Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā

Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa

zusammengestellt von Alois Payer

Zitierweise / cite as:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa. -- Fassung vom 2007-06-27. -- URL:    

Erstmals publiziert: 2007-06-27


Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007

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Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit  von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

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Abb.: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa - Belbaum
[Bildquelle: bn.wikipedia]


"Aegle marmelos (Corr.) N. O. Aurantiacea.
  • Bael or Bel tree, Enq.
  • Bel, Siri-phul, Hind.
  • Vilva, Tam.
  • Maredoo, Bilva-pandu, Tel.
  • Kuralam, Mal.
  • Bel, Shri-phul, Beng.

Description.—Tree, middling size, armed with sharp spines; leaves pinnate; leaflets oblong or broad-lanceolate, crenulated, unequal, middle one petiolate, lateral ones almost sessile; petals 4-5, spreading; stamens distinct; style short, thick; flowers in panicles, axillary, on long pedicels, large, greenish white, fragrant; berry with a hard rind, smooth, many-celled, many-seeded; seeds covered with a transparent glutinous matter. Fl. May.— W. & A. Prod. i. 96.—Roxb. Fl. Ind, ii. 579. Cor. ii. 143.—Crataeva marmelos, Linn,—Wight Icon, t. 16.—Rheede, iii. t. 37.------Peninsula. Bengal

Medical Uses.—The fruit of this tree is somewhat like an orange. The cells contain, besides the seeds, a large quantity of tenacious transparent gluten, which becomes hard on drying, but continues transparent. The fruit is nutritions, and occasionally employed as an alterative. It is very palatable; and its aperient qualities in the removal of habitual costiveness have been well ascertained. The root, bark, and leaves are reckoned refrigerant in Malabar. The bark of the root especially is given in compound decoctions in intermittent fevers, and the leaves made into poultices in ophthalmia. When dried before it is ripe the fruit is used in decoction in diarrhoea and dysentery ; and when ripe and mixed with juice of tamarinds, forms an agreeable drink. A water distilled from the flowers is reputed to be aloxipharmic. A decoction of the bark of the tree is given in palpitation of the heart, and of the leaves in asthma.—(Roxb. Ainslie. Rheede.) According to Dr Green, a sherbet of the ripe fruit taken every morning proves serviceable in moderate cases of dyspopsia. He further adds that the unripe fruit baked for six hours is a powerful astringent.—(Ind, Ann. Med. Sc., ii. 224.) The fullest accounts of the properties and uses of the Bael are given in the papers by Grant and Cleghorn in ' Indian Annals of Med. Science,' ii. 222-234,

Economic Uses.—The mucus of the seeds is used as an excellent addition to mortar, especially in the construction of wells. A yellow dye is procured from the astringent rind of the fruit.—Roxb.

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]



Sans. bilva. Vern. Bela, Beng. Hind.

The Aegle Marmelos is held in great veneration by the Hindus. It is sacred to Siva whose worship cannot be accomplished without its leaves. Hence this tree is always met with near temples dedicated to Siva. It is incumbent on all Hindus to cultivate and cherish this tree, and it is sacrilegious to up-root or cut it down. The Hindu who expires under a bela tree, excepts to obtain immediate salvation, notwithstanding that ho may have committed innumerable sins.

The Aegle Marmelos is used in medicine in a variety of ways. The unripe or half ripe fruit is regarded as astringent, digestive and stomachic and as useful in restraining discharges from the alimentary canal. The ripe fruit is described as sweet, aromatic, cooling and laxative. It is not easily digested and has a tendency to cause flatulence. The dried pulp of the fruit, called Vilva peshikā in Sanskrit, is regarded as astringent, and specific for dysentery. The root-bark is considered useful in diseases supposed to be caused by deranged air. It constitutes an ingredient of dasamul or the ten roots, (see Desmodium gangeticum). The fresh juice of the leaves is given with honey as a domestic laxative and febrifuge.

The dried pulp of the fruit is given with treacle, in recent dysentery with griping, pain in the loins and costiveness. A compound powder is prepared with equal parts of dried bela, tubers of Cyperus rotundus (mustaka), flowers of Woodfordia floribunda (dhātaki), root of Stephania hernandifolia (pāthā), ginger and mocharasa. It is given in doses of twenty-two to forty-four grains with butter-milk and treacle. In the dysentery of children a decoction and an electuary of the following drugs is used, namely dried bela, fruits of Pothos officinalis (gajapippuli), root of Pavonia odorata (bālā), flowers of Woodfordia floribunda (dhātaki), and bark of Symplocos racemosa (lodhra), in equal parts. decoction of the root of Aegle Marmelos, is given with sugar and fried rice, for checking diarrhoea and gastric irritability in infants.

The fresh juice of the leaves is given, with the addition of black pepper, in anasarca with costiveness and jaundice. In external inflammations, the juice of the leaves is given internally, to remove the supposed derangement of the humours.

Vilva taila is thus prepared. Take of dried bela fruits, twelve seers and a half and boil in sixty-four seers of water, till reduced to one-fourth. To the strained decoction, add four seers of prepared sesamum oil and six tolās each of the following substances, in the form of paste, namely, Vanda Roxburghii (rāsnā), Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnavā), Aplotaxis auriculata (kushta) ginger, dried bela, flowers of Woodfordia floribunda (dhātaki), wood of Pinus deodara (devadāru), bark of Symplocos racemosa (lodhra), tubers of Cyperus rotundus (mustaka), Acorus Calamus (vachā), and gum of Bombax Malabaricum (sālmaliveshta) and prepare an oil in the usual way. This oil is used externally in chronic bowel complaints."

[Quelle: Dutt, Uday Chand: The materia medica of the Hindus / Uday Chand Dutt. With a glossary of Indian plants by George King. -- 2. ed. with additions and alterations / by Binod Lall Sen & Ashutosh Sen. -- Calcutta, 1900. - XVIII, 356 S. -- S. 129ff.]