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Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang B: Tierbeschreibungen. -- Hystrix indica. -- Fassung vom 2010-12-10. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/tiere/hystrix_indica.htm
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007
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Abb.: Hystrix leucura - Weißschwanz-Stachelschwein, Zoo
[Bildquelle: Sarefo / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
Abb.: Hystrix leucura - Weißschwanz-Stachelschwein, Zoo
[Bildquelle: Fritz Geller-Grimm / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
"In India thecommon species is replaced by the closely allied hairy-nosed porcupine (Hystrix leucura), distinguished by the muzzle being densely clad with hairs, as well as by the quills at the base of the tail, and sometimes a row in the middle of the hinder part of the back, being mostly white. The skull, moreover, is less convex, with smaller nasal bones. This species is found from Ceylon to Kashmir, and appears to extend westwards as far as the Black Sea.
Twoother species inhabit India ; of which the Bengal porcupine (H. bengalensis) has a much shorter crest on the neck, while in Hodgson's porcupine this crest is totally wanting. The latter occurs in the Eastern Himalaya, and is represented by allied forms in Borneo and the Malayan region."
[Quelle: Lydekker, Richard <1849-1915>: The royal natural history / edited by Richard Lydekker ; with preface by P.L. Sclate. -- London ; New York : F. Warne, 1893-96. -- 6 Bde. : ill. (some col.) ; 26 cm. -- Bd. 3. -- S. 167. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/royalnaturalhist03lyderich. -- Zugriff am 2007-09-27]
"Genus HYSTRIX, L. (1766).
Syn. Acanthion, Cuv. ; Acanthochaerus, Gray.
Body covered with rigid spines, some longer flexible spines being added on the back, the stoutest spines attached to the loins and rump. Tail short, spinose, and having at the end a bundle of slender-stalked open quills. Muzzle blunt. Mammae 6.
In the skull the nasal bones are well developed, much more so, however, in some species than in others. There are large air-sinuses in the frontals. Nasal cavity usually very large.
Dentition: i. 2/2 pm. 1-1/1-1, m. 3-3/3-3. The upper grinding-teeth with one internal and three or four external folds ; the folds become, with wear, loops of enamel inside the margin of the of the tooth. Lovver teeth similar but with the folds of reversed.
Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 4, S. 4, C. 10-12.
Toes 5-5, the pollex small.
Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species.
A crest of bristles 6 to 12 inches long or more on neck and shoulders H. leucura, p. 442.
Crest present but less than 6 inches long H. bengalensis, p. 444.
Crest wanting or quite rudimentary H. hodgsoni, p. 444.
One species of Hystrix is found fossil in the Pliocene Siwaliks and another in the Pleistocene cave-deposits of Kurnool.
Fig. 145. Skull of Hystrix leucura
Hystrix leucura. The Indian Porcupine.
Hystrix cristata, var. indica, Gray and Hardwicke, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pl. 14 (1830).
Hystrix leucurus, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 103 ; Elliot, Mad. Jour. L. S. x, p. 218 ; Kelaart, Prod. p. 70 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 520 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 128 ; Jerdon, Mam. p. 218.
Hystrix hirsutirostris, Brandt, St. Petersb. Acad. Mem. i, 1835, p. 375 ; Waterhouse, Mammalia, ii, p. 454; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxi, p. 351.
Hystrix zeylonensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 171 (1851).
Hystrix malabarica, Sctater, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 353, pi. xvi ; 1871, pp. 233, 234.
Sāyi, Sāhi, Sāyal, Sarsel, H. &c. ; Sājru, B. ; Dumsi, Chotia-dumsi, Nepal ; Saori, Chaodi, Guzrati ; Salendra, Mahr. of the Ghāts ; Sinkor, Sindhi ; Sikhan, Baluch. ; Shkunr, Pushtu ; Hoigu, Gond.; Jekra, Korku ; Jiki, Ho-Kol ; Yed, Mul-handi, Can. ; Yeddu pandi, Tel. ; Malānpani, Tam. Mal. ; Hitava, Cingalese.
