The  Student's Guide to Sanskrit Composition

05. Lesson V

by Vaman Shivaram Apte

Mit den Auflösungen nach dem "Key" neu herausgegeben von Alois Payer 

Zitierweise | cite as:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit Composition (Being a treatise on Sanskrit Syntax).  -- 3. ed. -- 1890. -- 05. Lesson V. -- Fassung vom 2010-02-11. --  URL:                                                                  

Ursprünglich erschienen als:

Apte, Vaman Shivaram <1858 - 1892>: The student's guide to Sanskrit composition : being a treatise on Sanskrit syntax ; for the use of schools and colleges. -- 3rd ed. -- Poona : R. A. Sagoon, 1890. -- 450 S.

A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2009-03-27

Überarbeitungen: 2010-02-11 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Public domain

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.

Use of brackets:

<> = Apte`s own Notes (loc. cit. pp. 277ff.)

[] = A Key to Apte's Guide to Sanskrit composition : giving a close rendering into English and Sanskrit of all the Sanskrit and English sentences / compiled by an experienced graduate teacher. -- 2d ed. -- Bombay : Standard Pub., 1923. -- 136 p. ; 18 cm

{} = Notes by Alois Payer

Lesson V

The Causal

§ 42. "The Causal of a root conveys the notion that a person or thing causes or makes another person or thing to perform the action or to undergo the state denoted by the root" (Dr. Kielhorn's Grammar § 424); e.g. गम् 'to go', गच्छति 'he goes', गमयति 'he causes to go'; अश् 'to eat', अश्नाति 'he eats', आशयति 'he causes to eat.'

§ 43. That which is the subject of a verb in its primitive sense is put in the Instrumental case in the causal, the object remaining unchanged; e.g.

Primitive Causal
देवदत्त ओदनं पचति

Devadatta cooks food.

(स) देवदत्तेनओदनं पाचयति

(He) causes Devadatta to cook food.

रामो भार्यां त्यजति

Rāma abandons (his) wife.

(स) रामेण भार्यां त्याजयति

(He) makes Rāma abandon (his) wife.

§ 44.1 In the case of roots that imply

that which is the subject of the verb in its primitive sense is put in the Accusative case in the causal, the object remaining unchanged; e.g.2

Primitive Causal
शत्रवः स्वर्गमगच्छन् । शत्रून् स्वर्गमगमयत् ।
स्वे वेदार्थमविदुः । स्वान् वेदार्थमवेदयत् ।
देवा अमृतमाश्नन् । देवानमृतमाशयत् ।
विधिर्वेदमध्यते । विधिं वेदमध्यापयत् ।
पृथ्व्Y सलिले आस्त । पृथ्वीं सलिले आसयत् ।

1 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणिकर्ता स णौ । (Pāṇini I.4.52) {'Of the verbs having the sense of 'motion' 'knowledge' or 'information' and 'eating', and of verbs that have some literary work for their object, and of intransitive verbs, that which was the agent of the verb in its primitive form (non-ṇi or non-causal state), is called the object (karma) in its causative state (when the verb takes the affix ṇi.' transl. Vasu, 1891}

2 These examples are put together in the following verse:

शत्रूनगमयत्स्वर्गं वेदार्थं स्वानवेदयत् ।
आशयच्चामृतं देवान्वेदमध्यापयद्विधिम् ।
आसयत्सलिले पृथ्वीं यः स मे श्रीहरिर्गतिः ॥

But in गमयति रामो गोविन्दं (Rāma makes Govinda go), if somebody else (विष्णुमित्र) promts Rāma to do this, we shall have to say विष्णुमित्रो रामेण गोविन्दं गमयति 'Viṣṇumitra promts Rāma to cause Govinda to go'. Here राम is not put in the Accusative case, because it is the subject of the verb, not in its primitive, but causal sense.

