Wilhelm II.: "Völker Europas, wahrt Eure heiligsten Güter!"
Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Materialien zum Neobuddhismus. -- 2. International. -- 2. Das Weltparlament der Religionen in Chicago 1893. -- Fassung vom 2005-05-30. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/neobuddhismus/neobud0202.htm . -- [Stichwort].
Erstmals publiziert: 1996-05-15
Überarbeitungen: 2005-05-30 [Ergänzungen]; 2005-05-05 [überarbeitet]; 2003-07-14 [grundlegend überarbeitet und erweitert]
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung Neobuddhismus, Univ. Tübingen, SS 1987, SS 2003
Copyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers.
Diese Inhalt ist unter einer Creative Commons-Lizenz lizenziert.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Buddhismus von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Abb.: Theodore Robinson (1852-1896): World's Columbian Exposition, 1894
Am Montag, den 11. Sept. 1893 eröffnete das Weltparlament der Religionen. Diese Versammlung wurde im Anschluss an die World's Columbian Exposition abgehalten, die Weltausstellung , die zum 400. Jahrestag der Entdeckung Amerikas durch Kolumbus in Chicago stattfand. Das Hauptziel der Weltausstellung bestand darin, die Fortschritte der Wissenschaft und Technik zu zeigen. Da aber die Religion ein wesentlicher Faktor menschlicher Kultur sei, hatte man sich entschlossen ein Weltparlament der Religionen in Verbindung mit der Weltausstellung abzuhalten.
Das Weltparlament der Religionen war nur einer von zwanzig Kongressen, die anlässlich der Weltausstellung abgehalten wurde. Andere Kongresse hatten als Thema z.B.
Wirtschaft und Finanzen,
moralische und soziale Reformen,
Abb.: World's Columbian Exposition aus der Vogelschau
|Abb.: East Indian Building||Abb.: Ceylon Building|
|Abb.: Japanese Ho-o-den (House)|
[Quelle der Abbildungen: The Book of the Fair : an historical and descriptive presentation of the world's science, art, and industry, as viewed through the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, designed to set forth the display made by the Congress of Nations, of human achievement in material form, so as to more effectually to illustrate the profess of mankind in all the departments of civilized life / by Hubert Howe Bancroft ... -- Chicago, San Francisco : The Bancroft Company, 1893. 10 Bde. -- Online: http://columbus.gl.iit.edu/. -- Zugriff am 2003-05-08]
Einen guten Eindruck von der Weltausstellung gibt folgende Beschreibung:
"The fair was a people's festival, epitomizing the Gilded Age and, at least nominally, commemorating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.
Opened during a financial panic, it was neonetheless the first American fair of note to return a profit. It featured architect Daniel Burnham's famous White City and attracted more than 27 million people. Its network of canals and artificial lagoons was fed by the waters of nearby Lake Michigan, and its exciting architecture embodied the new classicism of »the American Renaissance«. The facades ranged from overly ornate splendor to the uncluttered lines of Louis H. Sullivan's Transportation Building, although even that had a gilded entranceway.
Inventions such as the phonograph, Linotype, and Pullman car were on display. But the practical uses of electricity, demonstrated in an electrified house, made the deepest impression on fairgoers.
For the first time at a fair, machines became a source of fun. There was George Ferris' first wheel, terrifying but irresistible, as well as a balloon ride and artificial ice for summer skating.
The Midway amusement section was another fair first. Its features included Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show and perhaps the fair`s most talked about attraction: Little Egypt, a hootchy-kootchy dancer who delighted some and horrified others."
[The story of America / editor: Carrol C. Calkins ... - Pleasantville : The Reader's Digest Association, 1975. - S. 251.]
Abb.: Motto auf dem Einband dieses Werkes
The World's parliament of religions; an illustrated and popular story of the world's first parliament of religions, held in Chicago in connection with the Columbian exposition of 1893 / Ed. by John Henry Barrows ... -- Chicago : The Parliament Publishing Company, 1893. -- 2 Bde. : 1600 S. : Ill. -- Im Folgenden zitiert als: World's Parliament. -- 1893
" THE ORIGIN OF THE PLAN FOR A PARLIAMENT OF RELIGIONS.
DR. HORACE BUSHNELL, that profound and original thinker of New England, has said, that " It is only Religion, the great bond of love and duty to God, that makes any existence valuable or even tolerable."
In the Columbian Exposition of 1893, for the first time on such an occasion, Religion has had due preeminence. Since faith in a Divine Power to whom men believe they owe service and worship has been like the sun, a life-giving and fructifying potency in man's intellectual and moral development; since Religion lies back of Hindu literature with its marvelous and mystic developments; of European Art, whether in the form of Grecian statues or Gothic cathedrals ; and of American liberty and the recent uprisings of men in behalf of a juster social condition; and since it is as clear as the light that the Religion of Christ has led to many of the chief and noblest developments of our modern civilization, it did not appear that Religion any more than Education, Art or Electricity should be excluded from the Columbian Exposition.
But Religion, like the white light of Heaven, has been broken into many-colored fragments by the prisms of men.One of the objects of the Parliament of Religions has been to change this many-colored radiance back into the white light of heavenly truth.
"Our little systems have their day;
They have their day and cease to be,
They are but broken lights of Thee;
And Thou, O Lord, art more than they."
It early became evident that the Columbian Exposition was to be the most comprehensive and brilliant display of man's material progress which the ages have known. More than fifty nations were soon actively enlisted in the preparations for the great Festival of Peace.
Its approach caused a stir in the studios of Paris and Munich, and on the pasture grounds of far-off Australia, among the Esquimaux of the icy north and the skilled artisans of Delhi and Damascus.
The workshops of Sheffield, Geneva and Moscow, and the marble quarries of Italy, the ostrich farms of Cape Colony and the mines of Brazil, speedily knew of its coming.
And should not man's intellectual and moral progress be adequately set forth amid these material splendors? Why should the ivory hunters in the forests of Africa and the ivory cutters in the thronged cities of Japan and China, the silk weavers of Lyons and the shawl .makers of Cashmere, the designers of Kensington, the lace weavers of Brussels and the Indian tribes of South America, the cannon founders of Germany, the silver miners of Mexico, the ship makers of the Clyde and the canoe builders of the Mackenzie River be invited to a World's Exposition, and the representatives of those higher forces which had made civilization be excluded?
It was objected, by one representative of the Christian faith, that Religion is such in its nature that it cannot be exhibited. But surely, the answer was made, the great part which Religion has had in human history can be impressively told, its achievements can be narrated, its vast influence over art, ethics, education, government, can be set forth, its present condition can be indicated, its wide-reaching missionary activities can be eloquently described, and, perhaps, best of all, the spirit of mutual love, of cosmopolitan fraternity, can be disclosed and largely augmented."
[World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 3f.]
"THE objects proposed for the Parliament of Religions were such, it would seem, as to win the approval of all broad-minded men. They were as follows:
- To bring together in conference, for the first time in history, the leading representatives of the great Historic Religions of the world.
- To show to men, in the most impressive way, what and how many important truths the various Religions hold and teach in common.
- To promote and deepen the spirit of human brotherhood among religious men of diverse faiths, through friendly conference and mutual good understanding, while not seeking to foster the temper of indifferentism, and not striving to achieve any formal and outward unity.
- To set forth, by those most competent to speak, what are deemed the important distinctive truths held and taught by each Religion, and by the various chief branches of Christendom.
- To indicate the impregnable foundations of Theism, and the reasons for man's faith in Immortality, and thus to unite and strengthen the forces which are adverse to a materialistic philosophy of the universe.
- To secure from leading scholars, representing the Brahman, Buddhist, Confucian, Parsee, Mohammedan, Jewish and other Faiths, and from representatives of the various Churches of Christendom, full and accurate statements of the spiritual and other effects of the Religions which they hold upon the Literature, Art, Commerce, Government, Domestic and Social life of the peoples among whom these Faiths have prevailed.
- To inquire what light each Religion has afforded, or may afford, to the other Religions of the world.
- To set forth, for permanent record to be published to the world, an accurate and authoritative account of the present condition and outlook of Religion among the leading nations of the earth.
- To discover, from competent men, what light Religion has to throw on the great problems of the present age, especially the important questions connected with Temperance, Labor, Education, Wealth and Poverty.
- To bring the nations of the earth into a more friendly fellowship, in the hope of securing permanent international peace."
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 18]
Abb.: Der Tagungsort: The Art Institute of Chicago
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 35]
Der Großteil der Delegierten bei diesem Weltparlament der Religionen waren Vertreter christlicher Denominationen, aber auch die nichtchristlichen Religionen waren vertreten. Die größten nichtchristlichen Delegationen kamen aus Japan und Indien. Aus Indien kamen Vertreter der Hindus, Parsen, Sikh, Jainas und Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) für die Universale Religion der Veden. Aber auch China, Siam und Ceylon waren vertreten. Bei der Eröffnungszeremonie waren 4000 Leute anwesend.
Abb.: Eine Sitzung des Weltparlaments der Religionen, 1893
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- Vorsatz zu Bd. 1]
Am Eröffnungstag, Montag, den 11. September 1893 hielten folgende Personen Ansprachen:
Abb.: Charles Carroll Bonney
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 7]
Abb.: John Henry Barrows
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 41]
Archbishop Feehan, Catholic Church
Augusta J, Chapin, D.D., Pastor of Oak Park Universalist Church
Abb.: Rev Agusta J. Chapin, D.D.
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 55]
H.N. Hinginbotham, President of the World's Columbian Exposition
Dionysios Latas, Archbishop of Zante, Greece
P.C. Mozoomdar, Brahmo Somaj, Calcutta, India
Prince Serge Wolkonsky, Russian Empire
Reuchi Shibata, Shinto, Japan
Graf A. Bernstorff, Germany
Archbishop Redwood, New Zealand
H. Dharmapala, Buddhist, Ceylon
|"The interest of this long protracted session culminated in the brief closing address of the Buddhist delegate, Mr. H. Dharmapala, of Ceylon. The person and utterance of this speaker made an impression on the assembly that is preserved in a letter published at the time.
SPEECH OF H. DHARMAPALA.
FRIENDS,—I bring to you the good wishes of four hundred and seventy-five millions of Buddhists, the blessings and peace of the religious founder of that system which has prevailed so many centuries in Asia, which has made Asia mild, and which is to-day, in its twenty-fourth century of existence, the prevailing religion of those countries. I have sacrificed the greatest of all work to attend this Parliament; I have left the work of consolidating the different Buddhist countries, which is the most important work in the history of modern Buddhism. When I read the program of this Parliament of Religions I saw it was simply the re-echo of a great consummation which the Indian Buddhists accomplished twenty-four centuries ago.
At that time Asoka, the great emperor, held a council, in the city of Patna, of a thousand scholars, which was in session for seven months. The proceedings were epitomized and carved on rock and scattered all over the Indian peninsula and the then known globe. After the consummation of that program the great Emperor sent the gentle teachers, the mild disciples of Buddha, in the garb that you see on this platform, to instruct the world. In that plain garb they went across the deep rivers, across the Himalayas, to the plains of Mongolia and of China and to the far-off beautiful isles, the empire of the rising sun ; and the influence of that congress, held twenty-one centuries ago, is to-day a living power, for you everywhere see mildness in Asia.
