Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Margarete <1942 - >: Informationsmarktverzerrung durch Fundamentalismus am Beispiel der USA. -- Kapitel 6: Apokalyptische Außenpolitik. -- 6. Gog Russland nach dem Zusammenbruch des Feindbildes Sowjetunion. -- Fassung vom 2005-03-30. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/fundamentalismus/fundamentalismus066.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2005-03-30
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung an der Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart, Sommersemester 2005
Copyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers.
Diese Inhalt ist unter einer Creative Commons-Lizenz lizenziert.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Länder und Kulturen von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
|"In the 38th chapter of Ezekiel, it says that the land of
Israel will come under attack by the armies of the ungodly nations,
and it says that Libya has now gone communist, and that's a sign
that the day of Armageddon isn't far off.. .All of the prophecies
that had to be fulfilled before Armageddon have come to pass. In the
38th chapter of Ezekiel it says God will take the children of Israel
from among the heathen, where they'd been scattered, and will gather
them again in the promised land. That has finally come about after
2000 years. For the first time ever, everything is in place for the
battle of Armageddon and the second coming of Christ.
Der spätere US-Präsident Ronald Reagan 1971.
[Zitiert in: Diamond, Sara: Spiritual warfare : the politics of the Christian right. -- Boston, MA : South End Press, ©1989. -- 292 S. -- ISBN 0896083616. -- S. 132]
1Und des HERRN Wort geschah zu mir und sprach:
2Du Menschenkind, wende dich gegen Gog, der im Lande Magog ist und der oberste Fürst in Mesech und Thubal, und weissage von ihm
3und sprich: So spricht der HERR HERR: Siehe, ich will an dich Gog! der du der oberste Fürst bist in Mesech und Thubal.
4Siehe, ich will dich herumlenken und will dir einen Zaum ins Maul legen und will dich herausführen mit allem deinem Heer, Ross und Mann, die alle wohl gekleidet sind; und ihrer ist ein großer Haufe, die alle Tartsche und Schild und Schwert führen.
5Du führst mit dir Perser, Mohren und Libyer, die alle Schild und Helm führen,
6dazu Gomer und all sein Heer samt dem Hause Thogarma, so gegen Mitternacht liegt, mit all seinem Heer; ja, du führst ein großes Volk mit dir.
7Wohlan, rüste dich wohl, du und alle deine Haufen, so bei dir sind, und sei du ihr Hauptmann!
8Nach langer Zeit sollst du heimgesucht werden. Zur letzten Zeit wirst du kommen in das Land, das vom Schwert wiedergebracht und aus vielen Völkern zusammengekommen ist, nämlich auf die Berge Israels, welche lange Zeit wüst gewesen sind; und nun ist es ausgeführt aus den Völkern, und wohnen alle sicher.
9Du wirst heraufziehen und daherkommen mit großem Ungestüm; und wirst sein wie eine Wolke, das Land zu bedecken, du und all dein Heer und das große Volk mit dir.
10So spricht der HERR HERR: Zu der Zeit wirst du solches vornehmen und wirst Böses im Sinn haben
11und gedenken: »Ich will das Land ohne Mauern überfallen und über sie kommen, so still und sicher wohnen, als die alle ohne Mauern dasitzen und haben weder Riegel noch Tore«,
12auf dass du rauben und plündern mögest und dein Hand lassen gehen über die verstörten Örter, so wieder bewohnt sind, und über das Volk, so aus den Heiden zusammengerafft ist und sich in die Nahrung und Güter geschickt hat und mitten auf der Erde wohnt.
13Das reiche Arabien, Dedan und die Kaufleute von Tharsis und alle Gewaltigen, die daselbst sind, werden dir sagen: Ich meine ja, du seist recht gekommen, zu rauben, und hast deine Haufen versammelt, zu plündern, auf dass du wegnimmst Silber und Gold und sammelst Vieh und Güter, und großen Raub treibest.
14Darum so weissage, du Menschenkind, und sprich zu Gog: So spricht der HERR HERR: Ist's nicht also, dass du wirst merken, wenn mein Volk Israel sicher wohnen wird?
15So wirst du kommen aus deinem Ort, von den Enden gegen Mitternacht, du und großes Volk mit dir, alle zu Rosse, ein großer Haufe und ein mächtiges Heer,
16und wirst heraufziehen über mein Volk Israel wie eine Wolke, das Land zu bedecken. Solches wird zur letzten Zeit geschehen. Ich will dich aber darum in mein Land kommen lassen, auf dass die Heiden mich erkennen, wie ich an dir, o Gog, geheiligt werde vor ihren Augen.
17So spricht der HERR HERR: Du bist's, von dem ich vorzeiten gesagt habe durch meine Diener, die Propheten in Israel, die zur selben Zeit weissagten, dass ich dich über sie kommen lassen wollte.
18Und es wird geschehen zu der Zeit, wann Gog kommen wird über das Land Israel, spricht der HERR HERR, wird heraufziehen mein Zorn in meinem Grimm.
19Und ich rede solches in meinem Eifer und im Feuer meines Zorns. Denn zur selben Zeit wird großes Zittern sein im Lande Israel,
20daß vor meinem Angesicht zittern sollen die Fische im Meer, die Vögel unter dem Himmel, die Tiere auf dem Felde und alles, was sich regt und bewegt auf dem Lande, und alle Menschen, so auf der Erde sind; und sollen die Berge umgekehrt werden und die Felswände und alle Mauern zu Boden fallen.
21Ich will aber wider ihn herbeirufen das Schwert auf allen meinen Bergen, spricht der HERR HERR, dass eines jeglichen Schwert soll wider den andern sein.
22Und ich will ihn richten mit Pestilenz und Blut und will regnen lassen Platzregen mit Schloßen, Feuer und Schwefel über ihn und sein Heer und über das große Volk, das mit ihm ist.
