Mahavamsa : die große Chronik Sri Lankas

22. Kapitel 22: Prinz Gamani's Geburt

verfasst von Mahanama

übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Mahanama <6. Jhdt n. Chr.>: Mahavamsa : die große Chronik Sri Lankas / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 22. Kapitel 22: Prinz Gamani's Geburt. -- Fassung vom 2006-06-23. -- URL: -- [Stichwort].

Erstmals publiziert:  2006-06-23


Anlass: Lehrveranstaltungen, Sommersemester 2001, 2006

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Die Zahlreichen Zitate aus Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. sind ein Tribut an dieses großartige Werk. Das Gesamtwerk ist online zugänglich unter: -- Zugriff am 2006-05-08.

Bāvīsatimo paricchedo.


1 Eḷāraṃ ghātayitvāna rājāhu Duṭṭhagāmaṇī.
Tadatthadīpanatthāya anupubbakathā ayaṃ;


Duṭṭhagāmaṇī1 tötete Eḷāra2 und wurde König. Um diesen Sachverhalt zu beleuchten, wird im Folgenden die Geschichte der Reihe nach erzählt.3


1 Duṭṭhagāmaṇī: 101 - 77 v. Chr. König von Laṃkā


King of Ceylon (101-77 B.C.) He was the son of Kākavannatissa (ruler of Mahāgāma) and of Vihāradevī, and was called Gāmani-Abhaya. The antenatal cravings of his mother showed that he would be a great warrior, and his father gathered at his court the most famous warriors of the land skilled in various ways. Chief among them were Nandhimitta, Sūranimila, Mahāsona, Gothaimbara, Theraputtābhaya, Bharana, Velusumana, Khañjadeva, Phussadeva and Labhiyavasabha. Abhaya early showed signs of an adventurous disposition, and resented the confined limits of his father's kingdom, bounded on the north by the Mahāvāluka-nadī, on the further bank of which lay the Sinhalese country ruled by the Damilas. Abhaya was constantly refused permission by his father to fight the Damilas and fled in anger to the hills, whence he sent his royal father a woman's garment, to indicate that he was no man. This earned for him the nickname of Duttha, which always stuck to him. At his father's death he had to fight with his brother Tissa (afterwards Saddhā-Tissa) for the possession of the throne. He was first defeated at Cūlanganiyapitthi, but later he was victorious, and the Sangha brought about a reconciliation between the brothers. When fully prepared, Dutthagāmani marched against the Damila king, Elāra. He rode his state elephant, Kandula, born on the same day as himself. He commenced operations at Mahlyangana, capturing fort after fort, manned by Elāra's followers, and fought his way down to Mahāvāluka-nadī, where he pitched his camp at Kandhāvārapitthi, near Vijitapura, where were concentrated the Damilas. After a siege of four months Vijitapura fell, and Dutthagāmani advanced through Girilaka and Mahelanagara to Kāsapabbata near Anurādhapura, the capital. (Mhv.xxv.75. It is said that in the course of his journey from Mahāgāma to Anurādhapura he captured thirty-two fortresses manned by the Damilas). There he waited for the onset of Elāra and, in the battle that ensued, Elāra was defeated and fled towards the capital, but he was pursued by Dutthagāmani and slain by him in single combat close to the southern gate of the city. Elāra's body was burnt with royal honours, and Dutthagāmani built a tomb over the ashes and decreed that no music should be played by people passing it, a decree that was for long honoured. This act of chivalry, so much in contrast with the usual conduct of victors, earned for Dutthagāmani great honour. Later, he defeated reinforcements from India under Bhalluka, nephew of Elāra, and thus became sole monarch of Lanka.

On the seventh day after his final victory, he celebrated a water festival at the Tissavāpi and, at its conclusion, built the Maricavatthi-thūpa (q.v.) on the spot where his spear, containing the relic of the Buddha, given by the monks at Tissamahārāma, remained firmly embedded, no one being able to remove it. From now onwards, consoled by the arahants of Piyangudīpa, who absolved him from blame for the slaughter of his enemies, he began his great works of piety, after having distributed largesse to his generals and soldiers. He first built the Lohapāsāda (q.v.) of nine stories, resembling the palace of Bīranī, the plan of which was brought to him from Tusita by arahants. He then began his greatest achievement, the Mahā Thūpa, erected on a site visited by the Buddha during his third visit to Ceylon. The devas, led by Sakka, provided the necessary materials, discovered in various parts of the island, and he began work immediately, on the full-moon day of Vesākha. Great celebrations marked the inauguration of the mighty task, plans of various builders were inspected before the final choice and no free work was allowed to be done. After the relics, obtained by the arahant Sonuttara from the Nāga-world, had been enshrined in unparalleled splendour and with great feasting, but before the chatta of the cetiya and the plaster work could be finished, Dutthagāmani fell ill. Saddhā-Tissa was summoned from Dīghavāpi, and he covered the cetiya with white cloth and crowned it with a spire of bamboo, that the king, before his death, might visualize his great work in its complete form. Theraputtābhaya, a former general, now become an arahant, and living in the Pañjalipabbata, was at the king's side at the time of his death and consoled him with reminders of the great merit he had accumulated during his life. A record of the king's good deeds was read by his secretary, from which it would appear that the king had erected ninety-nine other vihāras, besides the buildings already mentioned. He had once tried to preach in the Lohapāsada, but was so overcome by nervousness that, realizing how difficult was the task of the preacher, he ordered special benefactions for those who preached the Doctrine. Two gifts made by him are recorded as of very special merit - one was the sale of his special earrings to procure food for five theras during the Akkhakkhāyika famine, the other was his gift of food during his flight from Cūlanganiya-pitthi (For details see Mhv.xxxii.49ff; also AA.i.365f). He was starving, and his minister Tissa procured a meal for him, but as he never ate without offering some of the food to the monks, he wished for a monk to appear before him. When a thera did so appear, he gave him all he had. He was told later, on his death bed, by Theraputtābhaya, that this food was divided among many thousands of arahants so that the merits of the donor might increase manifold.

It is said that after death Dutthagāmani was born in the Tusita-world, there to await the appearance of Metteyya Buddha. He will then become the chief disciple of that Buddha, and his parents will be the parents of Metteyya. Before his birth, as the son of Kākavannatissa, he was a sāmanera of Kotapabbata-vihāra. He fell ill through his hard work on behalf of the Sangha at the Akāsa-cetiya near Cittalapabbata, and as he lay dying in the Sīlāpassaya-parivena, Vihāradevī visited him at the suggestion of an arahant thera, and after much difficulty persuaded him to be reborn in this world as her son. (These particulars relating to Dutthagāmanī are summarised from Mhv. chaps.xxii.-xxxii; Dpv.xviii.53; xix.1ff; Sp.i.102).

Dutthagāmanī is regarded as the hero of the Mahāvamsa epic. His son was Sāliya, who, however, did not succeed him, preferring to marry a candāla maiden, Asokamālā. Dutthagāmanī's successor, therefore, was Saddhātissa.

The Dhammapada Commentary (DhA.iv.50) mentions a minister of Dutthagāmani called Lakuntaka-atimbara, whose wife was Sumanā.

Dutthagāmanī lived to the age of sixty-eight (Mhv.xxiv.47).

Once, after his conquest of the Damilas, he was unable to sleep for a whole month, then, at the suggestion of the monks, he took the fast of the eight vows and eight monks chanted to him the Cittayamaka. He fell asleep during the chanting."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

2 Eḷāra: tamilischer, nichtbuddhistischer, aber vorbildlicher König Laṃkā's von 145 bis 101 v. Chr. Siehe Mahāvaṃsa, Kapitel 21, Vers 13 bis 34.

3 Geiger weist darauf hin, dass in der Nidānakathā des Jātakakommentars die Geschichte vom Traum Māyā's vor Siddhatthas Geburt mit ähnlichen Worten eingeleitet wird: "Tassa āvibhāvatthaṃ ayam anupubbikathā" (Jātakāṭṭhakathā I, 50, 3).

2 Devānampiyatissassa rañño dutiyabhātiko
Uparājā Mahānāgo nāmāhu bhātuno piyo.


Vizekönig Mahānāga1, der zweite Bruder König Devānampiyatissa's2, war seinem Bruder lieb.


