The  Student's Guide to Sanskrit Composition

01. Lesson I

by Vaman Shivaram Apte

Mit den Auflösungen nach dem "Key" neu herausgegeben von Alois Payer 

Zitierweise | cite as:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit Composition (Being a treatise on Sanskrit Syntax).  -- 3. ed. -- 1890. -- 01. Lesson I. -- Fassung vom 2009-03-16. --  URL:                                                              

Ursprünglich erschienen als:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit composition : being a treatise on Sanskrit syntax ; for the use of schools and colleges. -- 3rd ed. -- Poona : R. A. Sagoon, 1890. -- 450 S.

A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2009-03-16


©opyright: Public domain

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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<> = Apte`s own Notes (loc. cit. pp. 277ff.)

[] = A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

{} = Notes by Alois Payer

§ 9. "When two connected words are of the same gender, number, person, or tense, they are said to agree with one another or to be in Concord. Speaking of man, we have to say he, of a woman she, of plurality of persons they, these are agreements or concords." -- Bain.

The concords that deserve notice in Sanskrit are three:

  1. Concord of Subject and Verb
  2. Concord of Substantive and Adjective and
  3. Concord of Relative and its Antecedent.

Concord of Subject and Verb.

§ 10. That about which something is said or asserted is called the subject of a sentence, and is put in the nominative case. A verb, as in English, agrees with its subject in number and in person; as, आसीद्राजा शूद्रको नाम (Kādambarī) 'there was a king named Śūdraka;' साधयामो वयं (Śakuntalā 1) 'we go' (take our way).


§ 11. The predicate, or that which is said about the subject, may be a finite verb, as in the above instances, or a substantive or an adjective with अस् 'to be,' expressed or understood. In such cases the substantive should be used in ts natural gender, being made to agree with the subject only in case, as, सा कुलपतेरुच्छ्वसितमिव (Śakuntalā 3) 'she is, as it were, the life of the Kulapati'; ककुदं वेदविदां (Mṛcchakaṭika 1) 'who is the hump (chief) of those who are conversant with the Vedas.'

Obs. The concord of the adjective is given in Lesson II.

(a) The verb, when used in such cases, always agrees with the subject; as तस्माट्सखा त्वमसि (Uttararāmacarita 5) 'thou art, therefore, a friend'.

(b) When words like पात्र, आस्पद, स्थान, पद, and भाजन, are used as predicates, they are always in the singular number and neuter gender, though the subject be of any number or gender, and the verb agrees with the subject, and not with the predicative noun, whatever be its position; as, गुणाः पूजास्थानं गुणिषु (Uttararāmacarita 4) 'in the meritorious, merits are the object of worship;' आर्यमिश्राः प्रमाणं (Mālavikāgnimitra 1) 'your honour is an authority' (your opinion is accepted); संपदः पदमापदां (Hitopadeśa 1) 'wealth is the abode of miseries'; त्वमसि महसां भाजनं (Mālatimādhava 1) 'thou art the receptacle of light'; विविधमहमभूवं पात्रमालोकितानाम् (Mālatimādhava 1) 'in various ways did I become the object of (her) looks.'

Here it would be wrong to say 'गुणाः पूजास्थानमस्ति', 'अहं पात्रमभूत्', though the words स्थानं and पात्रं be placed anywhere in the sentence.


§ 12. The noun or adjective used to complete the sense of the so-called verbs of incomplete predication, such as, 'be', 'become', 'grow', 'seem', 'appear', is put in the nominative case; as, यदि सर्ग एष ते (Raghuvaṃśa III.51) 'if this be thy resolution;' प्रभुर्बुभूषुर्भुवनत्रयस्य (Śiśupālavadha I.49) 'wishing to become the lord of three worlds;' so  मदनक्लिष्टेयमालक्ष्यते (Śakuntalā 3) ['She appears to be tormented by the God of love.']

(a) The same rule holds good in the passive construction of the transitive verbs of inclompete predication, such as, 'call,' 'name,' 'make,', 'consider,' 'think,' 'choose,' 'appoint,' &c.; as कुक्कुरो व्याघ्रः कृतः (Hitopadeśa 4) 'the dog was made a tiger;' नायं मूर्खो मन्तव्यः 'he should not be considered a fool' &c.


§ 13. When the subject consits of two or more nouns connected by 'and'', the verb agrees with their combined number; as, तयोर्जगृहतुः पादान्राजा राज्ञी च मागधी (Raghuvaṃśa I.57) 'the king and the Queen Māgadhī seized their feet.'