23Also will ich denn herrlich, heilig und bekannt werden vor vielen Heiden, dass sie erfahren sollen, dass ich der HERR bin.
1Und du, Menschenkind, weissage wider Gog und sprich: Also spricht der HERR HERR: Siehe, ich will an dich, Gog, der du der oberste Fürst bist in Mesech und Thubal.
2Siehe, ich will dich herumlenken und locken und aus den Enden von Mitternacht bringen und auf die Berge Israels kommen lassen.
3Und ich will dir den Bogen aus deiner linken Hand schlagen und deine Pfeile aus deiner rechten Hand werfen.
4Auf den Bergen Israels sollst du niedergelegt werden, du mit allem deinem Heer und mit dem Volk, das bei dir ist. Ich will dich den Vögeln, woher sie fliegen, und den Tieren auf dem Felde zu fressen geben.
5Du sollst auf dem Felde darniederliegen; denn ich, der HERR HERR, habe es gesagt.
6Und ich will Feuer werfen über Magog und über die, so in den Inseln sicher wohnen; und sollen's erfahren, dass ich der HERR bin.
7Denn ich will meinen heiligen Namen kundmachen unter meinem Volk Israel und will meinen heiligen Namen nicht länger schänden lassen; sondern die Heiden sollen erfahren, dass ich der HERR bin, der Heilige in Israel.
8Siehe, es ist gekommen und ist geschehen, spricht der HERR HERR; das ist der Tag, davon ich geredet habe.
9Und die Bürger in den Städten Israels werden herausgehen und Feuer machen und verbrennen die Waffen, Schilde, Tartschen, Bogen, Pfeile, Keulen und langen Spieße; und sie werden sieben Jahre lang Feuer damit machen,
10daß sie nicht müssen Holz auf dem Felde holen noch im Walde hauen, sondern von den Waffen werden sie Feuer machen; und sollen die berauben, von denen sie beraubt sind, und plündern, von denen sie geplündert sind, spricht der HERR HERR.
11Und soll zu der Zeit geschehen, da will ich Gog einen Ort geben zum Begräbnis in Israel, nämlich das Tal, da man geht am Meer gegen Morgen, also dass die, so vorübergehen, sich davor scheuen werden, weil man daselbst Gog mit seiner Menge begraben hat; und soll heißen »Gogs Haufental«.
12Es wird sie aber das Haus Israel begraben sieben Monden lang, damit das Land gereinigt werde.
13Ja, alles Volk im Lande wird an ihnen zu begraben haben, und sie werden Ruhm davon haben des Tages, da ich meine Herrlichkeit erzeige, spricht der HERR HERR.
14Und sie werden Leute aussondern, die stets im Lande umhergehen und mit ihnen die Totengräber, zu begraben die übrigen auf dem Lande, damit es gereinigt werde; nach sieben Monden werden sie forschen.
15Und die, so im Lande umhergehen und eines Menschen Gebein sehen, werden dabei ein Mal aufrichten, bis es die Totengräber auch in Gogs Haufental begraben.
16So soll auch die Stadt heißen Hamona. Also werden sie das Land reinigen.
17Nun, du Menschenkind, so spricht der HERR HERR: Sage allen Vögeln, woher sie fliegen, und allen Tieren auf dem Felde: Sammelt euch und kommt her, findet euch allenthalben zuhauf zu meinem Schlachtopfer, das ich euch schlachte, ein großes Schlachtopfer auf den Bergen Israels, fresset Fleisch und saufet Blut!
18Fleisch der Starken sollt ihr fressen, und Blut der Fürsten auf Erden sollt ihr saufen, der Widder, der Hammel, der Böcke, der Ochsen, die allzumal feist und gemästet sind.
19Und sollt das Fett fressen, dass ihr voll werdet, und das Blut saufen, dass ihr trunken werdet, von dem Schlachtopfer, das ich euch schlachte.
20Sättigt euch nun an meinem Tisch von Rossen und Reitern, von Starken und allerlei Kriegsleuten, spricht der HERR HERR.
21Und ich will meine Herrlichkeit unter die Heiden bringen, dass alle Heiden sehen sollen mein Urteil, das ich habe ergehen lassen, und meine Hand, die ich an sie gelegt habe,
22und also das ganze Haus Israel erfahre, dass ich, der HERR, ihr Gott bin von dem Tage an und hinfürder,
23und die Heiden erfahren, wie das Haus Israel um seiner Missetat willen sei weggeführt. Weil sie sich an mir versündigt hatten, darum habe ich mein Angesicht vor ihnen verborgen und habe sie übergeben in die Hände ihrer Widersacher, dass sie allzumal durchs Schwert fallen mussten.
24Ich habe ihnen getan, wie ihre Sünde und Übertretung verdient haben, und also mein Angesicht vor ihnen verborgen.
25Darum so spricht der HERR HERR: Nun will ich das Gefängnis Jakobs wenden und mich des ganzen Hauses Israel erbarmen und um meinen heiligen Namen eifern.
26Sie aber werden ihre Schmach und alle ihre Sünde, damit sie sich an mir versündigt haben, tragen, wenn sie nun sicher in ihrem Lande wohnen, dass sie niemand schrecke,
27und ich sie wieder aus den Völkern gebracht und aus den Landen ihrer Feinde versammelt habe und ich an ihnen geheiligt worden bin vor den Augen vieler Heiden.
28Also werden sie erfahren, dass ich, der HERR, ihr Gott bin, der ich sie habe lassen unter die Heiden wegführen und wiederum in ihr Land versammeln und nicht einen von ihnen dort gelassen habe.
29Und ich will mein Angesicht nicht mehr vor ihnen verbergen; denn ich habe meinen Geist über das Haus Israel ausgegossen, spricht der HERR HERR.
Während des Kalten Kriege sahen manche Apokalyptiker in der folgenden Stelle aus dem Propheten Habakuk unter dem Namen "Chaldäer" die kommunistische Sowjetunion geweissagt:
1Dies ist die Last, welche der Prophet Habakuk gesehen hat.
