The  Student's Guide to Sanskrit Composition

02. Lesson II

by Vaman Shivaram Apte

Mit den Auflösungen nach dem "Key" neu herausgegeben von Alois Payer 

Zitierweise | cite as:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit Composition (Being a treatise on Sanskrit Syntax).  -- 3. ed. -- 1890. -- 02. Lesson II. -- Fassung vom 2010-02-11. --  URL:                                                               

Ursprünglich erschienen als:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit composition : being a treatise on Sanskrit syntax ; for the use of schools and colleges. -- 3rd ed. -- Poona : R. A. Sagoon, 1890. -- 450 S.

A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2009-03-17

Überarbeitungen: 2010-02-11 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Public domain

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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<> = Apte`s own Notes (loc. cit. pp. 277ff.)

[] = A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

{} = Notes by Alois Payer

Lesson II

Concord of Substantive and Adjective

§ 18. In English an adjective is used with all genders, numbers and cases, in the same unaltered form; as a good man, good tables, I saw a good horse &c. In Sanskrit, however, all adjectives, wheter participial, pronominal, or qualitative, must take the same gender, number and case as the noun which they qualify, as, गच्छन्ती नारी, का तृप्तिः, तत्सुखं; शोबनानि गृहाणि 'good houses'; शोभनेभ्यो गृहेभ्यः 'from good houses'; शोभनाभ्यो वापीभ्यः 'from good wells;' हरिं पश्यन्मुच्यते &c. The adjective in Sanskrit must, in fact, be treated like a noun capable of taking cases, genders, and numbers.

Obs. Numeral adjectives differ from ordinary adjectives. They have particular rules for their use, for which see Grammar.

§ 19. When adjectives are used in Appositional or BahuvrIhi compounds, they are used in their original unmodified form; as, कृष्णमृगः 'a black deer'; रक्तनेत्रा 'of red eyes' (fem.); रूपवद्भार्या [रूपवती भार्या] 'a beautiful wife'; गृहीतधनुः 'a bow taken;' अन्यसंक्रान्तहृदयो नरः [अन्यस्यां संक्रान्तं हृदयं यस्य सः] 'a man whose heart is fixed on another (lady)' &c.

(a) There are a few exceptions. The sign of the feminine gender is retained, when the feminine is treated as an appelative, when an ordinal number in the feminine gender is the first member, or when the first member is regarded as a class name; as, दत्ताभार्यः, पंचमीभार्यः, शूद्राभार्यः &c.; also सुकेशीभार्यः, स्रौघ्नीभार्यः. For further particulars, see Siddhāntakaumudī, on Pāṇini VI.3.34-41.

§ 20. When participial adjectives, such as past and potential passive, are used as predicates, and when the subject is followed by an appositional noun used predicatively, the participle agrees with the subject (see § 11); as, मालविकोपायन प्रेषिता (Mālavikāgnimitra 1) 'Mālavikā was sent (as) a present.'

§ 21.  When there are two or more substantives qualified by the same adjective, the latter is used in their combined number. As regards gender, when the substantives are masculine and feminine, the adjective will be masculine; and when they are masculine or feminine and neuter, the adjective will be neuter; as, पक्षपातिनावनयोरहं देवी च (Mālavikāgnimitra 1) 'I and the queen are (respectively) interested in these two';  तस्मिन्सत्यं धृतिर्ज्ञानं तपः शौचं दमः शमः । ध्रुवाणि पुरुषव्याघ्रे लोकपालसमे नृपे ॥ (Mahābhārata III.58.10) 'truth, courage, knowledge, religious austerities, purity, self-control and tranquillity, are firm in that king, pre-eminent among men and resembling the guardians of the worlds.'

Obs. This rule is based on the principle involved in Pāṇini 1.2.72 त्यादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् {'The pronouns tyad &c. when spoken of along with any other noun, (pronoun other than tyad &c.) are always retained as ekeśeṣa, (to the exclusion of others' tansl. Vasu, 1891}, on which a Vārttika says त्यादितङ् शेषे पुंनपुंसकतो लिन्गवचनानि; सा च देवदत्तश्च तौ; तच्च देवदत्तश्च यज्ञदत्ता च तानि; तच्च देवदत्तश्च ते.

So in Latin: 'Pater mihi et mater mortui sunt,' ma father and mother are dead.'