(a) When the nouns are not taken together, but each is considered separately, or when they together form but one idea, the verb may be singular; as, न मां त्रातुं तातः प्रभवति न चांबा न भवती (Mālatīmādhava 2) 'my father cannot save me, neither can my mother, nor yourself;' पदुत्वं सत्यवादित्वं कथायोगेन बुध्यते  (Hitopadeśa ) 'skill and truth-speaking is known in conversation.'

(b) Sometimes the verb agrees with the nearest subject, and is left to be understood with the rest; as, अहश्च रात्रिश्च उभे च संध्ये धर्मो पि जानाति नरस्य वृत्तम् (Pañcatantra I.4) 'day and night, both the twilights, and Dharma also knows the action of man.'

So in Latin (a) Tempus necessitasque postulat,' 'time and necessity demand;' (b) 'Filia et unus e filiis captus est.' 'a daughter and one of the sons was taken prisoner.'


§ 14. Singular subjects connected by 'or' will take a singular verb; as, रामो गोविन्दः कृष्णो वा गच्छतु 'let Rāma, Govinda or Kṛṣṇa go;' so शिशुत्वं स्त्रैणं वा भवतु ननु वन्द्याऽसि जगतः (Uttararāmacarita 4) ['Let it be that you are a child or a woman; thou art surelय् adorable to the world.']

(a) When the subjects are of different numbers, the verb will agree with the nearest subject; as ते वायं वा पारितोषिकं गृह्णातु 'let them or this (person) take the reward.'


§ 15. When two or more nominatives of different persons are connected by 'and', the verb agrees with their combined number; and in person, agrees with the first person in preference to the second or third, and with the second in preference to the third; as, त्वं चाहं च पचावः (Mahābhāṣya) 'thou and I cook'; similarly, ते किंकरा अहं च श्वो ग्रामं प्रतिष्ठेमहि 'those servants and myself shall start for the village tomorrow;' त्वं चैव सौमदत्तिश्च कर्णश्चैव ... तिष्ठत (Mahābhārata VII.87.12) 'thou, Saumadatti, and KarNa remain.'

So in Latin: 'Si tu et Tullia lux nostra valetis, ego et suavissimus Cicero valemus,' 'if thou and my darling Tullia are well, so am I and my sweetest Cicero.'


§ 16. When two or more nominatives of different persons are connected by 'or', the verb agrees with the one nearest to it in number and person; as, 'he or you have done the work' स वा यूयं वैतत्कर्माकुरुत ; 'either they or we can do this difficult work' ते वा वयं वेदं दुष्करं कार्यं संपादयितुं शक्नुमः.


§ 17. When two or more subjects are in apposition to some pronoun or noun, the predicate agrees with the latter; as माता मित्रं पिता चेति स्वभावात्त्रयं हितम् (Hitopadeśa 1) 'the mother, the friend, and father, (these) three are naturally friendly.'


ऊर्वशी सुकुमारं प्रहरणं महेन्द्रस्य । प्रत्यादेशो रूपगर्वितायाः श्रियः । अलंकारः स्वर्गस्य ॥१॥ (Vikramorvaśīyam 1)

[Key: प्रत्यादेशः -- lit. निराकृति an ordering back of; hence, one who throws into the back-ground, surpasses, another. गर्वो ऽस्याः संजात इति गर्विता (cf. सुखित, तारकित &c.); रूपेण गर्विता रूपगर्विता तस्याः ।

Ūrvaśī is the delicate weapon (for, his other weapon, the thunderbolt, is not so) of the great Indra; she is the obscurerer of Lakṣmī, proud of her beauty and the ornament of heaven.]

सर्वत्रौदरिकस्याभ्यवहार्यमेव विषयः ॥२॥ (Vikramorvaśīyam ३)

<Notes: Said by Pururavas with reference to Vidūṣaka, when he compared the moon to a मोदक. 'With a glutton food becomes in every case his proper scope or province,' i.e. even his similes and metaphors a derived from food.>

[Key: औदरिकः -- उदरे एव प्रसितः from उदर + affix इक ; one attentive to his belly, voracious, a glutton. अभ्यवहार्यम् -- from हृ with अभ् and अव; pot.p.p. -- what is fit to be eaten, eatable. For translation see notes.]

हा कथं महाराजदशरथस्य धर्मदाराः प्रियसखी मे कौशल्या । क एतत्प्रत्येति सैवेयमिति ॥३॥ (Uttararāmacarita 4)

<Notes: 'Who can assure himself (believe for certain) that she is the same?' -- there is such a vast change in her appearance.>

[Key: Ah, how is that she is my dear friend Kauśalyā, the lawfully wedded wife of Daśaratha! (see notes) धर्मार्था दाराः धर्मदाराः -- a wife for religious purposes; one who joins her husband in the performance of religious rites.]