1 Mahānāga


Son of Mutasiva and viceroy of Devānampiyatissa. His wife was Anulā, for whose ordination Sanghamittā came over from Jambudīpa (Mhv.xiv.56; Dpv.xi.6; xvii.75). His second wife was a foolish woman who tried to poison him in order to get the throne for her son. While he was building the Taraccha tank, she sent him some mangoes, the top one of which, intended for him, was poisoned. But it was her son who ate the mango and died. Mahānāga thereupon went to Rohana, where he founded the dynasty of that name at Mahāgāma. His son was Yatthālayaka Tissa. Mahānāga built the Nāgamahā vihāra and the Uddhakandara vihāra. Mhv.xxii.2ff."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

2 Devānampiyatissa: 247 - 207 v. Chr. König von Laṅkā. Siehe Mahāvaṃsa, Kapitel 11.

3 Rañño devī saputtassa bālā rajjābhikāminī
Uparājavadhatthāya jātacintā nirantaraṃ


Die törichte Königin wollte, dass ihr eigener Sohn König werde, und hegte ständig Gedanken, den Vizekönig zu töten.

4 Vāpiṃ Taraccham nāmāyaṃ kārāpentassa pāhiṇi
Ambaṃ visena yojetvā ṭhapetvā ambamatthake.


Als der Vizekönig den Taraccha-Teich bauen ließ, schickte sie ihm einen vergifteten Mango1, den sie oben auf die anderen Mangos legte.


1 Mango: Mangifera indica

Abb.: Mango (hoffentlich nicht vergiftet)
[Bildquelle. Wikipedia]

5 Tassā putto saha gato uparājena bālako
Bhājane vivaṭe yeva taṃ ambaṃ khādiyāmarī.


Ihr kleiner Sohn, der mit dem Vizekönig gegangen war, aß sobald das Essen ausgebreitet war den vergifteten Mango und starb.

6 Uparājā tato yeva sadārabalavāhano
Rakkhituṃ sakam attānaṃ Rohaṇābhimukho agā.


Dauraufhin ging der Vizekönig, um sich zu retten, mit Frauen, Heer und Zugtieren nach Rohaṇa1.


1 Rohaṇa

Abb.: Lage von Rohaṇa

[Quelle der Abb.: Sievers, Angelika: Ceylon : Gesellschaft und Lebensraum in den orientalischen Tropen. Eine sozialgeographische Landeskunde. -- Wiesbaden : F. Steiner, 1964. -- XXXII, 398 S. : Ill. ; 25 cm.  -- (Bibliothek geographischer Handbücher). -- S. 34. -- Immer noch die beste deutschsprachige Landeskunde Sri Lankas!]


One of the three main provinces of early Ceylon comprising the south eastern part of the island, the Mahāvālukanadī forming its northern boundary. It was probably colonized by Rohana (3). The capital of the province was Mahāgāma. When the northern parts of the island were in the hands of foreigners or usurpers, the Singhalese court, its nobles and loyalists, often sought refuge in Rohana. It seems, for the most part, to have been very little controlled from the capital, and many rebellions against the ruler of the capital originated in Rohana. See Dutthagāmani and Vijayabāhu; also, e.g., Mhv.xxiii.13; xxxiii.37; xxxv.27f., 67, 125; Cv.xxxviii.12, 39; xli.89ff.; xliv.54; xlviii.59, etc.

In times of persecution and scarcity the Buddhist monks found patronage and shelter among the inhabitants of Rohana (E.g., Mhv.xxxvii.6). Even till about 600 A.C., Rohana was regarded as a separate kingdom, holding, or at least claiming to hold, an independent position beside Anurādhapura (See, e.g., Cv.xlv.41)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

7 Yaṭṭhālāyavihārasmiṃ mahesī tassa gabbhinī
Puttaṃ janesi; so tassa bhātu nāmam akārayī.


Im Yaṭṭhālāya-Kloster1 gebar die schwangere Vizekönigin einen Sohn. Er nannte ihn nach seinem Bruder2.


1 wird als Yaṭagala-Vihāra im Nordosten von Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) identifiziert.

Abb.: Lage von Galle
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

"Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) (pronounced as one syllable, rhyming with "Gaul" in English, in Sinhalese, IPA /gaːlːə/) is a town situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 116 km from Colombo. Galle was known as Gimhathiththa (although Ibn Batuta [Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد ابن بطوطة] in the 14th century refers to it as Qali) before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century, when it was the main port on the island. Galle reached the height of its development in the 18th century, before the arrival of the British, who developed the harbor at Colombo.

Galle lies in Galle District.

On 26 December 2004 the city was devastated by the massive Boxing Day Tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake that occurred a thousand miles away, off the coast of Indonesia. Thousands were killed in the city alone.

Galle is the best example of a fortified city built by Europeans in south and southeast Asia, showing the interaction between European architectural styles and south Asian traditions. The Galle Fort is a world heritage site and the largest remaining fortress in Asia built by European invaders. Other prominent landmarks in Galle include the St. Mary's Cathedral founded by Jesuit priests.

Galle is the main town in the most southerly part of the island, with a population of around 100,000, and is connected by rail to Colombo කොළඹ in Sinhala; கொழும்பு in Tamil] and Matara. It is home to a cricket ground, the Galle International Stadium, where test matches are played.

Rumassala Kanda is a large mound-like hill, which forms the eastern protective barrier to the Galle harbour. Local tradition associates this hill with some events of the Ramayana.


According to James Emerson Tennent, Galle was the ancient seaport of 'Tarshish' [תרשיש], from which King Solomon drew ivory, peacocks and other valuables. Certainly, cinnamon was exported from Sri Lanka as early as 1400 BC and the root of the word itself is Hebrew, so Galle may have been the main entrepot for the spice.

Galle had been a prominent seaport long before western rule in the country. Persians, Arabs, Greeks, Romans, Malays and Indians were doing business through Galle port. The 'modern' history of Galle starts in 1505, when the first Portuguese ship, under Lourenço de Almeida was driven there by a storm. However, the people of the city refused to let the Portuguese enter it, so the Portuguese took it by force.

In 1640, the Portuguese had to surrender to the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch built the present Fort in the year 1663. They built a fortified wall, using solid granite, and built three bastions, known as 'sun', 'moon' and 'star'.

After the British took over the country from the Dutch in the year 1796, they preserved the Fort unchanged, and used it as the administrative centre of Galle."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2006-06-19]

2 er hieß nach seinem Geburtsort und Devānampiya-Tissa: Yaṭṭhālayaka-Tissa

"Yaṭṭhālatissa, Yaṭṭhālayakatissa

Son of Mahānāga, who was a brother of Devānampiyatissa.

His son was Gothabhaya and his grandson Kākavannatissa, father of Dutthagāmani (Mhv.xv.170).

He was born in the Yatthāla-vihāra (Mhv.xxii.10) and ruled in Rohana.

Among his works was the construction of the five storied pāsāda at Kalyānī. Cv.lxxxv.64."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

8 Tato gantvā Rohaṇaṃ so Rohaṇe issaro 'khile
Mahābhāgo Mahāgāme rajjaṃ karesī khattiyo.


Von dort zog er nach Rohaṇa. Der wohlhabende Fürst regierte in Mahāgāma1 als Herrscher über ganz Rohaṇa.


1 Mahāgāma: heutiges Māgama

Abb.: Lage von Magama = Mahāgāma und Kelaniya = Kalyāṇī
(©MS Encarta)

9 Kāresi so Nāgamahāvihāraṃ sakanāmakaṃ;
Uddhakandarakādī ca vihāre kārayī bahū.


Er ließ das Nāga-Großkloster1, das nach ihm benannt ist, das Uddhakandara-Kloster und viele andere Klöster bauen.