§ 22. But an adjective in Sanskrit often agrees with the substantive nearest to it; as, यस्य वीर्येण कृतिनो वयं च भुवनानि च (Uttararāmacarita 1) 'by whose valour we are rendered happy, as also the three worlds' (भुवनानि कृतीनि); कामश्च जृम्भितगुणो नवयौवनं च (Mālatīmādhava 1) 'Love has displayed its power, as also the blooming youth.' [जृन्भिता गुणा यस्य]. Here we must follow what is called the लिंगविपरिणाम process; that is, the gender must be understood again to suit the next substantive.

Concord of Relative and its Antecedent.

§ 23. The concord of the relative pronoun and its antecedent has no special peculiarities in Sanskrit. The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, number and person, the case of the relative being determined by its relation to its own clause. Like other pronouns in Sanskrit, it may stand by itself, or may be used adjectively. The relative pronoun generally precedes the noun to which it relates in the relative clause; or the relative may stand alone, the antecedent noun being used with the demonstrative pronoun; while sometimes the antecedent noun is not expressed at all, अंतर्यो मृग्यते स स्थाणुर्वा निःश्रेयसायास्तु (Vikramorvaśīya 1) 'may that Sthāṇu, who is inwardly sought, contribute to your supreme happiness;' बुद्धिर्यस्य बलं तस्य (Pañcatantra I.9) 'he who has intellect has strength' (knowledge is power); धिगस्मान् सर्वान्ये एकाकिना बहुना सह युध्यामहे 'fie upon us all, who are fighting with a single-handed boy.'

§ 24. When the relative has for its predicate a substantive differing in gender from the antecedent, the relative generally agrees with the predicate; as, शैत्यं हि यत् सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य (Raghuvaṃśa V.54) 'for what is coolness is the natural property of water;' so मातुस्तु यौतकं यत् स्यात् कुमारीभाग एव सः (Manu IX.131) [यौनकं - युते विवाहकाले ऽधिगतं - property acquired at the time of marriage, dowry. What the mother gets at the time of marriage is legally the property (lit. falls to the share) of the daughter.

Obs. It will be seen from these examples that the correlative pronoun agrees in gender with the noun it qualifies. But Pāṇini in I.4.32 says कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स (not तत्) संप्रदानम्.

§ 25. When the relative stands for a whole sentence, such as is represented by 'that'  in English, it is always used in the neuter gender singular (यत्); as, ननु वज्रिण एव वीर्यमेतद्विजयन्ते द्विषतो यदस्य पक्ष्याः । (Vikramorvaśīya 1) 'is it not, indeed, Indras valour that his allies subdue their enemies?'; मम तु यदियं याता लोके विलोचनचन्द्रिका नयनविषयं जन्मन्येकः स एव महोत्सवः । (Mālatīmādhava 1) 'But that she, the moonlight of my eyes, came within the range of my sight, is the only great festival (joyous occasion) in my whole existence.'

In such cases in the principal sentences, the gender of the demonstrative is the same as that of the antecedent noun (महोत्सवः), and not neuter because यत् is neuter.


तयौव देवतया तयोः कुशलबाविति नामनी प्रभावश्चाख्यातः ॥१॥ (Uttararāmacarita 2)

[Key: By that very deity their names were mentioned as Kuśa and Laba and their prowess was described.]

यदेते चंद्रसरोरक्षकास्त्वया निःसारितास्तदनुचितं कृतम् ॥२॥ (Hitopedeśa 3)

<Notes: चंद्रसरोरक्षकाः 'guardians of the moon-lake' i.e. hares.>

[Key: You acted improperly in that you drove away these guardians of the lake sacred to the moon; or you did an improper thing or did not act wisely inasmuch as &c.]

यस्मिन्नेवाधिकं चक्षुरारोपयति पार्थिवः ।
अकुलीनः कुलीनो वा स श्रियो भाजनं नरः ॥३॥ (Pañcatantra I.8)

<Notes: 'On whom the king fixes more his eye,' i.e. who is looked upon with a more favourable eye than others.>

[Key: He on whom a king fixes his eye more often (as a mark of favour), becomes the abode of wealth, whether he belongs to a low family or a high family. Or  that man - whether low-born or high-born - on whom &c.]

कृताः शरव्यं हरिणा तवासुराः
शरासनं तेषु विकृष्यतामिदम् ॥४॥ (
Śakuntalā 6)

<Notes: The meaning is: 'The demons are fit marks for your arrows; so, let your bow be bent against them.'>

[Key: हरिणा by Indra, असुराः the demons, तव शरव्यं कृताः are made your target or the mark for your arrows. Let this bow be drawn against them.]