 सार्थवाहस्यार्थपतेर्विमर्दको बहिश्चराः प्राणाः ॥४॥ (Daśakumāracarita II.2)

<Notes: अर्थपति a proper name ('lord of wealth'); the meaning is - 'Vimardaka forms the external life, as it were, of अर्थपति'; he helds him as dear as his own life which is अंतश्चराः प्राणाः.>

[Key: अर्थो यस्यासौ सार्थः  a body of men having a common object; generally merchants going together for the purpose of trading. सार्थं वाहयतीति the leader of. See notes.]

ममापि दुर्योधनस्य शंकास्थानं पांडवाः ॥५॥ (Veṇīsamhāra 2)

<Notes: A question: 'are the Pāṇḍavas not a an object of dread' etc.>

त्वं चाहं च वृत्रहन्नुभौ संप्रयुज्यावहै ॥६॥ (Mahābhārata)

प्रवृद्धं यद्वैरं मम खलु शिशोरेव कुरुभिर्न तत्रार्थो हेतुर्न भवति किरीटी न च युवाम् ॥७॥ (Veṇīsamhāra 1)

<Notes: Bhīma says to Sahadava: 'neither my worthy brother (Dharma), nor Arjuna, nor you two, are the cause' etc. मम शिशोरेव 'of me, while yet a boy, when a mere child.'>

[Key: शिशोरेव मम कुरुभिर्यद्वैरं प्रवृत्तम् तत्र तस्मिन्विषये तस्येत्यर्थः आर्थो धर्मः न हेतुः &c. - of the enmity which grew up between the Kauravas and myself when just a boy. See notes.]

त्वं जीवितं त्वमसि मे हृदयं द्वितीयं
त्वं कौमुदी नयनयोरमृतं त्वमङ्गे ॥८॥ (Uttararāmacarita 3)

<Notes: द्वितीयं हृदयं 'a second heart;' thou formest a part and parcel of myself.>

[Key: कौमुदी - (as delight giving as) the moon-light to my eyes. अमृतं i.e. your touch is colling and gratifying as that of.]

बलवानपि निस्तेजाः कस्य नाभिभवास्पदम् ।
निःशंकं दीयते लोकैः पश्य भस्मचये पदम् ॥९॥ (Hitopadeśa 2)

<Notes: निस्तेजाः 'void of spirit or pluck' and 'wanting fire,' having no power to burn. It refes to भस्मचय also, which though very big, is easily trodden under the foot, because there is no fire in it.>

[Key: To whome is one, strong but lacking (wanting in) spirit (energy) not an object of contempt? Mark! A foot is fearlessly set on a heap of ashes (as it has no fire on it) though big &c.]

तीर्थोदकं च वह्निश्च नान्यतः शुद्धिमर्हतः ॥१०॥ (Uttararāmacarita 1)

इक्ष्वाकुवम्श्यः ककुदं नृपाणां ककुत्स्थ इत्याहितलक्षणो भूत् ॥११॥ (Raghuvaṃśa VI.71)

<Notes: आहितलक्षणः 'was given the characteristic name Kakutstha,' became known as Kakutstha; or, 'noted for his good qualities' (according to Amara).>

[Key: A descendent of the Ikṣvāku race (वंशे भवः वंश्यः), the foremost of kings, became known by the distinctive title of Kakutstha (the hump-rider ककुदि तिष्ठतीति). This was PuraMjaya, who assisted the gods in a fierce fight with the demons on the condition that Indra would assume the form of a bull and allow him to sit on his hump.]

Additional sentences for exercise

अस्ति तावदेकदा प्रसंगतः कथित एव मया माधवाभिधानः कुमारो यस्त्वमिव ममकीनस्य मनसो द्वितीयं निबन्धनम् ॥१२॥ (Mālatīmādhava 3)

<Notes: 'Who, like yourself, is the second tie of my mind.' Said by Kāmandakī to Mālatī, when she related her who Mādhava was.>

[Key: There is a youth, Mādhava by name (माधवः अभिधानं यस्य), of whom mention was already made to you by me on a (former) occasion, who like you is the second tie of my hesrt. (She means - My life depends upon you two). मामकीन adj. from अस्मत्.]

एकस्मिञ्जीर्णकोटरे जायया निवसतः पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य कथमपि पितुरहमेवैको विधिवशात्सूनुरभवम् ॥१३॥ (Kādambarī 25)

<Notes: पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य 'being in his last (declining, old) age', who was advanced in age.>

[Key: I was, somehow, born an only son, as destiny would have it (or, in obedience to the will of destiny), to my father who lived with his wife in an old hollow of a tree and who was in the last stage (decline) of life.]