2HERR, wie lange soll ich schreien, und du willst mich nicht hören? Wie lange soll ich zu dir rufen über Frevel, und du willst nicht helfen?
3Warum lässest du mich Mühsal sehen und siehest dem Jammer zu? Raub und Frevel sind vor mir. Es geht Gewalt über Recht.
4Darum ist das Gesetz ohnmächtig, und keine rechte Sache kann gewinnen. Denn der Gottlose übervorteilt den Gerechten; darum ergehen verkehrte Urteile.
5Schaut unter den Heiden, seht und verwundert euch! denn ich will etwas tun zu euren Zeiten, welches ihr nicht glauben werdet, wenn man davon sagen wird.
6Denn siehe, ich will die Chaldäer erwecken, ein bitteres und schnelles Volk, welches ziehen wird, soweit die Erde ist, Wohnungen einzunehmen, die nicht sein sind,
7und wird grausam und schrecklich sein; das da gebeut und zwingt, wie es will.
8Ihre Rosse sind schneller denn die Parder und behender denn die Wölfe des Abends. Ihre Reiter ziehen in großen Haufen von ferne daher, als flögen sie, wie die Adler eilen zum Aas.
9Sie kommen allesamt, dass sie Schaden tun; wo sie hin wollen, reißen sie hindurch wie ein Ostwind und werden Gefangene zusammenraffen wie Sand.
10Sie werden der Könige spotten, und der Fürsten werden sie lachen. Alle Festungen werden ihnen ein Scherz sein; denn sie werden Erde aufschütten und sie gewinnen.
11Alsdann werden sie einen neuen Mut nehmen, werden fortfahren und sich versündigen; also muss ihre Macht ihr Gott sein.
"Gog and Magog are, respectively, the names of a mysterious Biblical land and its people, who feature in apocalyptic prophecy. They appear in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation. They are also mentioned in the Qur'an as Yajooj-Majooj (or Yecüc-Mecüc in the Turkish spelling).
They are also giants who appear in English folklore.The Biblical Gog and Magog
- Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him, and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. (Ezekiel 38:2-3 KJV)
The Jewish tradition of Gog and Magog is quite distinct from the Bible and describes 70 national angels, some of which have fallen and others are still with God. The biblical prophecy says that Gog — who in the tradition is the angel of the nation called Magog — will be defeated after he leads an army to attack Israel from the four corners of the land. This angel therefore represents the spirit of anti-semitism. Ezekiel 38 and 39 continues to speak of Gog, and that Gog (Lydia) together with Persia from the east, Phut from the west, Kushites from the south, and others, like Gomer and the house of Togarmah from the north, whose identities at this remove are even harder to identify. We are told that Gog dwelt north of Israel, but apart from this direction, there is little else to identify Gog in the passage. Gog and his allies are to be defeated in a mighty bloodbath; according to chapter 39, it will take seven months to bury all the dead.
Gog reappears in Revelation 20:7-8, which says:
- And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog of Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.
Here Gog is identified as the land in the four corners of the earth and Gog's attack here is represented as an eschatological event that will occur after the Millennium, and that will be vanquished by divine intervention.
The term "Gog Magog" or "Gogmagog" is simply a clarification which may be understood as "Gog as in those from Gog" and despite apocalyptic attempts to devise scenarios whereby nations associated with Magog will one day attack Israel, Magog is not implied in the literal readings of the biblical texts occurring as nothing more than a reference for which Gog is being mentioned.
The origin of Gog's name remains mysterious. Many Bible scholars believe that Gyges (Greek Γυγες), king of Lydia (687-652BC), is meant; in Assyrian letters, Gyges appears as Gu-gu; in which case Magog (literally "from Gog") might be his territory in Anatolia. Josephus identifies the Magog with Scythians, but this name was used generally in antiquity for any peoples north of the Black Sea.
Gog is identified as the original country of the Magog people. Magog actually means "from Gog" and although certain Celtic peoples consider themselves to be descendants of Magog (see below) (Poseidonius, for example, mentions that the Cimmerians who are considered as the original ancestors of the Celts, derived from gug and guas), Gog itself is identified as "the country at the four corners of the world". Outside of the Bible, Gog is most commonly identified as Central Eurasia. Legends present in countries throughout Eastern Europe and the Middle East mention that massive copper, iron, or brass gates were built on its southern borders with the Persian Empire; this would support the identification of these "four corners of the world" as Central Eurasia, the westernmost of these gates having been built at Derbent. (These gates are usually called the "Gates of Alexander" or "Alexander's Wall", after their supposed builder Alexander the Great.) However, Magog was supposed to have a grandchild called Heber, who spread throughout the mediterranean and Greeks called such Iberes mentioning that they were refugees from Atlantis who had come to settle the Caucasus. The result is that Gog — the land of the four corners of the world — has also been identified as lands somewhere in the oceans surrounding The Old World i.e. The New World.
According to a tradition of dispensationalist Biblical hermeneutics, Gog and Magog are supposed to represent Russia. The Scofield Reference Bible's notes to Ezekiel claim that "Meshech" is a Hebrew form of Moscow, and that "Tubal" represents the minor Russian city of Tobolsk. This identification of Gog with Russia, and Cold War tensions with the West and with Israel, led Hal Lindsey to claim that the former Soviet Union would play a major role in end times prophecies. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the retreat of Russia from the role of a military superpower, other end times prophets have sought to cast Iraq or some other country in the role of Gog.Gog and Magog in Qur'an
In the Qur'an, in Surah Al Kehf (83-98), it is written that Zulqarneyn (the one with two horns) travelled in three directions: first, to where the sun rises (to the east); second, to where the sun sets (to the west); and a third direction, which is not specified in the Qur'an.
