Einführung in

Entwicklungsländerstudien

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23. Kernprobleme: Bevölkerung

4. Teil IV


verfasst von Evi Hartmann

herausgegeben von Margarete Payer

mailto: payer@hdm-stuttgart.de


Zitierweise / cite as:

Entwicklungsländerstudien / hrsg. von Margarete Payer. -- Teil II: Kernprobleme. -- Kapitel 23: Bevölkerung / verfasst von Evi Hartmann. -- 4. Teil IV. -- Fassung vom 2001-02-22. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/entwicklung/entw234.htm. -- [Stichwort].

Erstmals publiziert: 1999-12-14

Überarbeitungen:  2001-02-22 [Update]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung "Einführung in Entwicklungsländerstudien", HBI Stuttgart, 1998/99

Unterrichtsmaterialien (gemäß § 46 (1) UrhG)

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung der Herausgeberin.

Dieser Text ist Bestandteil der Abteilung Entwicklungsländer von Tüpfli's Global Village Library.


Skript, das von den Teilnehmern am Wahlpflichtfach "Entwicklungsländerstudien" an der HBI Stuttgart erarbeitet wird.


0. Übersicht



11. Die wesentlichsten Bevölkerungsprobleme


Die wesentlichsten Bevölkerungsprobleme sind wohl:

Den meisten dieser Problemen sind eigene Kapitel in diesem Skript gewidmet, so dass im Folgenden nur auf die Urbanisierung und die damit verbundenen Probleme eingegangen wird.


12. Urbanisierungsprobleme 


12.1. Urbanisierung


Die Welt erfährt gegenwärtig nicht nur Bevölkerungswachstum, sondern auch Bevölkerungsumverteilung: den Übergang von einer vorwiegend ländlichen, bäuerlichen Welt zu einer vorwiegend städtischen, nichtbäuerlichen Welt. Der Bevölkerungszuwachs geschieht auf dem Land und erscheint in den Städten.

Die folgende Tabelle zeigt diese Trends:

Urbanisierungstrend 1975 bis 2015
Städtische Bevölkerung Wachstumsrate Urbanisierungsgrad
( 000s )
( % )
( % )
1975 
1995 
2015 
1975-95
1995-2015
1975
1995
2015
Welt Total
1542785
2574314
3962150
2.59
2.18
37.80
45.27
54.38
"Entwickelte" Länder
733287
877318
971547
0.90
0.51
69.94
74.90
80.03
Entwicklungsländer
809498
1696996
2990602
3.77
2.87
26.69
37.58
49.25
Afrika
104186
251412
547707
4.50
3.97
25.17
34.94
46.37
Asien
592748
1191744
2043461
3.55
2.73
24.64
34.67
46.64
Europa
454582
535445
566453
0.82
0.28
67.21
73.53
79.03
Lateinamerika
196080
349793
499324
2.94
1.80
61.24
73.39
79.90
Nordamerika
179801
226067
279169
1.15
1.06
73.85
76.21
80.88
Ozeanien
15388
19853
26035
1.28
1.36
71.79
70.14
71.25

[Daten: Stand 1996. -- Quelle: Human Settlements Basic Statistics 1997 / UNCHS. -- URL: http://www.unchs.org/unchs/english/stats/table2.htm. -- Zugriff am 1999-10-21]

