Kulturen von Arbeit und Kapital

Teil 3: Kapitaleignerkulturen

6. Asiatische Beziehungsnetzwerke

4. Hongkong: Triaden

von Margarete Payer

mailto: payer@payer.de

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Margarete <1942 - >: Kulturen von Arbeit und Kapital. -- Teil 3: Kapitaleignerkulturen. -- 6. Asiatische Beziehungsnetzwerke. -- 4. Hongkong: Triaden. -- Fassung vom 2005-10-20. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/arbeitkapital/arbeitkapital030604.htm          

Erstmals publiziert: 2005-10-11

Überarbeitungen: 2005-10-20 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung an der Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart, Wintersemester 2005/06

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0. Übersicht

1. Triaden

"Triad is a collective term that describes many branches of an underground society and organizations based in Hong Kong and also operating in Mainland China, Macao, and Chinatowns in Europe and North America. The term does not carry capital letters.

There are about 50 triad groups that are active in modern Hong Kong; many of them are no more than small, local street gangs. The larger groups, including the Sun Yee On [(新義安], Wo Shing Wo [和勝和] and 14K, are syndicates of sophisticated criminals, mirror images of such similar western empires of crime as the mafia.

Their activities include drug trafficking, money laundering, illegal gambling, prostitution, car theft and other forms of racketeering. A major source of triad income today comes from the counterfeiting intellectual property such as computer software, music CDs and movie VCDs/DVDs. They also trade in bootleg tobacco products and part of the proceeds is thought to go to terrorist organisations.

History of Triads

Precursor to triads--Tiandihui

In the 1760s, a society called the Tiandihui [天地會] was formed in China. Its purpose was to overthrow the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and restore Han Chinese rule. As the Tiandihui spread through different parts of China, it branched off into many groups and became known by many names, one of which was "Sanhehui" (Chinese: 三合會; pinyin: sānhéhuì; Yale Cantonese: saam1 hap6 wui2), literally "Three Harmonies Society", referring to the unity between Heaven, Earth, and Man.

These societies accordingly made use of the triangle in their imagery. The name "triad" was coined by British authorities in Hong Kong, referring to that use of triangular imagery.

Abb.: Mitgliedsurkunde einer "Triade", 19. Jhdt., auf Seide, mit dem Dreieck, nach dem die Hongkonger Polizei die Bezeichnung "Triade" bildete

[Bildquelle:   Booth, Martin <1944 - >: The dragon syndicates : the global phenomenon of the Triads. -- London : Bantam, 2000.  -- 608 S. :  Ill.;  18cm. -- Originally published: London: Doubleday, 1999.  -- ISBN   0553505904. -- Nach S. 304. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch  bei amazon.de bestellen}]

Post-imperial developments

Over several centuries, what is known as triads today developed from a patriotic society to a criminal organization. Following the overthrowing of the Qing Dynasty of China in 1911, the Hung clan (洪門) suddenly found themselves lost without purpose. Worse still, they somehow managed to miss out on the opportunity to participate in the actual uprising, and many of them were left angry and depressed. Unable to revert to normal civilian lives after spending years living under outlawry, grave danger and extreme violence, many ex-rebels reunited to form a cult which later came to be known as the Triad. Having lost the usual donations and support from the public after the collapse of the Qing empire, members of the newly formed cult resorted to money extortion from the unwilling public through all possible means.

Migration to Hong Kong

When the Communist Party of China took power in 1949, Mainland China was put under strict law enforcement and organized crime diminished. Triad members then migrated south to the then-British crown colony of Hong Kong for the continuance of their business. By 1931, there were eight main triad groups and they had divided Hong Kong up into geographic areas and ethnic groups that each group was responsible for controlling. The eight main ones at that time were the Wo, the Rung, the Tung, the Chuen, the Shing, the Fuk Yee Hing, the Yee On, and the Luen. Each had its own headquarters, its own sub-societies, and its own public covers. After the Riot in Hong Kong in 1956, the government actively enforced the laws that restricted and diminished the Triad activities in Hong Kong.

The problems of triads in Hong Kong were worse in the 1960s and 1970s. In the past, rumour had it that the police controlled the triads and the triads took charge of the social order. If there was a kidnapping incident, the police would get the regional gang leader to resolve it. On the other hand, the police would associate with the regional gang leader in seizing the control of places where they would be in command of the businesses. Hence there was spatial stability of social powers. Then, in 1974, police corruption was effectively abated with the establishment of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). Now the triads had diminishing areas to control and the boundaries of triad power also blurred out. With less benefit from usual businesses, they turned to underground dealings.