Note: Patañjali, in his Mahābhāṣya, adds this explanation on the meaning of the word शब्दकर्म in the Sūtra गतिबुद्धि &c. शब्दकर्म may mean either शब्दो येषां क्रिया or शब्दो येषां कर्म. When we take the former interpretation, the roots ह्वयति (ह्वे), क्रन्दत् (क्रन्द्) and शब्दायते (denom. of शब्द) have to be excluded from the rule; as, ह्वयति देवदत्तः, ह्वाययति देवदत्तेन; क्रन्दति - शब्दायते-देवदत्तः, क्रन्दयति-शब्दाययति-देवदत्तेन. And the roots श्रु, ज्ञा with वि, and labh wइथ् उप, must be included in the rule; as शृणोति-विजानाति-उपलभते-देवदत्तः, श्रावयति-विज्ञापयति-उपल्म्भयति-देवदत्तम्. When we adopt the second interpretation, the roots जल्प्, भाष् with आ, and लप् with वि, must be included in the rule; जल्पति-आभाषाते-विलपति-देवदत्तः, जल्पयति-आभाषयति-विलापयति-देवदत्तं.

§ 45. There are several exceptions and counter-exceptions to the preceding rules, which are important:

(a)1 The causals of नी 'to lead' and वह् 'to carry' do not govern the Accusative, but the Instrumental; e.g.

भृत्यो भारं नयति वहति वा

A servat carries a load

भृत्येन भारं नाययति वाहयति वा

(He) causes a servant to carry a load.

But वह्, when it has for its subject in the causal a word signifying a 'driver', obeys the general rule; as

वाह रथं वहन्ति

Horses draw the chariot.

सूतो वाहान् रथं वाहयति

The charioteer makes the horses draw the chariot.

वहन्ति यवान् बलीवर्दाः वाहयन्ति यवान् बलीवर्दान्

1 नीवह्योर्न । नियन्तृकर्तृकस्य वहेरनिषेधः । (Vārttika)

(b)1 The causals of the roots अद् and खाद्, 'to eat', govern the Instrumental case; e.g.

बटुरन्नमत्ति खादति वा

The boy eats his food.

बटुना न्नमादयति खादयति वा

(He) causes the boy to eat his food.

1 आदिखाद्योर्न । (Vārttika)

(c)1 भक्ष्, when it has not the sense of हिंसा 'injury to a sentient thing', governs the Instrumental; as,  भ्क्षयति पिंडीं [a ball or lump of food] देवदत्तः, भक्षयति पिंदीं देवदत्तेन; but भक्षयन्ति यवान् [which are supposed to contain life] बलीवर्दाः, भक्षयति बलीवर्दान् यवान् (Mahābhārata).

1 भक्षेरहिंसार्थस्य न । (Vārttika)

(d) The roots स्मृ and घ्रा, which denote particular kinds of 'knowledge' or 'perception', are not used with the Accusative; as, स्मरति-जिघ्रति-देवदत्तः, स्मारयति-घ्रापयति-देवदत्तेन.

Sometimes, however, the Accusative also is used in the case of the root स्मृ, especially when it means 'to think of or remember with regret'; as, अपि चन्द्रगुप्तदोषा अतिक्रान्तपार्थैवगुणान् स्मरयन्ति प्रकृतीः [Do the faults of Candragupta remind the subjects of the virtues of the past kings?] (Mudrārākṣasa 1); See Śiśupālavadha VI.56 also.

(e)1 दृश् is construed with the Accusative in the causal; as  भक्ता हरिं पश्यन्ति, दर्शयति भक्तान् हरिं (Siddhāntakaumudī).

Obs. दृश् in classical literature is sometimes found used with the Dative, instead of the Accusative; as, प्रत्यभिज्ञानरत्नं च रामायादर्शयत् कृती (Raghuvaṃśa XII.64) [The monkey who had done the duty entrusted to him (कृती) showed the jewel of recognition to Rāma.]

1 दृशेश्च । (Vārttika)

(f)1 The subject of the verb in the primitive sense in the case of हृ and कृ, and of अभ्वद् and दृश् when used in the Ātmanepada, is either put in the Accusative or Instrumental case in the causal; e.g.

भृत्यः कटं करोति हरति वा

The servant makes or takes a mat.

भृत्यं भृत्येन वा कटं कारयति हारयति वा

(He) causes the servant to make or take a mat.

So अभिवादयते-दर्शयते देवं भक्तं भक्तेन वा (Siddhāntakaumudī) '(He) makes the devotee bow down to, or see, the God.'