1 Nāga-Großkloster: unter den Ruinen Mahāgāma's gibt es auch dem Mahānāga-dāgaba.


A monastery in Rohana, built by Mahānāga, ruler of Mahāgāma and brother of Devānampiyatissa (Mhv.xxii.9). Ilanāga restored it and bestowed land for its maintenance (Ibid.,xxxv.31; MT.469). A story is related of a monk of this vihāra who cut down a nāga tree near the monastery. The devatā living in the tree was annoyed, and announced to the Thera that the king who looked after him would die in seven days. The Thera mentioned this in the palace; seven days passed and, as nothing happened. The king had the Thera's hands and feet cut off (VibhA.407). Near the monastery was a village named Kelakacchagāma (c.l. Kālagacchagāma) (MA.ii.1025). Dappula gave the village of Kevattagambhīra to the vihāra (Cv.x1v.58)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

10 Yaṭṭhālayakatisso so tassa putto tadaccaye
Tattheva rajjaṃ kāresi; tassa putto 'bhayo tathā.


Sein Sohn Yaṭṭhālayakatissa regierte nach seinen Tod am selben Ort, ebenso dessen Sohn Abhaya1.


1 Yaṭṭhālayakatissa

"Yaṭṭhālatissa, Yaṭṭhālayakatissa

Son of Mahānāga, who was a brother of Devānampiyatissa.

His son was Gothabhaya and his grandson Kākavannatissa, father of Dutthagāmani (Mhv.xv.170).

He was born in the Yaṭṭhāla-vihāra (Mhv.xxii.10) and ruled in Rohana.

Among his works was the construction of the five storied pāsāda at Kalyānī. Cv.lxxxv.64."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

2 = Goṭhābaya

"Goṭhakābhaya, Goṭhābhaya.

A king of the Rohana dynasty; son of Yatthālayakatissa and father of Kākavannatissa (Mhv.xv.170; xxii.11). He is sometimes called Abhaya. E.g., Mhv.xxiii.10, 56."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

11 Goṭhābhayasuto Kākavaṇṇatisso ti vissuto
Tadaccaye tattha rajjaṃ so akāresi khattiyo.


Fürst Kākavaṇṇtissa1, der Sohn Goṭhābaya's, regierte nach dessen Tod am selben Ort.


1 Kākavaṇṇatissa: Tissa aus dem Stand der Krähen oder: der krähenfarbige Tissa

"Kākavaṇṇa-Tissa (Kākavaṇṇa)

A king of the Rohana dynasty in Ceylon. He was the great-grandson of Mahānāga, brother of Devānampiya-Tissa, and his father was Gothābhaya (Mhv.xv.170f; Mbv.132). His capital was at Mahāgāma. He had as wife, Devī (better known as Vihāradevī), daughter of Tissa, king of Kalyāni, who had been cast into the sea to expiate her father's crimes (Mhv.xxii.20ff). Their children were Dutthagāmani Abhaya and Saddhā-Tissa. Kākavanna-Tissa gathered round him all the foremost Sinhalese warriors of the time so that they should be available for Gāmani, when the time came for his campaign against the Damilas (Mhv.xxiii.2). 

But at the start Kākavanna-Tissa was very reluctant to allow his son to make preparations for such a campaign (Mhv.xxii.82f), so much so that, in exasperation, the young prince once sent his father some female ornaments to indicate that the king was no man (Mhv.xxiv.4). Kākavanna-Tissa was very pious, and is said to have built sixty-four vihāras, sixty-four years being also the length of his reign (Mhv.xxiv.12; see also AA.i.279). Among the religious edifices built by him were the Tissamahārāma, the Cittalapabbatavihāra (Mhv.xxii.23) and the Mahānuggala Cetiya. He was cremated at Tissamahārāma (xxiv.8, 13). He evidently received his name on account of his dark colour. The Dīpavamsa (Dpv.xviii.20; were their names Mahilā and Samantā?; see also xix.21f) speaks of Kākavanna-Tissa's daughters as having been proficient in the history of the, Religion (saddhammavamsakovidā). 

He was once a milakkka in India and looked after a Pacceka Buddha. One day he gave the Pacceka Buddha a meal of ripe jack-fruit. On another occasion, when the Pacceka Buddha visited his house in his absence, his wife tried to tempt him. Having failed, she complained to the husband that the Pacceka Buddha had assaulted her. The latter sought the Pacceka Buddha to kill him, but, seeing him in mid air putting on his robe, he was filled with wonder and asked the Pacceka Buddha's forgiveness. Later he was born in a hunters' village near Amaruppala-lena, his name being Amaruppala, and did various good deeds. 

He was called Kākavanna-Tissa because he knew the speech of crows. Ras.ii.53f; see also p.64, where a crow announces various things to him."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

Eine Krähenart, die Sri Lanka vorkommt, ist die Glanzkrähe (Corvus splendens)

Abb.: Glanzkrähe (Corus splendens), Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006
[Bildquelle: The Albanian. -- -- Creative Commons Lizenz. -- Zugriff am 2006-06-18]

12 Vihāradevī nāmāsi mahesī tassa rājino
Saddhassa saddhāsampannā dhītā Kalyāṇirājino.


Rechtgläubige Hauptfrau dieses gläubigen Königs war Vihāradevī1, die Tochter des Königs von Kalyāṇī2.


1 Vihāradevī


Wife of Kākavannatissa and mother of Dutthagāmanī and Saddhātissa. She was the daughter of Tissa, king of Kalyānī and was cast adrift in a boat on the ocean in order to appease the sea gods in their wrath against Tissa for having killed an arahant. Her name was Devī, but because she came ashore near the monastery of Tolaka (?) (This is probably the correct reading of the name; see MT. 432) she was called Vihāradevī (Mhv.xxii.20ff). When with her first child, she longed to eat a honeycomb one usabha in length and to drink the water in which had been washed the sword used in cutting off the head of Nandasārathī, chief of Elāra's warriors (Mhv.42ff.; MT. 441). When she was the second time with child, she wished to lie under a campaka tree in bloom and inhale its fragrance (MT.443).

When her husband died, Saddhātissa carried her off, hoping thus to win the kingdom, but she was later restored to Dutthagāmanī. She was wise and practical and helped in Dutthagāmanī's campaigns, especially in the capture of Ambatittha and Anurādhapura (Mhv.xxv.9, 55). We know nothing of her later history."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

2 Kalyāṇī: heutiges Kelaniya

Abb.: Lage von Kelaniya
(©MS Encarta)


The name of a river and of the district near its mouth in Ceylon. The Buddha visited the Kalyāni country in the eighth year after the Enlightenment, in company with five hundred monks, on the second day after the full-moon of Vesākha and, seated on the spot where the Kalyāni-Cetiya was later built, he preached to the Nāgas and their king Maniakkhika, at whose invitation he had come (Sp.i.89; Mhv.i.63, 75ff; Dpv.ii.42, 53; J.ii.128).

Once a king reigned in Kalyānī named Kalyani-Tissa, who had a daughter Vihāramahādevī. According to the legends connected with her, Kalyānī was at one time much further from the sea than it is now. The sea swallowed up several leagues of land (Mhv.xxii.12ff). King Yatthāla-Tissa built a five-storied pāsāda in the town, which was later restored by Parakkamabāhu II (Cv.lxxxv.64).

The Kalyāni district formed the fighting base of several campaigns. E.g., Cv.lxi.35, 39; lxxii.151."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

13 Kalyāṇiyaṃ narindo hi Tisso namāsi khattiyo;
Devīsaṃyogajanitakopo tassa kaṇiṭṭhako
14 Bhīto tato palāyitvā Ayyautiyanāmako
Aññattha vasi; so deso tena taṃnāmako ahū.

13. - 14.

In Kalyāṇī war nämlich Fürst Tissa1 König. Ayya-uttiya2, sein jüngster Bruder hatte den Zorn des Königs erregt, weil er ein Verhältnis mit der Königin hatte. Aus Furcht floh er von dort und lebte woanders. Jene Gegend wurde nach ihm benannt.

1 Kalyāṇī-Tissa


A king of Kalyānī, father of Vihāramahādevī (Mhv.xxii.12ff). He was great-grandson of Mutasīva and grandson of Uttiya. His younger brother was called Ayya-Uttiya (MT.431)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

2 Ayya-uttiya


Brother of Tissa, king of Kalyānī. He was the queen's lover and, being discovered, fled from the capital and lived in a district which was later named after him. He sent a letter to the queen by a man disguised as a monk, but the ruse was discovered (Mhv.xxii.13ff; MT.307). For the rest of the story see Kalyāni-Tissa.