Städte und städtische Agglomerationen mit über 5 Millionen Einwohnern 1995
(gelb unterlegt: Entwicklungsländer)
  Einwohner Wachstumsrate
  ( in Tausend ) ( % )
  1975 1995 2015 1975-95 1995-2015
Asien          
   Teheran (Iran)
4274
6836
10309
2.38
2.08
   Karachi (Pakistan)
3983
9733
19377
4.57
3.50
   Lahore (Pakistan)
2399
5012
10047
3.75
3.54
   Bombay (Indien)
6856
15138
26218
4.04
2.78
   Calcutta (Indien)
7888
11923
17305
2.09
1.88
   Delhi (Indien)
4426
9948
16860
4.13
2.67
   Hyderabad (Indien)
2086
5477
10489
4.94
3.30
   Madras (Indien)
3609
6002
9173
2.58
2.14
   Dhaka (Bangladesh)
1925
8545
19486
7.74
4.21
   Bangkok (Thailand)
3842
6547
9844
2.70
2.06
   Jakarta (Indonesien)
4814
8621
13923
2.96
2.43
   Metro Manila (Philippinen)
5000
9286
14657
3.14
2.31
   Seoul (Südkorea)
6808
11609
12980
2.70
0.56
   Beijing (China)
8545
11299
15572
1.41
1.62
   Hong Kong (China)
3943
5817
6325
1.96
0.42
   Shanghai (China)
11443
13584
17969
0.86
1.41
   Shenyang (China)
3697
5116
7715
1.64
2.08
   Tianjin (China)
6160
9415
13530
2.14
1.83
   Osaka (Japan)
9844
10609
10609
0.37
0.00
   Tokyo (Japan)
19771
26959
28887
1.56
0.35
Afrika          
   Kairo (Ägypten)
6079
9690
14418
2.36
2.01
   Addis Abeba (Äthiopien)
929
2431
6578
4.93
5.10
   Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)
960
2793
5259
5.48
3.21
   Lagos (Nigeria)
3300
10287
24640
5.85
4.46
Südamerika          
   Mexico City (Mexiko)
11236
16562
19180
1.96
0.74
   Bogota (Kolumbien)
3036
6079
8394
3.53
1.63
   Rio de Janeiro (Brasilien)
7854
10181
11860
1.31
0.77
   Sao Paulo (Brasilien)
10047
16533
20320
2.52
1.04
   Buenos Aires (Argentinien)
9144
11802
13856
1.28
0.81
   Lima (Peru)
3651
6667
9388
3.06
1.73
Europa          
   London (U.K.)
8169
7640
7640
-0.33
0.00
   Paris (Frankreich)
8885
9523
9694
0.35
0.09
   Essen-Ruhrgebiet  (Deutschland)
6448
6482
6596
0.03
0.09
   Moscow (Russland)
7623
9269
9299
0.98
0.02
   St. Petersburg (Russland)
4326
5132
5132
0.86
0.00
 Nordamerika          
   Chicago (USA)
  6749
  6844
  7458
 0.07
 0.43
   Los Angeles (USA)
  8926
  12410
  14217
  1.66
 0.68
   New York (USA)
  15880
  16332
  17602
 0.14
 0.38

[Daten: Stand 1996. -- Quelle: Human Settlements Basic Statistics 1997 / UNCHS. -- URL: http://www.unchs.org/unchs/english/stats/table10.htm. -- Zugriff am 1999-10-21]


12.2. Exodus: Die Armen der Welt stimmen mit ihren Füssen ab


Im dritten Teil des "Klassikers" 

Harrison, Paul: Inside the Third World : the anatomy of poverty. -- 3. ed. -- Middlesex : Penguin, ©1993. -- (Penguin books). -- ISBN 0140172173. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

gibt der Autor eine plastische Darstellung der Gründe für das rapide Wachstum von Megastädten in der Dritten Welt, die immer noch gültig ist, wenn auch die Zahlenangaben veraltet sind:

"A donkey cart trots down a road in north-east Brazil, headed for Recife. The husband rides up front. On the back, piled high, are chairs, mattresses, pans, clothes, wife, children and on the top a green parrakeet in a wooden cage.

At Hooghly station in Calcutta, the down train arrives from Delhi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Benares, Patna and stations south. Among the crush of humanity that falls out of the opening doors are ragged Dick Whittingtons from the flooded north or drought-ridden south of Bihar, from poverty-stricken Orissa and crowded Uttar Pradesh, clutching cloth bags or battered tardboard suitcases.

And every day at the vast lorry parks of Lagos or the bus stations of Lima, young couples reach up while porters fling down their few possessions from the roof.

Migration for work is accelerating in the Third World. Some of it trickles into areas more favoured by nature or government investment, most of it floods towards the cities. A few migrants may be following some vague dream of the big city and a sophisticated lifestyle. The majority are driven by the necessities of survival. The land cannot provide them with a job, so migration is like a plea for employment, a courageous expression of the willingness to work more than the poor soil or the unjust society of their home areas will allow them to. Migration is a symptom of rural poverty and of urban overprivilege.

All roads lead to Rome: the rural dynamics of all three continents push people to migrate. In Africa the exhaustion of the soil is the spur: poverty may be shared, but when food yields fall too low, some of the people on the overcrowded life raft have to leap overboard and swim towards uncertain shores. As the smallholdings of Asia and Latin America shrink below survival size, some of the heirs to the land must forgo their right to an equal share, and head for the cities. And as the number of labourers increases and the number of jobs dwindles through mechanization, the landiess too have to look elsewhere for work. The result is identical, whether landownership is tribal and communal, private and fraginated, or large and capitallistic.