When Zulqarneyn arrives at the third location, he meets some people who are complaining about the tribes of Yajooj and Majooj (sometimes transliterated from Arabic as Yajuj and Majuj). They ask Zulqarneyn to build a wall between them so that Yajooj and Majooj will not bother them any more. Zulqarneyn builds the wall out of a metal alloy, and even encloses them above, and Yajooj and Majooj become completely sealed within beneath the Earth, and cannot threaten anyone anymore. Two sources may have influenced this story: one is the classical legend, from the Alexander Romance, of the Gates of Alexander "which keep back the wild peoples behind the Caucasus" (as Saint Jerome put it  (http://www.ccel.org/fathers/NPNF2-06/letters/letter77.htm)); the other is the fortification built by the Sassanid Khosrau I Anushirvan across the pass of Derbent. (See also: Alexander in the Qur'an.)
One of the Major signs in Islam that the world will end will be their reappearance. In the Qur'an and hadith, God says that when the time comes, Yajooj-Majooj will be able to destroy the wall, after millenia of trying, only because they said "Insh'Allah" (God Willing). They will begin to wreck havoc by their actions and their massive numbers. One hadith says that they will be so numerous that they will be nearly 99% of all mankind who ever existed on Judgement Day. In the end, Jesus, who is leading the Ummah will pray to God and as a result, a pathogen of some sort will destroy both their tribes.
Yajooj - Majooj is also mentioned in the Qur'an in Surah Al Anbiya 96."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gog. -- Zugriff am 2005-03-22]
"1. Hashemite Kingdom Theory: The Islamic Nations will come against Israel either by an Iraqi-led, Jordanian led, or Turkish led coalition. The enemy from the north refers to the areas of Syria, Turkey, and Iraq. These Islamic nations make up the lands occupied by Magog, Gomer, Togarmah, Meshech and Tubal.
2. Caucus Theory: Gog and Magog are the Arab nations in an alliance with the Muslim republics of the former Soviet Union. This theory leaves out most of Russia, and includes only the southern part.
3. All Europe theory: Gog and Magog are the sons of Japeth thus the originators of the European races. Gog and Magog therefore indicates all of Europe. This is not a widely held theory and I could find little support for it.
4. Russian Theory: The Hebrew word 'rosh' in verse 3 is identified with Russia, 'Tubal' with Tiblisi or Tobolsk and 'Meshech' with Moscow, therefore Gog and Magog refers to Russia. This is one of the most commonly held views and is based on a different interpretation of the Hebrew word Rosh (used as a noun rather than adjective), similarities in the pronunciation of words, and the Greek translation of Rosh referring to a tribe of people found in what is now Russia.
5. Indo-European Theory: Gog and Magog include the nations descending from Japheth: Russia, the Caucasus(Turkey), Iraq, and the Islamic republics of Central Asia. The coalition is an alliance of Arab nations, Muslim republics, Georgia, southern Russia and the Black sea area."
[Quelle: http://www.contenderministries.org/prophecy/gogmagog.php. -- Zugriff am 2005-03-23]
Below is a list of the nations that are listed in Ezekiel as Israel's last-days enemies:
Russia or Chief
Ancient Sarmatians known as Rashu, Rasapu, Ros, and Rus.
Translated as the adjective Chief.
Ancient Scythians - Islamic southern republics of the former Soviet Union with a population of 60 million Muslims. This territory could include modern Afghanistan.
Ancient Muschki and Musku in Cilicia and Cappadocia.
Turkey (also southern Russia and Iran)
Ancient Tubalu in Cappadocia.
Name changed from Persia to Iran in 1935.
Ancient Cush, south of Egypt.
Ancient Put, west of Egypt.
Ancient Cimmerians - from the seventh century to first century B.C. in central/western Anatolia.
Til-garimmu - between ancient Carchemish and Haran (southern Turkey).
Many peoples with you
Other Islamic nations
Possibly Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt
[Quelle: http://www.contenderministries.org/prophecy/gogmagog.php. -- Zugriff am 2005-03-23]
"The Gog/Magog War
Ezekiel 37-39 describes a time when Israel has been restored to her land but will then face an invasion force from a country in the north and her allies after God puts hooks in their jaws. Those countries are listed by names we don't recognize today but it is not hard to trace where those people groups were once from. The following are the most common interpretations for those countries:
MAGOG is modern-day Russia and should also include Kazakhstan (the area north of the Caspian Sea).
MESHECH can include the southern part of Russia by the Black Sea, as well as Georgia and Armenia. Some believe Turkey could also be included.
TUBAL is a part of Russia between the Black and Caspian seas. It also includes the Ukraine and Kazakhstan and possibly Georgia and Azerbaijan.
PERSIA is modern-day Iran.
ETHIOPIA (or Cush). Some consider that other surrounding areas, such as the Sudan or Eritrea, could also be included.
AND LIBYA (or Phut).
GOMER may include the Ukraine. Some believe it may also include the area SE of the Black Sea, such as Georgia. Some believe this may also be a reference to Germany.
THE HOUSE OF TOGARMAH OF THE (far or remote parts of the) NORTH QUARTERS may include Armenia. Many believe this will also include Turkey,
AND MANY PEOPLE (or nations) WITH THEE. This may indicate that there will be yet other nations allied with Russia that are unlisted. It may be noted that Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan are not mentioned.
Russia is no longer the superpower it once was and while it may be hard to see such a scenario happening today, it is no more difficult for God to accomplish than He did the recreation of Israel as a nation in 1948.
Ezekiel 39 would also seem to indicate the use of nuclear weapons in this conflict as specific instructions are given on burying the dead, including specialists who do this.
We will continue to monitor Russia's relations with Israel. Iran, one of the nations mentioned is also important to keep an eye on in light of its mutual assistance treaty with Russia. Israel has threatened to attack Iran if it continues with is nuclear program - this very well could be the hook in the jaws that draws Russia down. Another nation to keep an eye on is Turkey as it is currently Israel's ally. If Turkey is to be involved in this invasion it would be a great dupe on Israel or things could change quickly in this Muslim country. The nuclear arms race in the Middle East continues and could play a factor in this conflict."