Go to any Buddhist country and where do you find such healthy compassion and tolerance as you find there ? Go to Japan, and what do you see ? The noblest lessons of tolerance and gentleness. Go to any of the Buddhist countries and you will see the carrying out of the program adopted at the congress called by the Emperor Asoka.
Why do I come here to-day ? Because I find in this new city, in this land of freedom, the very place where that program can also be carried out. For one year I meditated whether this Parliament would be a success. Then I wrote to Dr. Barrows that this would be the proudest occasion of modern history and the crowning work of nineteen centuries. Yes, friends, if you are serious, if you are unselfish, if you are altruistic, this program can be carried out and the twentieth century will see the teachings of the meek and lowly Jesus accomplished.
I hope in this great city, the youngest of all cities, this program will be carried out, and that the name of Dr. Barrows will shine forth as the American Asoka. And I hope that the noble lessons of tolerance learned in this majestic assembly will result in the dawning of universal peace which will last for twenty centuries more."
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 95f.]
Abb.: Swami Vivekananda, Chicago 1893
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 973]
[Vivekananda's Reden beim Weltparlament: http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/~kanth/jwz/mbm/sv/svindex.html. -- Zugriff am 2003-05-08]
Miss Jeanne Sorabji, Parsee, Bombay, India
B. B. Nagarkar, Brahmo-Somaj
Benjamin W. Arnett, Bishop of the African Methodist Church
THE SECOND DAY — TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12.
At 10 A.M. President Bonney invited the assembly, rising, to invoke, in silence, the blessing of God on the day's proceedings; then, while the assembly remained standing, Chairman BARROWS led in "the Universal Prayer," "Our Father which art in Heaven."
Dr. S.J. NICCOLLS, Pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of St. Louis, being invited to the chair, made an introductory address.
Papers were presented as follows:
- The Rational Demonstration of the Being of God; by the Very Rev. AUGUSTINE F. HEWITT, C.S.P., D.D., of New York, Superior of the Community of Paulists. Read by the Rev. WALTER ELLIOTT of the same order.
- The Philosophic and Moral Evidence for the Existence of God; by Rev. ALFRED W. MOMERIE.D.D., London.
- The Harmonies and Distinctions in the Theistic Teaching of the Various Historic Faiths; by Prof. M. VALENTINE, Gettysburg, Pa.
- The Theology of Judaism; by Dr. ISAAC M. WISE, Cincinnati.
- The Ancient Religion of India and Primitive Revelation; by the Rev. MAURICE PHILLIPS, of Madras, India.
The AFTERNOON SESSION was presided over by the Rev. JKNKIN LLOYD-JONES, of Chicago
- The Argument for the Divine Being ; Hon. W. T. HARRIS, United States Commissioner of Education.
- Hinduism; by MANILAL N. D'VIVEDI, of Bombay, India. Read by VIRCHAND A. GANDHI.
- Idealism the New Religion; by Dr. ADOLPH BRODBECK, of Hannover, Germany.
THE THIRD DAY.— WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13.
Tliis day there were three successive sessions of the Parliament, each one of them characterized by some incident or contribution of peculiar interest. At each session the great hall was crowded to its utmost capacity.
The morning session was presided over by Chairman BARROWS, and began, as on the previous days, with an act of silent devotion, and with the reciting of the "Universal Prayer " of our Lord,led by Mr. MOZOOMDAR.
Thrfirst paper of the morning had been looked forward in with exceptional interest because of the author personally,
and because of what he represented. And when the successor of Ram Mohun Roi and of Chunder Sen came forward to
speak of the Brahmo-Somaj, he was greeted with loud applause.
- The Brahmo-Somaj; by P. C. MOZOOMDAR, of Calcutta, India. At the conclusion of this address, the multitude rose to their feet and, led by Theodore F. Seward, sung the hymn, " Nearer, my God, to Thee."
A not less earnest greeting awaited the next speaker, the Most Reverend the Archbishop of Zante in the Ionian Islands, And a not less divine afflatus breathed on all the congregation when the venerable archbishop lifted up his hands and his eyes to heaven, and led all minds and hearts in a fervid prayer to Almighty God.
- The Greek Church ; by the Most Reverend DIONYSIOS LATAS, Archbishop of Zante.
- Man from a Catholic Point of View; by the Very Reverend THOMAS S. BYRNE, D.D., Cincinnati.
- Human Brotherhood as Taught by the Religions Based on the Bible; by Dr. K. KOHLER, of New York. Read by Dr. EMIL G. HIRSCH, of Chicago.
The Chairman of the AFTERNOON SESSION was the Rev. Dr. W. C. ROBERTS of New York, formerly President of the Lake Forest University. ...
In presenting as the first speaker of the afternoon the eminent Chinese Confucian, Pung Kwang Yu, Dr. Barrows, speaking of him as the representative of an empire toward which America had not been just, evoked such a demonstration of the sympathies of the audience as had greeted the same personage on the first day. The outburst of applause continued for several minutes, the Secretary bowing his acknowledgments.
- Confucianism; by PUNG KWANG Yu, First Secretary of the Chinese Legation at Washington. Read by Mr. WILLIAM PIPE
- The Ultimate Religion; brief address by ZENSHIRO NOGUCHI, Buddhist layman, of Japan.
- The Real Position of Japan toward Christianity; by KINZA RIUGE M. HIRAI.
This speaker, whose eloquent command of the English language impressed all hearers, seemed at the outset to have some misgivings as to the reception which his message of rebuke of the un-Christian dealing of Christians toward his people would meet with in a Christian audience. His message was uttered without reserve, and with the utmost boldness and force; and the reception of it was thus described by the next morning's press: "Loud applause followed many of his declarations, and a thousand cries of 'Shame' were heard when he pointed to the wrongs which his countrymen had suffered through the practices of false Christianity. When he had finished, Dr. Barrows grasped his hand, and the Rev. Jenkin Lloyd-Jones threw his arm around his neck, while the audience cheered vociferously and waved hats and handkerchiefs in the excess of enthusiasm." [Chicago Herald, September 14]
- Shintoism; by the Right Reverend REUCHI SHIBATA, President of the Jikko sect of Shintoism in Japan. Read by Dr. BARROWS.
This paper was followed by a like demonstration of personal interest and good-will toward the author. Many rushed from th- audience to the platform to extend their salutations to the, Oriental prelate of an unfamiliar religion, while shouts of sympathetic feeling were heard from all parts of the house.
- Concessions to Native Ideas, having Special Reference to Hinduism; by the Rev. T. E. SLATER, Missionary, Bangalore, India. Read by the Rev. FRANK M. BRISTOL, D.D.
- The Supreme End and Office of Religion ; by the Rev. WALTER ELLIOTT, of the Paulist Order, New York.
- The Argument for Immortality ; by the Rev. PHILIP MOXOM, D.D., Boston.
- The Soul and Its Future Life ; by the Rev. SAMUEL M. WARREN, of Cambridge, Mass.
THE FOURTH DAY.—THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14.
It was on this day that the growing concourse made it necessary to hold overflow meetings, both morning and afternoon, in the Hall of Washington. As soon as the speakers finished their addresses in Columbus Hall, which was again-packed to its utmost limit, they went over to the other hall and read them again to another vast and interested audience.
The meeting .in Columbus Hall was presided over by Dr. BARROWS. At the close of the silent prayer, the " Universal Prayer " was said by Prof. RICKEY of the General Theological Seminary, New York.
- The Needs of Humanity Supplied by the Catholic Religion; by JAMES, CARDINAL GIBBONS, Archbishop of Baltimore. Read by the Right Reverend JOHN J. KEANE, D.D., Rector of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C.
- Religion Essentially Characteristic of Humanity ; by LYMAN ABBOTT, D.D., Brooklyn.
- The Divine Basis of the Cooperation of Men and Women; by Mrs. LYDIA H. DICKINSON, St. Louis.
- The Religious Intent; by the Rev. E. L. REXFORD, D.D., of Boston.
- Spiritual Forces in Human Progress; by EDWARD EVERETT HALE, D.D., of Boston.
- Orthodox or Historical Judaism; Its Attitude and Relation to the Past, and its Future; by Rabbi H. PEREIRA MENDES, of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, New York. Read by Mr. WILLIAM PIPE.
- The Certainties of Religion; by JOSEPH COOK, of Boston.
- The History of Buddhism and its Sects in Japan; by HORIN TOKI. Read by KINZA RIUGE M. HIRAI.
THE FIFTH DAY.—FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15.
At the morning session Dr. BARROWS presided, and after silent devotion, the Lord's Prayer was said by the Rev. GEORGE A. FORD, American missionary to Syria.
- What the Dead Religions have Bequeathed to the Living; by Prof. G. S. GOODSPEED, of Chicago University.
- The Points of Contact and of Contrast between Christianity and Mohammedanism; by President GEORGE WASHBURN, D.D., of Robert College, Constantinople
- The Study of Comparative Theology; by Prof. C. P. TIELE, of the University of Leyden. Read by the Rev. FRANK M. BRISTOL, D.D., of Chicago.
- The next address and speaker were welcomed with more •v°n usual demonstrations of interest and applause.
The Real Religion of To-Day; by Mrs. LAURA ORMISTON CHANT, London.
At the AFTERNOON SESSION, presided over by the Rev. Dr. F. A. NOBLE, the first paper was one of several essays which had come to the Parliament as the result of offers advertised by Dr. Barrows in the Chinese newspapers, proposing a premium in gold for the best essays on Confucianism and Taoism. This fact, announced by the reader, added to the general interest with which this paper was received. Forty-two Chinese scholars had entered into the competition.
- Confucianism : a Prize Essay ; by KUNG HSIEN Ho of Shanghai, China. Translated by the Rev. TIMOTHY RICHARD, of the English Baptist Mission in China. Read by Mr. WILLIAM PIPE.
- The Comparative Study of the World's Religions ; by MONSIGNOR C. D'HARLEZ, Professor in the University of Louvain, Belgium. Read by the Rev. D. J. RIORDAN.
- The Importance of a Serious Study of all Religions ; by Mrs. ELIZA R. SUNDERLAND, Ph.D., of Ann Arbor, Mich.
- Just before the close of the afternoon session, the Chairman invited some remarks from the Hindu monk SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, of Bombay, who responded with a little fable intended to illustrate the variance among men of different races and religions.
The frog lived in a well. It had lived there for a long time. It was born there and brought up there, and yet was a little, small frog. Of course the evolutionists were not there then to tell us whether the frog lost its eyes or not; but, for our story's sake, we must take it for granted that it had its eyes, and that it every day cleansed the water of all the worms and bacilli that lived in it, with an energy that would give credit to our modern bacteriologists. In this way it went on and became a little sleek and fat — perhaps as much so as myself.
Well, one day another frog, that lived in the sea, came and fell into the well.
"Whence are you from ?"
" I'm from the sea."
"The sea ? how big is that ? Is it as big as my well ?" and he took a leap from one side of the well to the other.
" My friend," says the frog of the sea, " how do you compare the sea with your little well ? "
Then the frog took another leap, and asked : " Is your sea so big ? "
" What nonsense you speak, to compare the sea with your well! "
" Well, then," said the frog of the well, " nothing can be bigger than my well; there can be nothing bigger than this ; this fellow is a liar, so turn him out."
That has been the difficulty all the while.