1 हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । (Pāṇini I.4.53) {'The agent of the verb in its non-ṇi (primitive) form in the case of hṛ to lose and kṛ to make, is optionally called karma or object when these verbs take the affix.' transl. Vasu, 1891} अभ्वाद्विवृशोरात्मनेपदे वेति वाच्यम् । (Vārttika)

§ 46. By 'intransitive roots' mentioned in § 44 are meant such roots as are not, by their nature, capable of governing an object other than that of 'time', 'place' &c., and not those roots which, though transitive, may sometimes be used intransitively according to the speakers volition, or when their meaning is quite evident; as किंकरः पचति. Here पचति, though trabnsitive, is used without an object, because it can be easily understood; hence किंकरेण पाचयति and not किंकरं; but मासमासयति देवदत्तं.

§ 47.1 In forming the passive construction of causal verbs, the principal object in the causal, which is the subject (agent) of the verb in its primitive sense, is put in the Nominative case, and the other object remains unchanged; e.g.

Primitive Causal Active Causal Passive
रामो ग्रामं गच्छति

Rāma goes to a village.

रामं ग्रामं गमयति

(He) causes Rāma to go to a village.

रामो ग्रामं गम्यते

Rāma is caused to go to a village.

भृत्यः कटं करोति

The servant prepares a mat.

भृत्येन भृत्यम् वा कटं कारयति

(He) causes the servant to prepare a mat.

भृत्यः कटं कार्यते

The servant is made to prepare a mat.

गोविन्दो मासमास्ते गोविन्दं मासमासयति गोविन्दो मासमास्यते

(a) But in the case of roots that imply 'knowledge', 'eating', and those that have a literary work for their object, the principal object is put in the Nominative case, and the secondary in the Accusative, or vice versa; e.g.

माणवकं धर्मं बोधयति 'he makes Māṇavaka know his duty;' माणवको धर्मं बोध्यते or माणवकं धर्मो बोध्यते ' Māṇavaka is made to know duty', or 'duty is made known to Māṇavaka'; बटुमोदनं भोजयति 'he makes the boy eat food'; बटुरोदनं भोज्यते or बटुमोदननो भोज्यते (Siddhāntakaumudī).

1 बुद्धिभक्षार्थयोः शब्दकर्मणां च निजेच्छया ।
प्रयोज्यकर्मण्यन्येषां ण्यन्तानां लादयो मताः ॥ (Siddhāntakaumudī)

§ 48. The causal forms of roots of the tenth conjugation are the same as the primitive forms, and the meaning must be decided by context; as, रामो धनं चोरयति 'Rāma steals wealth;' रामो गोविन्देन धनं चोरयति 'Rāma causes Govinda to steal wealth.' In the latter sentence, the verb has a causal sense.

§ 49. With regards to roots that govern two accusatives, the rules mentioned in § 43 and § 44 hold good in their case also; i.e. those roots that imply motion and govern the Accusative of the subject of the primitive base, and others, the Instrumental case, subject to § 45; as, वामनो बलिं वसुधां याचते; (ईश्वरो) वामेन बलिं वसुधां याचयति '(God) makes Vāmana ask Bali for earth;' गोपो ऽजां नग्रं हरति; (स्वमी) गोपं गोपेन वाजां नगरं हारयति '(The master) makes the cowherd take the sheep to the town.'

Abb.: त्रिविक्रमो वामनः
19th century
[Source: Wikipedia. Public domain.]


अभिमन्युतनयं परिक्षितमुदरादुपरतमेव निर्गतमुत्तराप्रलापोपजन्तकृपो भगवान् वासुदेवो दुर्लभानसून् प्रापितवान् ॥१॥ (Kādambarī 175)

[Key: उत्तरायाः प्रलापैः उपजनिता कृपा तस्य ।

The divine Vāsudeva, whose mercy was roused by the lamentation of Uttarā, restored to life, which is difficult to obtain, Parīkṣit, the son of Abhimanyu, who had escaped dead from the womb.]

Abb.: परीक्षित्
Javanese Wayang figure
[Source: Wikipedia. Public domain]

अयं शिशुर्न शक्नोति शिरोद्गरां धारयितुम् । तदेहि गृहानेममवतारय सलिलसमीपमित्यभिधाय तेनार्षिकुमारेण मां सरस्तीरमनाययत् । उपसृत्य च जलसमीपं स्वयं मामादाय मुक्तप्रयत्नमुत्तानिसमुखमङ्गुल्या कतिचित्सलिलबिन्दूनपाययत् ॥२॥ (Kādambarī 38)

<Notes: अनाययत् i.e. हारितः, when he found the little parrot in that helpless state. मुक्त्पयत्नं 'who had left off strugling'.>

[Key: This young one is not able to support its neck; come then, take it to the water-side. With these words he made the young sage take me down to the bank of the lake. Then having approached the water, he himself took me up and opening my mouth as I lay helpless (मुक्ताः प्रयत्ना येन तं), made me drink some drops of water with his own finger.

