पारिहार्यः कटको वलयो ऽस्त्रियाम् ॥८ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Armband:]

  • आवापक - āvāpaka m.: Ausstreuer, am Handgelenk getragenes Armband
  • पारिहार्य - pārihārya m.: Armband (zu pari-hṛ um-halten, umschlingen)
  • कटक - kaṭaka m., n.: Matte, Armband
  • वलय - valaya m., n.: "Gewinde", Armband, Einfassung (zu val 1: sich wenden)

Colebrooke (1807): "A bracelet. Of gold, or of conch, &c."


आवापक - āvāpaka m.: Ausstreuer, am Handgelenk getragenes Armband



Abb.: आवापकाः । Armbandmacher
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


पारिहार्य - pārihārya m.: Armband (zu pari-hṛ um-halten, umschlingen)



Abb.:पारिहार्यौ । Brahmanin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


कटक - kaṭaka m., n.: Matte, Armband



Abb.:कटका । Hindu-Bettler
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


वलय - valaya m., n.: "Gewinde", Armband, Einfassung (zu val 1: sich wenden)



Abb.: वलयाः । Frau eines Hindu-Salzverkäufers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: वलयानि । Armband-Geschäft,
Madurai - மதுரை, Tamil Nadu
[Bildquelle:
McKay Savage. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mckaysavage/1813257007/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


2.12.24. Oberarmschmuck


9a./b. keyūram aṅgadaṃ tulye aṅgulīyakam ūrmikā

केयूरम् अङ्गदं तुल्ये अङ्गुलीयकम् ऊर्मिका ॥९ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Oberarmschmuck:]

  • केयूर - keyūra n.: "ein auf dem Oberarm von Männern und Frauen getragener Reifenschmuck" (PW)
  • अङ्गद - aṅgada n.: "ein Geschmeide, das am Oberarm getragen wird." (PW)

Colebrooke (1807): "Ornament of the arm. Worn above the elbow."


केयूर - keyūra n.: "ein auf dem Oberarm von Männern und Frauen getragener Reifenschmuck"



Abb.: केयूरम् । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: केयूरे । Tänzerin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: केयूरे । Hindu-Priester
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
केयूराणि । Kutch - કચ્છ, Gujarat
[Bildquelle:
Meena Kadri. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/417075862/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


अङ्गद - aṅgada n.: "ein Geschmeide, das am Oberarm getragen wird." (PW)



Abb.:
अङ्गदम् । Königin Māyā
[Bildquelle: Daderot / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
अङ्गदम् । Oberarmband, Indien, 19. Jhdt.
[Bildquelle:
Mary Harrsch. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/mharrsch/386630223/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)] 


2.12.25. Fingerring


9a./b. keyūram aṅgadaṃ tulye aṅgulīyakam ūrmikā

केयूरम् अङ्गदं तुल्ये अङ्गुलीयकम् ऊर्मिका ॥९ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Fingerring:]

  • अङ्गुलीयक - aṅgulīyaka n.: "zum Finger Gehörendes", Fingerring
  • ऊर्मिका - ūrmikā f.: Fingerring ("kleine Welle" zu ūrmi Welle, Woge)

Colebrooke (1807): "A finger-ring."


अङ्गुलीयक - aṅgulīyaka n.: "zum Finger Gehörendes", Fingerring



Abb.: अङ्गुलीयकम् । Frau eines Astrologen
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: अङ्गुलीयके । Brahmane
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


ऊर्मिका - ūrmikā f.: Fingerring ("kleine Welle" zu ūrmi Welle, Woge)



Abb.: ऊर्मिकाः । Hochzeit, Dhenkanal - ଦେଂକାନା୍, Orissa
[Bildquelle:
Paolo Crosetto. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/89446022@N00/4340811284/in/set-72157623224134163/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


2.12.26. Siegelring


9c./d. sākṣarāṅgulimudrā syāt kaṅkaṇaṃ karabhūṣaṇam

साक्षराङ्गुलिमुद्रा स्यात् कङ्कणं करभूषणम् ॥९ ख॥

Ein Fingerring mit Buchstaben darauf heißt अङ्गुलिमुद्रा - aṅgulimudrā f.: Finger-Siegel, Siegelring


Colebrooke (1807): "A seal ring."



