ಕನ್ನಡ


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An Elementary Grammar of the Kannada, or Canarese Language

by Thomas Hodson


1. The Alphabet ( 1 - 14)


Zitierweise / cite as:

Hodson, Thomas: An elementary grammar of the Kannada, or Canarese language. -- 1. The alphabet ( 1 - 14). -- Fassung vom 2011-08-19. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/hodson/hodson01.htm

First published as:  Hodson, Thomas: An elementary grammar of the Kannada, or Canarese language ; in which every word used in the examples is translated, and the pronunciation is given in English characters. -- 2. ed. -- Bangalore : Wesleyan Mission Press, 1864. -- 128 p. ; 23 cm.

First time published here: 2011-08-14

Revisions: 2011-08-19

opyright: Public domain

This text is part of the section Sanskrit und Indien  of Tpfli's Global Village Library


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0. Contents



[How to write Kannaḍa see:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Writing and reading Kannaḍa. -- Fassung vom 2009-12-20. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/kittel/kittel02a.htm]


1. The Alphabet


1. In the modern Canarese alphabet, there are fourteen Vowels, thirty-four Consonants, two letters which are either vowels or consonants, and one Compound letter.

2. Vowels [ಸ್ವರ - svara]

Short - ಹ್ರ್ಸವ - hrasva - a - i - u - ṛ - e - o
Long - ದೀರ್ಘ - dīrgha - ā - ī - ū - - ē - ō
Diphtongs   - ai - au      

3. The following are either vowels or consonants:

4. Consonants [ವ್ಜಜನ vyajana].

Twenty-five Classified Consonants [ಪಯ್ಚವರ್ಗ - pacavarga].

  Unaspirated
ಅಲ್ಪಪ್ರಾಣ
alpaprāṇa
Aspirated
ಮಹಾಪ್ರಾಣ
mahāprāṇa
Unaspirated
ಅಲ್ಪಪ್ರಾಣ
alpaprāṇa
Unaspirated
ಅಲ್ಪಪ್ರಾಣ
alpaprāṇa
Nasal
ಅನುನಾಸಿಕ
anunāsika
Guttural class
ಕಣ್ಠ್ಜ
kaṇṭhya

ka

kha

ga

gha

ṅa
Palatal
ತಾಲವ್ಜ
tālavya

ca

cha

ja

jha

a
Cerebral
ಮೂರ್ಧನ್ಜ
mūrdhanya

ṭa

ṭha

ḍa

ḍha

ṇa
Dental
ದನ್ತ್ಜ
dantya

ta

tha

da

dha

na
Labial
ಒಷ್ಠ್ಯ

ōṣṭhya

pa

pha

ba

bha

ma

Nine Unclassified Consonants [ಅವರ್ಗ - avarga].


ya

ra

la

va

śa

ṣa

sa
 

ha

ḷa
   

The Compound Letter ಕ್ಷ kṣa, is compounded of ka and ṣa.


2. Tabular view of the Alphabet


5. Vowels

Initial forms Medial and final forms Corresponding Characters Power of the vowels Examples of Consonants ans vowels united
- (inherent) a like a in about ಕ್ and becomes ka
ā a in far ಕ್ + > ಕಾ
ಿ i i in him ಗ್ + > ಗಿ ka
ī ee in deep ದ್ + > ಡೀ
u oo in wool ನ್ + > ನು gi
ū oo in cool ಪ್ + > ಪೂ
  ಬ್ + > ಬೃ bṛ
    ಮ್ + > ಮೄ m
e e in met ಯ್ + > ಯೆ ye
ē a in mate ರ್ + > ರೇ
ai y in my ಲ್ + > ಲೈ lai
o o in not ಶ್ + > ಷೊ śo
ō o in note ಸ್ + > ಸೋ
au ow in owl ಹ್ + > ಹೌ hau