Sustenance from 1980s

As the triads developed, certain ones began to monopolize some sectors of the economy in the 1980s and 1990s. For instance, the Sun Yee On had almost entire control over the cinema sector. However, their activity fields have decreased greatly as the triads have to struggle against the collaborative anti-triad operations among the Mainland, Macau and Hong Kong. Besides, easy profits no longer exist, and gang leaders' motive to vie for leadership diminishes.

Activities overseas

Concurrently, triad activities have spilt over to cities in U.S. and Canada with sizable Chinese population, such as San Francisco, New York City, Sacramento, Cupertino, Arcadia, Las Vegas, Auckland, Rowland Heights, New Orleans, Monterey Park and Vancouver. It is also believed that London, Manchester and Amsterdam are new centres of triad activity. They are often involved in smuggling illegal immigrants from East Asia into the USA and Canada. Triads also have associations with local East Asian American (Chinese and Vietnamese) teenage street gangs such as the Jackson Street Gang (San Francisco) , which operate in areas with large East Asian American populations.

Recent developments

Nowadays, there are approximately 57 triad societies in Hong Kong, including between 15 and 20 triads actively involved in local crimes. Scale of triad membership is difficult even for leaders to ascertain. Although some triads have only 50 members, larger ones have over 30,000 members. The most sophisticated (and well known) triads in Hong Kong nowadays are believed to be The 14K Triad, Sun Yee On, and Wo Shing Wo.

Triad Groups

The 14K Triad

The 14K Triad was reportedly the largest triad gang worldwide in the mid-1990s. It was formed after the Second World War and the Chinese Civil War, with the Kuomintang [中國國民黨] fleeing the Communist Chinese.

In 1997 there were a number of gang related attacks that left 14 people dead. The 14K triad under Wan Kuok-koi (nicknamed 崩牙駒 Lit. Broken Tooth Koi ) was being challenged by the smaller Shui Fong(水房 Lit. Water Room, originated from a workers' union of the legacy Hong Kong Soft drink company, Wo On Lok 和安樂) triad.

The next year a gunman believed to be connected to the local 14K triad killed a Portuguese prison officer and wounded another at a sidewalk café in Macau.

In 1999, a Portuguese court convicted 45-year old mob boss Broken Tooth Koi on various criminal charges and sentenced him to 15 years imprisonment. His 14K gang was suspected of drive-by shootings, car bombings and attempted assassinations. Seven of his associates received lesser sentences.

Since the crackdown in Macau, the 14K triad resurfaced in North American cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco and Vancouver. In response to the massive publicity generated by Broken Tooth Koi, 14K dramatically lowered its public profile. Meanwhile, loan sharking and money laundering continue to be the primary sources of revenue for 14K in North America.

See also: Macau Security Force

The Sun Yee On

The Sun Yee On (新義安) (also known as The Yee On Commercial and Industrial Guild) is, by far, the largest and most powerful of the Triads. Based in Hong Kong, it has several offshoots, with the most prolific branch having 25,000 members. Of Chaozhou [潮州] and Hakka [客家] origin, the organization is believed to be founded by a Kuomindang [中國國民黨] major by the family name of Heung. After the major's death in the early part of the 20th century, the organization was supposedly inherited by his tenth son, Charles Heung Wah-Keung (向華強), who, along with his brother Heung Wah-Sing (向華勝), invests heavily in Hong Kong's entertainment industry.

As a whole, it is believed to be in control of over 56,000 members worldwide, with sub-organizations located in New York City, Miami, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. The Sun Yee On is the principal centre for the triads, with anywhere from 47,000 to 60,000 members carrying out activities worldwide.

The Wo Shing Wo

The Wo Group or SW (和勝和 or 勝和 for simplicity), with over 20,000 members, is also based in Hong Kong. Its membership is composed mainly of Cantonese-speakers, much like the 14K. The Wo Hop To (和合圖), a major division of the Wo group, has a major operations base in San Francisco. Illegal gambling is a suspected major source of funds for the Wo Hop To's operations. The Wo Hop To is also active in many of the "legal" card clubs in peripheral areas like Emeryville, San Bruno and San Jose (CA). (US Hearings 119) The Hong Kong-based Luen Group boasts 8,000 members with 4 subgroups.

