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Zitierweise / cite as:
Hodson, Thomas: An elementary grammar of the Kannada, or Canarese language. -- 3. Noun (§§ 25 - 43). -- Fassung vom 2011-08-23. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/hodson/hodson03.htm
First published as: Hodson, Thomas: An elementary grammar of the Kannada, or Canarese language ; in which every word used in the examples is translated, and the pronunciation is given in English characters. -- 2. ed. -- Bangalore : Wesleyan Mission Press, 1864. -- 128 p. ; 23 cm.
First time published here: 2001-08-23
©opyright: Public domain
This text is part of the section Sanskrit und Indien of Tüpfli's Global Village Library
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25. There are eight parts of speech, viz.
26. There are
Nouns of relationship [ಬನ್ಧುವಾಚಕ bandhu-vācaka]; as ಅಪ್ಪ appa, father.
27. Verbal Nouns are formed by adding to the roots of verbs, ಉವದು uvadu, ವುದು vudu, or ಓಣ ōṇa; thus
from ಬರೆ bare, write, are formed ಬರೆಯುವದು bareyuvadu, ಬರೆವುದು barevudu, or ಬರೆಯೋಣ bareyōṇa, the act of writing.
28. Others are formed by adding ಇಕೆ ike to the root, with the change required by sandhi; as,
ಮಾಡು māḍu, to do, ಮಾಡುವಿಕೆ māḍuvike or ಮಾಡಿಕೆ māḍike, the act of doing.
ಹಾಡು hāḍu, to sing, ಹಾಡುವಿಕೆ hāḍuvike or ಹಾಡಿಕೆ hāḍike, the act of singing.
ಬರು baru, to come, ಬರುವಿಕೆ baruvike, the act of coming. ಆಳು
āḷu, to rule, ಆಳುವಿಕೆ āḷuvike, ಆಳಿಕೆ āḷike, or ಆಳ್ಕೆ āḷke, the act of ruling, dominion.
A few verbal nouns are formed by adding the particle ಕಡಿ kaḍi to the root, as,
ನಿಲ್ಲು nillu, to stand, ನಿಲ್ಲಕಡಿ nillakaḍi, the act of standing.
28. Some roots are used as verbal nouns without change, as ಬದುಕು baduku, to live, the act of living, or livelihood.
30. Derivative Nouns are formed by adding certain affixes to the crude form of nouns.
(1) ಆರ āra, and ಕಾರ kāra or ಗಾರ gāra, denote the agent, doer or constant practice; as,
(2) ವಂತ vaṃta and ಶಾಲಿ śāli, denote possession, as,
The affixes ಆಳಿ āḷi, and ಗುಳಿ guḷi, denote a person's habit or practice; and ಗುಲಿ guli, denotes the killer of a thing; as,
(3) ತನ tana, and ಇಕೆ ike, form neuter and abstract nouns; as,
31. Compound Nouns may be formed by the union of two nouns; as,
Also by affixing a pronoun to the genitive case of a neuter noun ending in ಅ a; as,
Nouns are also formed from participles, by affixing the pronouns ಅವನು avanu, he, ಅವಳು avaḷu, she, ಅದು adu, it, ಅವರು avaru, they, (mas. and fem.) and ಅವುಗಳು avugaḷu, they (neut.), to the relative participles. Thus
|father's elder brother; mother's elder sister's husband||
|mother's elder sister; father's elder bother's wife|
|father's younger brother; mother's younger sister's husband||
|mother's younger sister; father's younger brother's wife|
|son's wife's father; daughter husband's father||
|son's wife's mother; daughter husband's mother|
|sister's son; wife's brothers son||
|a man's sister's daughter; a woman's brother's daughter|
|wife's sister's husband||
|a wife's or husband's sister|
|husband's elder brother; wife's brother; paternal aunt's son; maternal uncle's son||
|husband's other wife|
|husband's younger brother; wife's elder brother; paternal aunt's son; maternal uncle's son||
|husband's brother's wife|
|husband's elder sister; wife's elder sister; paternal aunt's daughter; maternal uncle's daughter|
|paternal aunt; maternal uncle's wife|
33. Nouns are of three genders:
The word ಗಂಡು gaṃḍu, male is often prefixed to show the male sex; as,
35. The word ಹೆಣ್ಣು heṇṇu, female, is often prefixed to show the female sex; as,
36. The following are exceptions:
37. The names of inanimate things personified, or regarded as divinities, are of the gender of those divinities; as,
38. Masculine derivative nouns ending in ಅನು anu, become feminine by changing ಅನು anu, into ಇತಿ iti, as,
39. The gender of the following nouns is denoted by different words.
|ಗೂಳಿ gūḷi, a bull||ಆಕಳು ākaḷu, a cow|
|ಹೋರಿ hōri, a steer||ಕಡಸು kaḍasu, a heifer|
|ಕೋಣ kōṇa; a he-buffalo||ಎಮ್ಮೆ emme, a she-buffalo|
|ಟಗರು ṭagaru, ಎಳಗ eḷaga, a ram||ಕುರಿ kuri, a sheep|
|ಹುಂಜ huṃja, a cock||ಹೆಂಟೆ heṃṭe, a hen|
|ಹೋತ hōta, a he-goat||ಆಡು āḍu, a she-goat|
40. Nouns have two numbers,
41. The plural is formed by inserting ಅರ್ ar, ಗಳ್ gaḷ, or ಅರುಗಳ್ arugaḷ, between the crude noun and the affix for each case; so that the nominative plural may end in ಅರು aru, ಗಳು gaḷu, or ಅರುಗಳು arugaḷu.
42. Plural nouns of relationship terminate in ಅಂದಿರು aṃdiru, or ಅಂದಿರುಗಳು aṃdirugaḷu; as,
ಮಗ maga, a son, is an exception; its plural is ಮಕ್ಕಳು makkaḷu, sons.
43. When the cardinal numbers are used in reference to persons, the word ಜನ jana, may be added to ಒಂದು oṃdu, one; and either ಜನ jana, or ಮಂದಿ maṃdi, to all the other numbers; thus
For the ordinal and multiplicative numbers, See Appendix, §§ 342 - 343.
To 4. Declension of Nouns (§§ 44 - 61).