The proceedings of this crowded day concluded with an EVENING SESSION, at which, by a coincidence unusual enough on our republican soil, the audience listened to discourses from men of the highest title and rank in their own countries.
- The Social Office of Religions Feeling; by Prince SERGE WOLKONSKY, of Russia.
- The Buddhism of Siam; by His Royal Highness Prince CHANDRADAT CHUDHADHARN, brother of the King of Siam. Read by Mr. WILLIAM PIPE, and prefaced by a short introductory by the Hon. PHRA SURIYA, Royal Siamese Commissioner to the World's Columbian Exposition.
THE SIXTH DAY.—SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16.
At the morning session of this very memorable day the chair was taken by Chairman BARROWS, and the moments of silent prayer were followed by the Lord's Prayer, said by Bishop KEANE.
No small feeling was aroused by a telegram from the Brahmo-Somaj, of Calcutta, sending its benediction and godspeed to the Parliament. There were resounding cheers from the audience, and expressions of grateful acknowledgment from some of the Hindus on the platform. Mr. MOZOOMDAR arose and said : " It delights my heart to see the spontaneous response to the message which my fellow-believers have sent this vast distance. I feel now, more than I have ever felt, that India and America are as one in the Spirit of the God of all nations." The speaker sat down overcome with emotion.
The leading theme of the day was to be The Scriptures of the World, and the strongly representative character of some of the speakers and their contrasted views gave peculiar interest to the course of discussion.
- The Truthfulness of Holy Scripture; by Professor CHARLES A. BRIGGS, D.p., of New York.
- The Catholic Church and the Bible; by the Right Reverend Monsignor SETON, of Newark, N. J.
- The Greatness and Influence of Moses; by Rabbi GOTTHEIL, of New York.
- Christianity as Interpreted by Literature, by Dr. THEODORE T. HUNGER, of New Haven, Conn. Read by Dr. BARROWS.
At the AFTERNOON SESSION, Dr. GEORGE DANA BOARDMAN, "erf Philadelphia, presided.
- The Sacred Books of the World.as Literature; by Prof. MILTON S. TERRY, of The Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.
- The Outlook of Judaism; by Miss JOSEPHINE LAZARUS, of New York. Read by Mrs. MAX LEOPOLD, of Chicago.
- Buddhism; by BANRIU YATSUBUCHI, of Japan. Read by Mr. NOGUCHI.
- The Influence of the Hebrew Scriptures ; by Dr. ALEXANDER KOHUT, of New York. Read by Rabbi JOSEPH STOLZ, of Chicago.
- The Character and Degree of the Inspiration of the Christian Scriptures ; by the Rev. FRANK SEWALL, of Washington, D. C.
THE SEVENTH DAY.—SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 17.
On this day the morning session of the Parliament was omitted, and sessions were held in afternoon and evening.
THE AFTERNOON SESSION.
The chair was taken by Chairman BARROWS, and after the customary act of silent prayer and the saying of the Lord's Prayer, the proceedings of the Parliament were entered on. With the exception of Mr. Nagarkar, of the Brahmo-Somaj, the speakers were representatives of Christendom, and by a striking coincidence and contrast, mainly of those two divisions of Christendom whose mutual relations in past generations have been the most unsympathetic — Presbyterianism and Catholicism.
- The Divine Element in the Weekly Rest-Day; by the Rev. Dr. A. H. LEWIS, Plainfield, N. J.
- The Catholic Church and the Marriage Bond; by Prof. MARTIN J. WADE, of the Law Department of the State Universitv of Iowa.
- The Influence of Religion on Women; by the Rev. ANNIS F. EASTMAN, Cleveland.
- The Work of Social Reform in India; by Mr. B. B. NAGARKAR, Calcutta, India.
It was at the evening session in Columbus Hall that the incident (we will not say accident) occurred, which disturbed the preconcerted order of proceedings, and furnished so striking a demonstration of the genuine spirit of brotherly kindness that pervaded the assembly. Before the conclusion of the reading, by the Rev. Dr. Mullany, of the posthumous paper by Brother Azarias, Bishop Keane in the chair, it was discovered that the other speakers announced for the evening had not arrived, and the Presbyterian Congress, which was then in session in Hall No. 3, was invited to complete its evening exercises in the Hall of the Parliament. At this curiously mingled meeting Bishop Keane and Dr. Barrows alternately presided. Eminent dignitaries of the Catholic Church were sympathetic attendants on a Presbyterian Denominational Congress ; and lookers-on were at a loss which most to admire, the exquisite felicity and taste with which the speakers met the unexpected occasion, or the cordial appreciation and applause of their unwonted auditors.
- The Religious Training of Children ; prepared for the Parliament by the late Brother AZARIAS. Read by his.brother, Rev. JOHN F. MULLANY, Syracuse, N. Y.
The papers presented by members of the Presbyterian Congress were the following:
- Presbyterianism and Missions ; by the Rev. H. D. JENKINS, Sioux City, Iowa.
- Presbyterian Reunion ; by Principal G. M. GRANT, Canada.
THE EIGHTH DAY.—MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18.
The Parliament was called to order by Dr. BARROWS, and opened with the usual act of worship. The Lord's Prayer was repeated by the Rev. FRANK M. BRISTOL, D.D., of Chicago.
It is no reflection on the other papers presented in the course of this day, to say that none of them surpassed in the interest which they stirred in the hearers and the strong response which they drew forth — the papers of Col. T. W. Higginson, Bishop Dudley, and Prof. J. Estlin Carpenter of Oxford, England, — although the last-mentioned lacked the advantage of the author's own voice and presence.
- The Sympathy of Religions; by Col. THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON, of Cambridge, Mass.
- The Historic Christ; by the Right Reverend T. U. DUDLEY, Bishop of Kentucky.
- A New Testament Woman, or What Did Phoebe Do? by Rev. MARION MURDOCK, of Cleveland.
- Jewish Contributions to Civilization; by Prof. D. G. LYON, of Harvard University,
- The Law of Cause and Effect as Taught by Buddha; by SHAKU SOYEN of Japan. Read by Dr. BARROWS.
AT THE AFTERNOON SESSION.
- Christianity an Historical Religion; by Prof. GEORGE PARK FISHER, D.D., of Yale University. Read by Prof. GOODSPEED, of Chicago.
- The Need of a Wider Conception of Revelation; by Prof. J. ESTLIN CARPENTER, of Oxford University. Read by the Rev. Mr. RUBINKAM, of Chicago. ,
- Christ the Reason of the Universe; by the Rev. J. W. LEE, of Atlanta, Georgia.
- The World's Debt to Buddha; by H. DHARMAPALA, of Ceylon. The interest which this paper aroused was doubtless enhanced by the presence, beside the speaker, of a small stone figure of Buddha, said by him to be nineteen centuries old. The conclusion of the paper was deferred until a later session.
AT THE EVENING SESSION.
- The Incarnation Idea in History and in Jesus Christ; by the Right Rev. JOHN J. KEANE, D.D., of Washington, D. C.
- The Incarnation of God in Christ; by the Rev. JULIAN K. SMYTH, of Boston Highlands.
- Orthodox Southern Buddhism; by the Right Rev. H. SUMANGALA (Chief Monk of the Southern Buddhist Church of Ceylon.) Read by Mr. DHARMAPALA.
- The Religious System of the Parsees; by JINANJI JAMSHEDJI MODI, of Bombay. Read by Miss SORABJI.
THE NINTH DAY.—TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19.
On this day of exceptional interest the silence of the morning devotions was broken by the saying of the Lord's Prayer by the Rev. Dr. BRAND, of Oberlin, Ohio.
Two of the papers presented to the Parliament this day were in the form of letters addressed to Chairman BARROWS, and read by him to the audience.
- Hopes of a United Humanity; letter from Lady HENRY SOMERSET. Read by Dr. BARROWS.
- Toleration; brief address by Prof. MINAZ TCHERAZ, of the Armenian Church.
- The Greek Philosophy and the Christian Religion; by Prof. MAX MULLER, of Oxford University. Read by Dr. BARROWS.
- Man's Place in the Universe; by Prof. A. B. BRUCE, of the Free College, Glasgow. Read by the Rev. Dr. S. J. McPHERSON, of Chicago.
- Religio Scientiae; by Sir WILLIAM DAWSON, of Montreal. Read by Mr. WILLIAM PIPE.
- Music, Emotion and Morals; by the Rev. H. R. HAWEIS, of London, England.
AT THE AFTERNOON SESSION
The Rev. Dr. F. A. NOBLE in the chair.
- Man in the Light of Science and Religion; by Prof. THOMAS DWIGHT, of Harvard University. Read by Bishop KEANE.
- What Constitutes a Religious as Distinguished from a Moral Life; by President SYLVESTER F. SCOVEL, of Wooster University, Ohio.
- How can Philosophy give Aid to the Science of Religion ? by Professor J. P. LANDIS, Ph.D., of Union Theological Seminary Dayton, Ohio.
- Hinduism; by SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, of Bombay.
The EVENING SESSION was presided over by the Rev. Dr. A. H. LEWIS, of Plainfield, New Jersey.
- The first of the evening's proceedings was the conclusion of the paper on Buddhism by Mr. H. DHARMAPALA which had been begun the day before.
- The Relation of Natural and Other Sciences to Religion; by Dr. PAUL CARUS, of Chicago.
- The History and Prospects of Exploration in Bible Lands; by Dr. GEORGE E. POST, Beirut, Syria.
THE TENTH DAY.—WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20.
After the Parliament had been called to order by Dr. BARROWS and after silent devotion and the reciting of the Lord's Prayer by Rev. Dr. McGiLVARY, of the Laos, Siam, a brief address was made by the Rev. HENRY M. FIELD, D.D., of New York, editor of The New York Evangelist, a representative Presbyterian journal, who said : ...
- Christian Evangelization as One of the Working Forces of Our American Christianity; by the Rev. JAMES BRAND, D.D., of Oberlin, Ohio.
- The Religious State of Germany; by Count A. BERNSTORFF, of Berlin.
- The Spirit of Islam; by MOHAMMED ALEXANDER RUSSELL WEBB.
The reading of this paper was an exceptional event in the proceedings of the Parliament, for the fact that it was attended with strong and even violent and impatient expressions of disapproval on - the part of the hearers. At the outset of the paper (which may be found in full in its place in Part III.), these demonstrations, in the form of hisses and cries of "Shame!" were so emphatic that the speaker seemed deterred from pursuing the line of discourse on which he had entered.
Concerning this solitary incident of the kind in the whole seventeen days, three remarks require to be made:
1. It was a sudden, unpremeditated outburst of feeling, which the conductors of the Parliament exerted themselves not in vain to repress.
2. It was occasioned, not by any doctrinal statement, but by what was taken for an attack on a fundamental principle of social morality.
3. As soon as the speaker turned from this to a more appropriate line of discourse, he was heard with patient attention and even with applause.
- Christ the Saviour of the World; by the Rev. B. FAY MILLS, of Rhode Island.
This paper was listened to with manifestations of the profoundest interest and satisfaction on the part of the assembly.
At the AFTERNOON SESSION the Rev. Dr. CARLOS MARTYN, of Chicago, presided.
- Reconciliation Vital, not Vicarious ; by the Rev. THEODORE F. WRIGHT, Ph.D., of Cambridge, Mass.