A crest of very long coarse bristles, from 6 or 8 inches to occasionally over a foot in length, commencing on the forehead and extending along the spine to the middle of the back. Muzzle densely clad with hair ; fore part of body, limbs, and abdomen covered with short spines mingled beneath with hair, the loins and base of tail with long spines, those situated anteriorly long and flexible, the others on the lower back and rump stout and rigid, so that the long flexible spines conceal the stouter quills except when all are erected. Skull moderately convex above, the nasals being nearly twice the length of the frontals, and having their lateral margins subparallel and their hinder border transverse ; posterior portion of premaxillary not differing greatly from a nasal in breadth. Mammae 6, pectoral, laterally placed.
Colour blackish brown, with the exception of the tips of the quills on the cheeks and on a band across the throat (forming a collar), the terminal one fifth to one half, and one, two, or three narrow rings on the long dorsal quills, and all the spines and hollow quills of the tail, which are white. A few of the crest-bristles also are tipped with white or whitish in some individuals. The quills around the base of the tail are in great part white, and there is often a mesial line of white spines on the lower back. In some specimens the caudal spines and the tips and rings on the dorsal quills are partly orange-red instead of white.
Dimensions. Head and body 28 to 32 inches, tail 3 or 4, with spines 7 or 8, hind foot from heel 3.75 ; basal length of adult skull 5.5, zygomatic breadth 3.2. Weight 25 to 30 lbs.
Distribution. Throughout India and Ceylon, extending into the lower spurs of the Eastern Himalayas and to the westward far into the mountains, this species being found in Kashmir. A closely allied form, probably merely a variety, extends throughout Western Asia to the Caspian and Black Sea. H. leucura has not been recorded east of the Bay of Bengal.
Habits. During the day the Indian porcupine remains in caves amongst rocks, or in burrows made by itself in hillsides, riverbanks, bunds of tanks, &c. It has a predilection for rocky hills, and it is frequently gregarious. It rarely leaves its burrow till after sunset and generally returns thereto before sunrise. From being so thoroughly nocturnal, this, one of the commonest wild animals of India, is seldom seem. It feeds on vegetables, principally on roots, and is destructive to crops, especially to garden produce (peas, potatoes, onions, carrots, &c.), and to fruit, and is said to be very dainty and particular in its choice of food.
When irritated or alarmed porcupines utter a grunting sound and erect their spines with a peculiar rattling noise, produced, apparently, by the hollow tail-quills. When attacked by dogs or other animals, they charge backwards and inflict severe wounds with the rigid spines of their hind quarters. In confinement porcupines often gnaw, with their powerful teeth, through wooden cases or cages. They are fond of gnawing bones, and I have seen an elephant's tusk, found in the forest, deeply scored by their incisors. The flesh of the porcupine is well known to be excellent eating. From two to four young are produced at a birth, and are born with their eyes open and the body covered with short soft spines.
Hystrix hodgsoni. The cresiless Himalayan Porcupine.
Acanthion hodgsonii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 101.
Hystrix alophus, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 771, pi. xxxii (1847).
Hystrix hodgsoni, Waterhouse, Mammalia, ii, p. 461.
Hystrix longicauda, Blyth, Cat. p. 129, partim ; Jerdon, Mam. p. 221, nec Marsden.
Anchotia dumsi, Nepalese ; Sathung, Lepcha ; O-e, Limbu ; Midi, Cachari ; Subon-dem, Manipuri ; Suku, Kuki ; Sisi, Daphla ; Tuigon, Soke, Liso, Vikhā, Sekru, Naga.
No crests on head, neck, or shoulders as a rule, but occasionally a few bristles, slightly longer than the neighbouring spines, in a line on the back of the neck. Anterior portion of body, limbs, and abdomen covered with short flexible spines, flattened and deeply grooved, with hair-like terminations. Longer rigid spines and, scattered amongst them, still longer thin flexible spines, some of the latter often 10 inches in length, on the loins and rump. In the skull the nasals are about 2| times the length of the frontals and have a convex posterior termination.
Colour dark brown, blackish on the limbs. A narrow band of white-tipped spines forms a collar in front of the neck ; longer quills of the back having sometimes the base, sometimes the tip, sometimes both white. Tail-quills of black and white mixed.
Dimensions. Head and body 23 inches, tail 4, or with the quills 8 ; basal length of skull 4.4, zygomatic breadth 2-5. Weight 16 to 20 lbs.
Distribution. The lower slopes of the Himalayas in Nepal and Sikhim up to about 5000 feet, and Assam. A crestless porcupine inhabits Burma and other countries east of the Bay of Bengal, but whether the present species or H. longicauda is uncertain.
