Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā

Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen

Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz.

zusammengestellt von Alois Payer

Zitierweise / cite as:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. -- Fassung vom 2007-05-10. -- URL:   

Erstmals publiziert: 2007-03-19

Überarbeitungen: 2007-05-10 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007

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Abb.: Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz.
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]


"Terminalia Chebula (Retz.) Do.

Kadukai-marum, Tam. Kodorka-marum, Mal. Karakaia, Tel. Huldah, Duk. Hor or Hara, Hind. Haree-tukee, Beng. Atala, Can.

Description.—Tree, 40-50 feet; leaves nearly opposite, shortly petioled, ovate-oblong, obtuse or cordate at the base, quite entire, when young clothed with glossy silky hairs, particularly above, adult one's glabrous, sometimes glaucous, upper surface inconspicuously dotted, under closely reticulated with purplish veins; glands one on each side at the apex of the petiole; spikes terminal, often panicled; drupes oval, glabrous; nut irregularly and obscurely 5-furrowed; flowers small, whitish, fetid. Fl. March—April.— W. & A. Prod. i. 313.—Roxb. Fl. Ind ii.-433. Cor. ii. t. 197.—T. reticulata, Roth.-------Peninsula. Bengal.

Medical Uses. The Kadukai (gall-nuts) well rubbed with an equal proportion of catechu is used in aphthous complaints, and considered a valuable remedy. The unripe dried fruits, which are the Indian or black myrobalan (Kooroovillah-kadukai, Tam. and Mal.) of old writers, and which are sold in the Northern Provinces in Bengal, are recommended as purgative by the natives.—(Ainslie.) The gall-like excrescences found on the leaves, caused by the deposited ova' of some insect, are held in great repute as an astringent by the natives. They are very efficacious remedies in infantile diarrhoea, the dose for a child under a year old being one grain every three hours. It has been administered in many instances with the greatest benefit.—(Pharm. of India.) The price and supposed efficacy of the fruit increase with the size; one weighing six tolahs would cost about 20 rupees. It acts internally as aperient, externally as an astringent application to ulcers and skin diseases.—Powell's Punj. Prod.

Economic Uses.—The outer coat of the fruit of this tree mixed with sulphate of iron makes a very durable ink. The galls are found on the leaves, and are produced by insects puncturing the tender leaves. With thorn and alum the best and most durable yellow is dyed, and in conjunction with ferruginous mud, black is procured from them. The fruit is very astringent, and on that account much used by the Hindus in their arts and manufactures. The timber is good, of a yellowish-brown colour. It is used for agricultural purposes and for building. It attains its full size in thirty years.—Roxb."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]



Sans, Haritaki. Abhayā. Pathyā.
Vern, Har. Hind. Haritaki, Beng.

The chebulic myrobalan was highly Extolled by the ancient Hindus as a powerful alterative and tonic. It has received the names of Prāṇadā, or life-giver, Sudhā or nectar, Bhiṣakpriya or physician's favourite and so forth. So highly esteemed was this plant by the ancient Hindus, that a mythological origin has been attributed to it. It is said that when Indra was drinking nectar in heaven, a drop of the fluid fell on the earth and produced the haritaki plant. Seven varieties of haritaki are described by Sanskrit writers, the distinctions being founded upon the shape, colour and marks on the outer covering of the fruits. At the present day, however, two varieties only are recognised, namely, the large ripe fruit called haritaki, and the unripe dried fruit called jangi haritaki in the vernacular. A good haritaki fit for medicinal use should be fresh, smooth, dense, heavy and rounded in shape. Thrown into water it should sink in it. Haritaki fruits weighing four tolās and upwards, are also considered fit for use, although they may not possess some of the above-mentioned properties. The seeds are rejected and their coats only are used in medicine. Those fruits which have small seeds and abundant cortex are preferred.

Chebulic myrobalans are described as laxative, stomachic, tonic and alterative. They are used in fevers, cough, asthma, urinary diseases, piles, intestinal worms, chronic diarrhoea, costiveness, flatulence, vomiting, hiccup, heart diseases, enlarged spleen and liver, ascites, skin diseases, etc. In combination with emblic and belleric myrobalans, and under the name of triphalā or the three myrobalans, they are extensively used as adjuncts to other medicines in almost all diseases.

Two or three chebulic myrobalans, rubbed into a paste and taken with a little rock salt, act as a mild laxative. The following compound decoction called Pathyādi kvātha is also much used as a purgative. Take of chebulic myrobalans, pulp of Cassia fistula (āragbadha), root of Pricrorrhiza Kurroa (katuki), root of Ipomoea Turpethum (trivrit) and emblic myrobalans, equal parts, in all two tolās, and prepare a decoction in the usual way. Dose, two to four ounces. Bengali practitioners now a days often add senna and rhubarb to the above preparation, but these last were not known to the ancient writers, and are not mentioned in. their works.

As an alterative tonic for promoting strength, preventing the effects of age and prolonging life, chebulic myrobalan is used in a peculiar way. One fruit is taken every morning with salt in the rainy season, with sugar in autumn, with ginger in the first half of the cold season, with long pepper in the second half, with honey in spring, and with treacle in the two hot months. These adjuncts are supposed to agree best with the humours that are liable to be deranged in the different seasons. This old device for prolonging life is still believed in, and acted upon, by some superstitious elderly native gentlemen.

Numerous preparations of haritaki for special diseases are described in books, such as the Amrita haritaki for dyspepsia, Danti haritaki for enlargements in the abdomen called gulma, Bhrigu haritaki in cough, Agasti haritaki in consumption, Dasamuli haritaki in anasarca, etc.

Amrita haritaki is thus prepared. One hundred large sized chebulic myrobalans are boiled in butter-milk, and their seeds are taken out. Four tolās each of long pepper, black pepper, ginger, cinnamon, plumbago root, root of Piper Ghaba (chavikā), the five salts, ājowan, and the seeds of Seseli Indicum, (vanayamāni), yavakshāra, sarjiākshāra, borax, asafoetida and cloves, are reduced to powder, and soaked for three days respectively in a decoction of tamarind and in lemon juice. This mixture is introduced within the seedless myrobalans, which are then exposed to the sun and dried. One of these prepared myrobalans is directed to be taken every morning for the relief of various sorts of dyspepsia and indigestion. Danti haritaki will be described under Baliospermum montanum. The other preparations of chebulic myrobalans are not much in vogue at present."

[Quelle: Dutt, Uday Chand: The materia medica of the Hindus / Uday Chand Dutt. With a glossary of Indian plants by George King. -- 2. ed. with additions and alterations / by Binod Lall Sen & Ashutosh Sen. -- Calcutta, 1900. - XVIII, 356 S. -- S. 160 - 162.]