- The Essential Oneness of Ethical Ideas Among All Men ; by the Rev. IDA C. HULTIN, of Moline, Ill.
- Music and Religion ; by Prof. WALDO S. PRATT, of Hartford Theological Seminary.
- At the close of Prof. Pratt's paper two Armenians from Turkey, the Rev. A. Marderos Ignados, of Smyrna, as representing the Protestant Armenians, and Mr. Herant N. Kiretchjian, of Constantinople, as representing the Young Men of the Orient, were introduced by the Chairman and made brief and interesting addresses.
- The Relation Between Religion and Conduct; by Prof. C. H. TOY, of Harvard University.
- Christianity in Japan ; its Present Condition and Future Prospects; by President HORIUCHI KOZAKI, of the Doshisha University.
The EVENING SESSION was presided over by the Rev. Dr. ALFRED WILLIAMS MOMERIE, of London.
- The Restoration of Sinful Man through Christ; by the Rev. D. J. KENNEDY, O.S.P., of Somerset, Ohio.
- Religion in Peking; by Professor ISAAC T. HEADLAND, of Peking University. Read by Mr. WILLIAM PIPE.
- The session was concluded by a brief speech from SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, who said:
Christians must always be ready for good criticism, and I hardly think that you will care if I make a little criticism. You Christians who are so fond of sending out missionaries to save the souls of the heathen, why do you not try to save" their bodies from starvation ? In India during the terrible famines thousands died from hunger, yet you Christians did nothing. You erect churches all through India, but the crying evil in the East is not religion—they have religion enough—but it is bread that these suffering millions of burning India cry out for with parched throats. They ask us for bread, but we give them stones. It is an insult to a starving people to offer them religion ; it is an insult to a starving man to teach him metaphysics. In India a priest that preached for money would lose caste, and be spat upon by the people. I came here to seek aid for my impoverished people, and I fully realized how difficult it was to get help for heathens from Christians in a Christian land.
He concluded his speech by a few remarks on the Hindu doctrine of reincarnation.
THE ELEVENTH DAY.—THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 21.
The chair was occupied by Dr. BARROWS, the silent prayer was offered, and the Lord's Prayer was said by the Rev. Dr. PENTECOST.
The Chairman made several communications to the Parliament, as follows :
- COMMITTEES ON REPRESENTATIVE BOOKS. ...
- A LETTER ON BEHALF OF THE ARMENIANS ...
- A SOCIETY FOR THE RESTORATION OF THE BUDDHIST HOLY
SHIBA PARK, Tokyo, August, 1893.
To THE REV. JOHN HENRY BARROWS, D.D.— Dear Sir: I do not believe it totally uninteresting to give here a short account of our Indo Busseki Kofuku Society of Japan.
The object of this society is to restore and reestablish the holy places of Buddhism in India, and to send out a certain number of Japanese priests to perform devotional exercises in each of them, and promote the convenience of pilgrims from Japan. These holy places are Buddha Gaya, where Buddha attained to the perfect enlightenment; Kapilavastu, where Buddha was born ; the Deer Park, where Buddha first preached, and Kusinagara, where Buddha entered Nirvana.
Two thousand nine hundred and twenty years ago—that is, 1,026 years before Christ—the world-honored Prince Siddharta was born in the palace of his father, King Suddhodana, in Kapilavastu, the capital of the Kingdom Magadha. When he was 19 years old he began to lament men's inevitable subjection to the various sufferings of sickness, old age, and death; and, discarding all his precious possessions and the heirship to the kingdom, he went into a mountain jungle to seek by meditation and asceticism the way of escape from these sufferings. After spending six years there, and finding that the way he seeks after was not in asceticism, he went out from there and retired under the Bodhi tree of Buddha Gaya, where at last, by profound meditation, he attained the supreme wisdom and became Buddha.
The light of truth and mercy began to shine from him over the whole world, and the way of perfect emancipation was open for all human beings, so that every one can bathe in his blessings and walk in the way of enlightenment.
When the ancient King Asoka, of Magadha, was converted to Buddhism he erected a large and magnificent temple over the spot to show his gratitude to the founder of his new religion. But, sad to say, the fierce Mohammedans invaded and laid waste the country, there being no Buddhist to guard the temple, which possession fell into the hands of a Brahminist priest, who chanced to come here and seize it.
It was early in the spring of 1891 that the Japanese priest, the Rev. Shaku Kionen, in company with Mr. H. Dharmapala, of Ceylon, visited this holy ground. The great Buddha Gaya Temple was carefully repaired and restored to its former state by the British Government; but they could not help being very much grieved to see it subjected to much desecration in the hands of the Brahminist Mahant, and communicated to us their earnest desire to rescue it.
With warm sympathy for them, and thinking, as Sir Edwin Arnold said, that it is not right for Buddhists to leave the guardianship of the holy center of Buddhist Religion of Grace to the hand of a Brahminist priest, we organized this Indo Busseki Kofuku Society in Japan to accomplish the object before mentioned in cooperation with the Maha-Bodhi Society, organized by H. Dharmapala and other brothers in India. These are the outlines of the origin and object of our Indo Busseki Kofuku Society, and I believe our Buddha Gaya movement will bring people of all Buddhist countries into closer connection and be instrumental in promoting the brotherhood among the people of the whole world.
S. HORIUCHI, Secretary,
- Mr. THEODORE F. SEWARD, representing The Brotherhood of Christian Unity, briefly stating the character and method of that fraternity, presented to the Parliament the following letter," already signed by many leading members, and invited the signatures of others: ...
- A Turning-Point in the History of the Parliament, was announced in a speech by Col. T. W. HIGGINSON, of Boston.
Before the regular course of business was resumed, Col. Higginson was granted the freedom of the platform, and spoke as follows: .
- " I am sorry," remarked Dr. Barrows, " that Col. Higgin-son has ended his beautiful address with a word of skepticism. I believe what has been done once can be done' again."
- Christianity and the Social Question ; by Prof. FRANCIS G. PEABODY, of Harvard University.
- Religion and the Erring and Criminal Classes ; by the Rev. ANNA GARLAND SPENCER, of Providence, R. I.
- The Relation of the Roman Catholic Church to the Poor and Destitute ; by CHARLES F. DONNELLY, of Boston. Read by Bishop KEANE, of Washington.
- The Women of India ; by Miss JEANNE SORABJI, of Bombay.
- Buddha ; by the Right Reverand ZITSUZEN ASHITZU, of Japan.
At the AFTERNOON SESSION the Chair was occupied by the Rev. Dr. EMIL G. HIRSCH.
- Islam and Social Conditions; by MOHAMMED ALEXANDER RUSSELL WEBB.
Mr. WEBB was received by the audience, on this occasion, with some slight expressions of applause.
- What Judaism Has Done for Women ; by Miss HENRIETTA SZOLD, of New York.
- Christianity as a Social Force ; by Prof. RICHARD T. ELY, of the School of Economics, Political Science and History in the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
- Individual Efforts at Reform not Sufficient; bv Prof. C. R. HENDERSON, of the University of Chicago.
AT THE EVENING SESSION.
- Religion and Labor; by the Rev. JAMES M. CLEARY, of the Church of St. Charles Borromeo, Minneapolis.
- The Salvation Army ; by Brigadier General FIELDING.
This EVENING SESSION will long be remembered by those present for the storm of rain that drove into the building until many were fain to protect themselves with umbrellas, and beat upon the roof with such a roar as sometimes to drown the voices of the speakers.
At the close of the address of General Fielding (who took the platform in the absence of Commander Ballington Booth), a Brahman, a member of the School of Philosophy at Madras, Mr. NARA SIMA SATSUMCHYRA, was introduced, and began his brief address by referring with high respect to the work of the Salvation Army in India as more effective than that of any of the churches.
He concluded thus :
Our friends of the Brahmo-Somaj have been picturing to you Christianity standing with the Bible in one hand and the wizard's wand of civilization in the other. But there is another side, and that is the goddess of civilization with a bottle of rum in her hand. O that the English had never set foot in India ! O that we had never seen a single European face ! O that we had never tasted the bitter sweets of your civilization, rather than it should make us a nation of drunkards and brutes!
THE TWELFTH DAY.— FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 22.
On this day the crowds in the Hall of Columbus were, if possible, more dense than on any previous day. If the public had got the impression that the proceedings were to be of very great interest and practical value, they were not destined to be disappointed. The comparison of views between Christian missionaries and the representatives of the systems of heathenism, in the forum of a Christian public, was a thing without precedent in the history of missions, and a thing of inestimable value. ...
The exercises of the morning, which were marked by great interest, then began with silent devotion and the recital of the Lord's Prayer by the venerable Dr. PHILIP SCHAFF. ...
- Religion and Wealth ; by the Rev. WASHINGTON GLADDEN, D.D., Columbus, Ohio.
- Christianity and the Hawaiian Islands ; by the Rev. E. P. BAKER.
- What the Bible has Wrought; by the Rev. JOSEPH COOK, Boston.
- Crime and its Remedy; by the Rev. OLYMPIA BROWN, Racine, Wisconsin.
- Unity and Christian Science ; by Mrs. MARY B. G. EDDY. Read by Judge J. S. HANNA, Boston.
The reading of this paper had been eagerly awaited by large numbers in the audience, and was listened to with much attention.
- The Religion of the North American Indians; by Miss ALICE C. FLETCHER, Harvard University.
AT THE AFTERNOON SESSION.
- The Church and City Problems; by Prof. ALBION W. SMALL, of the University of Chicago.
- The World's Religious Debt to Asia; by P. C. MOZOOMDAR, of the Brahmo-Somaj, Bombay.
- How Can the Methods of Christian Missionaries be Improved? discussed by H. DHARMAPALA, Ceylon; Rev. GEORGE T. CANDLIN. Tien-tsin, China; NARA SIMA CHARYAR, Madras; Rev. R. E. HUME, Bombay, India ; Rev. Dr. GEORGE E. POST, Beirut, Syria; Rev. Mr. HAWORTH, Japan.
In this memorable discussion the brief address of Dr. Post had an important significance by its unmistakable though not express bearing on two points in the defense of Mohammedanism, by Mr. Mohammed Webb, against the reproach of polygamy and of wars of propagandism. Dr. POST stepped forward, bearing aloft a copy of the Koran, of which he said:
I hold in my hand a book which is never touched by 200,000,000 of the human race with unwashed hands, a book which is never carried below the waist, a book which is never laid upon the floor, a book every word of which to these 200,000,000 of the human race is considered the direct word of God which came down from heaven. And I propose, without note or comment, to read to you a few words from this sacred book, and you may make your own comments upon them afterwards.
He proceeded to read from chapters 66, 2, 25, 48, instructions to propagate the religion by the sword, and from chapter 4 and elsewhere the commendation of polygamy.
- Rev. E. C. HAWORTH was introduced, and spoke on the missionary problems presented in Japan.
THE THIRTEENS DAY. -- SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 23.
- After the assembly had been led in the Lord's Prayer by the Rev. Dr. WALTER M. BARROWS, of Rockford, Chairman of the Congress of Missions, a letter was read from the Metropolitan of Athens, expressing his sympathy with the aims of the Parliament.
- The Hon. JOHN W. HOYT, of Washington, followed-*with a brief speech expressing the same sentiment.
- The Grounds of Sympathy and Fraternity Among Religious Men ; by AARON M. POWELL, of the Society of Friends, New York.