It is not easy to migrate. It rneans going into exile, leaving your home village, leaving the supportive network of the extended family, leaving the complex culture of status and ceremony in which you hoped one day to play your part. It is a last resort, when all else has failed.

Migration for work begins as a temporary phenomenon. In central Java, almost every able-bodied man spends several months of the year away from home, ... 

The building sites of Bombay or Calcutta are full of seasonal labourers. They live in ragged tented camps like the hordes of Genghis Khan. The landless labourers of Rajasthan move to Delhi or Ahmedabad for the dry season, when there is no work to be had on the land -- and their women and children go too. The women, in their dark green and maroon and orange saris, can often be seen on roads or building sites, pick manfully in hand or basketful of stones gracefully balanced on their heads, while their children are left to play among the rubble.


Even permanent migrants are reluctant to sever all ties with their home areas. In India it is common for men to leave their families behind in the village while they work in the city. Calcutta is full of single men. A thriving trade in prostitution has grown up among women factory workers. It is a tragic encounter of their poverty and the men's loneliness." (S. 139 - 141)

"What is it that gives the cities of the Third World their unmense gravitational pull? Is it the poverty of the surrounding rural void -- or the cities' own inherent attractions? The question whether migrants are pushed by penury or pulled by wealth is academic. They are two ends of the same continuum. The city seems wealthy precisely because the land is poor, the land seems poor in relation to the city's wealth. It is the comparison that works on the minds of the rural poor -- though in many areas their minds may be wonderfully concentrated by the prospect of imminent starvation.

In western countries, there is very little difference between urban and rural incomes, and even less when the relative costs of living are compared. In the Third World, urban incomes are, on average, two and a half times higher than rural incomes. The greater the income difference, the steeper is the gradient of the slope pulling people into the cities. These differentials are generally highest in Africa, where cities have grown fastest.

In the early sixties, economist Paul Bairoch has estimated, non-agricultutal incomes were fifteen times agricultural ones in Gabon, nine and a half times in Liberia, eight and a half times in the Ivory Coast. In Asia differentials were less glaring, but still considerable, with urban incomes 6-3 times rural ones in Thailand, 4-6 times in Cambodia, 2-4 times in the Philippine, and 1-9 times in India. In Latin America the biggest gaps were in Venezuela (5-3 times), Bolivia (4-2 times), Mexico (4-1 times), Haiti (3-9 times) and Guatemala (3-8 times).

Income is not the only important differential. Another is the grotesque gap between city and countryside in the provision of all kinds of government services, health, sanitation, schools, electricity, clean water. All these factors represent a kind of invisible or social income, and migrants are well aware that they improve their life chances and those of their children.

Take clean water, for example. In Africa 68 per cent of the urban population had access to a safe water supply in 1975, against only 21 per cent of the rural. The urban over rural advantage was 81 per cent to 32 per cent in the Americas and 70 per cent to 19 per cent in South and East Asia.

The risk of epidemics may be slightly higher in crowded urban areas. But that does not justify the concentration of all the hospitals and a major part of the doctors in the biggest towns. In the Philippines there are seven times as many doctors per person in the towns as in the rural areas, in Ghana and Senegal ten times more, in Haiti twenty-five times, in Thailand thirty-one times and in Kenya fifty-seven times.

What of that bright symbol of modernization, electricity?  Peasants prize a domestic supply highly. It is as sought after, as long saved up for, as a tin roof. In any village or rural town a bare bulb burning out of a booth shop, while all around burn oil, is a sure sign of status. Electricity frees the peasant from the tyranny of early bedtime. It is the essential precondition for further progress to a fan, a fridge or a record player. But it can also help a village to develop small-scale industry. While all modern cities and most large towns are supplied with electricity in developing countries, only a small minority of villages are. In 1971, 23 per cent of Latin American villages were electrified, in Asia 15 per cent, in Africa only 4 per cent.