[Quelle: http://www.prophecynewswatch.com/magog.html. -- Zugriff am 2005-03-23]
"GOG (high). The Gog and Magog of Ezekiel 38-39 refer to a military alliance which will attack Israel from the north in the latter days. There are six reasons we believe this refers to Russia:
What is Gog and Magog?
1. The name points to Russia. "Gog is a word for ruler. Magog is the Hebrew word rosh, which means head. Dean Stanley, in his exhaustive History of the Eastern Church, published half a century ago, has a note founded on Gesenius, the great Hebrew scholar, to the effect that the word rosh should be Russia. Bishop Lowther made the statement that rosh taken as a proper name in Ezekiel signified the inhabitants of Scripture from whom the modern Russians derive their name. You see, Russia was first called Muscovy, derived from Meshech. I am sure you detect that the names Meshech and Tubal certainly sound like Moscow (Russia's capitol) and Tobolsk (a chief city of Siberia)" (J. Vernon McGee, Ezekiel). Russia is divided into eastern and western parts by the Ural mountains. This mountain range runs 1,300 miles from the Arctic ocean to Kazakhstan, a southernmost republic of the former Soviet Union, and is the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia (Funk & Wagnalls). It is interesting to note that Moscow lies in the European side of Russia, while Tobolsk lies in the Asian side. By selecting these two cities of the "land of Magog," God has covered the entire region which has made up the U.S.S.R.
2. The location points to Russia. Ezekiel tells us exactly where this enemy of Israel lives--to the north (Eze. 38:6,15; 39:2). A quick reference to a modern map reveals only one large power to the north of Israel--Russia.
3. The size of the army points to Russia. "even a great company ... like a cloud to cover the land, thou, and all thy bands ... a mighty army" (Eze. 38:4,9,15). Israel has many enemies other than Russia--especially the neighboring Arab nations, but no Arab enemy can field an army as mighty as the one Ezekiel sees descending from the north.
4. The alliance points to Russia (Eze. 38:4-6). Gog does not come against Israel alone, and these which are said to be associated with him remind us of Russia and its former communist satellites. Gomer refers to "the people descended from Gomer (Ge. 10:2); they settled in the north of the Black Sea and then spread themselves southward and westward to the extremities of Europe" (Young). Thus Gomer probably refers to the former East European satellites of Russia, such as Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Poland. Togarmah was a son of Gomer, son of Japheth (Ge. 10:3) and settled in Armenia (Young). "Armenia, a former kingdom of NE Asia Minor; generally understood to include eastern Turkey and the Armenian S.S.R.--a constituent republic of the Trans Caucasian Soviet Union" (Funk & Wagnalls). This refers to the southern republics of Russia.
5. The equipment points to Russia (Eze. 38:7). The northern enemy of Israel appears as a great provider of war materiel. Who has been equipping Israel's many enemy nations for decades? It is Russia. Libya, for example, has an awesome stockpile of Soviet- supplied weapons.
6. This power's hatred of Israel points to Russia. Of the great world powers today, none have expressed as much hatred toward God and Israel as Russia. One of the chief propaganda cries of Russian communism was "Zionism is Racism." In 1984, the U.S. ambassador dealing with human rights under the Helsinki Accords said, "Berlin was once the world capital of anti-Semitism; I am afraid that today it is in Moscow."
When shall Gog and Magog attack Israel? (1) It will occur in the latter days (Eze. 38:8). (2) It will occur when Israel is regathered (Eze. 39:8). This points to the times in which we are now living. Since 1948 Israel has again dwelt in the land. (3) It will occur in conjunction with Israel's conversion. In Eze. 39 we see that God's judgment upon Gog will result in Israel realizing that He is their God. (Eze. 39:7). We know from other prophecies that this conversion of Israel will occur during the Great Tribulation (See Ze. 12-13). (4) It will occur at the time when Israel feels secure from danger (Eze. 38:11). Obviously Israel does not feel secure today. The tiny nation is armed to the teeth; and, while doing an admirable job of defending itself, there certainly is no letting down of the guard for Israel today. When will this time of safety be? It will probably be when Antichrist makes the peace pact with Israel described in Da. 9:27 and 8:25. Israel will be deceived into thinking the pledge of Antichrist will guarantee them safety. It is then that Russia and her cohorts will move. Since Da. 9:27 says the Antichrist will break his covenant with Israel in the middle of the seven years, we can be reasonably certain that the battle of Gog will occur in the first half of the Tribulation. [See Antichrist, Daniel, Great Tribulation, Last Days, Prophecy, Second Coming, Revelation.] "
[Quelle: http://www.wayoflife.org/ency/textency/ency0038.htm. -- Zugriff am 2005-03-23]
"In Search Of Gog - Magog / By R. A. Coombes
"Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meschech and Tubal and prophesy against him. And say, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meschech and Tubal." Ezekiel 38:2,3
There has been a lively debate down through the years as to the identity of "Gog" and "Magog." Gog is a name of a leader of a nation called "Magog" found in the prophecies of Ezekiel chapter 38 and 39. The debate took on a new life with the advent of popular Bible Prophecy author Hal Lindsey whose popular books on prophecy pronounced the identity of Gog as being The Soviet Union. In recent years, Hal and others holding his views have been forced to backpedal on the identity of Gog because the Soviet Union no longer exists. Instead, Russia is the more acceptable concept now presented by the Lindsey wing of conservative Bible prophecy interpretation.
This researcher however always had a problem with Lindsey's views about Gog and Magog's identity. Why? Because further research showed a considerable body of evidence to suggest that Magog was further south from Russia in what would today be Turkey, Armenia, Syria, northern Iraq and Iran as well as perhaps Afghanistan. A considerable archaeological evidence as well as history supports the latter viewpoint. There is also a surprising new alternative theory that has crept into consideration involving Great Britain as the identity the land of Magog.
