HBI weltweit

3. Australien


Eine andere Perspektive: Australien und Südostasien als Mittelpunkt der Welt

3.09. Australian National University (ANU) Library -- Bibliothek einer Forschungsuniversität

von Margarete Payer

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Margarete <1942 - >: HBI weltweit. -- 3. Australien. -- 3.09. Australian National University (ANU) Library -- Bibliothek einer Forschungsuniversität. -- Fassung vom 1996-12-18. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/hbiweltweit/weltw309.html. -- [Stichwort].

Letzte Überarbeitung: 1996-12-18

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung der Verfasserin.

0. Weiterführende Ressourcen


Elisa -- The Electronic Library and Information Service at ANU

Ressourcen in Printform:

Vidot, Peter Alexander: The history of the Australian National University Library 1946-1996. -- Canberra : ANU Library, 1996. -- 77 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 0-7315-2503-5

Foster, Stephen Glynn: The making of the Australian National University / S. G. Foster & Margaret M. Varghese. -- St Leonards : Allen & Unwin, ©1996. -- 464 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 1-86448-083-1

1. Zur Geschichte der ANU Library


Per Gesetz wird die Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra als nationale Forschungsuniversität gegründet. Deswegen nimmt sie auch bis 1960 nur Postgraduates zur Ausbildung auf. Ihre Aufgabe definiert das Gesetz:

"To encourage, and provide facilities for, postgraduate research and study, both generally and in relation to subjects of national importance to Australia;"

Die ANU besteht zunächst aus vier Forschungseinrichtungen:

(Siehe ANU -- A short history 1946-1996).


Arthur Leopold Gladstone McDonald (1898-1981) ist Bibliotheksdirektor.

"FitzGerald [Sinologe (Photographie)], on his way to Australia and with £3000 to spend, went shopping for books in Hong Kong and the United States, and assembled the basis of a library of some 25.000 volumes, mostly in Chinese and including many classical works which would soon become difficult to obtain. The Librarian, McDonald, spent several month in 1950 visiting libraries and booksellers in Britain and the United States.

McDonald had been appointed early in 1948, before any of the professors. This reflected the priority that the Interim Council gave to the Library. Initially he and several assistants were housed in Ormond College in the University of Melbourne, where they brought together some 40.000 volumes. At the end of 1950 these were transferred to Canberra where, despite cramped conditions in the old hospital building and nearby huts, the collection grew to 110.000 (excluding pamphlets) by the end of 1955 and 150.000 by the time of McDonalds retirement 1960. McDonald fashioned the Library's acquisitions policy to meet the specific needs of the research schools, avoiding less directed purchasing which might lead to overlap with the holdings of the National Library, whose permanent building was destined to occupy a site just a few kilometres away. With large annual budgets, he was able to give the schools the books and periodicals they wanted; he was an academics' librarian, and he created a library well suited to their immediate needs. On the debit side, he wished upon the University the inaptly named and relatively untried Bliss system of classification, on the grounds that the widely used Dewey system was inadequate for science and the Library of Congress was too hard for the Library's inexperienced staff."

[Foster, Stephen Glynn: The making of the Australian National University / S. G. Foster & Margaret M. Varghese. -- St Leonards : Allen & Unwin, ©1996. -- ISBN 1-86448-083-1. -- S. 83f.]


Die ANU Library ist in der Wyselaskie Hall, Ormond College, University of Melbourne vorläufig untergebracht.


Die Bibliothek ist im ehemaligen Canberra Community Hospital untergebracht.


Die Australian National University wird durch die Übernahme des Canberra University College ausgeweitet und es wird nun auch Unterricht für Undergraduates angeboten. Die forschungszentrierten Institutionen der bisherigen ANU bilden als The Institute of Advanced Studies weiterhin eine eigene Körperschaft innerhalb der ANU. Die neuhinzugekommenen allgemeinen Ausbildungsinstitutionen für Undergraduates und Postgraduates bilden die Körperschaft The School of General Studies, 1980 umbenannt in The Faculties. (Die Ausbildung der Postgraduates am Institute of Advanced Studies und an den Faculties wird durch The Graduate School koordiniert.)