6. Consonants


Table showing the alphabet with the combinations of vowels and consonants

ಆ ā ಇ i ಈ ī ಉ u ಊ ū ಋ ṛ ಎ e

ಏ ē

ಐ ai ಒ o ಓ ō ಔ au ಂ (ṃ) ಃ (ḥ)
ಕ ka ಕಾ kā ಕಿ ki ಕೀ kī ಕು ku ಕೂ kū ಕೃ kṛ ಕೆ ke ಕೇ kē ಕೈ kai ಕೊ ko ಕೋ kō ಕೌ kau ಕಂ kaṃ ಕಃ kaḥ
ಖ kha ಖಾ khā ಖಿ khi ಖೀ khī ಖು khu ಖೂ khū ಖೃ khṛ ಖೆ khe ಖೇ khē ಖೈ khai ಖೊ kho ಖೋ khō ಖೌ khau ಖಂ khaṃ ಖಃ khaḥ
ಗ ga ಗಾ gā ಗಿ gi ಗೀ gī ಗು gu ಗೂ gū ಗೃ gṛ ಗೆ ge ಗೇ gē ಗೈ gai ಗೊ go ಗೋ gō ಗೌ gau ಗಂ gaṃ ಗಃ gaḥ
ಘ gha ಘಾ ghā ಘಿ ghi ಘೀ ghī ಘು ghu ಘೂ ghū ಘೃ ghṛ ಘೆ ghe ಘೇ ghē ಘೈ ghai ಘೊ gho ಘೋ ghō ಘೌ ghau ಘಂ ghaṃ ಘಃ ghaḥ
ಙ ṅa ಙಾ ṅā ಙಿ ṅi ಙೀ ṅī ಙು ṅu ಙೂ ṅū ಙೃ ṅṛ ಙೆ ṅe ಙೇ ṅē ಙೈ ṅai ಙೊ ṅo ಙೋ ṅō ಙೌ ṅau ಙಂ ṅaṃ ಙಃ ṅaḥ
ಚ ca ಚಾ cā ಚಿ ci ಚೀ cī ಚು cu ಚೂ cū ಚೃ cṛ ಚೆ ce ಚೇ cē ಚೈ cai ಚೊ co ಚೋ cō ಚೌ cau ಚಂ caṃ ಚಃ caḥ
ಛ cha ಛಾ chā ಛಿ chi ಛೀ chī ಛು chu ಛೂ chū ಛೃ chṛ ಛೆ che ಛೇ chē ಛೈ chai ಛೊ cho ಛೋ chō ಛೌ chau ಚಂ chaṃ ಚಃ chaḥ
ಜ ja ಜಾ jā ಜಿ ji ಜೀ jī ಜು ju ಜೂ jū ಜೃ jṛ ಜೆ je ಜೇ jē ಜೈ jai ಜೊ jo ಜೋ jō ಜೌ jau ಜಂ jaṃ ಜಃ jaḥ
ಝ jha ಝಾ jhā ಝಿ jhi ಝೀ jhī ಝು jhu ಝೂ jhū ಝೃ jhṛ ಝೆ jhe ಝೇ jhē ಝೈ jhai ಝೊ jho ಝೋ jhō ಝೌ jhau ಝಂ jhaṃ ಝಃ jhaḥ
ಞ a ಞಾ ā ಞಿ i ಞೀ ī ಞು u ಞೂ ū ಞೃ ṛ ಞೆ e ಞೇ ē ಞೈ ai ಞೊ o ಞೋ ō ಞೌ au ಞಂ aṃ ಞಃ aḥ
ಟ ṭa ಟಾ ṭā ಟಿ ṭi ಟೀ ṭī ಟು ṭu ಟೂ ṭū ಟೃ ṭṛ ಟೆ ṭe ಟೇ ṭē ಟೈ ṭai ಟೊ ṭo ಟೋ ṭō ಟೌ ṭau ಟಂ ṭaṃ ಟಃ ṭaḥ
ಠ ṭha ಠಾ ṭhā ಠಿ ṭhi ಠೀ ṭhī ಠು ṭhu ಠೂ ṭhū ಠೃ ṭhṛ ಠೆ ṭhe ಠೇ ṭhē ಠೈ ṭhai ಠೊ ṭho ಠೋ ṭhō ಠೌ ṭhau ಠಂ ṭhaṃ ಠಃ ṭhaḥ
ಡ ḍa ಡಾ ḍā ಡಿ ḍi ಡೀ ḍī ಡು ḍu ಡೂ ḍū ಡೃ ḍṛ ಡೆ ḍe ಡೇ ḍē ಡೈ ḍai ಡೊ ḍo ಡೋ ḍō ಡೌ ḍau ಡಂ ḍaṃ ಡಃ ḍaḥ
ಢ ḍha ಢಾ ḍhā ಢಿ ḍhi ಢೀ ḍhī ಢು ḍhu ಢೂ ḍhū ಢೃ ḍhṛ ಢೆ ḍhe ಢೇ ḍhē ಢೈ ḍhai ಢೊ ḍho ಢೋ ḍhō ಢೌ ḍhau ಢಂ ḍhaṃ ಢಃ ḍhaḥ
ಣ ṇa ಣಾ ṇā ಣಿ ṇi ಣೀ ṇī ಣು ṇu ಣೂ ṇū ಣೃ ṇṛ ಣೆ ṇe ಣೇ ṇē ಣೈ ṇai ಣೊ ṇo ಣೋ ṇō ಣೌ ṇau ಣಂ ṇaṃ ಣಃ ṇaḥ
ತ ta ತಾ tā ತಿ ti ತೀ tī ತು tu ತೂ tū ತೃ tṛ ತೆ te ತೇ tē ತೈ tai ತೊ to ತೋ tō ತೌ tau ತಂ taṃ ತಃ taḥ
ಥ tha ಥಾ thā ಥಿ thi ಥೀ thī ಥು thu ಥೂ thū ಥೃ thṛ ಥೆ the ಥೇ thē ಥೈ thai ಥೊ tho ಥೋ thō ಥೌ thau ಥಂ thaṃ ಥಃ thaḥ