For ref. read MT.431. The province was near the sea (samuddatīrasamipe)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

15 Datvā rahassalekhaṃ so bhikkhuvesadharaṃ naraṃ
Pāhesi deviyā; gantvā rājadvāre ṭhito tu so


Er sandte einen Mann, der als Verkleidung Mönchsgewand trug, mit einem geheimen Brief an die Königin. Er kam und stand am Tor zum König.

16 Rājagehe arahatā bhuñjamānena sabbadā
Aññāyamāno therena rañño gharam upāgami.


Er ging mit einem Arhant, der immer im Palast gespeist wurde, vom Thera unbemerkt in den Palast.

17 Therena saddhiṃ bhuñjitvā raññā saha viniggame
Pātesi bhumiyaṃ lekhaṃ pekkhamānāya deviyā.


Er aß mit dem Thera. Als die Königin mit dem König wegging ließ er den Brief auf den Boden fallen, als die Königin hinschaute.

18 Saddena tena rājā taṃ nivattitvā vilokayaṃ
Ñatvāna lekhasaṃdesaṃ kuddho therassa dummati


Auf das Geräusch hin kehrte der König um, schaute herum und entdeckte die briefliche Mitteilung und wurde verrückt zornig auf den Thera.

19 Theraṃ taṃ purisaṃ tañ ca mārāpetvāna kodhasā
Samuddasmiṃ khīpāpesi; kujjhitvā tena devatā
20 Samudden' ottharāpesuṃ taṃ desaṃ; so tu bhūpati
Attano dhītaraṃ suddhaṃ Deviṃ nāma surūpiniṃ
21 Likhitvā rājadhitā ti sovaṇṇukkhaliyā lahuṃ
Nisīdāpiya tattheva samuddasmiṃ visajjayi.

19. - 21.

In seinem Zorn ließ er den Thera und den Mann töten und ins Meer werfen. Die Meer-Gottheiten wurden darüber zornig und überschwemmten jene Gegend mit dem Ozean. Der König setzte schnell seine reine und schöne Tochter Devī in einen goldenen Kochtopf, auf den geschrieben war "Tochter des Königs", und ließ sie dort ins Meer treiben.

22 Okkantaṃ taṃ Tolakea Kākavaṇṇo mahīpati
Abhisecayi tenāsi Vihāropapadavhayā.

a so ist richtig zu lesen mit Vaṃsatthappakāsinī (S. 432)


Als sie beim Tolaka-Kloster anlandete, weihte sie König Kākavaṇṇa zur Königin. Sie erhielt deswegen den Beinamen Vihāra1.


1 d.h. Vihāra-Devī

23 Tissamahāvihārañ ca tathā Cittalapabbataṃ
Gamiṭṭhāvāliṃ Kūṭāliṃ vihāre evamādike
24 Kāretvā suppasannena manasā ratanattaye
Upaṭṭhahi tadā saṅghaṃ paccayehi catubhi so.

23. - 24.

Er ließ aus großem Glauben zu den drei Juwelen1 Klöster errichten wie das Tissamāhāvihāra2, Cittalapabbata3, Gamiṭṭhāvāli und Kūṭāli4. Dann unterstütze er die Mönchsgemeinde mit den vier materiellen Grundlagen5 des Mönchslebens.


1 Dei Juwelen: Buddha, seine Lehre (Dhamma), die Gemeinsacht der erlösten (Saṅgha)

2 Tissamahāvihāra

Abb.: Lage von Tissamahāvihāra (Tissamahārāma) und Cittalapabbata (Katagamuwa)
(©MS Encarta)


A monastery in Rohana, founded by Kākavanna-Tissa (Mhv.xxii.23). It was also called Tissārāma (Mhv.xxii.28). It was one of the chief monastic establishments in Ceylon and was a place of pilgrimage. Some of the Sinhalese chronicles mention that Kākavanna-Tissa built another vihāra of the same name on the east coast of Ceylon, at the place now known as Seruvila, where the Buddha's frontal bone is deposited. The Mahāmeghavanārāma is also sometimes called the Tissamahārāma (E.g., Mhv.xx.25), and Tissārāma (Mhv.xv.174, 179, 203). Dappula gave to the Tissamahā-vihāra the village of Kattikapabbata (Cv.xiv.59). 

Buddhaghosa says (DA.ii.581) that in his time all monks living in Ceylon, south of the Mahāvālukanadī, assembled there twice a year, on the first and last day of the vassa."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

3 Cittalpabbata


A mountain in Rohana on which Kākavanna-Tissa built a vihāra (Mhv.xxii.23) and Vasabha ten thūpas (Mhv.xxxv.81). Dāthopatissa gave to the vihāra the village of Gonnavitthi (CV.xlv.59). The mountain is described as being healthy (utusappāya) (MT.552), and sometimes there lived on it as many as twelve thousand monks (VibhA.445; Mhv.xxiv.9). Attached to the vihāra was the Ninkaponnapadhānaghara (VibhA.489) and the Kotagerukapāsāda - the residence of Bhāgineyya Sangharakkhita (MT.552) - and also, probably, a nunnery. (See VibhA.498). The Elders Mahānāga and Cūlanāga lived at Cittalapabbata for three years (SA.ii.125). The Commentaries" contain several stories connected with the mountain. (E.g., VibhA.264, 498; DhsA.351, 399; AA.i.386; MA.i.18, 66, 150, 223, 351, 399). Near by (AA.i.386) was the village of Kālumbara and the bathing place of Kuruvakatittha (MA.ii.1024). It was evidently a very important monastic centre in Ceylon, and is mentioned on a par with Abhayagiri and Cetiyapabbata (DA.ii.478). Cittalapabbata is sometimes called Cittalakūta. E.g., Mhv.xxxv.81."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

4 Kūtāli

"Kūtāli Vihāra.

A monastery in Rohana, founded by Kākavannatissa (Mhv.xxii.23). There Malaya-Deva Thera once preached the Cha-Cakka Sutta, and sixty monks who listened to him became arahants (MA.ii.1024). This may be identical with the Kutelitissa Vihāra (q.v.)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

5 vier materielle Grundlagen des Mönchslebens:

  1. piṇḍa-pāta m. -- Almosenspeise
  2. cīvara n. -- Mönchsgewand
  3. senāsana n. -- Wohnstätte
  4. bhesajja n. -- Arzneien

25 Koṭapabbatanāmamhi vihāre sīlavattimā
Tadā ahu sāmaṇero nānāpuññakaro sadā.


Im Koṭaberg-Kloster1 lebte damals eine äußerst tugendsamer Novize, der ständig verschiedene verdienstliche Werke tat.

1 Koṭa-Berg

"Koṭapabbata (Koṭipabbata)

A mountain in Rohana; near it was the village of Kitti (Mhv.xxiii.55). There was a monastery on Kotapabbatta called the Kotapabbata-vihāra. This was the residence of the Sāmanera who was afterwards born as Dutthagāmanī (Mhv.xxii.25); also of Mahā-Summa Thera (Mhv.xxiii.61), of Asubhakammika-Tissa and of his teacher Mahā-Tissa (MT.553). The Vihāra was near Mahāgāma (MT.553).

The Visuddhi Magga (p.292) mentions an Elder, Tissa, of Kota (Koti) pabbata, who, having attained arahantship through meditation on breathing, was able to limit the term of his life. According to the Dhammapada Commentary (iv.50), an Elder named Anula lived in the monastery during the time of Dutthagāmanī, and the village Bhokkanta, residence of Sumanā, wife of Lakuntaka Atimbara, was in its vicinity. It was probably the same as Gotapabbata (q.v.) (See Mhv.xxxv.124; MT.667). The Nāgalena was in the Kotapabbata-vihāra (DA.ii.695)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

26 Sukhenārohaṇatthāya Ākāsacetiyaṅgaṇe
Ṭhapesi tīṇi sopāṇe pāsāṇaphalakāni so.


Um einen leichten Zugang zum Hof des Ākāsa-Cetiya (Luft-Stūpa)1 zu schaffen, ließ er drei Treppen aus Steinstufen schaffen.

1 Luft-Stūpa (Ākāsacetiya): steht auf dem Rücken eines Felsens


A cetiya in Rohana in South Ceylon, not far from Cittalapabbata Vihāra, so named because it is situated on the summit of a rock. It is not known when and by whom it was built. King Kākavanna-Tissa fixed to it stone slabs, to make it easier of ascent (Mhv.xxii.26). 