- The Essence of Religion in Right Conduct; by Dr. ALFRED WILLIAMS MOMERIE, of London.
The Religious Mission of the Colored Race ; by Mrs. FANNY BARRIER WILLIAMS, of Chicago.
- The Catholic View of International Arbitration; by Prof. THOMAS J. SEMMES, of the Law Department of Louisiana University.
- Fallacies About the Jews ; by Rabbi JOSEPH SILVERMAN, New York.
THE AFTERNOON SESSION
The Rev. L. C. MERCER in the chair.
- The Religious Mission of the English-speaking Nations ; by the Rev. Dr. HENRY H. JESUP, of Beirut, Syria. Read by the Rev. GEORGE A. FORD, of Syria.
- The Spirit and Mission of the Apostolic Church of Armenia; by the Rev. OHANNES CHATSCHUMYAN.
- The History and Work of the Orthodox Greek Church; by the Rev. P. PHIAMBOLIS, Greek pastor in Chicago.
- International Justice and Amity; by the Rev. Dr. S. L. BALDWIN, of New York, formerly missionary in China.
- Universal Brotherhood; by Prince SERGE WOLKONSKY, of St. Petersburgh.
THE EVENING SESSION.
Rabbi Dr. HIRSCH, of Chicago, presided. In taking the chair he remarked:
To-night we must do things by proxy. The chairman is not here. I act as his substitute. Most of the authors of the papers that are to be read to-night are not with us, and they will be represented by proxy. We have, however, the Archbishop of Zante with us, and he will read a brief protest against a certain superstition prevalent in the East.
- His Grace the Archbishop, coming forward, spoke with great emphasis as follows :
MOST HONORABLE LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,—I am not a Jew. I am a Christian, a profound believer of the truth of the gospel. [Applause,] I am always bound to defend the truth, and for this reason I present a paper here to-night.
He then handed to Mr. SNELL, to be read to the assembly, the following most honorable and Christian protest against a prevalent calumny upon the Jews in Europe and the East:
In the East the belief is current among the ignorant masses of the population that the Jews use for purposes of religious rites the blood of Christian children, and in order to procure such blood do not shrink from committing murder. In consequence of this belief, outbreaks against the Jews are frequent, and innocent victims are subjected to many indignities and exposed to great danger. In view of the fact that such erroneous ideas are also current among the ignorant of other countries, and that during the last decade both Germany and Austria were the scenes of trials of innocent Jews under the accusation of having committed such ritual murder, I, as a Christian minister, ask this Congress to ecord our conviction that Judaism forbids murder of any kind, and that none of its sacred authorities and books command or permit murder, or the use of human blood for ritual practices or religious ceremonies. The circulation of such sla-nder against the adherents of a monotheistic faith is un-Christian. The origin of the calumny must be traced to the Roman conceit that early Christians used human blood in their religious observances. It is not consonant with Christian duty to allow this horrible charge to go unrebuked.'and it is in the interest of Christianity's good repute that I ask this Parliament to declare that Judaism and the Jews are innocent of the imputed crime as were the Christians of the first century.
- International Obligations to China; by President W. A. P. MARTIN, of the Imperial College of Peking.
- The Koran and other Sacred Scriptures; by J. SANNA ABOU NADDARA, of Paris. Read by Mr. SNELL.
- Women and the Pulpit; by the Rev. Mrs. ANTOINETTE BROWN BLACKWELL, of Elizabeth, New Jersey. Read by the Rev. Dr. AUGUSTA J. CHAPIN, of Chicago.
- The Voice of the Mother of Religions on Social Questions; by RABBI H. BERKOWITZ, of New York, Read by Dr. JOSEPH STOLTZ, of Chicago.
THE FOURTEENTH DAY.— SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. AFTERNOON SESSION.
The assembly were led in the Lord's Prayer by the Rev. GEORGE J. LEMMON, of Schaghticoke, N. Y.
- The Relation of Christianity to America; by the Rev. Professor THOMAS O'GORMAN, of the Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.
- What Religion has Wrought for America; by the Rev. Dr. DAVID JAMES BURRELL, of New York.
- The Present Religious Condition of America; by the Rev. Dr. H. K. CARROLL, of New York.
- The Invincible Gospel; by the Rev. GEORGE F. PENTECOST, of London.
The argument of this paper was the ultimate triumph of Christianity as assured by its essential superiority to all other religions. Certain impromptu remarks interjected between the lines of the paper drew forth a reply on the following day. He was reported by the press as saying:
Some of the Brahmans' of India have been here and have dared to make an attack upon Christianity. They take the slums of New York and Chicago and ask us why we do not cure ourselves. They take what is outside the pale of Christianity and judge Christianity by it.
Proceeding then to attack the religious systems of India on the point of morality, he alleged that among the followers of Brahmanism there were thousands of temples in which there were hundreds of priestesses who were known as immoral and profligate. They were prostitutes because they were priestesses, and priestesses because they were prostitutes.
The mention of this incident is necessary to the understanding of the reply which followed it at a later hour.
The incident was of value as giving the general Christian public the opportunity of hearing, at first hand, from the lips of a native of India, the defense which Hinduism has to make acainst a reproach universally circulated and believed. The willingness of the assembly to hear patiently and judge fairly was unmistakably expressed.
THE FIFTEENTH DAY.—MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 25.
The Lord's Prayer was repeated by the Rev. GILBERT REED, of China.
- The Friendship of the Faiths ; Poem, by L. J. BLOCK, of Chicago. Read by Mrs. LINDEN W. BATES.
- The Relations between the Anglican Church and the Church of the First Ages ; by the Rev. Prof. THOMAS RICKEY, General Theological Seminary, New York.
- The Bearing of Religious Unity on the Work of Missions ; by the Rev. GEORGE T. CANDLIN of Tien-tsin, West China.
Mr. Candlin delivered his address clothed in Chinese costume. The interest felt and manifested during the delivery of the paper was intense. And at the close of it occurred one of the memorable scenes of the Parliament. Almost the whole audience rose cheering and waving handkerchiefs; and among many others Mr. Dharmapala grasped the hand of the speaker and thanked him for his noble address.
- The Reunion of Christendom ; by the Rev. PHILIP SCHAFF, D.D., LL.D., Professor in Union Theological Seminary, New York. Read by the Rev. Dr. MCPHERSON, of Chicago.
- Interdenominational Comity ; by the Rev. D. L. WHITMAN, President of Colby University.
THE AFTERNOON SESSION.
Dr. F. A. NOBLE, of Chicago, in the Chair.
- The Persistence of Bible Orthodoxy; by Prof. LUTHER F. TOWNSEND, of Boston.
- The History and Tenets of the Jains of India; by VIRCHAND A. GANDHI, Bombay.
Mr. Gandhi prefaced his paper 'with remarks in reference to the allegations of the previous day against the morality of the Hindu religions. He said :
I am glad that no one has dared to attack the religion I represent. It is well they should not. But every attack has been directed to the abuses existing in our society. And I repeat now, what I repeat every day, that these abuses are not from religion but in spite of religion, as in every other country. Some men in their ambition think that they are Pauls, and what they think they believe, and where should these new Pauls go to vent their platitudes but India? Yes, sir, they go to India to convert the heathen in a mass, but when they find their dreams melting away, as dreams always do, they return back to pass a whole life in abusing the Hindu., Abuses are not arguments against any religion, nor self-adulation the proof of the truth of one's own. For such I have the greatest pity. There are a few Hindu temples in Southern India where women singers are employed to sing on certain occasions. Some of them are of dubious character, and the Hindu society feels it and is trying its best to remove the evil. These women are never allowed to enter the main body of the temple, and as for their being priestesses, there is not one woman priest from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin.
If the present abuses in India have been produced by the Hindu religion, the same religion had the strength of producing a society which made the Greek historian say, "No Hindu was ever known to tell an untruth, no Hindu woman ever known to be unchaste." And even in the present day, where is the chaster woman or milder man than in India?
In the last place, I am very, very sorry for those who criticise the great ones of India, and my only consolation is that all their information about them has come from third-hand, fourth-hand sources, percolating through layers of superstition and bigotry. To those who find in the refusal of the Hindu to criticise the character of Jesus a tacit acceptation of the superiority of the fanatical nil-admirari cult they represent, I am tempted to quote the old fable of Aesop and tell them "Not to you I bend the knee but to the image you are carrying on your back" ; and to point out to them one page from the life of the great Emperor Akbar.
A certain ship full of Mohammedan pilgrims was going to Mecca. On its way a Portuguese vessel captured it. Amongst the booty were some copies of the Koran. The Portuguese hanged these copies of the Koran round the necks of dogs and paraded these dogs through the streets of Ormuz. It happened that this very Portuguese ship was captured by the Emperor's men, and in it were found some copies of the Bible.
The love of Akbar for his mother is well known, and his mother was a zealous Mohammedan. It pained her very much to hear of the treatment of the sacred book of the Mohammedans in the hands of Christians, and she wished that Akbar would do the same with the Bible. But this great man replied : " Mother, these ignorant men do not know the value of the Koran, and they treated it in a manner which is the outcome of ignorance. But I know the glory of the Koran and the Bible both, and I cannot debase myself in the way they did."
Mr. Gandhi's remarks were followed by expressions of sympathy from among the audience.
- The Free Baptist Church; by the Rev. J. A. HOWE, Lewiston, Maine.
- The Spiritual Ideas of the JBrahmo-Somaj; by Mr. B. B. NAGARKAR, Bombay.
THE EVENING SESSION.
REV. AUGUSTA J. CHAPIN in the Chair.
- A White Life for Two; by Miss FRANCES E. WILLARD. Read by MR. WILLIAM PIPE.
- The Worship of God in Man; by Mrs. ELIZABETH CADY STANTON. Read by Miss SUSAN B. ANTHONY.
- Christianity as seen by a Voyager Around the World; by the Rev. FRANCIS E. CLARK, D.D., Boston.
THE SIXTEENTH DAY.—TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26.
The Lord's Prayer was said by the Rev. JAMES S. DENNIS, D.D., of New York.
- The Attitude of Christianity toward Other Religions; by Professor WILLIAM C. WILKINSON, of the University of Chicago.
- What is, and What is not, Religion; by Mrs. JULIA WARD HOWE, of Boston.
- The Mission of Protestantism in Turkey; by the Rev. A. M. IGNABOS. Read by Mr. HERANT M. KIRETCHJIAN, Constantinople.
- The Message of Christianity to other Religions; by the Rev. JAMES S. DENNIS, D.D., of New York.
- The Leading Powers of Religious Thought in France; by the Rev. G. BONET-MAURY, Paris.
THE AFTERNOON SESSION.
- The Primitive and Prospective Religious Union of the Human Family; by the Rev. JOHN GMEINER, St. Paul, Minn.
- The Armenian Church; by Prof. MIXAS TCHERAZ, London.
- The World's Religious Debt to America; by Mrs. CF.LIA PARKER WOOLLEY, Chicago.
- A Voice from the Young Men of the Orient; by Mr. HERANT M. KIRETCHJIAN, Constantinople.
- Points of Contact and Contrast between Christian and Hindu Thought; by the Rev. R. A. HUME, New Haven, Conn.
- The Future of Religion in Japan; by NOBUTA KISHIMOTO, Okayama.
THE EVENING SESSION.