स सुहृद् व्यसने यः स्यात् स पुत्रो यस्तु भक्तिमान् ।
स भृत्यो यो विधेयज्ञः सा भार्या यत्र निर्वृतिः ॥५॥ (Pañcatantra I.15)

<Key: स सुहृद् व्यसने यः स्यात् 'he is a friens who is so in adversity; or 'a friend in need is a friend indeed.'>

[Key: He is a friend who remains so (or, stands by one) in adversity; he is a son who is devoted to his parents; he is a servant who knows how to obey (is always obedient); and she is a wife in whom one finds happiness.]

पांण्डवाश्च महात्मानो द्रौपदी च यशस्विनी ।
कृतोपवासाः कौरव्य प्रययुः प्राङ्मुखास्ततः ॥६॥ (Mahābhārata XVII.1.29)

[Key: महानात्मा येषां ते ; प्रशस्तं यशो स्य अस्तीति यशस्विनी ; प्राङ् मुखं येषां ते.

Then the magnanimous Pāṇḍavas, and the illustrious Draupadī, who had observed a fast, set out, O decendent of Kuru, facing the east (in eastern direction).]

धर्मः कामश्च दर्पश्च हर्षः क्रोधः सुखं वयः ।
अर्थादेतानि सर्वाणि प्रवर्तन्ते न संशयः ॥७॥ (Rāmāyaṇa VI.62.37)

[Key: Discharge of religious duties or deeds of righteousness, satisfaction of desires, pride, joy, anger, hapiness and life - all these proceed from (depend upon) money, without doubt.]

उमावृषाङ्कौ शरजन्मना यथा् यथा जयन्तेन शचीपुरंदरौ ।
तथा नृपः सा च सुतेन मागधी ननन्दतुस्ततत्सदृशेन तत्समौ ॥८॥ (Raghuvaṃśa III.23)

<Notes: 'In like manner the king and Māgadhī (Sudakṣiṇā) who were like them (Śiva and Umā, and Indra and Śacī)  were pleased with their son (who was) like them (Kārttikeya and Jayanta).'>

[Key: Like Umā and Śiva (lit. the God wwho has the bull for his mark) with their son born in the Śara reeds (Kārttikeya); or like Śacī and Indra with their son Jayanta, the two - the King and the Princess of Magadha (his queen), who were their equals, were delighted with their son who was also like the two (divine princes).]

Additional Sentences for Exercise.

धन्या सा यार्यपुत्रेण बहु मन्यते या चार्यपुत्रं विनोदयन्त्याशानिबन्धनं जाता जीवलोकस्य ॥९॥ (Uttararāmacarita 3)

<Notes: बहु मन्यते 'is esteemed', 'highly thought of.' आशानिबन्धनं etc. 'became the tie of the hope of whole world.' Sītā means to say: 'Happy indeed is that woman who, having contributed to divert my lord, has caused the hopes of the people to be concentrated upon herself.'>

[Key: Blessed is she who is highly thought of by my husband and who diverting him (making his life happy) has become the tie of hope of the world of mortals.]

सो ऽयं पुत्रस्तव मदमुचां वारणानां विजेता
यत्कल्याणं वयसि तरुणे भाजनं तस्य जातः ॥१०॥ (Uttararāmacarita 3)

<Notes: Said by Rāma with reference to the cub of elephant tenderly reared by Sītā. यत् कल्याणं &c. 'He has become the receptacle of what is good in youthful age,' i.e. is possessed of youthful freshness and vigour.>

[Key: This is that son of thine, the subduer of rut-shedding elephants, who has become the abode of all that is auspicious in his youth.]

न प्रमाणीकृतः पाणिर्बाल्ये बालेन पीडितः ।
नाहं न जनको नाग्निर्नानुवृत्तिर्न संततिः ॥११॥ (Uttararāmacarita 7)

<Notes: Pṛthvī means to say that Rāma, in abandoning Sītā, was not swayed by these considerations, any of which would have decides against him.>

[Key: The hand (of Sītā) that was seized in (her) childhood by him, (also) a boy, was not looked upon as an authority (against abandoning her); nor was I (considered), nor Janaka, nor the sacred fire, nor her dutiful conduct, nor progeny.]

यं ब्राह्मणमियं देवी वाग्वश्येवानुवर्तते ।
उत्तरं रामचरितं तत्प्रणीतं प्रयुज्यते ॥१२॥ (Uttararāmacarita 1)

[Key: Now will be represented (before you - the audience) the play Uttararāmacarita - the account of Rāmas latter part of life, composed by that poet, whom, a Brāhmaṇa, this Goddess of Speech follows like one enslaved (i.e. who has perfect command of language.)]