देव काचिच्चंडालकन्यका शुकमादाय देवं विज्ञापयति । सकलभुवनतलसर्वरत्नानामुदधिरिवैकभिजनं देवः । विहंगमश्वायमाश्चर्यभूतो निखिलभुवनतलरत्नमिति कृत्वा देवपादमूलमागताऽहमिच्छामि देवदर्शनसुखमनुभवितुमिति ॥१४॥ (Kādambarī 8)

<Notes: शुकमादाय 'bringing with her a parrot.' आश्चर्यभूतः 'an object of wonder.' a prodigy. इति कृत्वा 'so thinking,' 'with this thought.' देवपादमूलमागता 'come to Your Majesty's feet.'>

[Key: कन्या एव कन्यका. भुवनस्य तलं भुवनतलं, सकलं च तद् भुवनतलं च सकलभुवनतलं; सर्वाणि रत्नानि सर्वरत्नानि तेषाम् । उदकानि धीयन्ते (are stored up) अस्मिन् उदधिः the ocean; उदक become उद before धि in this sense; see Pāṇini VI.3.57. आश्चर्यं भूतः आश्चर्यभूतः a comp. सुप्सुपा.

My lord, a certain Caṇḍāla girl, who has brought a parrot with her, thus requests Your Majesty - Your Majesty is, like the ocean, the abode of all jewels on the whole surface of the earth; and this bird is an object of wonder and a jewel of the whole world; thinking thus I heve come to Your Majesty's feet and wish to enjoy the pleasure of seeing Your Majesty.]

आयुः कर्म च वित्तं च विद्या निधनमेव च ।
पञ्चैतान्यपि सृज्यन्ते गर्भस्थस्यैव देहिनः ॥१५॥ (Hitopadeśa 1)

<Notes: गर्भस्थस्यैव 'while he is yet in the womb', i.e. all these five are born with him.>

[Key: The period of life, actions, property (to be possessed by one), the degree of knowledge and (the time of) death - these five are created (determinated) while a being is yet in the womb. देहो स्य विद्यते इति देही.

रहस्यभेदो याच्ञा च नैष्ठुर्यं चलचित्तता ।
क्रोधो निःसत्यता द्युतमेतन्मित्रस्य दूषणम् ॥१६॥ (Hitopadeśa 1)

[Key: निष्ठुरस्य भावो निष्ठुर्यम्, चलं चित्तं यस्यासौ चलचित्तस्तस्य भावः चलचित्तता, निर्गतं सत्यं यस्मादसौ निःसत्यस्तस्य भावो निःसत्यता. Divulging a secret, begging (the habit of), having cruelty, flickle-heartedness, irascibility, want of truthfulness, and gambling - these are the defects in (disqualification of) a friend; i.e. one should not form friendship with one who has these.

अदेयमासीत्त्रयमेव भूपतेः शशिप्रभं छ्त्रमुभे च चामरे ॥१७॥  (Raghuvaṃśa III.16)

<Notes: भूपतेः =  भूपतिना; only three things could not be given away by him, because they were the essential insignia of royalty.>

[Key: दातुं शक्यं देयं न देयाम् अदेयं  that could not be given away. शशिन इव प्रभा यस्य तत्. Three things only the king could not give away (as they are marks of royalty), viz. the (white silken) umbrella bright like the moon, and the two cāmaras {chowries}]

निसर्गभिन्नात्पदमेकसंस्थमस्मिन्द्वयं श्रीश्च सरस्वती च ॥१८॥ (Raghuvaṃśa III.29)

<Notes: The line means that, though Wealth and Learning occupy, by their nature, different stations, yet in this king they live together; the combination aof wealth and learning, which is very rare, is found in this king. एकसंस्थं =  एका संस्था यस्य.>

[Key: निसर्गाद्भिन्नमास्पदं यस्य तत्. The two, viz. the goddess of wealth and the goddess of learning, who occupy by nature two different stations (abodes), live together in this (king). See notes.]

व्यतिकरितदिगन्ताः श्वेतमानैर्यशोभिः
सुकृतविलसितानां स्थानमूर्शस्वलानाम् ।
अकलितमहिमानः केतनं मङ्गलानां
कथमपि भुवने
ऽस्मिंस्तादृशाः संभवन्ति ॥१९॥ (Mālatīmādhava 2)

<Notes: व्यतिकरितदिगन्ताः 'who have (completely filled) the end of quarters.' सुकृतविलसितानाम् 'who are the abode of mighty manifestations (displays) of good actions', who have done many meritorious deeds.>

[Key: व्यतिकरितदिगन्ताः - व्यतिकर एषां संजात इति व्यतिकरिताः ; दिशामन्ता दिगन्ताः ; व्यतिकरिता दिगन्ता येषाम् । श्वेतमान -  Pres. P. of श्वित् 1 Ātm., to be white.