Dr. ALFRED WILLIAMS MOMERIE, of London, in the Chair,
- What is Christianity ? A Voice from the Far East; by the Rev. J. T. YOKOI, Japan.
- A Presentation of Buddhism; in addresses by H. DHARMAPALA, of Ceylon ; Messrs. Y. KAWAI, SOYEN SHAKU, KINZA RIUGE M. HIRAI and Z. ASHITZU, of Japan ; and Mr. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, of India.
SEVENTEENTH DAY. — -MORNING SESSION.
The Hall of Columbus was crowded. Dr. BARROWS presided and the Universal Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. McGiLVARY, missionary among the Laos, after which the Chairman said : ...
- Rev. F. W. M. HUGENHOLTZ, of the Liberal Church of Holland, was then introduced and spoke as follows : ...
- Mr. WILLIAM L. TOMLINS, of Chicago, was presented and made an address on Religion and Music, which was received with great favor.
- The Chairman then presented Dr. E. G. HIRSCHn the following words: ...
Elements of Universal Religion; by Dr. E. G. HIRSCH.
- Swedenborg and the Harmony of Religions; by Rev. L. P. MERCER.
- The World's Salvation; by Rev. JOHN DUKE McFADDEN.
- The Only Possible Method of Christian Unification; by REV. WILLIAM R. ALGER, of Boston.
- Christianity and Evolution; by Prof. HENRY DRUMMOND, read by Rev. FRANK M. BRISTOL
The Hall of Columbus was not adequate for the throngs who sought admission. Dr. BARROWS presided.
- The chairman read the following poem contributed by LAURA ORMISTON CHANT : ...
- Dr. F. A. NOBLE read a list of the hundred best books recommended by the Protestant Evangelical Committee; after which proceedings of the Parliament were continued in the tollowing order:
- The Baptists in History; by Rev. GEORGE C. LORIMER, D.D., of Boston
- The Ultimate Religion; by Bishop JOHN J. KEANE, of Washington
- Christ, the Unifier of Mankind; by Rev. GEORGE DANA BOARDMAN, of Philadelphia
Parallel with the meetings in the Hall of Columbus, were sessions in Hall III, where papers of a more scientific and less popular character were read. These papers were often followed by free conferences over the topics treated.
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15, 10 A.M.
- The Practical Service of the Science of Religions to the Cause of Religious Unity and to Missionary Enterprise; by the Chairman, Mr. MERWIN-MARIE SNELL.
- Japanese Buddhism; by PETER GORO KEBURAJI, Tokyo, Japan.
- Influence of Egyptian Religion on Other Religions; by J. A. S. GRANT-BEY, Cairo, Egypt.
- Genesis and Development of Confucianism ; by Dr. ERNEST FABER, Shanghai, China.
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 10:30 A.M.
Symposium on the relation between Religion and Science :
- Sir WILLIAM DAWSON'S Religio Scientiae (read by Chairman ; repeated from Large Hall).
- Discussed by :
Dr. PAUL CARUS, Editor of The Monist.
Dr. ADOLPH BRODBECK, of Hannover, Germany.
Rev. G. T. CANDLIN, of China.
Dr. ERNEST FABER, of China.
Rev. FATHER D'ARBY, of Paris.
Elder B. H. ROBERTS, of Utah.
Judge RUSSELL, of Chicago.
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 10:30 A.M.
- Reminiscences of the Native Religions of the New Hebrides; Rev. JOHN G. PATON, D.D. Read by the Chairman.
- The Estimate of Human Dignity in the Lower Religions; L. MARARILLIER. Read by the Chairman.
- Some Popular Superstitions in Morocco and Egypt; Rev. B. F. KIDDER, Ph.D. Read by the Chairman.
- Conference on Popular Superstitions; Profs. G. S. GOOD-SPEED, ADOLPH BRODBECK, and MERWIN-MARIE SNELL.
- Elements of Universal Religious Agreement in Mankind; on the Conditions and Perspectives of a Future Universal Religion; Prof. ALBERT REVILLE, of Paris. Read by the Chairman.
- The Classification of Religions; Prof. JEAN REVILLE, Editor of La Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris. Read by the Chairman.
- Conference on the Classification of Religions; Profs. G. S. GOODSPEED, ADOLPH BRODBECK, and MARIE SNELL.
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 10:30 A.M.
- Address by Rev. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA.
- Conference on Orthodox Hinduism and the Vedanta Philosophy.
- Address by MR. LAKSHMI NARAIN, of Lahore, India, Secretary of the Kayasth Community ; Mr. NARASIMA CHARI, a Brahman of Madras, representing the Sei Vaishnava Sect and the Visishtadwaiti Philosophy ; Rev. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, a Sannyasi, or Monk;And by Mr. MERWIN-MARIE SNELL.
- Conference on the Modern Religions of India.
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 23.
- Address by KINZE RIUGE M. HIRAI, of the Myo Shin Ji branch of the Rinzai Zen sect of Japanese Buddhism.
- Address by SWAMI VIVEKANANDA. .
- Conference on the subject of the foregoing addresses,
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 24.
- Address by Mr. THOMAS WILLIAMS.
- Conference on the tenets of the Christadelphians.
- Address by Mr. MERWIN-MARIE SNELL.
- Conference on Mormonism.
MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 25.—MORNING SESSION.
- The Dev Dharm Mission; by MOHUN DEV. Read by the Chairman.
- The Origin of Shintoism; by the Rev. TAKAYOSHA MATSU-GAMA. Read by the Chairman.
- Shintoism in the Past and the Present; by PETER GORO KABURAJI.
- Conference on Shintoism.
- Importance of Philosophy to the Science of Religions; by Mr. MERWIN-MARIE SNELL.
- Ainswers of the Adwaita Philosophy to Religious Problems; by MANILAL N. D'VIVEDI. Read by Prof. G. S. GOODSPEED, of the University of Chicago.
- The Visishtadwaiti School of Hinduism ; by S. PARTHACARATHY ARJANGAR, of Madras. Read by the Chairman.
- Poem of Greeting to the Parliament (in Marathi) ; by PURNSHOTTAM B. JOSHI ; the author's translation read by the Chairman.
- The Religion of the North American Indians ; Miss ALICE C. FLETCHER, repeated from Large Hall.
- The History and Tenets of the Jain Faith ; by Mr. V. N. GANDHI, of Bombay Conference of the Jain Faith.
- The Essence of the Hindu Religion ; by Rev. SWAMI VlVEKANANDA.
SEPTEMBER 27, 10:30 A.M.— OVERFLOW MEETING.
- The Future Religious Unity of Mankind; by Rev. GEO. T. CANDLIN.
- The Civic Church; by Mr. WM. T. STEAD.
- Why Protestant Missions in China should Unite in using the Term Tien Chu for God; by Rev. HENRY BLODGET, D.D., of Peking.
- The Shaker Community: by Mr. DANIEL OFFORD.
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 112 - 154]
Vertretung der Theosophical Society:
Abb.: Theosophical Congress
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 1519]
H. S. Olcott über den Erfolg der Theosophical Society am World's Parliament of Religions:
"As the World's Parliament of Religions was to meet at Chicago in the following September, and as it had been arranged that our Society should participate in it, I deputed the Vice-President, Mr. Judge, to represent me officially, and appointed Mrs. Besant special delegate to speak there on behalf of the whole Society. How great a success it was for us and how powerfully it stimulated public interest in our views will be recollected by all our older members. Theosophy was presented most thoroughly both before the whole Parliament, an audience of 3,000 people, and at meetings of our own for the holding of which special halls were kindly given us. A profound impression was created by the discourses of Professor G. N. Chakravarti and Mrs. Besant, who is said to have risen to unusual heights of eloquence, so exhilarating were the influences of the gathering. Besides these who represented our Society especially, Messrs. Vivekananda, V. R. Gandhi, Dharmapala, representatives of the Hindu Vedanta, Jainism, and Buddhism respectively, captivated the public, who had only heard of the Indian people through the malicious reports of interested missionaries, and were now astounded to see before them and hear men who represented the ideal of spirituality and human perfectibility as taught in their respective sacred writings.
Said one Chicago editor:
"We have been for years spending millions of dollars in sending missionaries to convert these men, and have had very little success; they have sent over a few men, and have converted everybody."
From a report which Mrs. Besant made to a London paper I cite the following concluding paragraph:
"The Theosophical Congress, as said one of the leading Chicago papers, was a rival of the Parliament itself in the interest it excited. The plan of the Department of Religion was a good one. Each body strong enough to hold one, had a congress of its own on one or more days, fixed by the committee; in addition to this, chosen speakers occupied one session in presenting the views of their body to the Parliament. The Theosophical Society was given two days for its congress, the evening of the second day being devoted to the presentation of Theosophy before the Parliament. The hall originally granted to it seated about 300 people, but it was so densely packed before the first meeting opened, that the managers gave us another hall seating about 1,200. This was promptly filled, and at each succeeding session the crowds grew, filling passages and packing every inch of room, until at our fifth session two adjoining halls were offered us, and we held two overflow meetings in addition to our regular session. The sixth session was the presentation of Theosophy to the Parliament, and some 3,000 people gathered in a huge hall. So intense was the interest shown that the management most generously offered us the use of the great hall for an additional meeting on the following night, and it was packed with eager listeners. In addition to the Indian and Sinhalese delegates above named, the Theosophical Society sent from its European Section Annie Bcsant, Miss F. H. Müllcr, and Mrs. Cooper-Oakley; the American Section was represented by its General Secretary, Wm. Q, Judge, Dr. Jerome Anderson of San Francisco, Mr. George E. Wright and Mrs. Thirds, of Chicago, and Claude F. Wright of New York; the Australasian Branches delegated Mrs. Cooper-Oakley, who had been working among them for ten months, and who came direct from Australia to Chicago. Between the interest excited by the speakers and the far deeper interest excited by the subjects dealt with, the meetings were rendered thus successful.""
[Olcott, Henry Steel <1832-1907>: Old diary leaves : the history of the Theosophical Society. -- Fifth series, 1893 - April, 1896. -- 1932. -- S. 35 - 37]
Beim Abschlussempfang sprachen unter vielen anderen
Mr Hirai im Namen der japanischen buddhistischen Delegation
Virchand Gandhi, Jaina
Mit dem Vaterunser, einem Segen durch Bischof Keane und dem Singen von "America" ging das Parliament of Religions zu Ende.
Der Buddhismus wurde durch folgende Delegierte bzw. Papers vertreten.
Abb.: Dharmapala (Datum der Photographie unbekannt)
Dharmapala (1864 - 1933) sprach für die Theravâda-Buddhisten Ceylons. Er hielt bei der Eröffnungszeremonie am Montag, den 11. September 1893 eine Rede (s.oben).
In seiner Eröffnungsrede stellte Dharmapala das Weltparlament der Religionen in den Zusammenhang der buddhistischen Geschichte. Das Weltparlament ist nur das Echo des Konzils, das Ashoka einberufen hatte, und dessen Ergebnis war, dass buddhistische Missionare in die Welt gesandt wurden. Die Buddhisten, die in die Welt gesandt waren, haben Asien die edelsten Lehren der Toleranz und Milde gelehrt, und nun haben sie begonnen dieselbe Botschaft in den Westen zu bringen. Dharmapala beendete seine Rede mit den Worten:
"Ich hoffe, dass dieses Programm in dieser großen Stadt, der jüngsten aller Städte, ausgeführt wird. Ich hoffe, dass der Name von Dr. Barrows [dem Vorsitzenden des Weltparlamments] erstrahlen wird als der Amerikanische Ashoka".