Triad Culture

Triad societies have traditions and exotic rituals dating back to the early days of the Hung clan in the 18th century. To the bemusement of many Western scholars, many of its traditions and rituals are remarkably similar to that of the Freemasonry, such as the concept of brotherhood, "secret handshakes", and the use of triangles as symbols. Moreover, many of those rituals were based on superstitions and were related to peasant faiths in Southern China. For instance, in formal inauguration ceremonies new members were required to take a blood oath in front of an altar. After incenses were burnt, the head of a rooster would be chopped off, and each new member would taste its blood. Such ceremonies are getting rarer in recent days as people's tastes change.

Abb.: Guan Gong

It is interesting that every triad society worships the famous hero Guan Gong (or Guan Yu [关羽; 關羽] as his given historical name) from the Han Dynasty (Period of the Three Kingdoms to be exact) who exemplifies the Chinese thinking of the six qualities of a humble man:

  • humanity (仁)
  • righteousness (義)
  • ritual obedience (禮)
  • wisdom (智)
  • loyalty (忠) and
  • trust (信).

Of these qualities, his loyalty and righteousness are especially admired. (See also Confucianism)

The triad society during the Qing period was organized to protest against the Qing government, they worshipped Lord Guan, probably adopting his loyalty to the former Han_Dynasty. Triads want their members to have the qualities of Lord Guan, most importantly, righteousness and to make contribution to the society especially when their people are under threat of a harsh repression.

Nowadays, triad societies still very much follow this tradition to worship Lord Guan and consider him as their guide and guardian. More importantly, they still regard Lord Guan as a role model for their members.

Ironically, it is for the same reason that some police officers of the Hong Kong Police also worship Guan Gong, especially when a tough operation is to be carried out. Hence, jokes exist that say that Guan Gong will be caught in the middle when the police and the triads encounter each other. Some outsiders refuse to practise this worship for the same reasons.

Triad Organizational Structure

Hong Kong's triads are not as powerful as some people might expect. Unlike some of the biggest international drug dealers who have their own armed forces and can perhaps take charge of their local governments, Hong Kong triads are, comparatively speaking, operating on a much smaller scale, even though they might pursue and maintain significant resources such as their own stockpiles of ammunition. Unlike Western Mafia, they usually limit violence to among themselves rather than inflict it on the public at large.

There is never a fatherly figure in the Hong Kong triads to control all other members in illegal activities via a hierarchy. The real power behind triad societies is said to rest with its elusive and highest-ranking female leader, Shian'Lia Xian. On the contrary, Hong Kong triads generally comprise of several independent groups. Although they form and organize themselves with similar ceremonies and hierarchical systems, they do not function under an absolute and strict dominion-and-compliance plan. For example, the "Ging Yee" is a subsidiary branch of the "Sun Yee On", but members of the Ging Yee do not take orders from the "supremacy".

The actual power of triads lies at the ground level of the hierarchy. Usually, a triad "official" ("Red Pole") leads a group of 15 active members, and wields aggression on a turf, usually consisting of only a street, a building, a wholesale market, a football field, or a park. Because the gangs are poorly structured, different gangs, though branched from the same triad, have different hierarchy in different districts. This way a leader with apparent hegemony may not be able to command other leaders; and leaders may sometimes wage war against one another for more benefits.

Triads also use numeric codes to differentiate the ranks and positions inside a gang. For example, 426 would mean "fighter" (打仔). Another code 49 (四九仔) would denote a rank-and-file member. 489 is the code for "the mountain master", 438 for the "deputy mountain master", 415 for "the white paper fan", and 432 for the "straw sandal". The code 25 (二五仔), an undercover/spy of the gang, has entered common usage in Hong Kong to mean a "traitor".

As the Hong Kong economy progresses, triads barely provide "satisfying" social and pecuniary conditions to foster absolute loyalty among their members. One consequence is that the current triad structure has become more flexible: the customary eight-ranking system has changed into one that consists of four ranks (refer to the diagram below). Also, the sophisticated ceremonial rituals for new members have simplified: the most commonly practiced is "hanging the Blue Lantern" (i.e. following the leader), which is an oral agreement with little formality. (Note: It is illegal to describe the formalities for initiation into a triad in Hong Kong.) The degree of autocracy within the organization has fallen; members have higher tendency to prioritize their personal interests. Should a member discover that there is little advantage in remaining in the group, he might transfer himself to another one which is more socially robust and potent: the traditional principles of triad moral beliefs have been disregarded under such personal benefits first stance.

