Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā

Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen

Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

zusammengestellt von Alois Payer

Zitierweise / cite as:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper -- Fassung vom 2007-07-11. -- URL:        

Erstmals publiziert: 2006-06-27

Überarbeitungen: 2007-07-11 [Ergänzungen]; 2007-07-06 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007

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Abb.: Urdbohnen (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)
[Bildquelel: Wikipedia]


"Phaseolus Mungo (Linn.) N. O. Leguminosae.
  • Green Gram, Eng.
  • Moong, Hind.
  • Kali - moong, Kherooya, Bulat, Beng.
  • Pucha-payaroo, Siroo-payaru, Tam.
  • Woothooloo, Pessaloo, Tel.

Description.—Annual, nearly erect, hairy; leaves pinnately trifoliolate ; leaflets broadly ovate or rhomboid, entire ; peduncles at first shorter, afterwards longer than the petioles ; racemes axillary ; corolla papilionaceous; flowers in a kind of cylindrical head; keel twisted to the left with a short spur near the base on the left; legume horizontal, cylindrical, slender, hairy, 6-15 seeded; seeds striated ; flowers greenish yellow. Fl. Dec- Jan.— W. & A. Prod. i. 245,—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 292.—P. Max.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 295.—Rheede, viii. t. 50.------Cultivated.

Economic Uses.—This is extensively cultivated by the natives, to whom the pulse is of great importance, especially in times of famine.

There are several varieties, one of which has dark-coloured seeds and is called Black gram. Large quantities are annually exported from Madras, and shipped chiefly for Pegu, Bengal, Bombay Mauritius, and other places.—(Comm. Prod. Mad: Pres, Roxb.) It is sometimes sown in alternate drills with the great millet (Sorghum) or spiked millet, and in rice cultivation a crop is generally taken off the same land when it has become dry. It is sown in the cold weather, and reaped in the hot season, after a period varying from seventy-five to ninety days. So large a proportion of the pulse crops does it form that these are collectively called Payaroo, hence the wont synonymous with our puhe. The black variety, P. Max, (Roxb.) is less esteemed, and is sown earlier, requiring more moisture. The flour of the green variety is an excellent variety for soap, leaving the skin soft and smooth, and is an invariable concomitant of the Hindoo bath.—(W. Elliott.) The tuberous roots of the P, rostratus (Wall.) are eaten by the natives.—J. Graham."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]



The following varieties of leguminous pulses are mentioned by Sanskrit writers.

  • Mudga. Phaseolus Mungo, Linn. Vern. Mug, B.
  • Māṣa. Phaseolus Roxburghii, W. &. A. Vern. Urid, H.
  • Mudgaparṇi. P. trilobus, Ait. Vern, Mugāni, B.
  • Makuṣṭha. P. aconitifolius, Jacq. Vern. Mot, H.
  • Kulattha. Dolichos uniflorus, Lamark. Vern Kulthi, H.B.
  • Rājamāṣa. Vigna Sinensis, Linn. Vern. Barbati, B.
  • Śimbi. A common name for several species of Dolichos.
  • Caṇaka. Cicer arietinum, Linn. Vern. But, Beng. Chenā, H.
  • Masura. Vicia Lens, Benth. Vern. Masur, H. B.
  • Śatilā. Pisum sativum, Linn. Vern. Matar, H. B.
  • Aḍhakī. Cajanus Indicus, Sprengel. Arar, B. Tor, H.
  • Tripuṭī. Lathyrus sativus, Linn. Khesāri, H. B.
  • Māṣaparṇi. Glycine labialis, Linn. Vem. Māshāni, H. B.

Some of these pulses have several varieties. For example seven sorts of mudga are mentioned, namely, krishna or black, mahā or large, gaura or pale red, harita or green, pita or yellow, sveta or white and rakta or red.

Mudga, ordinarily known as moong kā dāl, and especially its green variety, is considered most wholesome and suited to sick persons. A soup made of this pulse is often the first article of diet prescribed after recovery from acute illness. The following varieties are also considered wholesome and suited for use by convalescent persons, namely, masura, chanaka, kulattha and makushtha. Vicia Lens or lentils, which take rank first among the pulses as containing the largest proportion of flesh-forming matter, are regarded by the Hindus as highly nutritive, and useful in bowel complaints. A poultice made of this pulse is an effectual domestic medicine for checking secretion of milk and reducing distension of the mammary glands. Cicer arietinum is perhaps the most favourite pulse with the natives, and is used as an article of diet in a great variety of ways. It is taken raw, or cooked in its green as well as ripe state. Gram is made into dāl, is roasted and around into meal and is prepared in many other ways.

The acid liquid exuded from the hairs of the stem and leaves of Cicer arietinum is called chanakāmla in Sanskrit. It is collected by spreading a cloth over the plants during the night and rinsing the fluid absorbed by it. Chanakāmla is described as acid, refrigerant, saltish, and useful in dyspepsia, indigestion and costiveness. It enters into the composition of some medicines for dyspepsia along with other vegetable acids.

Dolichos uniflorus is used medicinally chiefly as an external application in the shape of poultices arid pastes. Its soup is said to be useful in gravel and urinary disorders.

The Phaseolus Roxburghii or māsha is much used in medicine both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism and affections of the nervous system. It enters into the composition of several decoctions used in these diseases. The following is an illustration. Take of the pulse of Phaseolus Roxburghii, root of castor oil plant, of Mucuna pruriens (ātmaguptā) and Sida cordifolia (balā), half a told each, and prepare a decoction in the usual way. This decoction is given with the addition of rock salt and assafoetida. Several oils for external application in the above mentioned diseases have the pulse of Phaseolus Roxburghii for their basis or principal ingredient, as for example the following.

Svalpa māsha taila. Take of the pulse of Phaseolus Roxburghii eight seers, water sixty-four seers, boil down to sixteen seers, and strain. Boil the strained decoction with four seers of sesamum oil, and one of rock salt till the water is evaporated. This oil is said to be useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint, stiff shoulder joint, etc."

[Quelle: Dutt, Uday Chand: The materia medica of the Hindus / Uday Chand Dutt. With a glossary of Indian plants by George King. -- 2. ed. with additions and alterations / by Binod Lall Sen & Ashutosh Sen. -- Calcutta, 1900. - XVIII, 356 S. -- S. 149ff.]