Perhaps most important of all these non-monetary advantages of the cities is education. Rural areas in the Third World are lucky if they have a school within a two-hour walk. In the poorest countries only 36 per cent of rural schools provide the full basic primary course, against 53 per cent of urban schools. Virtually all secondary schools are in towns. Any peasant who places a high value on educating his children will see the city as the best place to do this. And there are-few people in the Third World who do not see education as the road to riches, or at least the way out of poverty.

The unfair channelling of public investment into the cities reaches scandalous proportions in most developing countries. ...

Excess provision of government services in cities also attracts an unfair share of private-sector jobs. As the cities alone can offer the roads, power, communications and water that industry needs, as well as the desirable suburbs that executives expect to live in, the overwhelming bulk of modern industry has been concentrated in a few large urban centres in each country. Industry and administration attract service jobs. Private industry pursues profit and cannot be expected to locate its factories so as to achieve the greatest happiness of the greatest number. But how are we to explain what British economist Michael Lipton has called the urban blas of government policy in the Third World? Why do governments discriminate -- there is no other word for it -- so obviously and shockingly against the rural majority of their citizens?

The colonial powers began the process, providing themselves, in their city bases, with the services and salaries they were used to back home. At independence, the national elites could have taken the view that big cities were aIready well enough provided for and the rural areas should now get their shate. But the elites had been brainwashed into a fascination with all things western, and wanted to build up the western enclaves of their country. And when nationals took over administration posts from whites, few of them had the selfrestraint to accept lower incomes more in line with the ability of their country to pay. In the private sector, urban salaried workers have been able to obtain higher incomes because they are more easily organized than scattered peasants. Factories and cities are more complex organisms than self-sufficient villages, more easily disrupted by syndical action.

The concentrated city masses as a whole are engaged in a sort of unspoken collective bargaining with their governments: put up prices too far, and they riot until they are brought down to an acceptable level. Since ancient Rome the urban mob has been one of the most dangerous and destabilizing elements in any state, and it is best to placate it if you hope to keep on holding the reins of power. But there is a question of balance; the price of food is also the farmer's income. The urban mob, simply by virtue of its concentration near the seat of government, is better organized to get its way over food prices than scattered and usually unorganized peasants. And so governments usually keep food prices artificially low, thus depressing incomes in the rural sector.

Relations between town and country in the Third World are rather like those between rich and poor countries. The rural areas tend to have poor terms of trade -- that is, their produce fetches excessively low prices compared to the cost of the cities' products, whether these be plastic bowls, tractors or administration. And the reasons for these poor terms of trade are exactly comparable with those for Third World products in general. The rural poor lack the muscle of organization and coordination with which to extract higher prices.

The city's advantage, then, is due to a conspiracy between governments and their employees and organized workers to increase their own incomes at the expense of the rural masses. ...

Migration, then, is a form of voting with your feet, of demanding a seat at the table where the feasting is going on. It happens because development is uneven and the benefits of growth are so unevenly spread. It is a protest against inequality.

But the process of migration can itself damage the rural areas further. They do gain something: the pressure for limited land and jobs is reduced, and migrants send home cash that helps eke out low village incomes.

Against that, the rural areas are losing their brightest and best, the most educated, progressive, adaptable, young and vigorous elements to the cities. Surveys show that the typical migrant is aged between twenty-five and forty. ... Migrants are also better educated. ...  Migrants appear to be more intelligent and adaptable than those who stay...  -- precisely the kind of people who could have helped the villages to adopt the new technologies they need if they are to develop.

Young people who have spent years in education expect a certain status in return, but because of urban bias there are few or no jobs in the villages that can offer such status. Villages are short of schools, health clinics, roads  -- and so they are short of jobs as teachers, nurses, engineers. Investment in the rural areas would create more such jobs, and keep mote of the talent in the villages. As things stand, the rural areas bear the cost of raising people to working age, and the city reaps the benefits. The city expropriates the human capital of the land. It is an invisible but heavy burden, added to all the other injustices." (S. 145 - 150)


12.3. Faktoren der Abwanderung in die Städte


Die Abwanderung vom Land in die Städte ist nicht über alle Bevölkerungsgruppen gleich verteilt, sie hat vielmehr folgende Schwerpunkte:

Es gibt aber ebenso den Fall der Rückwanderung, die sich jedoch hauptsächlich auf die älteren Menschen bezieht, die wieder in die Dorfgemeinschaft zurückkehren. 