So which theory is correct? Is it the theory of Magog being Russia, Britain or a slice of the northern Middle East? We'll examine each theory and let you decide for yourself.
#1. The Russia Theory
The central or main reason for holding to the view that Russia is Magog is the claim that the Hebrew word in Ezekiel 38:2 for "chief prince" is the word "Rosh" in part because it is similar in phonetic sound to Russia. The conclusion is therefore a that Ezekiel 38:1-16 is referring to Russia. Of course, there is more to the theory than just this element but this is one of the more popularly promoted reasons given for such a claim. Lindsey also cites later histories indicating that the tribes that were composed of Magog migrated from the northern middle east northwards into what is today the Russian Siberian wilderness areas. There are some archaeological indications to support the notion but equally there are strong arguments for other theories.
To further buttress the Russia theory, Lindsey has promoted the notion that the Hebrew word "meschech" is a phonetic reference to "Moscow" and Tubal is the phonetic rendering for the Russian city of Tobalsk while others claim it is for the Georgian city of Tblisi. Well, Moscow didn't exist as a city until 850 years ago.
There was no Moscow when Ezekiel wrote his prophecy. You should also note that the actual phonetical roots for Moscow don’t match up with Lindsey's assertions. Furthermore the claim that Meshech is Hebrew for Moscow is quite a stretch of the imagination. However, there are also other linguists attempting to make such claims. Tubal for Tobalsk is also a bit of a stretch phonetically and again from an etymological standpoint there is no evidence, nor justification for making such a leap. However, we have read of such attempts by some linguists. Other linguists, with no ax to grind in this debate indicate such conclusions presented by the Lindsey camp are simply ludicrous conclusions without merit. The Tblisi hypothesis seems to be an equally incredulous claim.
The biggest problem with the "Russia is Magog" theory stems from a false assertion made by some that the Hebrew word "rosh" is literally the Hebrew word for Russia. Therefore they assert that the Ezekiel text is literally mentioning Russia. This is a preposterous conclusion.
However, they cite Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon and (Strong's word #7220 - rosh).
Gesenius cites Byzantine era writers as a source of historical significance but goes no further back in time for cited references than to 1,000 A.D. The prestigious Gesenius cites fairly recent writers and thus has no ancient sources for which to make such a claim. This is rather uncharacteristic of the famed lexographer but it is the case in point for our issue. The appeal to Gesenius is impressive, but it must be remembered that Gesenius was a great lexicographer and grammarian, not an authority on ancient history. We should also note that the some believe the Magogites were Scythians (cited by Jewish historian, Josephus) and are of the Japhetic line. They are believed by historians to be descendants of Gomer through Ashkenas. This is simply invalid to connect this to Magog. You simply cannot identify Magog as the Scythians. There is anthropological support historically.
Another equally respected Hebrew Lexicon is the Brown-Driver-Briggs (B-D-B) Lexicon. It is the work of three famous lexographers of the Hebrew language. B-D-B Lexicon indicates that there is no identity known for the word "rosh" as a personal name. Therefore B-D-B will not go out on a limb like Gesenius and make the assertion that 'rosh' = Russia.
The Hebrew word of "nish" + "rosh" = chief prince = Russia??? This is wrong. We are looking at false assumptions. From a grammatical standpoint of both English and Hebrew, such a notion is invalid. Lexically lets review the terms "nish" = Strong's #5387 and "rosh"= #7218.
#5387= nasi -- an exalted one, a king, a chief, a captain.
#7218 = rosh -- a captain, a chief, a prince, a ruler, a leader.
The term "Chief Prince" works well as a translation into English. The combined term carries the notion of a leader among leaders within that nation. Now the remaining issues to consider are the grammatical underpinnings in the Hebrew.
Note that in the Massoretic Hebrew texts, the term carries the accents of "tiphha and Zaqeph-gadol. Now for those of you with Hebrew knowledge you should note that the Tiphha appears under the resh of the Hebrew word - 'rosh'; while the Zaqeph-gadol appears on the top of the sin of the Hebrew word 'nish' (nasi).
The tiphha to the right, and underneath the first consonant of 'rosh' is a prepositive and in Hebrew grammar does not mark the tone syllable. For verification check out Kautsch and Cowley's Hebrew grammar on page 61 and at point number 9.
Now the word "nish" or (nasi) has the Zaqeph-gadol accent. Now this accent is always used in connection with a pause. It is to be read as a pause and as a disconnetive or disjunctive tool to keep two words or concepts from connecting directly. See same Hebrew Grammar by Kautsch and Cowley on page 60 and point 4b. Now let's see how this goes together or doesn't go together in English.
Ezekiel 38: 3
"Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the prince, -- pause -- chief of Meschech and Tubal."
The Russian Theory viewpoint is: … " O Gog, the nish (prince), rosh = Russia of Meschech and Tubal.
Even in the English, can you see how changing the term rosh's definition to that of a named nation just doesn't fit grammatically, even in the English. It is too bad that the old Revised Standard Version (RSV) missed this connection and promoted a deviant reading of the text.
What we have here according to the critics of the Gog=Russia theory is a disjointed conjecture that violates the clear hermeneutical principles of Biblical interpretation. In other words, the theory has 'forced' its way past grammatical rules in order to promote wishful thinking. However, the Russia = Gog does have some historical support and perhaps some archaeological evidence also.
The ancient Jewish historian, Josephus is cited regarding the identity of Magog by those proposing the theory that Russia is Magog. Josephus cites the Greeks in referring to the Scythians as being the descendants of Magog and that they originated in the area of Noah's ark.
