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Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Crotalaria juncea L. -- Fassung vom 2007-05-10. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/crotalaria_juncea.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2007-03-19
Überarbeitungen: 2007-05-10 [Ergänzungen]
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007
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Abb.: Crotalaria verrucosa L. und Crotalaria juncea L.
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]
"Crotalaria juncea (Linn.) N. O. Lequminosae.
Sun-hemp plant, Eng. Wuckoo or Janupa nar, Tam. Shanamoo, Tel. Sunn, Beng.
Description.—Small plant, 4-8 feet, erect, branched, more or less clothed with shining silky pubescence or hairs; branches terete, striated; stipules and bracts setaceous; leaves from narrow linear to ovate-lanceolate, acute ; calyx deeply 5-cleft, densely covered with rusty tomentum, the 3 lower segments usually cohering at the apex; racemes elongated, terminating every branch; flowers distant; legumes sessile, oblong, broader upwards, about twice the length of the calyx, tomentose and many-seeded; flowers yellow. Fl. Nov.—Jan.— W. & A. Prod. i. 185.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 259.—Cor. ii. t. 193.—C. Benghalensis, Lam.—C. tenuifolia, Roxb.—C. fenestrata, Sims. Bot. Mag.------Peninsula. Malabar. Bengal.
Economic Uses.—This plant is extensively cultivated for the sake of its fibres in many parts of India, especially in Mysore and the Deccan. These are known by different names, according to the localities where they are prepared. In some places the fibre is known as the Madras hemp or Indian hemp, but this latter appellation is incorrect. It is the Wuckoo-nar of Travancore, the Sunn of Bengal, and so on. The mode of preparation differs from that of other fibres in one particular especially, the plant being pulled up by the roots, and not cut. After the seeds are beaten out, the stems are immersed in running water for five days or more, and the fibres are then separated by the fingers, which process makes it somewhat expensive to prepare. Dr Gibson asserts that the crops repay the labour bestowed on them, as the plant is suited for almost any soil. When properly prepared, the fibres are strong and much valued in the home markets. In this country they are used for fishing-nets, cordage, canvas, paper, gunny-bags, &c. &c.—the latter name being derived from the word Goni, the native name for the fibre on the Coromandel coast. In the ' Report on the Fibres of S. India' it is stated that the fibre makes excellent twine for nets, ropes, and various other similar articles. The fibres are much stronger if left in salt water. They will take tar easily, and with careful preparation the plant yields foss and hemp of excellent quality. It is greatly cultivated in Mysore, and also in Rajahmundry. In the latter district it is a dry crop, planted in November and cut in March. The yellow flowers resemble those of Spanish broom. It requires manure, but not too much moisture. Samples of the Sunn fibre were sent to the Great Exhibition, and also to the Madras Exhibition of 1855. On those forwarded to England Mr Dickson reported that these fibres will at all times command a market (when properly prepared) at £45 to £50 a-ton, for twine or common purposes; and when prepared in England with the patent liquid, they become so soft, fine, and white, as to boar comparison with flax, and to be superior to Russian flax for fine spinning. In the latter state it is valued at £80 a-ton. In several parts of India the price varies from R. 1 to Rs. 2-8 per maund; in Calcutta, about Rs. 5 per maund—and the prices both in the latter place and Bombay are gradually increasing. By experiments made on the strength of the fibre, it broke at 407 lb. in one instance. Large quantities are shipped for the English market. What is known as Jubbulpore hemp is the produce of C. tenuifolia, which, according to Wight, is a mere variety of G. juncea. Royle, however, and other botanists, think that it is a distinct plant. It is said to yield a very strong fibre, but probably not very different from the Sunn.—Royle. Jury Reports. Report on Fibres of S. India."
[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]