चतुर्दश सहस्राणि रक्षसां भीमकर्मणाम् ।
त्रयश्च दूषणखरत्रिमूर्धानो रणे हताः ॥१३॥ (Uttararāmacarita 2)

<Notes: Dūṣaṇa, Khara and TrimUrdhan are the names of demons killed by Rāma.>

[Key: Fourteen thousand Rakṣasas, of horrible deeds, and three mor, viz. Dūṣaṇa, Khara and Trimūrdhan (the three-handed giant) were killed in the battle.]

रोगी चिरप्रवासी परान्नभोजी परवसथशायी ।
यज्जीवति तन्मरणं यन्मरणं सो
ऽस्य विश्रामः ॥१४॥ (Hitopedeśa 1)

<Notes: 'That he lives is death (really speaking); and death is rest to him;' i.e. the existence of such a man is a living death, and actual death only is his final rest..>

[Key: A person who is always sickly, one always a (homeless) wanderer, one eating another's food, one living (lit. sleeping) in another's house - the life that such a man leads is death to him, and what is death means rest to him.]

मित्रं प्रीतिरसायनं नयनयोरानन्दनं चेतसः
पात्रं यत्सुखदुःखयोः सह भवेन्मित्रेण तद्दुर्लभम् ।
ये चान्ये सुहृदः समृद्धिसमये द्रव्याभ्लाषाकुलास्
ते सर्वत्र मिलन्ति तत्त्वनिकषाग्रावा तु तेषां विपत् ॥१५॥ (Hitopedeśa 1)

<Notes: l. 19 {=b} is a rather doubful line. It appears to mean: 'That which may become a fit object both in joy and sorrow (prosperity and adversity), equally with afriend, is difficult to be found;' i.e. none but a friend will keep company with us in good and bad days. For ये ... मिलन्ति cf. Samson Agonistes: 'In prosperous days they swarm; in adverse withdraw their heads, not to be found though sought.' तत्त्वनिकष &c. 'But adversity is their touch stone (on which their true character may be tested).'>

[Key: Cons. यन्मित्रं नयनयोः प्रीतिरसायनं ... यन्मित्रेण सह सुखदुःखयोः पात्रं भव्त्तद्दुर्लभम्. - A friend who is the elixir of joy to the eyes, who gladdens the mind and who shares with his friend his joy or sorrow, is difficult to be found: while those others, of a different class, who, led by the desire for wealth, become friend in prosperity are found everywhere (ये चान्ये द्रव्याभिलाषाकुलाः समृद्धिसमये सुहृदस्ते सर्वत्र मिलन्ति): Adversity is the touch-stone for testing their sincerity.]

यस्यार्थास्तस्य मित्राणि यस्यार्थास्तस्य बान्धवाः ।
यस्यार्थाः स पुमांल्लोके यस्यार्थाः स हि पण्डितः ॥१६॥ (Hitopadeśa 1)

[Key: {He who has money has friends;} he who has money has relatives (बान्धवाः); he who has money is a man (i.e. then only treated as such), &c. {for he who has money is a scholar.}]

हिंसाशून्यमयत्नलभ्यमशनं धात्रा मरुत्कल्पितं
व्यालानां पशवस्तृणाङ्कुरभुजः सृष्टाः स्थलीशायिनः ।
संसारार्णवलंघनक्षमधियां वृत्तिः कृता सा नृणां
यामन्वेषयतां प्रयान्ति सततं सर्वे समाप्तिं गुणाः ॥१७॥ (Bhartṛhari Vairāgyaśataka 10)

<Notes: हिंसाशून्य 'void of injury,' got without injuring any one; cf. Goldsmith: 'And from the mountain's grassy side, a guiltless feast I bring.' अशनं goes with व्यालानां. समाप्तिं प्रयान्ति 'are spent away', 'are alle exhausted' in trying to earn their livelihood.>

[Key: हिंसया शून्यं हिंसाशून्यं ; यत्नेन लभ्दुं शक्यं यत्नलभ्यं ; यत्नलभ्यं न भव्तीत्ययत्नलभ्यम् । तृणानामङ्कुरास्तृणाङ्कुरास्तान् भुञ्जते इति ; स्थाल्यां शेरते तच्छीलाः । संसार एवार्णवः संसारार्नवः तस्य लङ्घने क्षमा धीर्येषां lit. whose intellect is able &c

By the creator the wind has been designed as food for serpents, a food in which there is no sin of killing and which is obtained without labour or effort; while the land-animals are created such as feed on tender grass (or the sprouts of grass). But for men, who, by their intellect, are able to cross the sea of worldly life, that livelihood gas been designed, going in search of which all their merits (qualifications) are exhausted (come to an end); i.e. every one has to do his utmost to gain his livelihood.]