13. Bevölkerungspolitik 


"Ein Bevölkerungsproblem zu erkennen und es zudem als «eigenes» Problem, von dem man selbst betroffen ist, anzuerkennen, ist eine unumgängliche Voraussetzung für den Erfolg sämtlicher bevölkerungspolitischer Maßnahmen. Denn nur dieses Erkennen und Anerkennen mündet in Motivation, überhaupt etwas zu unternehmen."

Jürg A. Hauser

"Zur Definition von Bevölkerungspolitik gehört unweigerlich zwingend auch die Definition von Bevölkerungsproblem -- denn die Politik ist eine bewusste Reaktion auf ein Problem mit dem Ziel, korrigierend einzugreifen. So gesehen sind Bevölkerungspolitik und Bevölkerungsproblem logische Zwillingsbegriffe.

Vereinfachend gesagt herrscht ein Bevölkerungsproblem dann vor, wenn die demographische Entwicklung die gesellschaftlich und natürlich umschriebene «Lebensqualität» gefährdet oder verunmöglicht. Typische Bevölkerungsprobleme der Dritten Welt sind nebst den allgemeinen ökonomischen Entwicklungs- und Wachstumsproblemen z. B. die Ernährungs-, Beschäftigungs-, Urbanisierungs-, Energie- und Konfliktprobleme. ...

Entsprechend verstehen wir unter Bevölkerungspolitik in erster Linie ein Bündel bewusster, öffentlicher Maßnahmen, die versuchen, durch Beeinflussung der demographischen Variablen Fruchtbarkeit, Sterblichkeit und/oder Wanderungen Nachfrage und Angebot von «Lebensqualität im weitesten Sinne» wieder in Einklang zu bringen.

Unter Bevölkerungspolitik fallen demnach in der Regel staatliche Maßnahmen zur bewussten Regelung der drei wichtigsten demographischen Variablen:

Damit in einem Land aber eine Bevölkerungspolitik erfolgreich durchgeführt werden kann, sind verschiedene Schritte nötig, die je nachdem vor oder während des Programms durchgeführt werden müssen. Es sind dies:

  1. Erkennen und Anerkennen des Bevölkerungsproblems, 
  2. Aufstellen verbindlicher bevölkerungspolitischer Ziele, 
  3. Klären der Fragen von Verantwortlichkeit, Organisation und Durchführung,
  4. Auswählen und Einsetzen der «richtigen» Maßnahmen,
  5. fortlaufendes Überprüfen dieser Maßnahmen auf ihre Wirksamkeit und
  6. periodisches Revidieren und Anpassen der verfolgten Bevölkerungspolitik."

[Hauser, Jürg A. <1942 - >: Bevölkerungs- und Umweltprobleme der Dritten Welt. -- Bern [u.a.] : Haupt. -- Bd. 2. -- 1991. -- (UTB ; 1569). -- ISBN 3825215687. -- S. S. 601f. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}]


14. Schlussbemerkungen


"Wenn wir mit dem Zeigefinger auf andere zeigen, zeigen wir mit drei Fingern auf uns selbst"

Gustav Heinemann (1899 - 1976; deutscher Bundespräsident 1969 - 1974)

Die Betrachtung der Mechanismen der natürlichen Bevölkerungsbewegungen offenbart einige typisch menschliche Erkenntnis- und Bewertungs"schwächen":

Diese typisch menschlichen Schwierigkeiten bei der Erfassung und Bewertung demographischer Gegebenheiten zu überwinden ist eines der Hauptanliegen der Bevölkerungsgeographie.


15. Weiterführende Ressourcen


15.1. Yahoo Categories



15.2. Virtual Libraries


WWWVL Demography and population studies. -- URL: http://demography.anu.edu.au/VirtualLibrary/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Virtual Library on Migration and Ethnic Relations. -- URL: http://www.ercomer.org/wwwvl/index.html. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22