Selbstverständlich konnte eine solche Verbindung nicht problemarm ablaufen: dazu waren die Herren Professoren viel zu sehr mit ihrem Status und Standesdünkel, ihren Privilegien und ihrem Platzhirschverhalten beschäftigt. Für die Bibliothek bedeutete das die Einleitung absurder Verhältnisse:

"One of the most difficult issues was what to do about the library. The University Library, which currently housed some 150.000 volumes including the extensive Oriental Studies collection, had been assembled to serve the specific needs of the research schools. The College Library had about 50.000 volumes, selected chiefly to serve the needs of undergraduates. The University Library was catalogued under the Bliss system; the College Library followed Dewy. Both collections were housed inadequately in temporary accomodation, and both were bursting at the seams. Two new buildings were panned; and in the case of the University, funds had already been allocated and a contract let for a building with plenty room for books but limited accomodation for readers, and certainly insufficient to seat large numbers of undergraduates.

University and College representatives agreed that (administratively at least) there should be a single University Library under one University Librarian; but they differed as to the physical form it should take. Crisp [Professor am College] was adamant: undergraduates should have free run of a large, well-stocked library, comparable with the best national collections, and located in the teaching part of the campus. The University, however, was reluctant to abandon its claim to a separate research library, which was after all a bird in the hand. It therefore submitted a proposal for two separate libraries, one (as planned) for research, especially in the social sciences; the other for undergraduate work, with a limited collection of books but plenty of room for readers. Burton [Professor an der University!] was angry, telling the prime Minister that the University's scheme discriminated against undergraduates and contradicted the government's picture of an institution of national standing.


Menzies [der Prime Minister] settled the outstanding issues peremptorily. ... With regard to the library, he determined that for reasons of time and money the plans to build a research library close to the social science schools should proceed, thereby implying that an undergraduate library would eventually be built near the School of General Studies."

[Foster, Stephen Glynn: The making of the Australian National University / S. G. Foster & Margaret M. Varghese. -- St Leonards : Allen & Unwin, ©1996. -- ISBN 1-86448-083-1. -- S. 157-158]


J. J. Graneek ist Bibliotheksdirektor.

"The dual structure [hier Institute of Advanced Studies, hier School of General Studies] had significant administrative and academic costs, the most obvious of which were seen in the Library. The University's foundation Librarian, A.L.G. McDonald retired at the time of amalgamation, and was succeeded by his deputy, J.J. Graneek, who had the formidable task of seeking to achieve, as he put it, 'a measure of unity in diversity'. Unity at first existed only in name. While there was a University Library and a University Librarian, there were two collections, each administered by an associate librarian, each with a cataloguing system incompatible with the other, and each housed in its own building. New buildings were opened in 1963 for each collection. The building for the Institute collection was named after R.G. Menzies [Prime Minister 1939 bis 1941 und 1949 bis 1966], to honour the university's current and prospective benefactor. The SGS [School of General Studies] building was initially called the General Studies Library until Crisp [Professor an der SGS] and others urged that it be given comparable status with the Menzies by calling it the J.B. Chifley Building to remember the Prime Minister at the time the ANU was foundet, and at the same time maintain the University's bipartisan spirit [Menzies war Liberal, Chifley Labor]. To complicate matters, the natural science schools already had their own small libraries, while separate collections were planned for other areas, including Oriental Studies and Law.

With the two main collections growing side by side within a limited overall budget, the Librarian had no chance of pleasing everyone. Each side of the campus suggested that the other was being favoured. People in the Institute complained about delays in cataloguing, insufficient opening times, and the absurdity of having to use the Chifley Building as external borrowers. Their colleagues in SGS insisted that undergraduates should have access to the whole University collection, As Crisp concluded in 1968, the original decision to divide the Library into two had been 'administratively and financially disastrous'. By that time the Library housed half a million books, and was growing at a faster rate than the architects of amalgamation had ever foreseen.

Graneek [der Bibliotheksdirektor] worked hard to rationalise the administration and the collections, abandoning the sytem of associate librarians in charge of each collection in favour of librarians responsible for subject areas. He proposed that the two buildings should be known as the research and undergraduate collections, serving the needs of the University as a whole. And he replaced the inadequate Bliss classification system, as well as the less unsatisfactory Dewey, by a single Library of Congress catalogue. By the time of his retirement in 1972, computer technology was conferring new opportunities for remedying the mistakes of the past."