ದ da ದಾ dā ದಿ di ದೀ dī ದು du ದೂ dū ದೃ dṛ ದೆ de ದೇ dē ದೈ dai ದೊ do ದೋ dō ದೌ dau ದಂ daṃ ದಃ daḥ
ಧ dha ಧಾ dhā ಧಿ dhi ಧೀ dhī ಧು dhu ಧೂ dhū ಧೃ dhṛ ಧೆ dhe ಧೇ dhē ಧೈ dhai ಧೊ dho ಧೋ dhō ಧೌ dhau ಧಂ dhaṃ ಧಃ dhaḥ
ನ na ನಾ nā ನಿ ni ನೀ nī ನು nu ನೂ nū ನೃ nṛ ನೆ ne ನೇ nē ನೈ nai ನೊ no ನೋ nō ನೌ nau ನಂ naṃ ನಃ naḥ
ಪ pa ಪಾ pā ಪಿ pi ಪೀ pī ಪು pu ಪೂ pū ಪೃ pṛ ಪೆ pe ಪೇ pē ಪೈ pai ಪೊ po ಪೋ pō ಪೌ pau ಪಂ paṃ ಪಃ paḥ
ಫ pha ಫಾ phā ಫಿ phi ಫೀ phī ಫು phu ಫೂ phū ಫೃ phṛ ಫೆ phe ಫೇ phē ಫೈ phai ಫೊ pho ಫೋ phō ಫೌ phau ಫಂ phaṃ ಫಃ phaḥ
ಬ ba ಬಾ bā ಬಿ bi ಬೀ bī ಬು bu ಬೂ bū ಬೃ bṛ ಬೆ be ಬೇ bē ಬೈ bai ಬೊ bo ಬೋ bō ಬೌ bau ಬಂ baṃ ಬಃ baḥ
ಭ bha ಭಾ bhā ಭಿ bhi ಭೀ bhī ಭು bhu ಭೂ bhū ಭೃ bhṛ ಭೆ bhe ಭೇ bhē ಭೈ bhai ಭೊ bho ಭೋ bhō ಭೌ bhau ಭಂ bhaṃ ಭಃ bhaḥ
ಮ ma ಮಾ mā ಮಿ mi ಮೀ ṃī ಮು mu ಮೂ mū ಮೃ mṛ ಮೆ me ಮೇ mē ಮೈ mai ಮೊ mo ಮೋ mō ಮೌ mau ಮಂ maṃ ಮಃ maḥ
ಯ ya ಯಾ yā ಯಿ yi ಯೀ yī ಯು yu ಯೂ yū ಯೃ yṛ ಯೆ ye ಯೇ yē ಯೈ yai ಯೊ yo ಯೋ yō ಯೌ yau ಯಂ yaṃ ಜಃ yaḥ
ರ ra ರಾ rā ರಿ ri ರೀ rī ರು ru ರೂ rū ರೃ rṛ ರೆ re ರೇ rē ರೈ rai ರೊ ro ರೋ rō ರೌ rau ರಂ raṃ ರಃ raḥ
ಱ ṟa ಱಾ ṟā ಱಿ ṟi ಱೀ ṟī ಱು ṟu ಱೂ ṟū ಱೃ ṟṛ ಱೆ ṟe ಱೇ ṟē ಱೈ ṟai ಱೊ ṟo ಱೋ ṟō ಱೌ ṟau ಱಂ ṟaṃ ಱಃ ṟaḥ
ಲ la ಲಾ lā ಲಿ li ಲೀ lī ಲು lu ಲೂ lū ಲೃ lṛ ಲೆ le ಲೇ lē ಲೈ lai ಲೊ lo ಲೋ lō ಲೌ lau ಲಂ laṃ ಲಃ laḥ
va ವಾ vā ವಿ vi ವೀ vī ವು vu ವೂ vū ವೃ vṛ ವೆ ve ವೇ vē ವೈ vai ವೊ vo ವೋ vō ವೌ vau ವಂ vaṃ ವಃ vaḥ
ಶ śa ಶಾ śā ಶಿ śi ಶೀ śī ಶು śu ಶೂ śū ಶೃ śṛ ಶೆ śe ಶೇ śē ಶೈ śai ಶೊ śo ಶೋ śō ಶೌ śau ಶಂ śaṃ ಶಃ śaḥ
ṣa ಷಾ ṣā ಷಿ ṣi ಷೀ ṣī ಷು ṣu ಷೂ ṣū ಷೃ ṣṛ ಷೆ ṣe ಷೇ ṣē ಷೈ ṣai ಷೊ ṣo ಷೋ ṣō ಷೌ ṣau ಷಂ ṣaṃ ಷಃ ṣaḥ
ಸ sa ಸಾ sā ಸಿ si ಸೀ sī ಸು su ಸೂ sū ಸೃ sṛ ಸೆ se ಸೇ sē ಸೈ sai ಸೊ so ಸೋ sō ಸೌ sau ಸಂ saṃ ಸಃ saḥ
ಹ ha ಹಾ hā ಹಿ hi ಹೀ hī ಹು hu ಹೂ hū ಹೃ hṛ ಹೆ he ಹೇ hē ಹೈ hai ಹೊ ho ಹೋ hō ಹೌ hau ಹಂ haṃ ಹಃ haḥ
ಳ ḷa ಳಾ ḷā ಳಿ ḷi ಳೀ ḷī ಳು ḷu ಳೂ ḷū ಳೃ ḷṛ ಳೆ ḷe ಳೇ ḷē ಳೈ ḷai ಳೊ ḷo ಳೋ ḷō ಳೌ ḷau ಳಂ ḷaṃ ಳಃ ḷaḥ
ೞ ḻa ೞಾ ḻā ೞಿ ḻi ೞೀ ḻī ೞು ḻu ೞೂ ḻū ೞೃ ḻṛ ೞೆ ḻe ೞೇ ḻē ೞೈ ḻai ೞೊ ḻo ೞೋ ḻō ೞೌ ḻau ೞಂ ḻaṃ ೞಃ ḻaḥ