15.3. Organisationen


United Nations Population Fund -- UNFPA. -- URL: http://www.unfpa.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, is the largest internationally funded source of population assistance to developing countries. The Fund, which began operations in 1969, is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations General Assembly. UNFPA assists developing countries to improve reproductive health and family planning services on the basis of individual choice, and to formulate population policies in support of efforts towards sustainable development. The Fund is an advocate for the strategy endorsed by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), which emphasizes the numerous linkages between population and development and focuses on meeting the needs of individual women and men rather than on achieving demographic targets. Key to this new approach is empowering women and providing them with more choices through expanded access to education, health services and employment opportunities. The ICPD Programme of Action calls for making reproductive health care including family planning universally available by 2015 or sooner. UNFPA's mandate, established by the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1973 and reaffirmed in 1993, is: (1) to build the knowledge and the capacity to respond to needs in population and family planning; (2) to promote awareness in both developed and developing countries of population problems and possible strategies to deal with these problems; (3) to assist developing countries, at their request, in dealing with their population problems in the forms and means best suited to the individual countries' needs; (4) to assume a leading role in the United Nations system in promoting population programmes, and to coordinate projects supported by the Fund. In 1997, UNFPA provided support to 168 countries, 46 in sub-Saharan Africa, 37 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 44 in Asia and the Pacific, and 41 in the Arab States and Europe. Since 1969 the Fund has provided more than $4.3 billion to virtually all developing countries. UNFPA directly manages one fourth of the world's population assistance to developing countries. In addition, UNFPA provides a multilateral channel through which donors can direct bilateral population assistance to recipient countries for specific programmes or projects."]

United Nations Population Information Network -- POPIN. -- URL: http://www.undp.org/popin/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["POPIN is a decentralized community of population institutions organized into regional and national networks in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and Northern America. Plans are underway for the establishment of a population information network for Western Asia. The POPIN community includes governmental, intergovernmental and non- governmental organizations working at the national, subregional or international level. The global POPIN Coordinating Unit is located within the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) of the United Nations Secretariat."]

United nations High Commissioner for Refugees -- UNHCR. -- URL: http://www.unhcr.ch/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung. -- URL: http://www.dsw-online.de/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- "Im Dezember wird die private gemeinnützige Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung (DSW) in Hannover gegründet. Die Initiative zur Gründung der Stiftung geht von dem Langenhagener Maschinenbau-Unternehmer Erhard Schreiber aus. Als weiterer Stiftungsgründer kam der Unternehmer Dirk Roßmann, dessen Drogerie-Kette Rossmann GmbH ihren Hauptsitz in Großburgwedel hat, hinzu."]

International Planned parenthood Federation. -- URL: http://www.ippf.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) links national autonomous Family Planning Associations (FPAs) in over 150 countries worldwide."]

Alan Guttmacher Institute -- AGI, New York. -- URL: http://www.agi-usa.org/home.html. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["AGI was founded in 1968 as the Center for Family Planning Program Development."]

Zero Poulation Growth http://www.zpg.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["Zero Population Growth is a [US]  national nonprofit organization working to slow population growth and achieve a sustainable balance between the Earth's people and its resources."]

Population Action International -- PAI. -- URL: http://www.populationaction.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["PAI advocates the expansion of voluntary family planning, other reproductive health services, and educational and economic opportunities for girls and women. These strategies promise to improve the lives of individual women and their families while slowing the world's population growth."]

Overpopulation.com. -- URL: http://www.overpopulation.com/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["argues that population pressures will not lead to the disasters predicted by people such as Ehrlich."]

Population and Community Development Association -- PDA (Thailand). -- URL: http://www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/pda/PDAnavE.htm. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

The Voluntary Human Extinction Movement. -- URL: http://www.vhemt.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["VHEMT (pronounced vehement) is a movement not an organization. It's a movement advanced by people who care about life on planet Earth. We're not just a bunch of misanthropes and anti-social, Malthusian misfits, taking morbid delight whenever disaster strikes humans. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Voluntary human extinction is the humanitarian alternative to human disasters. ... As VHEMT Volunteers know, the hopeful alternative to the extinction of millions, possibly billions, of species of plants and animals is the voluntary extinction of one species: Homo sapiens... us.Each time another one of us decides to not add another one of us to the burgeoning billions already squatting on this ravaged planet, another ray of hope shines through the gloom."]