Louis Bauman in his book "Russian Events in the Light of Bible Prophecy" on pp 23-25 cites not only Gesenius but also The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge which stated:
A stricter geographical location would place Magog's dwelling between Armenia and Media (Iran), perhaps on the shores of the Araxes. But the people seem to have extended further north across the Caucasus, filling there the extreme northern horizon of the Hebrews. This is the way Meschech and Tubal are often mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions.
So it is indeed possible that in citing more ancient historians such as the first century A.D. Jewish historian, Josephus and the early Greek historians, we're closer to the time when Ezekiel actually wrote the prophecy onto a scroll. However, do we have the real and factual identity of Magog uncovered?
Let us examine the other options.
#2. Magog - Gog = Britain, Ireland Theory
There is a fairly new and novel theory that suggests Great Britain is actually Gog and Magog. How is this so? It is based on a series of legends that date all the way back to the earliest days of human history.
On the map known as the Catalan Atlas and on the tenth-century Anglo-Saxon world map', there appear in the furthermost part of Siberia the names of Gog and Magog. It was widely believed in medieval times that those mythical giants existed somewhere in Asia, penned in by Alexander the Great behind the great mountain walls shown so prominently on early world maps. The source of the belief lay in the Bible story that they represented the forces of evil who would appear immediately before the end of the world. In England, Gog and Magog were supposed to be the survivors of a race of giants destroyed by Brutus, the legendary founder of Britain who brought them to London and condemned them to act as porters at the gates of the royal palace; hence their place over the entrance to the Guildhall.
Towards the head of the Procession you will see two enormous but benevolent giants. They are Gog and Magog, the traditional guardians of the City of London who have been carried in the Lord Mayor's Show since the reign of Henry V. They are descended from the pagan giants of early English pageantry and their history is buried in the mysterious world of myth and legend.
Brutus the great-grandson of Æneas, fled from Troy and after a series of adventures arrived in these islands, which he renamed after himself; Britain. With him he brought his most able warrior and champion Corineus, who fought the leader of the "Giant brood" in single combat, and eventually slew him by hurling him from a high rock into the sea. The name of the giant was Gogmagog and the rock from which he was thrown became known as Langoënagog or "The Giants Leap". As a reward Corineus was given the western part of the island which became named after him; Cornwall. Brutus however travelled to the east, where he built a city which he called Troya Nova, or New Troy, which eventually came to be known as London.
At one time human sacrifice was common, but as times grew more civilized, images of men were burned instead of the men themselves. Finally the figures received the name of the divinity in whose honour the feast was held; and in time these became saints' images. The custom of carrying effigies at various festivals became widespread, not only in England but on the continent. These giants of pageantry that you will see today are the last vestiges of the pagan effigies. Our giants have no trace of the supernatural about them, they originated in folk custom, deriving their names from historical or pseudo-historical characters like Gogmagog, from Biblical history like Samson, or from classical mythology like Hercules. They are a part of a tradition in English pageantry which pre-dates Christianity.
Another version of the story has it that these two giants were the last two survivors of the sons of the thirty-three infamous daughters of Diocletian, who were captured and kept chained to the gates of a palace on the site of Guildhall to act as guardians. Whichever way, they got there, we know that by the reign of Henry V, there were giants residing in Guildhall. And when in 1554, they appeared in the Lord Mayor's Show, the names Gogmagog and Corineus were attached to the London giants for the first time. The giant of folk-custom made an admirable champion and it was natural to develop a champion into a local hero.
In 1605 the Pageantmaster of the day alluded to the giants who appeared in the Procession on Lord Mayor's Day as Corineus and Gogmagog. And later in 1672, the Pageantmaster Thomas Jordan referred to them as "two exceeding rarities", and stated that "at the conclusion of the Show, they are to be set up in Guildhall, where they may be daily seen all year and I hope never to be demolished by such dismal violence as happened to their predecessors." He was referring to the destruction of much of the City by the great fire in 1666. His giants however only lasted a few years being made of wickerwork and pasteboard, in common with their sacrificial forebears, and were eventually destroyed by mice and rats.
They were replaced in 1708 by a magnificent pair of wooden statues carved by Captain Richard Saunders. These giants on whom the versions you will see today are based, lasted for over two hundred years before destruction in the blitz. They, in turn, were replaced by the pair which can now be seen in Guildhall, and which were carved by David Evans in 1953 as a gift to the City by Alderman Sir George Wilkinson who had been Lord Mayor in 1940, at the time of the destruction of the previous versions.
Gog and Magog symbolize one of many links between the modern business institutions of the City and its ancient history. This is but the most recent of their various re-births, which have long been symbolised by the phœnix on Magog's shield, representing return after fire. Today, the words of Thomas Boreman in his "Gigantick History" of 1741 are as appropriate as ever. He declared that "Corineus and Gogmagog were two brave giants who richly valued their honour and exerted their whole strength and force in the defence of their liberty and country; so the City of London, by placing these, their representatives in their Guildhall, emblematically declare, that they will, like mighty giants defend the honour of their country and liberties of this their City; which excels all others, as much as those huge giants exceed in stature the common bulk of mankind."
Now, in that light consider the following.
W. F. Albright, father of Modern American Biblical Archaeology stated: "Magog is a blend of Manda the regular Mesopotamian designation for northern barbarians and Gog the equivalent." In other words, Gog and Magog have exactly the same meaning as the word Keltoi, or Celt. Gog and Magog are the same barbarian northern tribes we have seen in the context of the Little horn
The IRISH Theory
The dispersal of the nations from Babel (Babylonia) took place during the fifth generation after the Flood. Names of four successive generations are in common with both the British and Irish Celts. After the fifth generation, lines of the British and Irish Celts diversify.