There were probably two cetiyas of the same name, one being in Rohana and the other to the east of Anurādhapura. It is the latter which is mentioned in the thirty-third chapter of the Mahāvamsa (Vers. 68-9).

Vattagāmani, going up with his queen to the ākāsacetiya, saw his minister, Kapisīsa, who had just come down from the cetiya, where he had been sweeping the courtyard, sitting by the road; because he did not fling himself down before the king, the latter slew him in anger. 

This ākāsacetiya was near Acchagalla Vihāra, which, according to the Mahāvamsa Tīkā (MT.302), was to the east of Anurādhapura. 

It may be that ākāsacetiya was a common name for any vihāra built on the summit of a rock, for the Commentaries (AA.i.375; MA.ii.955) speak also of an ākāsacetiya at Sumanagiri (Sumanakūta) at which the Tamil general Dīghajantu offered a red silken robe."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

27 Adā pānīyadānañ ca, vattaṃ saṅghassa cākarī.
Sadā kilantakāyassa tassābādho mahā ahū;


Er gab auch Trinkwasser und erfüllte Aufgaben der Mönchsgemeinde. Da er seinen Körper ständig abmühte, wurde er schwer krank.

28 Sivikāya tam ānetvā bhikkhavo katavedino
Silāpassayapariveṇe Tissārāme upaṭṭhahuṃ.


Die dankbaren Mönche brachten ihn in einer Sänfte ins Silāpassaya-Mönchsquartier im Tissa-Kloster (Tissārāma)1 und pflegten ihn dort.


1 d.i. Tissamahārāma, siehe oben Vers 23f.

29 Sadā Vihāradevi sā rājagehe susaṅkhate
Purebhattaṃ mahādānaṃ datvā saṅghassa saṃyatā


Die selbstbeherrschte Vihāradevī gab täglich vor dem Essen viel Almosen an die Mönchsgemeinde

30 Pacchābhattaṃ gandhamālaṃ bhesajjaṃ vasanāni ca
Gāhayitvā gatārāmaṃ sakkaroti yathārahaṃ.

30. Nach dem Essen ging sie mit duftenden Blumenkränzen, Arznei und Kleidung zum Kloster und brachte sie der Würdigkeit entsprechend dar.

31 Tadā tatheva katvā sā saṅghattherassa santike
Nisīdi; dhammaṃ desento thero taṃ idam abravī:


Als sie damals wieder so gehandelt hatte, setzte sie sich zum verantwortlichen Mönch (saṅghathera). Der Thera verkündete ihr die Lehre und sprach:

32 Mahāsampatti tumhehi laddhāyaṃ puññakammunā
Appamādo va kātabbo puññakamme idāni pi.


Durch deine verdienstvollen Taten hast du dir diesen großen Erfolg erworben. Aber auch jetzt darfst du im Tun von Verdienstvollen nicht erlahmen.

33 Evaṃ vutte tu sā āha: kiṃ sampatti ayaṃ idha
Yesaṃ no dārakā natthi? Vañjhā sampatti tena no.


Als er so gesprochen hatte, sprach sie: "Was ist dies für ein Erfolg für uns, die wir keine Kinder haben? Unfruchtbar ist deswegen unser Erfolg."

34 Chaḷabhiñño mahāthero puttalābham avekkhiya
Gilānaṃ sāmaṇeraṃ taṃ passa devī ti abravī.


Der große Thera, der die sechs höheren Geisteskräfte1 besaß, sah dass sie einen Sohn bekommen werde und sprach zu ihr: "Königin, sieh diesen kranken Novizen."


1 Abhiññā f. -- höhere Geisteskräfte

(Dutiya-āhuneyyasutta : Aṅguttaranikāya III, 280 - 281; Nal III; 3, 16 - 5, 7; Th 22, 312 - 314)

s. Nāgārjuna: La traité de la grande vertu de sagesse (Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra) / [Trad. par] Étienne Lamotte. -- Tome IV. -- p. 1809 - 1827.

35 Sā gantvāsannamaraṇaṃ sāmaṇeram avoca taṃ:
Patthehi mama puttattaṃ; sampatti mahātī hi no


Sie ging zum Novizen, der im Sterben lag, und bat ihn: "Wünsche mein Sohn zu werden. Wir sind nämlich sehr erfolgreich."

36 Na icchatī ti ñatvāna tadatthaṃ mahatiṃ subhaṃ
Pupphapūjaṃ kārayitvā pūna yāca sumedhasā.


Als sie sah, dass er nicht wollte, veranstaltete die kluge Frau zu diesem Zeck ein großes Blumenopfer und bat ihn nochmals.


37 Evam pi 'nicchamānassa atthāy' upāyakovidā
Nānābhesajjavatthāni saṅghe datvātha yāci taṃ.

Er wollte auch so nicht. Da gab die schlaue Frau der Mönchsgemeinde für ihn verschiedene Arzneien und Kleidungsstücke und bat ihn dann.

38 Patthesi so rājakulaṃ; sā taṃ ṭhānaṃ anekadhā
Alaṅkaritvā vanditvā yānam āruyha pakkami.


Nun wünschte er, in der Königsfamilie wiedergeboren zu werden. Sie ließ den Platz vielfältig schmücken, verabschiedete sich, bestieg ihren Wagen und fuhr weg.

39 Tato cuto sāmaṇero gacchamānāya deviyā
Tassā kucchimhi nibbatti; taṃ jānitvā nivatti sā.


Während die Königin noch unterwegs war, starb der Novize und wurde in ihrem Schoß wiedergeboren. Als sie das merkte, kehrte sie um.

40 Rañño taṃ sāsanaṃ datvā raññā saha punāgamā;
Sarīrakiccaṃ kāretvā sāmaṇerass' ubho pi te


Sie schickte dem König eine entsprechende Botschaft und kam mit den König nach Tissamahārāma zurück. Beide ließen die Todesriten für den Novizen abhalten.

41 Tasmiṃ yeva pariveṇe vasantā santamānasā
Mahādānaṃ pavattesuṃ bhikkhusaṅghassa sabbadā.


Friedlichen Gemüts wohnten sie im genannten Mönchsquartier und brachten der Mönchsgemeinde täglich große Almosen dar.

42 Tassevaṃ dohaḷo āsi mahāpuññāya deviyā:
Usabhamattaṃ madhugaṇḍaṃ katvā ussīsake sayaṃ
43 Vāmantarena passena nipannā sayane subhe
Dvādasannaṃ sahassānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dinnasesakaṃ
44 Madhuṃ bhuñjitukāmāsi; atha Eḷārarājino
Yodhānam aggayodhassa sīsacchinnāsidhovanaṃ
45 Tasseva sīse ṭhatvāna pātuñ ceva akāmayī.
Anurādhapurasseva uppalakkhettato pana.
46 Ānītuppalamālañ ca amilātaṃ pilandhituṃ.
Taṃ devī rājano āha; nemitte pucchi bhūpati.

42. - 46.

Die verdienstreiche Königin hatte folgendes Schwangerschaftsgelüst1: es gelüstete sie, auf ihrem Kopfkissen einen Honigwabe zu machen, die ein Usabha groß ist (oder: groß wie ein Stier). Auf ihrer rechten Seite in einem schönen Bett liegend wollte sie den Rest des Honigs essen, der übrig blieb, wenn man davon an 12.000 Mönche gegeben hatte.

Auch gelüstete es sie, das Waschwasser, mit dem das Schwert gewaschen worden war, das den besten der Soldaten König Eḷāra's geköpft hatte, auf dessen Kopf stehend zu zu trinken.

 Auch gelüstete es sie, einen unverwelkten Seerosenkranz2 zu tragen, der aus dem Seerosenfeld Anurādhapuras gebracht wurde.

Die Königin erzählte dem König diese Gelüste. Der König befragte Zeichendeuter.