Abb.: triad structure

Gang Fighting

When triads have a "show of force" (known as 晒馬, sai ma in Chinese), they are only trying to negotiate with one another, they do not actually want to fight, so they do not usually bring along weapons. Each party's bargaining power depends on the quality and quantity of people on its side as well as its structural integrity.

In terms of figures, a "show of force" with over one hundred people might seem a big thing, but quite many attendants either are mercenaries - paid just to turn up, or come simply to help out. For example, In 1990, one of the gangs attempted to monopolise the queues for purchase of new apartments and had a "show of force" with 700 people. The police arrested 119 people, but later found that most of them were hawkers or drug addicts who were employed from various districts and did not know one another – the gang leader had all of them wearing a right-handed white glove for recognition, so they were later called "The White-glove Gang".

One reason that triads try to avoid fighting is the possible incurrence of high costs. Generally speaking, ammunition is expensive and the basic cost of hiring a person for a "showing of force" is HK$100, which could increase up to HK$500 for larger events. Other accessory expenses, including meals, logistics, medical, condolence and legal charges may also be incurred.

Organized crime

Nowadays, triads have become more business-like organizations. The interactions and integrations of power among triad gangs from the Mainland, Taiwan, Macau and Hong Kong are not to escape unwavering counter-operations from local authorities, but are, in fact, driven by agreeable benefits. At the present, the largest market is in the Mainland; and they are business-oriented – they head for wherever big money is accessible. Some Hong Kong triads also make lawful investments in the Mainland and their intentions are really to earn a living, but of course, some are just exploiting the legitimacy of these businesses for other illegal means.

Dealing with Triad Problems in Schools

School violence is not a new issue. One event (date is unknown, but fixed at around 2003-04) which stirred much public concern was the video clip showing a student being beaten up by 11 fellow classmates. In March 2004, a student in Tin Shui Wai stabbed a 17-year-old with a pair of scissors. While not all school violence is directly Triad related, it is believed the gang formation directly contributes to an increase in violence.

Triad members often hang around at places where students go after school, such as football pitches, game centres and shopping centres in attempt of recruiting them. Once the students become triad members these juvenile gangs become more confident as they believe that they have "backup", i.e. protective support from other members of the triad society. Even pretending to be a triad member or use parlance associated with triads has been seen as empowering among teens, a manifestation of rebellious period.

Schools cannot monitor students' after-school activities since there is no way that they can shut off contact between the triad members and their students outside the school compound. Although regular talks are held in schools to warn students against triad membership and police has sent undercover officers into schools to curb triad activities, these actions are not effective enough to prevent the formation of juvenile gangs.

How Triads are Tackled in Hong Kong

Even though there have been reports that 27,000-strong Hong Kong Police have difficulty in dealing with 100,000-strong gang members, the counter-view says the Hong Kong police force is a highly-structured and well trained team, compared to the hardly organized gangs with many members coming and going, or being even mercenaries.

Tackling the problems brought by triads is one of the greatest challenges to Hong Kong's law enforcement teams. The Organized Crime and Triad Bureau (OCTB) plays a major role, and they are supported by each and every district for their work.

The social harms done by the triads are not unknown. Even though most gangs and triads act independently (of one another), their attempt to pretend that they are "the invisible yet invincible" has made the police's work much harder by forcing their victims into silence. In order to encourage the public to report the criminal activities of triads, the Security Bureau has established the Witness Protection Unit in 1995 to augment witness security. Later in 2000 the Witness Protection Ordinance was enacted and came into operation on 9 November to provide a legal basis for the Witness Protection Programme.

However, Hong Kong police are striving with determination to strike against this social threat. The OCTB and Criminal Intelligence Bureau are working hand in hand with the Narcotics Bureau and Commercial Crime Bureau to process data and information collected by their operation units, to fight the triad heads. Other departments such as the Customs and Excise Department, Immigration Department and ICAC have also joined forces with the local police to impede expansion of triads and other organized gangs.