According to Ireland's history, the race known as "Partholan's people," Nemedians, Fir-Bolgs, Tuatha-de-Dananns, and Milesians were all descended from two brothers, sons of Magog. Irish annals take up the genealogy of Magog's family where the Bible leaves it. The Book of Invasions, "Cin of Drom-Snechta," claims that these Scythians were Phœnicians; a branch of this family were driven out of Egypt in the time of Moses (ca 1000 BC): "He wandered through Africa for forty-two years, and passed by the lake of Salivæ to the altars of the Philistines, and between Rusicada and the mountains Azure, and he came by the river Monlon, and by the sea to the Pillars of Hercules, and through the Tuscan sea, and he made for Spain, and dwelt there many years." (See Scythopolis. FYI: Irish chief god Bel or Baal - worshipped by Phœnicians and Philistines -the sun god. The Irish name for the sun is Grian, another sun-god is Gryneus.)
We would note that we've read "intelligence" reports lately that indicate the Irish Republican Army has been working with the Al Qaeda and Hezbollah terrorist groups to intercept electronic information and tap into phone conversations between Britain and the USA leadership. Could this be a precursor signal of the
Irish being Magog and a part of the invasion against Israel? Probably not, but combined with Britain, we suppose it is always a possibility. Right now, we'd be hard-pressed to envision an understandable scenario wherein Britain would successfully invade Israel but we cannot understand why it would happen.
Magog = Northern Middle East Theory
Prior to the Second World War, most atlases of the Bible would show the land of Magog to be in the northern part of the Middle East. In other words it encompassed primarily areas of Syria, Turkey, Armenia, Northern Iraq and Northern Iran. Meschech and Tubal were in what is today considered Turkey and portions of northern Syria as well as a small portion of northern Iraq.
Martin Luther held the view that Magog was Turkey. This was based in large measure upon the cities of Meshech and Tubal as being in what was then greater Turkey. Luther understood Gog and Magog as the biblical designation for the Turks. This was such an important point for him that he published his translation of Ezekiel 38 and 39 as a separate pamphlet with an introduction underscoring the connection.
Is apparently the name of a person, but this is hard to know for sure. It may be a descriptive title such as a representative or ambassador or a general perhaps.
Mushki of central and western Asia Minor, known in the classics (Homer, etc.) as Phrygia, fits very well as Meschech. These people were well known to Ezekiel's world of Babylon. To place Meschech as Mushki seems to be a much easier and more logical interpretation.
Ezekiel would have been well acquainted with Tabal of Eastern Asia Minor in what is now Turkey. There was no such thing as city or village of Tobalsk, Russia in Ezekiel's day.
If Meshech and Tubal are in the area of what we now call Turkey, then Magog would also have to be in that same general area.
The allied forces would include Iraq, Iran, Libya, Ethiopia/Sudan, and perhaps also Afghanistan (and the Hindu-Kush Mountain region). We also find that Gomer cannot be Germany but rather Gimarrai, Turkey. What we may now be seeing in the news for terrorists strongholds may also fit with prophecy. In other words the Ezekiel passages may be describing the areas where terrorists are coming from, such as the Al Qaeda to wage a final, pitched battle, albeit perhaps using Weapons of Mass Destruction.
We should note that the term for "extreme, or uttermost parts of the north" in Ezekiel's day was indeed the area of what is now known as Turkey. To Ezekiel, Turkey was the most extreme and utter north country. One does not have to apply it to Russia or to Ireland or other extremely northern nations like Mongolia.
So who goes to war against Israel with Gog-Magog???
Turkey (as Magog) plus Iran, Libya and Sudan. Gog, their leader then leads an Islamic coalition of nations against Israel. Turkey will be from the north, Iran from the east, Libya from the west and Ethiopia/Sudan from the south. Now some will argue that the area of Magog also encompassed parts of Syria and northern Iraq (the Kurds?). Might it be that the Kurds are actually the Magogites?
Keep in mind that the following nations are not mentioned:
Other small Gulf nations.
They may have been already destroyed in an earlier conflict OR they've sat aside. There is also the possibility that Ezekiel doesn't list all the nations that attack Israel. Perhaps he only mentions those allied with Turkey & Gog and that there are others that attack Israel but are not part of the main alliance, or that he merely mentions the more significant ones. One thing does seem clear by all accounts -- Egypt is not a part of the coalition of invaders.
We note these discrepancies because Jeremiah 51:27 indicates that Iran and portions of Iraq as well as perhaps Turkey, Afghanistan and perhaps Pakistan, Armenia, Georgia, Turkmenistan and even perhaps Saudi Arabia might be a part of the attack upon Israel when Babylon is hit with its first divine judgment. The possibility does exist that Babylon-America will also be hit by this allied combination of nations. It is also possible that these Islamic nations will attack Israel because of Babylon-America's treachery or cowardice that allows the attack to commence and fails to protect Israel deliberately perhaps as the result of blackmail. Perhaps it is because, America's leaders are simply taking orders from their Illuminati-masters (Satanic angels in physical form) who order the USA leadership to stand down and allow the muslims to attack Israel.
No matter what the reason, there will be no excuses allowed by God for Babylon-America.
One final thought
Perhaps the alignments of Ezekiel are not yet present on the geo-political scene. Perhaps, the alignment will not be complete until Saddam Hussein is gone and a new re-drawing of the Mideast Map is in order. Perhaps Iraq will be so split up (as is being alluded to privately within the current US Administration as it plots its war plans) that the Kurds whose lands are split between Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran will become a separate nation. Perhaps in the aftermath of the war we will see other nations broken up such as Saudi Arabia. Perhaps Jordan will be re-drawn also.
One thing we find interesting is that the current events as of November, 2002 in the Middle East point to theories #1 and #3 above as being highly and plausibly likely for near fulfillment. Indeed, could the looming war between the USA and Iraq either be or lead to the Gog-Magog War against Israel?
We'll explore that issue in a related article on The Alpha-Omega Report website.
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By R.A. Coombes
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[Quelle: http://aoreport.com/Studies/study9.htm. -- Zugriff am 2005-03-23]
Zu Kapitel 6.7.: Die Europäische Union — das Reich des Antichrist?