काम इदानीं सकामो भवतु येनास्त्यसंधे जने सखी पदं कारिता ॥३॥ (Śakuntalā 4)

<Notes: येनासत्यसंधे etc. 'By whom my friend was made to relay on that person false to his promise.'>

[Key: असत्या सन्धा यस्य । Let the God of love have his desire fulfilled by whom my friend was made to confide in a man false to his promise.]

महेन्द्रभवनं गच्छतोपाध्यायेन त्वमासनं प्रतिग्राहितः ॥४॥ (Veṇīsaṃhāra 3)

<Notes: आसनं प्रतिग्राहितः 'you were made to carry the (guru's) seat.'>

[Key: You were made to carry his seat by our preceptor when going to the palace of Mahendra.]

तौ कुशलवौ भगवता वाल्मीकिना धात्रीकर्मवस्तुतः परिगृह्य पोषितौ परिरक्षितौ च । वृत्तचूडौ च त्रयीवर्जमितरा विद्याङ् सावधानेन परिपाठितौ । समनन्तरं च गर्भादेकादेशे वर्षे क्षात्रेण कल्पेनोपनीय गुरुणा त्रयीविद्यामध्यापितौ ॥५॥ (Uttararāmacarita 2)

<Notes: धात्रीकर्मवस्तुतः परिगृह्य 'having taken charge (of them) commencing with the duty of a nurse,' i.e. doing all that a nurse would have done under the same circumstances. Perhaps the sentence may be read as धात्रीकर्म वस्तुतः परिगृह्य 'having actually undertaken a nurse's duties.' वृत्तचूडौ 'after the tonsure ceremony was over.' त्रयीवर्जं 'excepting the three Vedas.'>

[Key: धात्र्याः कर्म धात्रीकर्म तदेव वस्तु तस्मात् । वृत्ता चूडा ययोस्तौ । त्रयीं वर्जयित्वा त्रयीवर्जम् ।

Those two, Kuśa and Lava, were taken (into his charge) by the revered Vālmīki, undertaking to do a nurse's duty (or धात्रीकर्म वस्तुतः having actually undertaken &c.) and were brought up and taken care of in every was (परि). When their tonsure-ceremony was performed they were carefully taught all the lores except the three Vedas. Just after that, in their eleventh year, they were invested with the sacred thread in the form proper for a Kṣatriya and taught the three Vedas (also).]

नलिनिके पायय कमलमधुरसं कलहंसीन् । पल्लविके भोजय मरिचाग्रपल्लवदलानि भवनहारीतान् ॥६॥ (Kādambarī 184)

[Key: O Nalinikā, make the swans drink the floral juice of lotuses. Pallavikā, feed the domestic pigeons on the bits of the tender leaves of the black-pepper.]

{कलहंस stands for all grey Geese (not swans!), esp. Anser anser - Greylag Goose. See

Dave, K. N. <1884 - 1983>: Birds in Sanskrit literature. -- Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. -- XXIV, 481 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0-89581-676-8. -- p. 487.

हारीत Chalcophaps indica - Emerald dove, esp. Treron apicauda - Pin-tailed Green Pigeon (Dave, a.a.O. p. 515)

मरिच Piper sp. - Pepper

Abb.: कलहंसः -
Anser anser - Greylag Goose
भरतपुर, राजस्थान
[Source: J.M.Garg / Wikipedia. GNU FDLicense]

 Abb.: हारीतः -  Chalcophaps indica - Emerald dove
[Source: Benjamint444 / Wikipedia. GNU FDLicense]

Abb.: हारीतः - Treron apicauda - Pin-tailed Green Pigeon
[Source: H. Gronvold and E C Stuart Baker (1913) / Wikipedia. Public domain]

Abb.: मरिचः - Piper sp. - Pepper, e.g. Piper nigrum - Black pepper
[Source: Köhlers Medizinal-Pflanzen (1883 - 1914). Public domain]}

आर्यो दापयतु मे वैशंपायनायनाय गमनाभ्यन्ज्ञां तातेन । नान्यथा मे दोषशुद्धिर्भवति ॥७॥ (Kādambarī 292)

<Notes: Said by Candrāpīḍa to Śukanāsa, when rewuesting him to persuade his father to allow him to go to bring back Vaiśaṃpāyana.>

[Key: Your Excellency should make my father give permission to me to bring back Vaiśaṃpāyana. Else the blame attaching to me will not be removed.]