Ironically the law has given "protection" to the criminals. Due to inadequate authority to investigate the criminal leaders' sources of wealth and the lack of laws to impose heavier punishments such as confiscation of proceeds from crimes and extended imprisonments, the efforts of police have been hampered. Therefore, to resolve this issue, the local law system is also frequently revised to endow the police with sufficient authority to fight against triads. An example is that the police authority proposed the Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance, fully in force since 1995.

According to the Security Bureau, there is no current evidence to indicate any worsening of the triad problem in Hong Kong. For ten years (1993-2002) proportion of crimes with triad involvement remained fairly steady at about 3.8%; and the figure for the first nine months in 2003 was 2.7%. Nonetheless, the bureau has added more than 240 anti-triad specialist posts since 1995/96 to strengthen the anti-triad power of the police force.

There is also a comprehensive publicity programme to forge triad awareness of the public. For instance, the Junior Police Call is an organization with complete networks to publicise anti-triad messages. At the same time, the Crime Prevention Bureau is keeping contact with local businesses and encouraging them to report triad activities.

Furthermore, the Hong Kong Police cooperate with law enforcement agency overseas specialised at organised crimes, especially of places with a sizable Chinese population, to combat Triad at an international level.

Indeed, law enforcement is one of the most effective ways to combat the Triads in Hong Kong. It includes enforcing the Societies Ordinance and the Organized & Serious Crimes Ordinance.

The Societies Ordinance, enacted in 1949, makes all triad societies unlawful societies in Hong Kong. It stipulates that any person convicted of professing or claiming to be an office bearer or managing or assisting in the management of a triad society can be fined up to HK$1 million and imprisoned for up to 15 years. Membership of a triad society is itself an offence punishable with fines from HK$100,000 to HK$250,000 and 3 to 7 years' imprisonment.

The Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance was enacted in Hong Kong in 1994. The Ordinance aims to provide the Police with special investigative powers, to provide heavier sentences for organized crime activities, and to provide the Courts with the power to confiscate the proceeds of organized crime. The same investigative powers exist also for drug trafficking crimes and terrorism (since 7 January 2005).

Sadly, however, police members are often leading men of quite a number of cases that arouse citizens' awareness. These policemen, often being senior officers ranking as high as Senior Superintendent (SSP), are believed to have close relationship with seniorities of the triads. They provide notifications prior to raids or snap checks (of the triads' businesses) in return for their own interests, primarily money.

Portrayal of Triad Societies in Popular Culture

The posters below are of local films about triads. The films depicted are Infernal Affairs, and the Young and Dangerous film series.

Young and Dangerous movie poster

Young and Dangerous movie poster

Young and Dangerous movie poster

Infernal affairs poster

Infernal affairs poster

Gangster movies are generally well favoured among Hong Kong audiences, especially in the young male crowd. From the character "Mark Gor" (played by Chow Yun-Fat [周潤發] in A Better Tomorrow (1986)) to "Chan Ho Nam" (played by Ekin Cheng [鄭伊健] in the Young and Dangerous series (1990s)), the main characters in these movies are always male and highly macho, and between them flow a sense of brotherhood and loyalty and perhaps even love that almost always surpasses their dalliances with their obligatory girlfriends. In addition, no matter how many illegal activities are depicted in the films, somehow the main characters always retain their sense of honour and chivalry. Due to all these elements, the lives of these characters seem impossibly glamorous to the ordinary lives of the audience members, which may explain the popularity of these types of movies.

These movies are especially popular among teenagers. As in most cultures, the adverse affects of these movies on teenagers, in particular encouraging them to join or form a gang, concerns some people.

Triads have also been portrayed in the Grand Theft Auto video game series, as well as The Getaway video game. The movie Rush Hour portrayed the triads inaccurately.

In the video game Deus Ex Triads plays an important part during the Hong Kong levels. The triads are portrayed as a political significant secret organisation in China. During the Hong Kong levels, the players will be able to read various accurate information and history about the Triads.

Pubilc Figures Alleged to Have or Have Had Triad Ties
  • The Father of China Sun Yat Sen [孫逸仙; 1866 - 1925] is known for being a triad member during and after the Qing rebellion. He got his funding from Triad business men.

    Abb.: Sun Yat Sen [Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

  • Sun Yat Sen's protégé Chiang Kai Shek [蔣中正; 蔣介石; 1887 - 1975] was also a triad member who even ordered triads to torture suspected Communists and their sympathisers.