[Foster, Stephen Glynn: The making of the Australian National University / S. G. Foster & Margaret M. Varghese. -- St Leonards : Allen & Unwin, ©1996. -- ISBN 1-86448-083-1. -- S. 177-178]


Königin Elizabeth II. eröffnet das R. G. Menzies Building , benannt nach Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (1894-1978), United Australia Party, später Liberal Party, Prime Minister 1939 bis 1941, 1949 bis 1966. (Photographie: Sir R. Menzies)

Eröffnung der General Studies Library (heute: J. B. Chifley Building, benannt nach Joseph Benedict Chifley (1885-1951), Labor Party, Prime Minister 1945 bis 1949. (Karikatur: Ben Chifley / von Nichol)


Zum Institute of Advanced Studies der ANU kommen hinzu:


Law Library, 1. Bauphase beendet.


Zum Institute of Advanced Studies der ANU kommt Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies (CRES) hinzu.


Zum Institute of Advanced Studies der ANU kommt The Research School of Earth Sciences (RSE) hinzu. (WWW Pages der RSE: RSE).


Eröffnung des W. K. Hancock Building, benannt nach Sir William Keith Hancock (1898-1988), Geschichtsprofessor an der ANU.


Gründung von ANUTECH als Verbindungsstelle zwischen ANU und Handel, Industrie und Regierungen für Forschungskooperation, Auftragsforschung u.ä.

1980 - 1985

"Such complicated arrangements invited the question: was the University making best use of its human resources?

The same question could be asked about material resources, especially in relation to the Library. In the early 1980s there was still, as there had been since amalgamation, a single University Library, located in several different buildings. While all users were allowed access to the whole collection, which now comprised over one million volumes, 'the Chifley' was widely perceived as the undergraduate library and 'the Menzies' as the research library, where undergraduates were not especially welcome. There were also specific purpose collections, including those located in the John Curtin School and the Faculty of Law, and the new Life Science Library, which served the needs of researchers and undergraduates alike.

As well as being inconvenient for users, the system was uneconomic. As book prices rose and academics were forced to make hard decisions about maintaining subscriptions to expensive journals, there was no room for duplication. Fortuitously, computer technology was opening the way to integration. In 1982 a review committee chaired by Ross [Chemieprofessor] recommended that the Library's holdings be rationalised, so that collections of similar materials would be located together without regard to their likely use for teaching or research. This was effected over the 1984-85 summer vacation, when truckload of books and journals were carted from one building to another. Many academics, unable to find books in the familiar places, cursed the changes; but they might better have cursed R.G. Menzies' decision over twenty years earlier to allow the plans for a dedicated research library to proceed."

[Foster, Stephen Glynn: The making of the Australian National University / S. G. Foster & Margaret M. Varghese. -- St Leonards : Allen & Unwin, ©1996. -- ISBN 1-86448-083-1. -- S. 314f.]


Zum Institute of Advanced Studies der ANU kommt das National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health hinzu.


Zum Institute of Advanced Studies der ANU kommt die School of Mathematical Sciences (SMS) hinzu. (WWW Pages der SMS: SMS). Sie bringt Mathematiker und Statistiker von RSPhysE, RSSS und den Faculties zusammen und besteht aus einem Faculty-Teil und einem Institute-Teil. (Wie fortschrittlich! :-))

Die Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories (MSSO), die bisher ein Teil der RSPhysE gewesen waren, werden ein selbständiger Teil des Institute of Advanced Studies. (WWW Pages der MSSO: MSSO).


Australian National University Act


Das Institute of the Arts wird der ANU als eigene Körperschaft eingegliedert. Die ANU umfaßt damit auch Musik und bildende Künste.


Zum Institute of Advanced Studies der ANU kommt die Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering (RSIESE) hinzu. (WWW Pages der RSIESE: RSIESE)


Einiges zur Statistik der ANU:

3. Die ANU Library heute

Aufgrund ihrer Geschichte ist die ANU Library auf verschiedene Gebäude verteilt:

Die Organisationsstruktur der ANU Library ist dargestellt auf:

Library structure / M. Guha. -- ©1995

Ein ausführlicher, offizieller Revisionsbericht über den Zustand der ANU Library ist:

Review of the University Library / Report of the Review Committee. -- February 1996

Planungen und Ziele der ANU Library enthält:

Library Strategic Plan 1995-2004 / Mark Nearhos. -- 1995

Zu Kapitel 3.10. Alice Springs Public Library -- eine öffentliche Bibliothek in der Wüste