3. Pronounciation


7. 1st Vowels.

The vowels are pronounced according to the directions given in the preceding tabular view of the alphabet, except ಎ e, ಏ ē, ಒ o, ಓ ō, which, when initial, are pronounced ye, yē, vo, vō; as

In ṛ and ṝ the i and ī have the short and long sound of the French eu.

8. 2nd. Consonants.

The following fourteen Consonants are pronounced like the English letters by which thea are represented ಕ ka, ಗ ga, ಚ ca (Engl. cha), ಜ ja, ಪ pa, ಬ ba, ಮ ma, ಜ ya, ರ ra, ಲ la, ವ wa or va, ಷ ṣa (Engl. sha), ಸ sa, ಹ ha.

9. The remaining Consonants do not correspond with the letters of the English alphabet. The following are Dental letters; they must be pronounced with the tip of the tongue between the front teeth: ta, ಹ tha, ದ da, ಧ dha, ನ na.

If the learner be not careful in giving the Dental sound to the above five letters, his Canarese pronunciation will be like the English of a negro, who says, dis, dat, dees, and dōze, instead of this, that, these and those.

10. The following are Cerebral letters:-

ಟ ṭa, ಠ ṭha, ಡ ḍa, ಢ ḍha, ಣ ṇa, ಷ ṣa, ಳ ḷa.

There is a dot below the English representatives of these cerebral letters, to distinguish them from dentals. They are pronounced with the tip of the tongue turned upwards, so as to touch the roof of the mouth, as far away from the front teeth as possible. This causes every letter of the cerebral class, especially when preceded by a long vowel, to commence with a slight sound of r. See the examples in the tabular view of the alphabet.

Unless the learner be careful to make a wide difference between the dental t and the cerebral ṭ, the dental d and the cerebral ḍ, &c. his pronunciation will be decidedly bad; he will often be unintelligible, and very frequently make the most ludicrous mistakes.


4. Syllables


11. The short vowel ಅ a, is inherent in the initial or complete form of every consonant; so that every letter is capable of being a complete syllable. Thus, ಅವನ  a-va-na, of him; ಅವಳ a-va-ḷa, of her; ಅವರ a-va-ra, of them; ಅದರ a-da-ra, of it.

12. The inherent vowel may be cut off by placing the mark [Virāma] on the upper part of the consonant; thus ರ becomes ರ್, ವ becomes ವ್, &c. The consonant so deprived, is called half-letter.

The inherent vowel is also cut off when its consonant is paced below the line, or under another consonant, in the formation of a syllable; thus ಪ್ರ pra, ಗ್ಲ gla, ದ್ವ dva, ಸ್ನ sna, &c.

13. When a syllable is formed of two or more consonant, and one vowel, the vowel is always joined to the first or uppermost consonant, but sounded after the last or lowest one; thus, ಕ್ಲಿ kli, ತ್ಜು tyu, ಸ್ತ್ರೀ strī.

14. The half-letter r, is pronounced before the letter or syllable which, in writing and printing precedes it; thus


To 2. Sandhi or the Union of Words ( 15 - 24).