15.4. Statistiken und andere demographische Angaben und Hilfsmittel


Auslandsstatistische Daten / Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. -- URL: http://www.statistik-bund.de/basis/d/ausl/auslueb.htm. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

World Bank. -- URL: http://www.worldbank.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

CyberSchool Infonation / UNO. -- URL: http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/infonation/e_infonation.htm. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

FAO -- Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN. -- http://www.fao.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

WHO Statistical Information System. -- URL: http://www.who.org/whosis/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

6 Million Human Beings / Musée de l'homme, Paris. -- URL: http://www.popexpo.net/english.html. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

International Programs Center (IPC)of the Population Division of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. -- URL: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Popnet / Population Reference Bureau with funding assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). -- URL: http://www.popnet.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Center for International Health Information -- CIHI / USAID. -- URL: http://www.cihi.com/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Center for International Earth Science Information Network / Columbia University. -- URL: http://www.ciesin.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations -- ERCOMER. -- URL: http://www.ercomer.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- [u.a. Statistik, Virtual Library on Migration and Ethnic Relations]

UNHCR -- UN High Commisioner for Refugees. -- URL: http://www.unhcr.ch/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

U.S. Committee for Refugees. -- URL: http://www.refugees.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22


15.5. Nationale Statistische Institutionen von Entwicklungsländern


Badan Pustak Statistics Indonesia. -- URL: http://www.bps.go.id/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Census of India. -- URL: http://www.censusindia.net/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

El Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI), Mexiko. -- URL: http://www.inegi.gob.mx/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics -- PCBS. -- URL: http://www.pcbs.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22


15.6. Andere Internetressourcen


Africa 2000 Media Group. -- URL: http://www.africa2000.com/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["Africa 2000 is a comprehensive resource for information on population and demographic issues; race, class, and competitive fertility; international 'aid' & economic development; reproductive freedom v. control; covert activities & military strategy; propaganda or 'psy-war' operations; and the political history of north-south relations."]

Center for Communications Program / John Hopkins University. -- URL: http://www.jhuccp.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- [u.a. Population Reports]

Demographic and health surveys / Macro International Inc. -- URL: http://www.measuredhs.com/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Demographic research : a free, expedited, peer-reviewed journal of the population sciences / published by the
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany. -- ISSN 1435-9871. -- URL:http://www.demographic-research.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

Ehrlich, Paul and Anne: Interview. -- In: E/The Environmental Magazine. -- Nov./Dec. 1996. -- URL: http://www.emagazine.com/november-december_1996/1196conv.html. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22

The Futures Group International. -- URL:  http://www.tfgi.com/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["is dedicated to enhancing sustainable international development, through the application of innovative policy, marketing, communications, education, training, and research techniques." U.a. die Software für demographische Projektionen SPECTRUM (Freeware)]

Migration Dialog / UC Davis. -- URL:http://migration.ucdavis.edu/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["Migration Dialogue promotes an informed discussion of the issues associated with international migration by providing unbiased and timely information on immigration and integration issues."]

POPLINE -- Population information online / USAID. --  http://www.jhuccp.org/popline/index.stm. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22. -- ["POPLINE provides citations with abstracts of the worldwide literature on population, family planning, and related health issues."]

The World Village Project. -- URL: http://www.worldvillage.org/. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22 -- ["Imagine that this web page is a village. However, this village represents the planet Earth. If we were to reduce the world population to a village of 1000 inhabitants with all existing human ratios remaining the same then, this would be our reality..."]


15.7. Ressourcen in Printform


Bähr, Jürgen <1940 - >: Bevölkerungsgeographie : Verteilung und Dynamik der Bevölkerung in globaler, nationaler und regionaler Sicht. -- 3., überarbeitete Aufl. -- Stuttgart : Ulmer, ©1997. -- 431 S. : Ill. -- (UTB ; 1249). -- ISBN 3825212491. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

Bevölkerung, Umwelt, Entwicklung : eine humanökologische Perspektive / Josef Schmid (Hrsg.). -- Opladen : Westdeutscher Verlag, ©1994. -- 196 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3531126598. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

Dix, Holger: Bevölkerungspolitik in der deutschen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit : eine Policy-Studie am Fallbeispiel Ruanda. -- Münster : agenda, ©1996. -- 183 S. -- (agenda Politik ; 7). -- ISBN 3929440849. -- Zugl.: Diss., Münster, Univ., 1996. --  {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

Hauser, Jürg A. <1942 - >: Bevölkerungs- und Umweltprobleme der Dritten Welt. -- Bern [u.a.] : Haupt
Bd. 1. -- 1990. -- 365 S. -- (UTB ; 1568).
Bd. 2. -- 1991. -- 676 S. -- (UTB ; 1569). -- ISBN 3825215687. -- Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}
[Standardwerk; Pflichtlektüre]