Habits. According to Hodgson these porcupines are monogamous, living in burrows, and resembling H. leucura in habits and food. They breed in spring and produce usually two young. The flesh is excellent and is much esteemed.
Hystrix bengalensis. The Bengal Porcupine.
Hystrix bengalensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 170 (1851); id. Cat. p. 128 ; id. Mam. Birds Burma, p. 42 ; Jerdon, Mam. p. 220.
Sajru, Bengali : Phyu, Burmese.
This resembles H. hodgsoni and H. longicauda in size and general character, having only a very few long and slender quills intermixed with the ordinary weapon-quills. The latter are much longer and thicker than in H. hodgsoni, and the body-spines are still flatter and more strongly grooved and terminate towards the neck in slight setae, towards the quills in rigid points. There is a distinct but small thin crest, the longest bristles of which measure 5 or 6 inches and are tipped with white for the terminal third ; and the white demi-collar is strongly marked. General colour as in H. hodgsoni, the quills generally having the basal half white, the rest black, most of them with a white tip more or less developed, the few long and flexible quills white with a narrow black band about the middle. Tail as in H. hodgsoni.
The above is an abridged copy of Blyth's original description.
Jerdon gives the length of the head and body as 28 inches, tail 4.
Distribution. Lower Bengal, Assam, Arrakan, and probably Burma generally. Specimens have also been brought from Sikhim.
I have not been able to examine a specimen of this species.
Anderson (An. Zool. Res. p. 333) describes the skull as closely resembling that of H. longicauda (Marsden, History of Sumatra, p. 118, pi. xiii), with which Acanthochoerus grotei of Gray (P. Z. S. 1866, p. 310) is said to be identical (see Sclater, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 234). Mr. Thomas has shown to me a skull with broad nasals collected by Mr. Fea in Karennee, and agreeing fairly with Anderson's description of that of H. bengalensis. The frontals are about half the length of the nasals, and the breadth of the nasals in front is nearly the length of the frontals. Basal length 4.75 inches, zygomatic breadth 2.7. As I find a rudimentary crest in some specimens of H. hodgsoni, the presence or absence of a small crest is not a specific character.
The skulls of H. longicauda (from Malacca, identified by Cantor) and H. bengalensis differ from that of H. hodgsoni in having the nasal bones not more than twice the length of the frontals. The crestless H. javanica, Cuv., from Java, and the small crested H. yunnanensis (Anderson, An. Zool. Ees. p. 332), from Yunnan, have the frontals nearly as long as the nasals.
The remaining Asiatic forms of Hystrix besides H. yunnanensis and H. javanica are the Chinese H. subcristata, Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1870, p. 638), and H. crassispinis, Günther (P. Z. S. 1876, p. 736,pi. Ixx), from Borneo. H. muelleri, Jentink (Notes Leyd. Mus. 1879, p. 87), from Sumatra, is identical with H. longicauda of Cantor and others."
[Quelle: Blanford, W. T. <1832 – 1905>: Mammalia. -- 1888 - 1891. -- (Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma). -- S. 441 - 446. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/mammalia00blaniala. -- Zugriff am 2007-09-06]
"Bengal porcupines, Hystrix bengalensis, certainly occur in the immediate neighbourhood of Calcutta, as they are occasionally brought into thetown for sale by the inhabitants of the surrounding villages. I have, however, neither seen them in any of the suburban gardens, nor heard any complaints of their doing any serious damage there, like that which is so often caused by the great porcupine, H. leucura, in the gardens of other parts of India.
I once tried one as a pet, but found it a hopelessly stupid and unfriendly animal, although,owing to voracious greed, it very soon became quite tame. In dealing with it, it was always necessary to be prepared for the chance of its making one of those precipitate and blindfold assaults that porcupines are apt to commit when suddenly startled, in the course of which they abruptly erect their spines, make a noise like that of an engine blowing off steam, and rush backward in the direction of the supposed enemy."
[Quelle: Cunningham, D. D. (David Douglas) <1843-1914>: Some Indian friends and acquaintances; a study of the ways of birds and other animals frequenting Indian streets and gardens. -- London : J. Murray, 1903. -- viii, 423 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- S. 313f. -- Online: http://www.archive.org/details/someindianfriend00cunnrich. -- Zugriff am 2007-09-15]