Am achten Tag, dem 18. September 1893, sprach Dharmapala über The World's Debt to Buddha:
"The interest which this paper aroused was doubtless enhanced by the presence, beside the speaker, of a small stone figure of Buddha, said by him to be nineteen centuries old." Das Paper war aber zu lang und der Vortrag musste abgebrochen und der Abschluss auf den neunten Tag verschoben werden.
Abb.: Dharmapala, 1893
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 861]
"THE WORLD'S DEBT TO BUDDHA.
BY H. DHARMAPALA, OF CEYLON.
Ancient India, twenty-five centuries ago, was the scene of a religious revolution, the greatest the world has ever seen. Indian society at this time had two large and distinguished religious foundations—the Sramanas and the Brahmanas. Famous teachers arose and with their disciples went among the people preaching and converting them to their respective views. The air was full of a coming spiritual struggle, hundreds of the most scholarly young men of noble families (Kulaputta) leaving their homes in quest of truth, ascetics undergoing the severest mortifications to discover a panacea for the evils of suffering, young dialecticians wandering from place to place engaged in disputations, some advocating scepticism as the best weapon to fight against the realistic doctrines of the day, some a life of pessimism as the nearest way to get rid of existence, some denying a future life. It was a time of deep and many-sided intellectual movements, which extended from the circles of Brahmanical thinkers far into the people at large. The sacrificial priest was powerful then as he is now. Hie was the mediator between God and man. Monotheism of the most crude type, from fetich-ism and animism and anthropomorphic deism to transcendental dualism, was rampant. So was materialism, from sexual Epicureanism to transcendental Nihilism. In the words of Dr. Oldenberg, " When dialectic scepticism began to attack moral ideas, when a painful longing for deliverance from the burden of being was met by the first signs of moral decay, Buddha appeared."
"... The Saviour of the World,
Prince Siddhartha styled on Earth,
In Earth and Heavens and Hells incomparable,
All-honored, Wisest, Best, most Pitiful
The Teacher of Nirvana and the Law."
—Sir Edwin Arnold's "Light of Asia."
The Dawn of a New Era,—Oriental scholars, who had begun their researches in the domain of Indian literature, in the beginning of this century, were put to great perplexity of thought at the discovery made of the existence of a religion called after Buddha, in the Indian philosophical books. Sir William Jones, H. H. Wilson, and Colebrooke were embarrassed in being unable to identify him. Dr. Marshman, in 1824, said that Buddha was the Egyptian Apis, and Sir William Jones solved the problem by saying that he was no other than the Scandinavian Woden. But in June, 1837, the whole of the obscure history of India and Buddhism was made clear by the deciphering of the rock-cut edicts of Asoka the Great, in Girnar, and Kapur-da-giri by that lamented archaeologist, James Prinsep; by the translation of the Pali Ceylon History into English, by Tumour; by the discovery of Buddhist MSS. in the temples of Nepal, Ceylon, and other Buddhist countries. In 1844, the "first rational, scientific and comprehensive account of the Buddhist religion " was published by the eminent scholar, Eugene Burnouf. The key to the hidden archives of this great religion was presented to the people of Europe by this great scholar, and the inquiry since begun is being carried on by the most thoughtful men of the day.
Infinite is the wisdom of the Buddha; boundless is the love of Buddha to all that lives, say the Buddhist scriptures. Buddha is called the Maha-Karunika, which means the " All-Merciful Lord who has compassion on all that lives." To the human mind Buddha's wisdom and mercy is incomprehensible. The foremost and greatest of his disciples, the blessed Sariputta, even he has acknowledged that he could not gauge the Buddha's wisdom and mercy. Professor Huxley, in his recent memorable lecture on " Evolution and Ethics," delivered at Oxford, speaking of Buddha, says: "Gautama got rid of even that shade of a shadow of permanent existence by a metaphysical tour de force of great interest to the student of philosophy, seeing that it supplies the wanting half of Bishop Berkeley's well-known idealist argument. . . . It is a remarkable indication of the subtlety of Indian speculation that Gautama should have seen deeper than the greatest of modern idealists." The tendency of enlightened thought of the day all the world over is not towards theology, but philosophy and psychology. The bark of theological dualism is drifting into danger. The fundamental principles of evolution and monism are being accepted by the thoughtful.
History is repeating itself. Twenty-five centuries ago India witnessed an intellectual and religious revolution which culminated in the overthrow of monotheism, priestly selfishness, and the establishment of a synthetic religion, a system of life and thought which was appropriately called Dhamma—Philosophical Religion. All that was good was collected from every source and embodied therein, and all that was bad discarded. The grand personality who promulgated the Synthetic Religion is known as BUDDHA. For forty years he lived a life of absolute purity, and taught a system of life and thought, practical, simple, yet philosophical, which makes man—the active, intelligent, compassionate, and unselfish man—to realize the fruits of holiness in this life on this earth. The dream of the visionary, the hope of the theologian, was brought into objective reality. Speculation in the domain of false philosophy and theology ceased, and active altruism reigned supreme.
Five hundred and forty-three years before the birth of Christ, the great being was born in the Royal Lumbini Gardens in the City of Kapilavastu. His mother was Maya, the Queen of Raja Sudohodana of the Solar Race of India. The story of his conception and birth, and the details of his life up to the twenty-ninth year of his age, his great renunciation, his ascetic life, and his enlightenment under the great Bo tree at Buddha Jaya, in Middle India, are embodied in that incomparable epic, The Light of Asia, by Sir Edwin Arnold. I recommend that beautiful poem to all who appreciate a life of holiness and purity.
Six centuries before Jesus of Nazareth walked over the plains of Galilee preaching a life of holiness and purity, the Tathagata Buddha, the enlightened Messiah of the World, with his retinue of Arhats, or holy men, traversed the whole peninsula of India with the message of peace and holiness to the sin-burdened world. Heart-stirring were the words he spoke to the first five disciples at the Deer Park, the hermitage of Saints at Benares.
His First Message.—"Open ye your ears, O Bhikshus, deliverance from death is found. I teach you, I preach the Law. If ye walk according to my teaching, ye shall be partakers in a short time of that for which sons of noble families leave their homes, and go to homelessness—the highest end of religious effort: ye shall even in this present life apprehend the truth itself and see it face to face." And then the exalted Buddha spoke thus : " There are two extremes, O Bhikshus, which the truth-seeker ought not to follow : the one a life of sensualism, which is low, ignoble, vulgar, unworthy and unprofitable ; the other the pessimistic life of extreme asceticism, which is painful, unworthy and unprofitable. There is a Middle Path, discovered by the Tathagata—the Messiah—a path which opens the eyes and bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to eternal peace. This Middle Path, which the Tathagata has discovered, is the noble Eight-fold Path, viz.: Right Knowledge—the perception of the Law of Cause and Effect, Right Thinking, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Profession, Right Exertion, Right Mindfulness, Right Contemplation. This is the Middle Path which the Tathagata has discovered, and it is the path which opens the eyes, bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to perfect enlightenment, to eternal peace."
Continuing his discourse, he said : " Birth is attended with pain, old age is painful, disease is painful, death is painful, association with the unpleasant is painful, separation from the pleasant is painful, the non-satisfaction of one's desires is painful, in short, the coming into existence is painful. This is the Noble Truth of suffering.
" Verily it is that clinging to life which causes the renewal of existence, accompanied by several delights, seeking satisfaction now here, now there— that is to say, the craving for the gratification of the passions, or the craving for a continuity of individual existences, or the craving for annihilation. This is the Noble Truth of the origin of suffering. And the Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering consists in the destruction of passions, the destruction of all desires, the laying aside of, the getting rid of, the being free from, the harboring no longer of this thirst. And the Noble Truth which points the way is the Noble Eight-fold Path." This is the foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness, and from that center at Benares, this message of peace and love was sent abroad to all humanity : " Go ye, O Bhikshus and wander forth for the gain of the many, in compassion for the world for the good, for the gain, for the welfare of gods and men. Proclaim, O Bhikshus, the doctrine glorious. Preach ye a life of holiness, perfect and pure. Go then through every country, convert those not converted. Go therefore, each one traveling alone filled with compassion. Go, rescue and receive. Proclaim that a blessed Buddha has appeared in the world, and that he is preaching the Law of Holiness."
The essence of the vast teachings of the Buddha is :
The entire obliteration of all that is evil.
The perfect consummation of all that is good and pure.
The complete purification of the mind.
The wisdom of the ages embodied in the Three Pitakas—the Sutta, Vinaya, Abhidhamma, comprising 84,000 discourses, all delivered by Buddha during his ministry of forty-five years. To give an elaborate account of this great system within an hour is not in the power of man.
Buddha in a discourse called the " Bramajala Sutta," enumerates sixty-two different religious views held by the sectarians.
After having categorically explained these different systems Buddha continues : "Brethren, these believers hold doctrines respecting the past, or respecting the future, and meditating on previous events or those on which are in futurity, declare a variety of opinions respecting the past and future in sixty-two modes.
" These doctrines are fully understood by the Tathagata Buddha, he knows the causes of their being held and the experiences upon which they are founded. He also knows other things far more excellent than these; but that knowledge has not been derived from sensual impressions. He with knowledge, not derived from the impressions on the senses, is fully acquainted with that by which both the impressions and their causes become extinct, and distinctly perceiving the production, the cessation, the advantages, the evils and the extinctions of the sensations, he is perfectly free, having no attachments. Brethren, these doctrines of Buddha are profound, difficult to be perceived, hard to be comprehended, tranquilizing, excellent, not attainable by reason, subtle and worthy of being known by the wise. These the Tathagata (Buddha) has ascertained by his own wisdom and publicly makes them known. But the teachings of the other believers are founded on ignorance, their want of perception, their personal experience, and on the fluctuating emotions of those who are under the influence of their passions. "Brethren, all these modes of teaching respecting the past or the future,
originate in the sensations experienced by repeated impressions made on the six organs of sensitiveness, on account of these sensations desire is produced, in consequence of desire an attachment to the desired objects, on account of this attachment reproduction in an existent state, in consequence of this reproduction of existence, birth ; in consequence of birth are produced disease, death, sorrow, weeping, pain, grief and discontent."
A systematic study of Buddha's doctrine has not yet been made by the Western scholars, hence the conflicting opinions expressed by them at various times. The notion once held by the scholars that it is a system of materialism has been exploded. The Positivists of France found it a positivism; Buchner and his school of materialists thought it was a materialistic system ; agnostics found in Buddha an agnostic, and Dr. Rhys Davids, the eminent Pali scholar, used to call him the *' agnostic philosopher of India;" some scholars have found an expressed monotheism therein ; Arthur Lillie, another student of Buddhism, thinks it a theistic system; pessimists identify it with Schopenhauer's pessimism, the late Mr. Buckle identified it with pantheism of Fichte; some have found in it a monism ; and the latest dictum of Prof. Huxley is that it is an idealism supplying "the wanting half of Bishop Berkeley's well-known idealist argument."