Abb.: अङ्गुलिमुद्रा । Sringeri-(ಶೃಂಗೇರಿ)-Brahmane
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
अङ्गुलिमुद्रा । Rāma übergibt Hanumān seinen Siegelring, damit dieser ihn Sītā überbringt
[Bildquelle: K. Venkatappa. -- http://vahini.org/gallery/hall2/rama3.html. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- "If you want to use any of these images on your own website, please put them on your own server too. Do not steal any bandwidth."]


2.12.27. Armreif


9c./d. sākṣarāṅgulimudrā syāt kaṅkaṇaṃ karabhūṣaṇam

साक्षराङ्गुलिमुद्रा स्यात् कङ्कणं करभूषणम् ॥९ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Armreif:]

  • कङ्कण - kaṅkaṇa n.: Armreif
  • करभूषण - karabhūṣaṇa n.: Hand-Schmuck

Colebrooke (1807): "Ornament of the wrist. A broad solid ring with or without pearls, &c. set on it."


कङ्कण - kaṅkaṇa n.: Armreif



Abb.: कङ्कणम् । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कङ्कणम् । Sigiriya - සීගිරිය, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: Bernard Gagnon / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कङ्कणे । Mahrattin
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


करभूषण - karabhūṣaṇa n.: Hand-Schmuck



Abb.:
करभूषणानि । Braut, Indien
[Bildquelle:
Brice CANONNE. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/bricecanonne/1350452995/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: Abb.:
करभूषणे ।Bundi - बूंदी, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle: Michael Gäbler / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


2.12.28. Frauengürtel


10 strīkaṭyāṃ mekhalā kāñcī saptakī raśanā tathā
klībe sārasanaṃ c
ātha puṃskaṭyāṃ śṛṅkhalaṃ triṣu

स्त्रीकट्यां मेखला काञ्ची सप्तकी रशना तथा ।
क्लीबे सारसनं चा
थ पुंस्कट्यां शृङ्खलं त्रिषु ॥१०॥

Der Gürtel (मेखला - mekhalā f.: Gurt, Gürtel) auf der Frauenhüfte (स्त्रीकटी - strīkaṭī f.) heißt:

  • काञ्ची - kāñcī f.: Frauengürtel
  • सप्तकी - saptakī f.: aus sieben [Ketten] Bestehende, Frauengürtel
  • रशना - raśanā f.: Strick, Seil, Gürtel, Frauengürtel
  • सारसन - sārasana n.: Frauengürtel, Gürtel

Colebrooke (1807): "A woman's girdle. The terms are here stated as synonymous ; but they signify belts of various kinds, differing in the number of rows or strings."


मेखला - mekhalā f.: Gurt, Gürtel



Abb.: मेखले । Frauengürtel und Männergürtel


सप्तकी - saptakī f.: aus sieben [Ketten] Bestehende, Frauengürtel



Abb.: सप्तकी (hier allerdings nur 5 Ketten) । Yakṣī, 3. Jhdt. v. Chr., aus Didarganj, Bihar
[Bildquelle: Neelsb / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


काञ्ची - kāñcī f.: Frauengürtel



Abb.:
काञ्ची । Königin Māyā
[Bildquelle: Daderot / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


रशना - raśanā f.: Strick, Seil, Gürtel, Frauengürtel



Abb.: रशने । Elfenbeinschnitzerei, Sri Meenakshi Sundareshwarar Temple - மீனாட்சி அம்மன் கோவில், Madurai - மதுரை, Tamil Nadu
[Bildquelle: Photo by Adam Jones adamjones.freeservers.com / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


सारसन - sārasana n.: Frauengürtel, Gürtel



Abb.:
सारसनम् । Indisches Mädchen
[Postkarte]


Abb.:
सारसने । Bharatanatyam-Tänzerinnen
[Bildquelle:
Ed Uthman. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/euthman/1967762060/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


2.12.29. Männergürtel


10c./d. klībe sārasanaṃ cātha puṃskaṭyāṃ śṛṅkhalaṃ triṣu

क्लीबे सारसनं चाथ पुंस्कट्यां शृङ्खलं त्रिषु ॥१० ख॥

Ein Gürtel auf der Männerhüfte heißt शृङ्खल - śṛṅkhala m., n., f.: Fessel, Kette, Männergürtel


Colebrooke (1807): "A man's belt."