तौ दंपती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं
प्रस्थापयामास वशी वसिष्ठः ॥८॥ (Raghuvaṃśa II.70)

[Key: The self-controlled Vasiṣṭha sent back the king and his wife to their capital.]

ततो द्रोणो ऽर्जुनं भूयो रणशिक्षामशिक्षयत् ॥९॥ (Mahābhārata I.130.25)

[Key: Then Droṇa again taught Arjuna the art of fighting.]

तौ दंपती बहु विलप्य शिशोः प्रहर्त्रा
शल्यं निखातमुदहारयतामुरस्तः ॥१०॥ (Raghuvaṃśa IX.78)

<Notes: 'They two, having lamented, made the killer of their child extract from his heart the dart therein implanted.'>

[Key: The two, husband and wife, lamented very much and made the striker of their son take out the implanted dart from his bosom.]

वाल्मीकिस्तौ कुशलवौ -
साङ्गं च वेदमध्याप्य किंचिदुत्क्रान्तशैशवौ ।
स्वकृतिं गापयामास कविप्रथमपद्धतिम् ॥११॥ (Raghuvaṃśa XV.33)

<Notes: साङ्गं 'with its aṅgas, which are six: Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa, Nirukta, Kalpa and Jyotiṣa.' उत्क्रांतशैशवौ 'who had passed their (state of) childhood.' कविप्रथमपद्धतिं 'the first path or road of (to be followed by) poets,' who first showed poets the way. He is 'आद्यः कविः' and hence the epithet.>

[Key: Vālmīki, having taught the Veda with its Aṅgas to Kuśa and Lava, who had passed alittle of their stage of childhood, made them sing (taught them) his own work - the first path trodden by a poet (the first poetic composition).]

स सेतुं बन्धयामास प्लवंगैर्लवणांभसि ।
तेनोत्तीर्य यथा लंकां रोधयामास पिंगलैः ।
द्वितीयं हेमप्राकारं कुर्वद्भिर् इव वानरैः ॥१२॥ (Raghuvaṃśa XII.70-71)

[Key: He caused a bridge to be built {by the monkeys} on the ocean (saline body of water); and crossing it by that path made the tawny-coloured monkeys besiege Laṅkā, who formed, as it were, a second gold-rampart (round it).]

Abb.: स सेतुं बन्धयामास प्लवगैर्लवणांभसि ।
இராமர் பாலம் = रामसेतुः =
Rāma's Bridge = Adam's Bridge = Palk Strait
[Source: ©Google Earth. -- Accessed 2009-03-27]

Additional Sentences for Exercise.

एवं क्रियते युष्मदादेशः । किंतु या यस्य युज्यते भूमिका तां तथैव भावेन सर्वे वार्ग्याः पाठिताः ॥१३॥  (Mālatīmādhava 1)

<Notes: भावेन 'by your honour', referring to the Sūtradhāra.>

[Key: This your order will be obeyed. But Your Honour has taught all the actors in a way in which each is assigned (cast for) a character which is best suited to him.]

स कार्तान्तिकस्तां विलोक्य स्निग्धदृष्टिराचष्ट । भद्रे अस्ति कौश्शलं शालिप्रस्थेनानेन संपन्नमाहारमस्मानभ्यवहारयितुमिति ॥१४॥ (Daśakumāracarita II.6)

[Key: स्निग्धा दृष्टिर्यस्य । शालीनां प्रस्थं शालिप्रस्थं तेन ।

The astrologer, havin surveyed her, asked her with an affectionate look - good girl, hast thou the skill to serve us (me) with food prepared out of this Prastha of Śāli (paddy).]

ततो मया पाटलिपुत्रं गत्वा श्रावितो ऽमात्यसंदेशो वैतालिकः स्तनकलशः ॥१५॥ (Mudrārākṣasa 4)

[Key: Then I went to Pāṭaliputra, and communicated Your Excellency's message to the Bard Stanakalaśa.]

