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Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Vateria indica L. -- Fassung vom 2007-06-27. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/vateria_indica.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2007-06-27
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007
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Abb.: Vateria indica L.
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]
"Vateria Malabarica (Blume). S. O. Dipteraceae.
- Indian Copal, Piney Varnish, or White Dammer tree, Eng.
- Dupada mara, Tel.
- Kooudrikum, Velli Koondricum, Tam.
- Vella Koodricum, Peini-marum, Mal.
Description.—Large tree; bark whitish; young shoots and all tender parts, except the leaves, covered with fine stellate pubescence; leaves alternate, petioled, oblong, entire, slightly cordate at the base, shortly pointed or obtuse at the apex, coriaceous and smooth, petioles 1 inch in length; stipules oblong; flowers rather remote, on large terminal panicles; bracts ovate, pointed; filaments 40-50, very short; anthers not auricled at the base, terminating in a single long bristle at the apex; style a little longer than the stamens ; stigmas acute; capsule oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, fleshy; seed solitary. Fl. Jan.—March.—Blume Mus. Bot. ii. 29.—V. Indica, Roxb. (not Linn.)—Chloroxylon Dupada, Buck. Journ. Mysore, ii. 476.------Malabar. Travancore.
Medical Uses.—A solid fatty oil, known as Piney-tallow, procured from the fruit, bruised and subjected to boiling, is of some repute as a local application in chronic rheumatism and other painful affections.
Economic Uses.—This tree must not be confounded with the Vateria Indica (Linn.) of Ceylon, which has larger fruit and leaves, as well as other distinguishing points. It forms beautiful avenues in Malabar and Canara, the foliage being dense and the blossom very fragrant. It was a favourite with the ancient Rajahs, and there are some magnificent old trees near Bednore. It yields the Piney gum-resin, an excellent varnish resembling copal. It is procured by cutting a notch in the tree, sloping inwards and downwards, from which the resinous juice runs, and is soon hardened by. exposure to the air. It is usual, when applying it as a varnish, to apply the resin before it hardens, otherwise to melt it by a slow heat, and mix with boiling linseed-oil. It is very useful for carriages and furniture. A spirit varnish is prepared by reducing to powder about six parts of Piney and one of camphor, and then adding hot alcohol sufficient to dissolve the mixed powder. Alcohol will not dissolve Piney without the camphor, but once dissolved retains it in solution. The varnish thus prepared is good for varnishing pictures, but before being used requires to be gently heated to evaporate the- camphor, which otherwise would produce a roughness on the picture in consequence of its subsequent evaporations. In addition to these uses it is made into candles on the Malabar coast, diffusing an agreeable fragrance, and giving a clear light and little smoke. For making them the fluid resin may either be run into moulds, or be rolled, while yet soft, into the required shape. The true gum-copal is not from this tree, but it generally goes under that name in India. The gum is also useful for varnishing anatomical preparations. The best specimens of the gum are employed as ornaments, under the name of Amber (Kehroba), to which it bears exterior resemblance. When recent it is found from pale green to a deep amber colour, with all the intermediate shades. The bark, which is bitter and astringent, is said to retard fermentation, and on that account chips are used in Ceylon when preparing jaggery from the toddy, which are thrown into the vessel to prevent fermentation taking place. The timber is used for masts and for small vessels, being proof against the teredo navalis.—(Roxb. Wight.) This is the same tree to which Dr Buchanan, in his journey through Mysore, gave the name of Chloroxylon Dupada ; the specific name was derived by him from the Canarese name " Dupa," applied to this and probably other species of Vateria growing in Mysore and the western coast. From the circumstance of the Canarium strictum growing in the same locality arose the belief that both the White and the Black Dammer were produced from the same tree; and as the few which Dr Buchanan saw were probably Vaterias, he naturally concluded that this tree alone yielded both species of Dammer. The White Dammers of the Northern Circars are derived from the Shoreas. The Piney resin has a shining vitreous fracture, is very hard, and bears a great resemblance to amber. Its colour ranges from light green to light yellow, the green tint predominating. It is more soluble in alcohol than the Black Dammer, and burns with less smoke. It is easily distinguished from all other Indian resins by its superior hardness, its colour, and amber-like appearance. There is a variety with a cellular structure and balsamic smell, by which it may be recognised. The candles made from the resin consume the wick without snuffing. They were formerly introduced into Europe, but a Very high duty having been imposed, the trade ceased.—Jury Rep. Mad. Exhib., 1857. The following is Mr Broughton's report on the Piney resin:— This beautiful substance has long been known, and its properties and local uses have been repeatedly described. It is also not unknown in England, and I apprehend that its cost (and perhaps, also, ignorance of its peculiar properties) has prevented its becoming an article of more extended commerce. It should be remarked that the " East Indian Dammer," which is well known among vamish-makers, though frequently confounded with this, is the product of a very different tree, and is not produced in this Presidency. The finest specimens of Piney resin are obtained by making incisions in the tree, and are in pale-green translucent pieces of considerable size. The resin that exudes naturally usually contains much impurity. In most of its properties it resembles copal,' but it possesses qualities which give it some advantages over the latter. Like copal, it is but slightly soluble in alcohol; but, as Berzelius pointed out in the case of copal, it can be brought into solution by the addition of camphor to the spirit. It is easily soluble in chloroform, and thus might find a small application as a substitute for amber in photographer's varnish. It differs most advantageously from copal by being at once soluble in turpentine and drying oils, without the necessity of the preliminary destructive fusion required by that resin, a process which tends greatly to impair the colour of the varnish. The solution of the Piney resin in turpentine is turbid and milky, but by the addition of powdered charcoal, and subsequently filtering, it yields a solution transparent and colourless as water, and yields a varnish which dries with a purity and whiteness not to be surpassed. The solution in turpentine readily mixes with the drying oils. It is on these properties of the resin that its chance of becoming an article of trade will depend. In price it cannot compote with copal, whose supply to the European market is regular and abundant. Major Beddome informs me that the cost of Piney resin delivered on the sea-coast would be about 6 rupees per maund of 26 lb. The present price of the best copal in the English market is but £26, 10s. per ton.
Piney resin yields, on destructive distillation, 82 per cent of a plurescent oil of agreeable odour, but not differing essentially from that obtained from cheaper resins."
[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]