Abb.:
 शृङ्खलम् । Viṣṇu
[Bildquelle: Daderot / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
शृङ्खलम् । Śiva als Asket, Thatchanallur, Tamil Nadu
[Bildquelle:
Pasupati K Pillai. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/pasug/400930448/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.:
शृङ्खलम् । Bharatanatyam-Tänzer, Bangalore - ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Jogesh S. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/blackfin2/4263471578/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


2.12.30. Fuß-Reif, Zehenring


11a./b. pādāṅgadaṃ tulākoṭir mañjīro nūpuro 'striyām
11.c./d. haṃsakaḥ pādakaṭakaḥ
kiṅkiṇī kṣudraghaṇṭikā

पादांगदं तुलाकोटिर् मञ्जीरो नूपुरो ऽस्त्रियाम् ।११ क।
हंसकः पादकटकः किङ्किणी क्षुद्रघण्टिका ॥११ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Zehenringe:]

  • पादांगद - pādāṃgada n.: Fuß-Armband
  • तुलाकोटि - tulākoṭi m.: Ende des Waagebalkens (womit Gleichgewicht hergestellt wird), Fußreif
  • मञ्जीर - mañjīra m., n.: Fußschmuck, Fußreif
  • नूपुर - nūpura m., n.: Fußring
  • हंसक - haṃsaka m.: arme Gans, Fußring
  • पादकटक - pādakaṭaka m.: Fuß-Armband

Colebrooke (1807): "Ornament of the feet. Rings of the toes. Some distinguish the two last terms as signifying a distinct ornament."


पादांगद - pādāṃgada n.: Fuß-Armband



Abb.:
पादांगदानि । Arbeiterin, Diu - दीव
[Bildquelle:
Meena Kadri. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/105210891/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


तुलाकोटि - tulākoṭi m.: Ende des Waagebalkens, Fußreif



Abb.:
तुलाकोत्यः । Bhadrajun - भद्राजुन, Rajasthan
[Bildquelle:
Tetyana Pryymak. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/manataka/2618694831/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-23. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung)]


मञ्जीर - mañjīra m., n.: Fußschmuck, Fußreif



Abb.:
मञ्जीराः । Mädchen, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle:
Yogendra Joshi. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogendra174/4394537878/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-23. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)


नूपुर - nūpura m., n.: Fußring



Abb.: नूपुराः । Chennakesava Temple - ಶ್ರೀ ಚೆನ್ನಕೇಶವ ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನ, Belur - ಬೇಲೂರು, Karnataka
[Bildquelle: Diana. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/distra/2900783203/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-23. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


पादकटक - pādakaṭaka m.: Fuß-Armband



Abb.:
पादकटकः । Indien
[Bildquelle: Kristian F. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/kristianfrisk/140799644/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-22. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Zehenringe



Abb.: Frau eines Hindu-Jägers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: Einer Braut wird zeremoniell auf einem Mahlstein ein Zehenring angelegt, Visakhapatnam - విశాఖపట్నం, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle:
Thomas Guignard. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/timtom/3390673590/. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-21. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


2.12.31. Glöckchen


11.c./d. haṃsakaḥ pādakaṭakaḥ kiṅkiṇī kṣudraghaṇṭikā

हंसकः पादकटकः किङ्किणी क्षुद्रघण्टिका ॥११ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Glöckchen:]

  • किङ्किणी - kiṅkinī f.: Glöckchen
  • क्षुद्रघण्टिका - kudraghaṇṭikā f.: kleines Glöckchen

Colebrooke (1807): "Bells or tinkling ornaments."


किङ्किणी - kiṅkinī f.: Glöckchen



Abb.: किङ्किन्यः । Khajuraho - खजुराहो, Madhya Pradesh
[Bildquelle: Jag Pee. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/90742511@N00/2064712669. -- Zugriff am 2011-02-23. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


Abb.: किङ्किन्यः ।


Abb.: किङ्किन्यः । Frau eines Hindu-Herolds
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.: किङ्किन्यौ ।Hindu-Bettler
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


च् - kudraghaṇṭikā f.: kleines Glöckchen



Abb.: क्षुद्रघण्टिका । Frau eines Hindu-Bettlers
[Bildquelle: Vardapillai, 1837]


Abb.:
क्षुद्रघण्टिकाः । ghunghru = Fußglöckchen von Tänzerinnen
[Bildquelle: Wiki-uk / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Zu manuṣyavargaḥ III. Vers 12 - 22b. (Textilien)