    Abb.: Chiang Kai Shek [Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

  • The real reason Bruce Lee [1940 - 1973] moved to the U.S. in his youth was that he ran into trouble with the triads (who then controlled most of the Hong Kong cinema), unlike that in the semi-biographical film Dragon The Bruce Lee story, which says he moved because of his fight with some American sailors.

    Abb.: Bruce Lee [Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

  • Rumour has it that Hong Kong movie star Chow Yun Fat [周潤發; 1955 - ] was bodily threatened by triads because of his love affair with a woman who was a lover to a triad boss.
  • Many politicians in Taiwan are on triad payrolls or have even been members. Some even attend funerals and other ceremonies of prominent underworld leaders.
  • Rumour has it that when his older son got kidapped, Hong Kong's richest man Li Ka Shing [李嘉誠 ; 1928 - ] offered a hefty reward to any triad clan to find and locate his sons whereabouts, especially if the kidnappers are captured alive, since Li Ka Shing wanted to lynch them.
Miscellaneous information
  • It is interesting to note that after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997, a top official of the Ministry of Public Security publicly acknowledged his acceptance of triad organisations, stating that many of its members were patriotic to the motherland.
  • A triad traditional weapon is the modified Chinese kitchen utensil meat cleavers also nicknamed "choppingknife".
  • Triad fights do not always involve weapons. When rivals just want to settle down a small business they usually fight it out with bare fist on a busy street until police intervenes.
  • A common ritual execution in triad to a disgraced member is slashing with a bladed weapon a hundred times on the body, but no instantly lethal cuts are inflicted. This is analogous to lingchi, a form of capital punishment administered in imperial times. The reason is to let that person bleed to death for the executioner to bury him while he is still breathing. In virtually all instances this punishment is imposed on Chinese.
  • Burying the offender alive is a less honourable method of ritual execution. This is often done if the executioner has a grudge against the executed.
  • Like most legitimate organisations, recently more women are joining leadership in triads.
  • Like many other classes of people, Hollywood portrayal of triads is accused of being irrealistic (such as the black or white Mao suit as featured in the film Rush Hour or the video game Grand Theft Auto San Andreas), probably because it is viewed from the lens from which a gang in the West is viewed. In real life neither a dress code nor a gang colour makes a particular strain of triads recognisable.
  • Another irrealistic portrayal in foreign popular culture is that in real life, it is an exception that triads make friends or foes with other ethnic gangs. However, clashes with the Italian Mafia and Japanese Yakuza [やくざ oder ヤクザ] in New York, and those with the Irish or Albanian gangs in UK have taken place in real life.
  • The triad gangs mainly comes from Cantonese speaking areas. However in Europe gangs from mainland China called Fujian gang tried to move in triad-controlled areas in places with a sizable Chinese population. It is said that the Fujian Gangs use alot of "dishonourable" methods to win their turf fights like using guns and explosives.
  • It is uncommon that a triad member commits crimes for a living. Many are under the façade of legitimate occupations ranging from unskilled workers to businessmen to professionals like lawyers. They are often indistinguishable from ordinary people save perhaps by tattoos with a clan insignia.
  • With some exceptions, Hong Kong's media seldom mention triad clans by name in news reports and current affairs programmes. It is alleged that they would court retribution from the triads, but this is merely one of the many measures to maintain common decency in journalism.
  • In cinema most triad members are portrayed as honourable and not betraying or abandoning "brothers" at the first sign of trouble (examples seen in Young and Dangerous series). However there has been documentary programmes with interviews of ex-members critical about these "oath" and call it "empty promises" as their supposed "brother" will run at the first sign of problem.
  • Hong Kong actor and screenplay advisor Lee Siu Kei, being a triad apostate, works as a screenwriter and act in films without glamorisation or pretence. He is critical about other films' irrealistic portrayal and glorification."

[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triad. -- Zugriff am 2005-09-28]

2. Weiterführende Ressourcen

Abb.: Einbandtitel

Booth, Martin <1944 - >: The dragon syndicates : the global phenomenon of the Triads. -- London : Bantam, 2000.  -- 608 S. :  Ill.;  18cm. -- Originally published: London: Doubleday, 1999.  -- ISBN   0553505904. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch  bei amazon.de bestellen}

Zu Teil 5: Überseechinesen: Familienbande, Sprachgruppen, Verbände