महिमानं यदुत्कीर्त्य तव संह्रियते वचः ।
श्रमेण तदस्क्त्या वा न गुणानामियत्तया ॥१८॥ (Raghuvaṃśa X.32)

<Notes: An address to god Viṣṇu. 'That (our) words, having extolled thy greatness, are curtailed (fall short), is either through our exhaustion, or inability (to describe), and not because thy merity are limited.'>

[Key: उत्कीर्त्य After having loudly proclaimed or sung. इदं परिमाणमस्य इयत् तस्य भाव इयत्ता तया. See notes.]

यस्मिन् सत्यं च मेधा च नीतिश्च भरतर्षभ ।
अप्रमेयाणि दुर्धर्षे कथं स निहतो युधि ॥१९॥ (Mahābhārata VI.6.26)

[Key: How was he killed in battle? He, in whom, the best of the descendants of unassailable (or difficult to be braved), truthfulness, talent, and morality existed to an immeasurable degree or extent.]

Abb.: महिमानं यदुत्कीर्त्य तव संह्रियते वचः ।
श्रमेण तदस्क्त्या वा न गुणानामियत्तया ॥
A 4th-6th century CE Sardonyx seal representing Vishnu with a worshipper. The inscription in cursive Bactrian reads: "Mihira, Vishnu and Shiva".
[Bildquelle: PHGCOM / Wikipedia. GNU FDLicense]

Sentences for Translation into Sanskrit

All translations from the Key.

1. There are many good people in this city, but they are despises by some peevish, wicked, and narrow-minded men.

अस्मिन्नगरे बहवः सज्जनाङ् (सुशीलाः, साधुवृत्ताः &c.) जनाः सन्ति किंतु ते केचित्पिशुनैः खलैः (दुराचारैः &c.) कृपणमतिभिः (लघुचेतोभिः) जनैस्तिरस्क्रियन्ते or विगण्यन्ते or अवमन्यन्ते &c. ॥१॥

2. The king of Pāṭaliputra and his queen are both very generous.

पाटलिपुत्राधिपः तस्य राज्ञी चोभावप्युदारौ स्तः ॥२॥

3. I saw yesterday three beautiful lakes, six deep wells, and fifty-six extensive gardens.

अहं ह्यस्त्रीणि रमणीयानि सरांसि षड् गम्भीरान्कूपान्षद्पञ्चशतं विस्तीर्णानि - विशालानि - उपवनान्यपश्यम् ॥३॥

4. He, who speaks a lie in order to hide his fault, commits two faults.

य एकमपराधं प्रच्छादयितुं or गूहितुं &c. असत्वं भाषते स द्वावपराधौ करोति ॥४॥

5. That you should say so is certainly astonishing.

यत्त्वमपेवं ब्रूयास्तदाश्चर्यकरं - विस्मयावहं खलु ॥५॥

6. That man should be always virtuous is the opinion of all philosophers, ancient and modern.

यन्नरेण सर्वदा सुगुणिना or  सदाचारेण भाव्यं तत्सर्वेषां प्राचीनानामर्वाचीनानां च तत्त्वविदां मतम् ॥६॥

7. These sweet mangoes are sent (use a participial adjective) as a present by my younger brother.

एतानि मधुराणि or रसवम्ति आम्राणि मम कनीयसा भ्रात्रोपायनं प्रेषितानि ॥७॥

8. That wicked people should hate the virtuous is but their inborn disposition.

यद्दुर्जनाः सज्जनान्निन्दन्ति स तेषां केवलं नैसर्गिकः स्वभावः ॥८॥

9. Those persons, who are ready-witted, can surmount difficulties.

ये जनाः प्रत्युत्पन्नमतयस्त आपदमुत्तरन्ति ॥९॥

10. On account of this incident I became (adj. from जन्) the object of their envy.

अनेन व्यतिकरेणाहं तेषां मात्सर्यास्पदं जातः ॥१०॥

11. Patience, industry, and honesty are always commendable; but rashness, idleness, and faithlessness are censurable.

सहिष्णुत्वम् (शान्तिः &c.) उद्यमः or उद्योगशीलता आर्जवं चैतानि सर्वदा प्रशस्यानि (श्लाघ्यानि) किंतु रभसाचरित्वं or असमीक्ष्यकारित्वं आलस्यमसत्यसंधेयता चैतानि गर्ह्याणि or निन्द्यानि ॥११॥

To Lesson III