रजनीतिमिरावगुण्ठिते पुरमार्गे धनशब्दविक्लवाः ।
वसतिं प्रिय कामिनां प्रियात्स्वदृते प्रापयितुं क ईश्वरः ॥१६॥ (Kumārasaṃbhava IV.11)

<Notes: Said by Rati to Cupid after he had been reduced to ashes by Śiva. रजनीतिमिरावगुण्ठिते पुरमार्गे may be simple Lokative, or Lokative absolute: 'enveloped in nocturnal darkness.'>

[Key: रजन्याः तिमिरं रजनीतिमिरं तेनावगुण्ठिताः । धनानां शब्दो धनशब्दस्तेन विक्लवाः ।

Construe - हे प्रिय रजनीतिमिरावगुण्ठिते पुरमार्ग सति धनशब्दविक्लवाः प्रियाः कामिनां वसतिं प्रापयितुं र्वदृते क ईश्वरः ।

When the streets of the city are enveloped in darkness, who but you, O dear one, is able to take beloveds, frightened by the thunder of clouds, to the abodes of their lovers.]

तामर्चिताभ्यः कुलदेवताभ्यः कुलप्रतिष्ठां प्रणम्य्य माता ।
अकारयत् कारयितव्यदक्षा क्रमेण पादग्रहणं सतीनाम् ॥१७॥ (Kumārasabhava VII.27)

<Notes: तां कुलप्रतिष्ठां प्रणमय्य 'meking her, who was the glory or strength (source of stability) of the family, bow down to the tutelary deities.' कारयितव्यदक्षा 'knowing well what others should be made to do.' सतीनां पादग्रहणमकारयत् 'made her seize (fall at) the feet of the chaste (matronly) women.'>

[Key: कुलस्य देवताः कुलदेवताः ताभ्यः । कारयितव्ये दक्षा ।

Construe - कारयितव्यदक्षा माता कुलप्रतिष्ठां तां अर्चिताभ्यः कुलदेवताभ्यः प्रणमय्य क्रमेण सतीनां पादग्रहणमकारयत् ।

The mother, who was well-versed in the duties to be done (lit. waht one is to be made to do) made her who was the glory (or main stay) of the family, bow down to the tutelary deities that were worshipped, and then to seize (fall at) the feet of the chaste (matronly) ladies in due order.]

Abb.: अकारयत् कारयितव्यदक्षा क्रमेण पादग्रहणं सतीनाम् ॥
Surat -
[Source: JOVIKA. -- -- Accessed 2009-03-27. -- Creative Commons License (by, share alike)]

प्रियागुणसहस्राणामेकोन्मीलनपेशलः ।
य एव दुःस्मरः कालस्तमेव स्मारिता वयस् ॥१८॥ (Uttararāmacarita 6)

<Notes: एकोन्मीलनपेशलः 'calculated to at once unfold (recall to memory).'>

[Key: प्रियायाः गुणस्तेषां सहस्राणि तेषाम् । एक्कं च तदुन्मीलनं च एकोन्मीलनं तत्र पेशलः clever; hence able. दुखेन स्मर्यते इति दुःस्मरः । स्मारिताः P.P.P. of the Caus. of स्मृ.

I am reminded of that time, which is painful to remember and able at once to unfold (bring prominently before my mind) thousands of my beloved's virtues.]

शरैरुत्सवसंकेतान् स कृत्वा विरतोत्सवान् ।
जयोदाहरणं बाह्वोर्गापयमास किंनरान् ॥१९॥ (Raghuvaṃśa IV.78)

<Notes: उत्सवसंकेतान् name of a people. जयोदाहरणं 'declaration or announcement of his victory,' i.e. verses declaratory of the success of his arms.>

[Key: विरत उत्सवो येषां ; जयस्य उदाहरणं जयोदाहरणम् ।

Making by his arrows the Utsavasaṃketas suspend their gaieties (stop their festivals) he made the Kinnaras sing the songs of the victory of his arms.]