1 Schwangerschaftsgelüst


Bei Schwangeren stellen sich sehr häufig während der Zeit dieses ihres Zustandes krankhafte Neigungen für gewisse Speisen ein, die im allgemeinen für sie geradezu unzuträglich sind und unter anderen Verhältnissen direkt verabscheut werden, und auf der anderen Seite wiederum auffällige Abneigungen gegen Speisen, die ihnen sonst lieb waren. Diese krankhaften Gelüste richten sich zumeist auf saure Sachen, vielfach aber auch auf unverdauliche Dinge, wie Kreide, Erde, Stroh u.a.m. Auch von den Frauen niedriger stehender Völker sind solche Neigungen bekannt geworden. So essen die Perserinnen, Inderinnen, Minkopie- und Wakissifrauen mit Vorliebe Erde während ihrer Schwangerschaft. Diese Gelüste nach bestimmten Speisen können unter Umständen in dem Maße sich bemerkbar machen, dass die Frauen zum Diebstahl greifen, um in ihren Besitz zu gelangen, wenn es ihnen nicht auf andere Weise gelingt, sie sich zu verschaffen. Nach dem Volksglauben (Schwaben, Ungarn) muss man den schwangeren Frauen dies gewähren lassen und darf ihr Vergehen nicht als Diebstahl ansehen, sonst würden sie Schaden an ihrer Gesundheit erleiden, und besonders auch das Kind, zum Beispiel verkrüppelt, hinkend, gelähmt, geistesschwach oder mit einem Muttermal, das in seiner Form an die versagte Speise erinnert, behaftet zur Welt kommen (Schwaben, Dalmatien, Italien). Oft genug tragen schwangere Frauen die Dinge, nach denen ihnen zu gelüsten pflegt, in dem Täschchen bei sich, um sie sogleich zur Hand zu haben. In einem von Reil berichteten Falle ging das Verlangen einer Schwangeren auf Menschenfleisch, das sie auch befriedigte; natürlich war dieses Verlangen schon ein Einfluss von Geistesstörung. – Bn."

[Quelle: Georg Buschan <1863 - 1942>. -- In: Bilderlexikon der Erotik : Universallexikon der Sittengeschichte und Sexualwissenschaft / Institut für Sexualforschung. -- 
Wien, 1928-1932. -- CD- ROM-Ausgabe: Berlin : Directmedia, 1999. -- (Digitale Bibliothek ; 19). -- ISBN 3932544242. -- S. 10762f. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie diese CD-ROM  bei bestellen}]

2 Seerosen: Nymphaea sp.

Abb.: Seerosenfeld südöstlich von Anurādhapura
[Bildquelle: fotofreund. -- -- Creative Commons Lizenz. -- Zugriff am 2006-06-19.]

47 Taṃ sutvā āhu nemittā devīputto nighātiya
Damiḷe katvekarajjaṃ sāsanaṃ jotayissati.


Die Zeichendeuter antworteten, dass der Sohn der Königin die Tamilen vernichten, ein vereintes Königreich bilden und die Religion zum leuchten bringen werde.

48 Edisaṃ madhugaṇḍaṃ yo dassesi tassa edisiṃ
Sampattiṃ deti rājā ti ghosāpesi mahīpati.


Der König ließ ausrufen: "Wer einen solchen Honigklumpen zeigt, den macht der König erfolgreich."

49 Goṭhasamuddavelante madhupuṇṇaṃ nikujjitaṃ
Nāvaṃ ñatvāna ācikkhi rañño janapade naro.


Ein Mann, der an der Küste des flachen Meers1 ein umgedrehtes Boot2 voll Honig gefunden hatte, meldete das dem König.

1 Goṭhasamudda entspricht dem Singhalesischen: gḷumuhudu = "Das flache Meer"


The sea near Ceylon, the "shallow sea." Mhv.xxii.49, 85; DA.ii.695."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

2 umgedrehtes Boot: in die dadurch entstehende Höhle haben Wildbienen ihre Waben gebaut

Abb.: Honigwaben
[Bildquelle: dulcie. -- -- Creative Commons Lizenz. -- Zugriff am 2006-06-22]

50 Rājā deviṃ tahiṃ netvā maṇḍapamhi susaṅkhate
Yathicchitaṃ tāya madhuparabhogam akārayi.


Der König brachte sie dorthin und ließ sie in einem wohlbereiteten Pavillon Honig essen wie sie wollte.

51 Itare dohaḷe tassā sampādetuṃ mahīpati
Veḷusumananāmaṃ taṃ yodhaṃ tattha niyojayī.


Der König gab dem Soldaten Veḷusumana1 den Auftrag, die übrigen Schwangerschaftsgelüste der Königin zu befriedigen.


1 Veḷusumana


A general of Dutthagāmanī. He was the son of Vasabha, a householder of Kutumbiyangana in Girijanapada. When the child was born, two friends of Vasabha, Vela and Sumana, came with gifts, and the boy was given their two names. When Velusumana grew up, he went to live with Sumana, governor of Girijanapada, and broke in a horse with which everyone else had failed. Sumana therefore gave him one hundred thousand and sent him to Kākavannatissa’s court (Mhv.xxiii.68ff).

When Vihāradevī wished to drink water in which had been washed the sword which cut off the head of Nandasārathi, Elāra’s chief warrior, Velusumana was entrusted with the task of killing Nandasārathi. He therefore went to Anurādhapura, where he became friendly with the keeper of the king's state horse, Vāha. One day he took the horse to bathe in the Kadambanadī, and, after announcing his name, rode away on him. Elarā sent Nandasārathi in pursuit. Velusumana stood concealed behind a thicket, on a mound called Nigrodhasāla, with drawn sword, and as Nandasārathi rode past quickly, he was transfixed by Velusumana's sword (Mhv.xxii.51ff.; MT. 440f).

Velusumana took a prominent part in the capture of Vijitapura (Mhv.xxv.25). See also Ras.ii.6f. and 97f. where the details differ."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

52 So 'nurādhapuraṃ gantvā rañño maṅgalavājino.
Gopakena akā mettiṃ, tassa kiccañ ca sabbadā.


Dieser ging nach Anurādhapura, schloss mit dem Hüter des Glückspferd des Königs Freundschaft und half ihm ständig.

53 Tassa vissatthataṃ ñatvā pāto va uppalān' asiṃ
Kadambanadiyā tīre ṭhapetvāna asaṅkito


Als er merkte, dass jener ihm vertraute, deponierte er eines Morgens unbesorgt Seerosen und sein Schwert am Ufer des Kadambaflusses1.

1 Kamdamba-Fluss

"Kadamba, Kadambaka.

The river that flows past Anurādhapura, on the eastern side, now called the Malvatu Oya (Mhv.vii.43; and Trs.58, n.3). Near the river was the Nivatta-cetiya (Mhv.xv.10). The river ford, the Gangalatittha (MT.361), formed the beginning of the boundary line of the sīmā of the Mahāvihāra, and this line also ended at the river bank (Mhv.xv.191). The road from Anurādhapura to Cetiyagiri lay across the Kadamba-nadī, and pious kings, such as Mahā-Dāthika-Mahā-Nāga, spread carpets from the river up to the mountain so that pilgrims could wash their feet in the river and approach the mountain shrines with clean feet (Mhv.xxxiv.78).

The road from the Kadamba river to Thūpārāma passed through the Rājamātudvāra (SA.i.173). Moggallāna II. dammed up the river among the mountains and thus formed three tanks, the Pattapāsānavāpi, the Dhanavāpi, and the Garītara (Cv.xli.61), and Udaya II. built a weir for the overflow of the river (

In the time of Kakusandha Buddha, the capital of Ceylon, Abhayanagara, lay to the east of Kadambanadī (Mhv.xv.59; Dpv.xv.39; xvii.12; see also Mbv.120, 134f).

See also Kalamba."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

54 Assaṃ netvāna āruyha gaṇhitvā uppalān' asiṃ
Nivedayitvā attānaṃ assavegena pakkami.


Er führte das Glückspferd aus, bestieg es, nahm Seerosen und Schwert, sagte, wer er ist, und raste mit der Höchstgeschwindigkeit des Pferdes davon.

55 Sutvā rājā gahetuṃ taṃ mahāyodham apesayi;
Dutīyaṃ saṃmataṃ assaṃ āruyha so 'nudhāvi taṃ.


Als der König davon erfuhr, schickte er seinen besten Soldaten, um Veḷusumana zu fassen. Der Soldat bestieg das zweitbeste Pferd und verfolgte Veḷusumana.