Men of that sort (or type) somehow exist in this world - men who have filled up or pervaded all space between the ends of quarters with their white (spotless) fame, who are the abodes of mighty meritorious deeds (see notes), whose greatness is incomprehensible and who are the banners (harbingers, marks) of auspicious things (bring blessings in their train).]

Sentences for Translation into Sanskrit

All translations from the Key.

1. The king of the Vaṅgas lost his life in battle.

वङ्गानां राजा युद्धे (मृधे - संख्ये &c.) प्रानान्विजहौ or असुभिर्वियुक्तः or वियुयुजे ॥१॥

2. When she saw that dreadful sight, her hands and feet began to tremble.

यदा सा तद्भयावहं दर्शनमपश्यत् तदा तस्या हस्तौ पादौ चावेपन्त ॥२॥

3. O Govinda, thou art my life, my joy, my object of pride, my all the world.

भो गोविन्द त्वं मम जीवितं (प्राणाः), प्रमोदो भिमानास्स्पदं - हेतुर्मम सर्वस्वीभूतश्च ॥३॥

4. They became an object of suspicion without any fault of theirs.

स्वापराधमन्तरेण - विना or ऋते ऽपराधात् - ते शङ्कास्थानं बभूवुः ॥४॥

5. Good wives are the prime cause of all religious actions.

स्तयः - शीलसंपन्नाः, - सुवृत्ताः स्त्रियः स्रवासां धर्म्यक्रियानां मूल - प्रधान - हेतुः - आदिकारणं सन्ति ॥५॥

6. Bhīṣma, Droṇa, Kṛpa, Karṇa, thyself, the powerful Bhoja, Śakuni, drauṇi, and myself, constitute, o king, your army.

भीष्मद्रोणकृपकर्णास्त्वं बलवान्भोजः शकुनिर्द्रौणिरहं च भो रजंस्तव सैन्यं भवामः or स्मः ॥६॥

7. When he fell down from his horse, Rāma, Gopāla, and we two were present.

तस्मिनश्वात्पतति रामो गोपाल आवाम् च तत्र संनिहिता आस्म ॥७॥

8. Why do you and Kṛṣṇa not  try to finish this work? Is it very difficult?

यूयं कृष्णश्च तत्कार्यं समापयितुं किं न यतध्वे । अपि तदतिदुष्करम् ॥८॥

9. Obedience, truthfulness, want of pride, and assiduity in doing his work: these are merits of a servant.

आज्ञाकारित्वं - अनुविधायित्वं - आज्ञानुरोधः सत्यवादित्वमनवलिप्तता - दरोआभावः - स्वकार्यतत्परता च भृत्यस्य गुणाः ॥९॥

10. You, Rāma, and myself passed the time happily in the forest of Daṇḍakā.

यूयं रामो ऽहं च दण्डकारण्ये सुखेन कालमनयाम - अयापयाम ॥१०॥

11. Riches are a source of innumerable miseries in this world.

अस्मिञ्जगति सम्पदः संख्यातीतानां - अगणेयानां आपदां पदम् ॥११॥

12. Paraśurāma, the son of Hari, is the jewel of his class, and the ornament of his family.

प्रशुरामो हरिपुत्रः स्ववर्गस्य रत्नं स्वकुलस्यालंकारश्च ॥१२॥

13. Let that man or these boys take this fruit.

स नर इमे बाला वैतत्फलं गृह्णन्तु ॥१३॥

14. Hari and I, or you and Kṣṇa, can do this work; neither Gopāla nor his younger brothers can do it.

हरिरहं च यूयं कृष्णश्च वैतत्कार्यं कर्तुं शक्नुथ । न गोपालस्तस्य कनीयांसो भ्रातारो वा (कर्तुं शक्नुयुः) ॥१४॥

15. You two, the three servants of Puṣpamitra, and two other men should go to the royal court.

युवां पुष्पमित्रस्य त्रयो भृत्या अन्यौ द्वौ नरौ च राजसभां गच्छेत ॥१५॥

प्रशुरामो हरिपुत्रः स्ववर्गस्य रत्नं स्वकुलस्यालंकारश्च ॥१२॥
Mayapur =
Alan e Adriana. -- -- Zugriff am 2009-03-16. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung)]

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