Höpflinger, François <1948 - >: Bevölkerungssoziologie : eine Einführung in bevölkerungssoziologische Ansätze und demographische Prozesse. -- Weinheim [u.a.] : Juventa, ©1997. -- 232 S. : Ill. -- (Grundlagentexte Soziologie). -- ISBN 3779903989. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

Imhof, Arthur E. <1939 - >: Ars moriendi : die Kunst des Sterbens einst und heute. -- Wien [u.a.] : Böhlau, ©1992. -- 332 S. : Ill. -- (Kulturstudien ; 27). -- ISBN 3205053613

Imhof, Arthur E. <1939 - >: Ars vivendi : von der Kunst, das Paradies auf Erden zu finden. -- Wien [u.a.] : Böhlau, ©1991. -- 183 S. : Ill. -- (Kulturstudien ; 22). -- ISBN 3205054253

Imhof, Arthur E. <1939 - >:  Im Bildersaal der Geschichte oder Ein Historiker schaut Bilder an. -- München : Beck, ©1988. -- 338 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3406349692

Imhof, Arthur E. <1939 - >:  Die Lebenszeit : vom aufgeschobenen Tod und von der Kunst des Lebens. -- München : Beck, ©1991. -- 363 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3406332110

Imhof, Arthur E. <1939 - >:  Reife des Lebens : Gedanken eines Historikers zum längeren Dasein. -- München : Beck, ©1988. -- 166 S. -- (Beck'sche Reihe ; 364). -- ISBN 3406331203

Imhof, Arthur E. <1939 - >:  Die verlorenen Welten : Alltagsbewältigung durch unsere Vorfahren, und weshalb wir uns heute so schwer damit tun. -- München : Beck, ©1984. -- 247 S. : Ill.  -- ISBN 340630270X

Lebenserwartungen in Deutschland, Norwegen und Schweden im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert /Arthur E. Imhof (Hrsg.) .... -- Berlin : Akademie, ©1994. -- 727 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3050024518. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen. -- [Darin die Einleitung von A. E. Imhof: "Die neuen Überlebenden, gestern, heute, morgen, in Deutschland, Europa, weltweit"]

[Arthur E. Imhof ist Professor für Sozialgeschichte und historische Demographie. Er ist sehr an Entwicklungsländern interessiert, fragt, was wir aus unseren Erfahrungen für Entwicklungsländer lernen können. Vor allem aber nimmt er eine längere und voraussagbare Lebenszeit nicht unbefragt als positiv an, sondern zeigt die neuen Probleme und ruft zu einer Neubesinnung im Umgang mit diesem längeren Leben auf. Seine Werke sind sehr lesenswert. Im WWW stellt er ein großes Informationsangebot zur Verfügung: URL: http://www.fu-berlin.de/aeimhof/welcome.html. -- Zugriff am 2001-02-22]

Leisinger, Klaus M.: Die sechste Milliarde : Weltbevölkerung und nachhaltige Entwicklung. -- München : Beck, ©1999. --  361 S. -- (Beck'sche Reihe ; 1340). -- ISBN 3406421407. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

Menschen nach Maß : Bevölkerungspolitik in Nord und Süd / Christa Wichterich (Hrsg.). -- Göttingen : Lamuv, ©1994. -- 267 S. -- ISBN 3889773591. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

Miller, George Tylor: Living in the environment : principles, connections, and solutions. -- 9. ed. -- Belmont [u.a.] : Wadsworth, ©1996. -- 727 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 053423898X. -- [Enthält ausgezeichnete Kapitel und Abschnitte zur Bevölkerungsproblematik]

Schmid, Josef <1937 - >: Einführung in die Bevölkerungssoziologie. -- Reinbeck : Rowohlt, ©1976. -- 332 S. : Ill. -- (rororo Studium ; 98). - ISBN 3499210983

Weeks, John R.: Population : an introduction to concepts and issues. -- 7.ed. -- Belmont, CA [u.a.] : Wadsworth, ©1999. -- 673 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0534553052. -- [Empfehlenswertes Lehrbuch]. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie dieses Buch bei amazon.de bestellen}

Wrigley, E. A.: Bevölkerungsstruktur im Wandel : Methoden und Ergebnisse der Demographie. -- München : Kindler, ©1969. -- 255 S. : Ill. -- (Kindlers Universitäts-Bibliothek). -- Originaltitel: Population and history, ©1968


Zu Kapitel 24: Arbeit und Beschäftigung