56 So gumbanissito assapiṭṭhe yeva nisīdiya
Entassa piṭṭhito tassa ubbayhāsiṃ pasārayi.


Veḷusumana versteckte sich auf dem Pferd sitzend im Dickicht. Als sein Verfolger nahte, zog Veḷusumana und richtete es rücklings gegen jenen.

57 Assavegena yantassa sīsaṃ chijji, ubho haye
Sīsañ cādāya sāyaṃ so Mahāgāmam upāgami.


Er ritt mit der Höchstgeschwindigkeit des Pferdes los, köpfte seinen Verfolger, und kam am Abend mit beiden Pferden und dem Kopf nach Mahāgāma.

58 Dohaḷe te ca sā devī paribhuñji yathāruciṃ
Rājā yodhassa sakkāraṃ kārāpesi yathārahaṃ.


Die Königin befriedigte voll ihre Schwangerschaftsgelüste wie es ihr gefiel. Der König ehrte den Soldaten seinem Verdienst entsprechend.

Abb.: Eine andere "Dame", der es nach einem abgeschlagenen Männerhaupt gelüstete: Salome  (Mt 14, 6–11; Mk 6, 17–28). -- Silhouette von J. V. Schäfer.

[Bildquelle: Bilderlexikon der Erotik : Universallexikon der Sittengeschichte und Sexualwissenschaft / Institut für Sexualforschung. -- 
Wien, 1928-1932. -- CD- ROM-Ausgabe: Berlin : Directmedia, 1999. -- (Digitale Bibliothek ; 19). -- ISBN 3932544242. -- S. 14146. -- {Wenn Sie HIER klicken, können Sie diese CD-ROM  bei bestellen}]

59 Sā devī samaye dhaññaṃ janayī puttam uttamaṃ;
Mahārājakule tasmiṃ ānando ca mahā ahū.


Als die Zeit gekommen war, gebar die Königin einen reich begabten hervorragenden Sohn. Die Freude in der Familie des Großkönigs war groß.

60 Tassa puññānubhāvena tadaheva upāgamuṃ
Nānāratanasampuṇṇā satta nāvā tato tato.


Kraft seiner Verdienste tauchten am Tag seiner Geburt hier und dort sieben Schiffe voll verschiedener Edelsteine auf.

61 Tasseva puññatejena Chaddantakulato karī
Hatthicchāpaṃ āharitvā ṭhapetvā idha pakkami.


Kraft der Macht seiner verdienste brachte ein Elefant aus der Familie der Chaddanta1 ein Elefant ein Elefantenjunges, ließ es dort und verschwand wieder.


1 Chaddanta: Sechs-Stoßzähner


A tribe of elephants, of which tribe the Bodhisatta was once born as king (see No.4). The Chaddantas and the Uposathas are the two highest classes of elephant (DhA.iii.248). The Chaddantakula sometimes provides the hatthiratana for a Cakkavatti, in which case it is the youngest of the tribe who so functions (KhpA.172). Of the ten tribes of elephants enumerated in the books (E.g., UdA.403; VibhA.397) the Chaddanta is classed as the highest, and the Buddha possesses the strength of ten Chaddanta-elephants, each elephant having the strength of ten thousand million men (BuA.37). These elephants have the power of travelling through the air and are white in hue (J.v.37; Vsm.650)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

62 Taṃ titthaparatīramhi disvā gumbantare ṭhitaṃ
Kaṇḍulo nāma bālisiko rañño ācikkhi tāvade.


Als Kaṇḍula, ein Fischer, sah, wie dieses Elefantenjunge im Dickicht auf dem anderen Ufer stand, meldete er umgehend dem König.


1 Kaṇḍula


The state-elephant of Dutthagāminī. He was of the Chaddanta race, and was left by his mother and discovered by a fisherman, Kandula, after whom he was named. Mhv.xxii.62f.

He grew up to be of great strength. When Dutthagāminī's father died, his younger son, Tissa, took possession of the queen-mother and of Kandula, the state-elephant, and fled, but in the battle between the brothers, Kandula shook himself free from Tissa and went over to Dutthagāminī, whom he served to the end of his life. Kandula took a prominent part in the campaign against the Damilas, distinguishing himself particularly in the siege of Vijitapura (Mhv.xxiv.15, 89). In the single combat between Elāra and Dutthagāminī. Kandula attacked Elāra's elephant, Mahāpabbata, and disabled him (Mhv.xxv.5-83). It is said that once the warrior Nandhimitta seized Kandula by his tusks and forced him on to his haunches, and Kandula nursed a grudge against him until Nandhimitta rescued him from being crushed under a gate-tower which fell on him during his attack on Vijitapura. Mhv.xxv.22, 39f.; see also Dpv.xviii.53; Mbv.133."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

Elefanten namens Kaṇḍula sind seit 1961 Truppenmaskottchen des Sri Lanka Light Infantry Regiment!

63 Pesetvācariye rājā tam āṇāpiya posayi;
Kaṇḍulo iti ñāyittha diṭṭhattā Kaṇḍulena so.


Der König sandte Elefantenlehrer1, ließ das Junge bringen und zog es auf. Es wurde Kaṇḍula genannt, weil Kaṇḍula es gefunden hatte.


1 Elefentenlehrer

Abb.: Elefantenlehrer (Mahouts), Sri Lanka, 2006
[Bildquelle: Phantom Menace. -- -- Creative Commons Lizenz. -- Zugriff am 2006-06-22]

64 Suvaṇṇabhājanādīnaṃ puṇṇā nāvā idhāgatā
Iti rañño nivedesuṃ; rājā tān' āharāpayi.


Man meldete dem König, dass ein Schiff voll Goldgefäßen und ähnlichem angelandet sei. Der König ließ diese Sachen holen.

65 Puttassa nāmakaraṇe maṅgalamhi mahīpati
Dvādasasahassasaṅkhyaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ nimantiya


Der König lud 12.000 Mönche zum Freudenfest der Namensgebung seines Sohnes ein.

66 Evaṃ cintesi yadi me putto Laṅkātale 'khile
Rajjaṃ gahetvā sambuddhasāsanaṃ jotayissati
67 Aṭṭhuttarasahassaṃ ca bhikkhavo pavisantu ca;
Sabbe te uddhapattañ ca cīvaraṃ pārupantu ca;
68 Paṭhamaṃ dakkhiṇaṃ pādaṃ ummāranto ṭhapentu ca;
Ekacchattayutaṃ dhammakarakaṃ nīharantu ca;
69 Gotamo nāma thero ca patigaṇhātu puttakaṃ,
So va saraṇasikkhāyo detu sabbaṃ tathā ahu.

66. - 69.

Er dachte: "Nachdem mein Sohn die Herrschaft über ganz Laṅkā ergriffen hat, wird er die Religion des Sambuddha zum Leuchten bringen. 10081 Mönche sollen eintreten und sie sollen das Mönchsgewand so tragen, dass der Almosentopf darüber ist. Sie sollen zuerst den rechten Fuß über die Schwelle setzen und den Wasserfilter2 mit einem Schirm3 verbunden beiseite stellen. Der Thera Gotama4 soll mein Söhnchen an sich nehmen. Er soll ihm die dreifache Zuflucht und die Übungspunkte der Sittlichkeit5 geben." Alles geschah so.


1 1008 ist eine vollkommene, heilige Zahl [1008 = 7x9x(7+9)], die im Hinduismus in vielen Zusammenhängen vorkommt (z.B. 1008 Namen und Anrufungen einer Gottheit,

2 Wasserfilter:

3 einem einzigen Schirm: ich vermute, dass damit der Stoff gemeint ist, der über den Filter gespannt ist und durch den das Wasser geseiht wird.

4 Thera Gotama

"Gotama Thera.

An arahant, living in Piyangudīpa. He was the teacher of Dutthagāmani (Mhv.xx.69). When the latter, during his flight from his brother, wished to give alms to a monk before eating, Gotama knew his desire and sent a monk named Tissa to accept the alms. When the food was brought to Piyangudīpa, Gotama offered morsels of it to five hundred monks (twelve thousand, according to Mhv.xxxii.65) and, refilling the bowl with scraps of food, sent it back by air to the prince (Mhv.xxiv.24, 30; MT.465)."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]

5 Die drei Zufluchten sind die dreifache Zuflucht zum Buddha, zur Buddhalehre (Dhamma) und zur Gemeinschaft der Erlösten (Sangha).

Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi

dutiyaṃ pi Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
dutiyaṃ pi dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
dutiyaṃ pi saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi

tatiyaṃ pi Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
tatiyaṃ pi dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
tatiyaṃ pi saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi

Die Übungspunkte der Sittlichkeit sind:

  1. Enthaltung vom Töten von Lebewesen
  2. Enthaltung von Stehlen
  3. Enthaltung von sexuell-erotischem Fehlverhalten
  4. Enthaltung von Lügen
  5. Enthaltung von berauschenden Mitteln, die Anlass zu Nachlässigkeit sind
  1. pāṇātipātā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
  2. adinnādānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
  3. kāmesu micchācārā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
  4. musāvādā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
  5. surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi

70 Sabbaṃ nimittaṃ disvāna tuṭṭhacitto mahīpati
Datvā saṅghassa pāyāsaṃ nāmaṃ puttassa kārayi:


Als der König all diese Vorzeichen1 sah, war er zufrieden. Er gab der Mönchsgemeinde Milchreis und gab seinem Sohn den Namen.


1 Vorzeichen: dass nämlich alles genau so geschah, wie er es sich gedacht hatte.

71 Mahāgāme nāyakattaṃ pitu nāmañ ca attano
Ubho katvāna ekajjhaṃ Gāmaṇī Abhayo iti.


Indem er die Führerschaft über Mahāgāma und den Namen seines Vaters verband, nannte er ihn Gāmaṇī1 Abhaya.


1 Gāmaṇī = Dorfführer (Mahāgāma = Groß-Dorf)

72 Mahāgāmaṃ pavisitvā, navame divase tato
Saṅgamaṃ deviyākāsi; tena gabbham agaṇhi sā.


Am neunten tag danach ging er nach Mahāgāma und hatte Geschlechtsverkehr mit der Königin. Sie wurde davon schwanger.

73 Kāle jātaṃ sutaṃ rājā Tissanāmaṃ akārayi.
Mahatā parivārena ubho vaḍḍhiṃsu dārakā.


Den zur rechten Zeit geborenen Sohn nannte er Tissa. Beide Knaben wuchsen mit einem großen Gefolge auf.

74 Sitthappavesamaṅgalakāle dvinnam pi sādaro
Bhikkhusatānaṃ pañcannaṃ dāpayitvāna pāyasaṃ


Zum Fest der ersten Reisspeise1 der beiden ließ er an 500 Mönche Milchreis geben.


1 d.h. zum Saṃskāra ("Sakrament") Annaprāśana, das zwischen dem 5. und 8. Lebensmonat stattfindet. Wie Vers 75f. zeigt, wurden diese Termine für Gāmaṇī Abhaya nicht eingehalten, da sein Bruder ja 9 bis 10 Monate jünger als er ist.

75 Tehi upaḍḍhe bhuttamhi gahetvā thokathokakaṃ
Sovaṇṇasarakenesaṃ deviyā saha bhūpati
76 Sambuddhasāsanaṃ tumhe yadi chaḍḍhetha puttakā
Mā jīratu kucchigataṃ idaṃ vo ti adāpaya.

75. - 76.

Als die Mönche die Hälfte aufgegessen hatten, nahm der König gemeinsam mit der Königin ein Wenig mit einem goldenen Becher und gab es den Knaben mit den Worten: "Wenn ihr die Religion des Sambuddha verwerft, dann soll das in eurem bauch nicht alt werden1."


1 d.h. ihr sollt es dann sofort wider von euch geben (ausspucken oder erbrechen).

77 Viññāya bhāsitatthaṃ te ubho rājakumārakā
Pāyāsaṃ taṃ abhuñjiṃsu tuṭṭhacittāmataṃ viya.


Die beiden Prinzen verstanden den Sinn der Worte und aßen zufrieden den Milchreis als ob es Unsterblichkeitsspeise wäre.

78 Dasadvādasavassesu tesu vīmaṃsanatthiko
Tatheva bhikkhū bhojetvā tesaṃ ucchiṭṭham odanaṃ
79 Gāhapetvā taṭṭakena ṭhapāpetvā tadantike
Tibhāgaṃ kārayatvāna idam āha mahīpati:

78. - 79.

Als die Prinzen zehn bzw. zwölf Jahre alt waren, speiste der König in der gleichen Weise Mönche, nahm auf einer kleinen den Reis, den sie übrig ließen, setzte ihn den Prinzen vor, teilte ihn in drei Teile und sprach:

80 Kuladevatānaṃ no tātā bhikkhūnaṃ vimukhā mayaṃ
Na hessāmā ti cintetvā bhāgaṃ bhuñjath' iman ti ca,


"Esst diesen Teil mit dem Vorsatz, euch niemals von den Mönchen, unseren Familiengottheiten, abzuwenden!"

81 Dve bhātaro mayaṃ niccaṃ aññamaññam adūbhakā
Bhavissamā ti cintetvā bhāgaṃ bhuñjath' iman ti ca;


Esst diesen Teil mit dem Vorsatz, dass ihr beiden Brüder euch nie gegenseitig betrügt!"

82 Amataṃ viya bhuñjiṃsu te dve bhāge ubho pi ca.
Na yujjhissāma Damiḷehi iti bhuñjath' imaṃ iti


Beide aßen diese beiden Teile als ob es Unsterblichkeitsspeise wäre.

"Esst diesen Teil mit dem Vorsatz, nicht mit den Tamilen zu kämpfen!"

83 Evaṃ vuttesu Tisso so pāṇinā khipi bhojanaṃ;
Gāmaṇī bhattapiṇḍaṃ tu khipitvā sayanaṃ gato


Auf diese Worte hin warf Tissa mit seiner Hand die Speise wag. Gāmaṇī warf das Speisebällchen weg und ging zu Bett.

84 Saṃkucitvā hatthapādaṃ nipajji sayane sayaṃ.
Devī gantvā tosayantī Gāmaṇiṃ etad abravī:


Mit eingezogenen Händen und füßen legte er sich hin. Die Königin kam und sprach besänftigend zu Gāmaṇī:

85 Pasāritaṅgo sayane kiṃ na sesi sukhaṃ suta
Gaṅgāpāramhi Damiḷā; ito Goṭham ahodadhi;


"Sohn, warum liegst du auf dem Bett nicht mit ausgestreckten Gliedern?"

86 Kathaṃ pasāritaṅgo 'haṃ nipajjāmī ti so bravī.
Sutvāna tassādhippāyaṃ tuṇhī āsi mahīpati.


Er erwiderte: "Auf der anderen Seite der Gaṅgā sind Tamilen, auf dieser Seite das flache Meer. Wie soll ich mich da mit ausgestreckten (= entspannten) Gliedern hinlegen?!" Als die Königin seine Absicht vernommen hatte, schwieg sie.

87 So kamenābhivaḍḍhanto ahu soḷasavassiko
Puññavā yasavā dhīmā tejobalaparakkamo.


Er entwickelte sich und wurde sechzehn, tugendhaft, ruhmvoll, klug, brillant, mächtig und voll Energie.

88 Calācalāyaṃ gatiyaṃ hi pāṇino
Upenti puññena yathāruciṃ gatiṃ,
Itīti mantvā satataṃ mahādaro
Bhaveyya puññūpacayamhi buddhimā



"In dieser unbeständigen Existenz werden die Lebewesen aufgrund ihres Verdienstes wiedergeboren, wie es ihnen gefällt." Dies bedenkend soll der Weise stets dem Anhäufen von Verdiensten große Aufmerksamkeit schenken.



(12 Silben; 5.7.; Schema: ja ta ja ra: vadanti Vaṃśasthavilaṃ jatau jarau)


Zur Metrik siehe:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Einführung in die Exegese von Sanskrittexten : Skript.  -- Kap. 8: Die eigentliche Exegese, Teil II: Zu einzelnen Fragestellungen synchronen Verstehens. -- Anhang B: Zur Metrik von Sanskrittexten. -- URL:

Sujanappasādasaṃvegatthāya kate Mahāvaṃse
Gāmaṇīkumārasūti nāma bāvīsatimo paricchedo.

Zu Kapitel 23: Die Werbung der Krieger