Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā

Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen

Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso

zusammengestellt von Alois Payer

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Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso -- Fassung vom 2007-05-10. -- URL:   

Erstmals publiziert: 2007-03-19

Überarbeitungen: 2007-05-10 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007

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Abb.: Operculina turpetum (L.) S. Manso
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]


"Ipomoea turpethum (R. Br.) Do.

Indian Jalap, Beng, Shevadie, Tam. Tella-tegada, Tel. Doodh-kulmee, Beng. Teoree, Beng.

Description.—Perennial, twining; stem angular, winged, glabrous or a little downy; leaves alternate, cordate, ovate, acuminated, sometimes entire or angularly sinuated or crenated ; peduncles axillary, 1-4 flowered, bracteate at the apex ; outer sepals the largest, ovate-roundish; corolla twice as long as the calyx, white; capsule 4-sided, 4-celled; seeds round, black, 1 in each cell; flowers white, with a tinge of cream colour. Fl. Nearly all the year.—Convolvulus turpethum, Linn.—Roxb. FL Ind. i. 476.-------Malabar. Coromandel.

Medical Uses.—The bark of the root is employed by the natives as a purgative, which they use fresh rubbed up with milk. About 6 inches in length of the root is reckoned a dose. Cattle do not eat the plant. The root, being free from a nauseous taste and smell, possesses a decided superiority over jalap, for which it might be substituted. Turpethum is derived from its Arabic name. A resinous substance exudes from the root when wounded, which might probably be turned to some account; it is merely the milky juice of the fruits dried. Roxburgh has a long note upon this plant, wherein he communicates the following information on the subject of its medical virtues, as received from Dr Gordon of the Bengal establishment: " The drug which this plant yields is so excellent; a substitute for jalap, and deserves so much the attention of practitioners, that 1 doubt not the following account will prove acceptable. It is a native of all parts of continental and probably of insular India also, as it is said to be found in the Society and Friendly Isles and the New Hebrides. It thrives best in moist shady places on the sides of ditches, sending, forth long climbing quadrangular stems, which in the rains are covered with abundance of large, white, bell-shaped flowers. Both root and stem are perennial. The roots are long, branchy, somewhat fleshy, and when fresh contain a milky juice which quickly hardens into a resinous substance, altogether soluble in spirits of wine. The milk has a taste at first sweetish, afterwards slightly acid; the dried root has scarcely any perceptible taste or smell. It abounds in woody fibres, which, however, separate from the more resinous substance in pounding, and ought to be removed before the trituration is completed. It is, in fact, in the bark of the root that all the purgative matter exists. The older the plant the more woody is the bark of the root; and if attention be not paid in trituration to the removal of the woody fibres, the quality of the powder obtained must vary in strength accordingly. It is probably from this circumstance that its character for uncertainty of operation has arisen, which has occasioned its disuse in Europe. An extract which may be obtained in the proportion of one ounce to a pound of the dried root would not be liable to that objection. Both are given in rather larger proportion than jalap. Like it, the power and certainty of its operation are very much aided by the addition of cream of tartar to the powder, or of calomel to the extract. I have found the powder in this form to operate with a very small degree of tenesmus and very freely, producing three or four motions within two to four hours. It is considered by the natives as possessing peculiar hydragogue virtues, but I have used it also with decided advantage in the first stages of febrile affections."

According to the Raja Nirghaunta, the Teoree is dry and hot; a good remedy against worms; a remover of phlegm, swellings of the limbs, and diseases of the stomach. It also heals ulcers, and is useful in diseases of the skin. It is known to be one of the best purgatives.

The Bhavaprukasha has the following observation: "The white Teoree is cathartic; it is pungent; it increases wind, is hot and efficacious in removing cold find bile; it is useful in bilious fevers and complaints of the stomach. The black sort is somewhat less efficacious; it is a violent purgative, is good in faintings, and diminishes the heat of the body in levers with delirium."—(Ainslie. Roxb. Walli'ch's Obs.) it should be here added that it has entirely fallen into disuse in European practice ; and Sir W. O'Shaughnessy found it so uncertain in its operation, that he pronounced it as unworthy of a place in the pharmacopoeia.—Pharm. of India."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]



Syn. Convolvulus Turpethum, Roxb.

Sans. Trivṛt. Tripuṭā.
Vern. Teori, Beng. Nisoth, Tarbud, Hind.

Two varieties of trivṛt are described by most writers, namely, śveta or white and kṛṣṇa or black. The white variety is preferred for medicinal use as a moderate or mild cathartic. The black variety is said to be a powerful drastic and to cause vomiting, faintness and giddiness. Trivrit has been used as a purgative from time immemorial and is still used as such by native practitioners, alone, as well as in various combinations. In fact this medicine is the ordinary cathartic in use amongst natives, just as jalap is among Europeans. The usual mode of administering it is as follows. About two scruples of the root are rubbed into a pulp with water and taken with the addition of rock salt and ginger or sugar and black pepper.

A compound powder called Nārācha churna, is thus prepared. Take of Trivrit root eight tolās, long pepper two tolās, sugar eight tolās ; powder and mix. About a scruple of the powder is recommended to be taken before meals in constipation with hard faeces.

Tumburādya churna. Take of the fruits of Xanthoxylumm hostile ( tumburu ), rock, vit and sochal salts, ajowan, pāchak root, yavakshāra, chebulic myrobalan, asafoetida and baberang seeds, one part each, trivrit three parts; powder the ingredients and mix. Dose, about a drachm with warm water, in painful dyspepsia with costiveness and flatulence.

In anasarca supposed to be caused by deranged bile, a decoction of trivrit, gulancha, and the three myrobalans is recommended to be taken. Milk diet should be prescribed along with this medicine."

[Quelle: Dutt, Uday Chand: The materia medica of the Hindus / Uday Chand Dutt. With a glossary of Indian plants by George King. -- 2. ed. with additions and alterations / by Binod Lall Sen & Ashutosh Sen. -- Calcutta, 1900. - XVIII, 356 S. -- S. 203f.]