अथानाथाः प्रकृतयो मातृबंधुनिवासिनम् ।
मौलैरानाययामासुर्भरतं स्त्म्भिताश्रुभिः ॥२०॥ (Raghuvaṃśa XII.12)

<Notes: अथ 'after the death of Daśaratha.' अनाथाः 'without a lord, owing to the king's death.>

[Key: अविद्यमानः नाथः यासां ता अनाथाः । मातुः बन्धवो मातृबन्धवस्तेषु निवसतीति मातृबन्धुनिवासी तम् । मूलादागता मौलाः । स्तम्भितानि अश्रूणि यैः तैः ।

Construe - अथ (see notes) अनाथाः प्रकृतयः स्तम्भिताश्रुभिः मौलैः मात्र्बंधुनिवासिनं भरतं आनाययामासुः ।

Then the Counsellors who were without a king (or helpless) caused the hereditary ministers, with their tears restrained (who were asked not to shed tears) to bring back Bharata who was then staying with his mothers relatives.]

त्वं रक्षसा भीरु यतो ऽपनीता तं मार्गमेताः कृपया लता मे ।
अदर्शयन् वक्तुमशक्नुवत्यः शाखाभिरावर्जितपल्लवाभिः ॥२१॥ (Raghuvaṃśa XIII.24)

<Notes: Said by Rāma to Sītā. रक्षसा 'by Rāvaṇa.'>

[Key:  आवर्जिताः वल्लवा यासां ताभिः ।

Construe - हे भीरु रक्षसा त्वं यतः अपनीता तं मार्गं एताः लताः कृपया वक्तुमशक्नुवत्यः (अतः) आवर्शितपल्लवाभिः शाखाभिः अदर्शयन् ।

O timid one, these creepers, unable to speak, pointed out to me, through compassion, the way by which you were carried away be the Rakṣas (Rāvaṇa), by means of their branches with leaves bent down (pointing to the south).]

कुलाभिमानी कुलजां नराधिपः ।
परैस्त्वनयः क इवापहारयेन्
मनोरमामात्मवधूमिव श्रियम् ॥२२॥ (Kirātārjunīya I.31)

<Notes: Said by Draupadī to Yudhiṣṭhira. 'What other king than yourself, who has all means favourable to him and who is proud of his family, will allow others to take away his wealth, like his own wife, attached to him by virtue of good qualities, and born of a noble family.  क इव 'who possibly'.>

[Key: गुणैः (virtues; the six political expedients, peace and others) अनुरक्ता ताम् । अनुरक्तं साधनं यस्य । कुलस्याभिमानो ऽस्यास्तीति कुलाभ्मानी । कुलाज्जायते असौ कुलजा ताम् । मनसो रमा मनोरमा ।

कुलाभिमानी is used to show that such a king ought to do his utmost to preserve his royalty. For translation see notes.]

यः पयो दोग्धि पाषाणं स रामाद्भृतिमाप्नुयात् ।
रावणं गमय प्रीतिं बोधयन्तं हिताहितम् ॥

प्रीतो ऽहं भोजयिष्यामि भवतीं भुवनत्रयम् ।
किं विलापयसे ऽत्यर्थं पार्श्वे शायय रावणम् ॥

आज्ञां कारय रक्षोभिर्मां प्रियाण्युपहारय ।
कः शक्रेण कृतं नेच्छेदधिमूर्धनमञ्जलिम् ॥२३॥ (Bhaṭṭikāvya VIII.82-84)

<Notes: These three lines and the next two are addressed by Rāvaṇa to Sītā, when he was endeavouring to win over her mind to himself. यः etc. 'he who extracts milk from a stone, will alone derive happiness from Rāma', meaning that it is simply impossible. बोधयंतं हिताहितं 'who (Rāvaṇa) is telling you what is good and bad.' किं विलापयसे 'why make me talk much.'

'Employ the demons and myself in rendering you service.' 'Who will not wish for the reverential bow made by Indra by folding his hands on his head', i.e. as Indra, my conquered vassal, bows down to me, so will he bow down to you, my dear beloved, मूर्धानमधिगतः, or अधिगतो मूर्धा येन, तमधिमूर्धानम्. >

[Key: He who can get milk out of a stone, will obtain happiness from Rāma; transfer your love to Rāvaṇa who has been telling you what is good for you and what is not (to your profit or otherwise). Why do you force me to talk much? {Let Rāvaṇa lie on your side!} Make the Rakṣas obey your commands; make me bring to you your desired objects. Who will not wish that Indra should join his hands and place across his brow (when doing obeisance)? See notes.]

विद्यामथैनं विजयां जयां च रक्षोगणं क्षिप्तुमविक्षतात्मा ।
अध्यापिपद्गाधिसुतो यथावन्निघातयिष्यन्युधि यातुधानान् ॥२४॥ (Bhaṭṭikāvya II.21)

<Notes: एनं i.e. रामं. रक्षोगणं क्षिप्तुं 'calculated to disperse (destroy) the multitude of demons.' गाधिसुतः Viśvāmitra.>

[Key: रक्षसां गणः तम् । अविक्षतः (not wounded by passion) आत्मा यस्य सः ।

Construe - अथ अविक्षतात्मा गाधिसुतः युधि तेन यातुधानान् निघातयिष्यन् एनं रक्षोगणं क्षिप्तुं जयां विजयां च विद्यां यथावद् अध्यापिपत् (Aor. of इ with अधि Caus.).

Then the son of Gādhi (Viśvāmitra), of pure soul, desirous to get the Rakṣas slain (by him) in battle, taught him, in the proper manner, the two lores (charms), (named) Jayā and Vijayā, capable of dispersing hosts of demons.]

Sentences for Translation into Sanskrit

All translations from the Key.

1. We made him know (विद्) his duty, and sent (caus. of स्था with प्र) him home.

वयं तं धर्ननवेदयाम गृहं प्रस्थापयाम च ॥१॥

2. When the desire of independence enters the heart of a minister, he will make the king himself lose (त्यज्) his life.

यदा स्वातन्त्र्यस्पृहा सचिवस्य चेतसि पदं करोति तदा स नृपेणैव प्राणांस्त्याजयति ॥२॥

3. Having vanquished his foe in the battle, he made his bards sing (गै) the glory of his warlike deeds.

युद्धे शत्रुं जित्वा स स्वपराक्र्माणां यशो वन्दिनो गापयामास ॥३॥

4. He caused his servants to bring (नी or हृ) fuel from the market.

स भृत्यैरापणादिन्धनमानाययत् (or अहारयत्) ॥४॥

5. It is no wonder that the tributary princes are made by the Emperor to obey his commands.

नैतच्चित्रं यत्तेन सम्राजा (अधिराजेन) सामान्ता आज्ञाः कार्यन्ते ॥५॥

6. These persons were told to get garlands prepared by those maid-servants.

एते नरा दासीभिः (or दासीः) मालाः कारयितुमादिष्टाः ॥६॥

7. When a student is made to know the theory of a subject, he is taught the practice of it.

यदा अध्येता कस्यापि विषयस्यागमं बोध्यते तदा स तस्य प्रयोगमपि शिक्ष्यते ॥७॥

8. Overcome your enemies and make them pay (दा) you tributes.

शत्रूञ्जित्वा तैरात्मने करान्दापय ॥८॥

9. He caused a large mandap to be erected (कृ) by his servants for the marriage of his son.

स पुत्रस्य विवाहार्थं भृत्यैर्महान्तं मण्डपमकारयत् ॥९॥

10. He made the boy eat (अद् or खाद्) food against his will.

असौ ऽनिच्छतापि (or बलात्) बटुनान्नमखादयत् आदयद्वा ॥१०॥

11. I showed (Caus. of दृश्) my library to my distinguished guest.

अहं ममातिथिविशेषं पुस्तकसम्ग्रहम्(पुस्तकालयम्) अदर्शयम् ॥११॥

12. He makes Rāma ask the pilgrims the way to Benares.

स रामेण यात्रिकान्काशीपथं प्रच्छयति ॥१२॥

13. The sheep were caused by the master to be taken (वह्) to the village by his servant.

मेषा अधिपतिना किंकरैर्ग्राममवाह्यन्त ॥१३॥

14. A lord should be made by a servant to give him rewards, by adapting himself to his will.

भर्ता सेवकेन छन्दोनुवृत्त्या (भावमनुप्रविश्य) आत्मने पारितोषिकानि दापयितव्यः ॥१४॥

15. I caused them to stand round the king, and made them salute (Caus. of वद् with अभि) him.

अहं तान्नृपतिमभितो ऽस्थापयं तैः (तान्वा) तमभ्यवादये ॥१५॥

Abb.: मण्डपम्
Tripurāntakeśvara (ತ್ರಿಪ್ರಾನ್ತಕೇಶ್ವರ) Temple, Balligavi - ಬಳ್ಳಿಗಾವಿ
[Source: Dineshkannambadi / Wikipedia. GNU FDLicense]

To Lesson VI