In the religion of Buddha is found a comprehensive system of ethics, and a transcendental metaphysic embracing a sublime psychology. To the . simple-minded it offers a code of morality, to the earnest student a system of pure thought. But the basic doctrine is the self-purification of man. Spiritual progress is impossible for him who does not lead a life of puritv and compassion. The rays of the sunlight of truth enter the mind of him who is fearless to examine truth, who is free from prejudice, who is not tied by the sensual passions and who has reasoning faculties to think. One has to be an atheist in the sense employed by Max Müller: "T'here is an atheism which is unto death, there is another which is the very life-blood of all truth and faith. It is the power of giving up what, in our best, our most honest moments, we know to be no longer true; it is the readiness to replace the less perfect, however dear, however sacred it may have been to us, by the more perfect, however much it may be detested, as vet, by the world. It is the true self-surrender, the true self-sacrifice, the truest trust in truth, the truest faith. Without that atheism, no new religion, no reform, no reformation, no resuscitation would ever have been possible ; without that atheism, no new life is possible for any one of us."
The strongest emphasis has been put by Buddha on the supreme importance of having an unprejudiced mind before we start on the road of investigation of truth. Prejudice, passion, fear of expression of one's convictions and ignorance are the four biases that have to be sacrificed at the threshold.
To be born as a human being is a glorious privilege. Man's dignity consists in his capability to reason and think and to live up to the highest ideal of pure life, of calm thought, of wisdom without extraneous intervention. In the Saimanna phala Sutta, Buddha says that man can enjoy in this life a glorious existence, a life of individual freedom, of fearlessness and compassionateness. This dignified ideal of manhood may be attained by the humblest, and this consummation raises him above wealth and royalty. "He that is compassionate and observes the law is my disciple," says Buddha.
Human Brotherhood.—This forms the fundamental teaching of Buddha ; universal love and sympathy with all mankind and with animal life. Everyone is enjoined to love all beings as a mother loves her only child and takes care of it, even at the risk of her life. The realization of the idea of brotherhood is obtained when the first stage of holiness is reached ; the idea of separateness is destroyed, and the oneness of life is recognized. There is no pessimism in the teachings of Buddha, for he strictly enjoins on his holy disciples not even to suggest to others that life is not worth living. On the contrary, the usefulness of life is emphasized for the sake of doing good to self and humanity.
Religion Characteristic of Humanity.—From the first worshiping savage to the highest type of humanity, man naturally yearns after something higher; and it is for this reason that Buddha inculcated the necessity of self-reliance and independent thought. To guide humanity in the right path a Tathagata (Messiah) appears from time to time.
The Theism, of Buddhism.—Speaking of Deity in the sense of a Supreme Creator, Buddha says that there is no such being. Accepting the doctrine of evolution as the only true one, with its corollary, the law of cause and effect, he condemns the idea of a creator and strictly forbids inquiry into it as being useless. But a supreme god of the Brahmans and minor gods are accepted ; but they are subject to the law of cause and effect. This supreme god is all love, all merciful, all gentle, and looks upon all beings with equanimity, and Buddha teaches men to practice these four supreme virtues. But there is no difference between the perfect man and this supreme god of the present world-period.
Evolution as Taught by Buddha.— The teachings of the Buddha on this great subject are clear and expansive. We are asked to look upon the cosmos " as a continuous process unfolding itself in regular order in obedience to natural laws. We see in it all, not a warring chaos restrained by the constant interference from without of a wise and beneficent external power, but a vast aggregate of original elements, perpetually working out their own fresh redistribution in accordance with their own inherent energies. He regards the cosmos as an almost infinite collection of material atoms animated by an almost infinite sum-total of energy "— which is called Akasa. We do not postulate that man's evolution began from the protoplasmic stage ; but we are asked not to speculate on the origin of life, on the origin of the law of cause and effect, etc, So far as this great law is concerned we say that it controls the phenomena of human life as well as those of external nature. The whole knowable universe forms one undivided whole, a " monon." (See Haeckel, Evolution of Man, Vol. ii., P. 455-)
Importance of a serious study of all systems of Religion. — Buddha promulgated his system of philosophy after having studied all religions ; and in the Brahmajala Sutta sixty-two creeds are discussed. In the Kalama Sutta, Buddha says, " Do not believe in what ye have heard ; do not believe in traditions, because they have been handed down for many generations; do not believe in anything because it is rumored and spoken of by many; do not believe merely because the written statement of some old sage is produced ; do not believe in conjectures ; do not believe in that as truth to which you have become attached by habit; do not believe merely on the authority of your teachers and elders; after observation and analysis, when it agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and gain of one and all, then accept it and live up to it." (Anguttara Nikdya.)
Moral Teachings of Buddha.—To the ordinary householder whose highest happiness consists in being wealthy here and a heaven hereafter Buddha inculcated a simple code of morality. The student of Buddha's religion abstains from destroying life, he lays aside the club and the weapon, he is modest and full of pity, he is compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life. He abstains from theft, and he passes his life in honesty and purity of heart. He lives a life of chastity and purity. He abstains from falsehood and injures not his fellow-man by deceit. Putting away slander he abstains from calumny. He is a peace-maker, a speaker of words that make for peace. Whatever word is humane, pleasant to the ear, lovely, reaching to the heart—such are words he speaks. He abstains from harsh language. He abstains from foolish talk. He abstains from intoxicants and stupefying drugs.
The Higher Morality.—The advanced student of the religion of Buddha when he has faith in him thinks : " ' Full of hindrances is household life, a path denied by passion : free as the air is the life of him who has renounced all worldly things. How difficult is it for the man who dwells at home to live the higher life in all its fullness, in all its purity, in all its perfection ! Let me then cut off my hair and beard, let me clothe myself in orange-colored robes, and let me go forth from a household life into the homeless state.'
" Then before long, forsaking his portion of wealth, forsaking his circle of relatives, he cuts off his hair and beard, he clothes himself in the orange-colored robes and he goes into the homeless state. Then he passes a life self-restrained according to the Rules of the Order of the Blessed Ones; uprightness is his delight, and he sees danger in the least of those things he should avoid, he encompasses himself with holiness in word and deed, he sustains his life by means that are quite pure : good is his conduct, guarded the door of his senses, mindful and self-possessed, he is altogether happy."
The Low and Lying Arts.—The student of pure religion abstains from earning a livelihood by the practice of low and lying arts, viz.: all divination, interpretation of dreams, palmistry, astrology, crystal-gazing, prophesying, charms of all sorts.
Universal Pity.—Buddha says: "Just as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard in all the four directions without difficulty; even so of all things that have life, there is not one that the student passes by or leaves aside, but regards them all with mind set free, and deep-felt pity, sympathy, and equanimity. He lets his mind pervade the whole world with thoughts of Love."
The Realization of the Unseen.—To realize the unseen is the goal of the student of Buddha's teachings, and such a one has to lead an absolutely pure life. Buddha says: "Let him fulfill all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone. Fulfill all righteousness for the sake of the living and for the sake of the beloved ones that are dead and gone."
Psychic Experiments.—Thought transference, thought reading, clairaudience, clairvoyance, projection of the sub-conscious self, and all the higher branches of psychical science that just now engage the thoughtful attention of the psychical researchers, are within the reach of him who fulfills all righteousness, who is devoted to solitude and contemplation.
The Common Appanage of all Good Men.—Charity, observance of moral rules, purifying the mind, making others participate in the good work that one is doing, cooperating with others in doing good, nursing the sick, giving gifts to the deserving ones, hearing all that is good and beautiful, making others learn the rules of morality, accepting the law of cause and effect.
Prohibited Employments.—Slave dealing, sale of weapons of warfare, sale of poisons, sale of intoxicants, sale of flesh—these are the lowest of all low professions.
Five Kinds of Wealth.—Faith, pure life, receptivity of the mind to all that is good and beautiful, liberality, wisdom—those who possessed these five kinds or wealth in their past incarnations are influenced by the teachings of Buddha.
Universalism of Buddha's Teachings.—Buddha says : " He who is faithful and leads the life of a house-holder, and possesses the following four (Dhammas) virtues : Truth, justice, firmness, and liberality—such a one does not grieve when passing away." Pray ask other teachers and philosophers far and wide whether there is found anything greater than truth, self-restraint, liberality, and forbearance."
The Pupil and Teacher.—The pupil should minister to his teacher. He should rise up in his presence, wait upon him, listen to all that he says with respectful attention, perform the duties necessary for his personal comfort, and carefully attend to his instruction.
The teacher should show affection to his pupil; he trains him in virtue and good manners, carefully instructs him, imparts unto him a knowledge
of the sciences and wisdom of the ancients, speaks well of him to friends and relations and guards him from danger.
The Honorable Man.—The honorable man ministers to his friends and relatives by presenting gifts, by courteous language, by promoting them as his equals, and by sharing with them his prosperity. They should watch over him when he has negligently exposed himself and guard his property when he is careless, assist him in difficulties, stand by him and help to provide for his family.
The Master and Servant.—The master should minister to the wants of his servants and dependents. He assigns them labor suitable to their strength, provides for their comfortable support; he attends to them in sickness ; causes them to partake of any extraordinary delicacy he may obtain, and makes them occasional presents. And the servants should manifest their attachment to the master; they rise before him in the morning and retire later to rest; they do not purloin his property ; do their work cheerfully and actively, and are respectful in their behavior towards him.
Religious Teachers and Laymen.—The religious teachers should manifest their kind feelings toward them ; they should dissuade them from vice, excite them to virtuous acts; being desirous of promoting the welfare of all, they should instruct them in the things they had not previously learned; confirm them in the truths they had received and point out to them the way to heaven.
The laymen should minister to the teachers by respectful attention manifested in their words, actions and thoughts; and by supplying them their temporal wants and by allowing them constant access to themselves.
In this world, generosity, mildness of speech, public spirit and courteous behavior are worthy of respect in all circumstances, and will be valuable in all places.
If these be not possessed, the mother will receive neither honor nor support from the son, neither will the father receive respect or honor.
The Mission of the Buddha. — BUDDHA says : " Know that from time to time a Tathagata is born into the world, fully enlightened, blessed and worthy, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the world, unsurpassed as a guide to erring mortals, a teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha, lie by himself thoroughly understands and sees, as it were, face to face, this universe, the world below with all its spirits, and the worlds above and all creatures, all religious teachers, gods and men, and he then makes his knowledge known to others. The truth doth he proclaim both in its letter and its spirit, lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation ; the higher life doth he proclaim, in all its purity and in all its perfectness."
The Attributes of Buddha.—
- He is absolutely free from all passions, commits no evil, even in secrecy, and is the embodiment of perfection; he is above doing anything wrong.
- Without a teacher by self-introspection he has reached the state of supreme enlightenment.
- By means of his divine eye he looks back to the remotest past and future, knows the way of emancipation, is accomplished in the three great branches of divine knowledge and has gained perfect wisdom. He is in possession of all psychic powers, is always willing to listen, full of energy, wisdom and Dhyana.
- He has realized eternal peace of Nirvana and walks in the perfect path of virtue.
- He knows the three states of existences.
- He is incomparable in purity and holiness.
- He is teacher of gods and men.
- He exhorts gods and men at the proper time according to their individual temperaments.
- He is the supremely enlightened teacher and the perfect embodiment of all the virtues he preaches.
The two characteristics of the Buddha are wisdom and compassion.
Buddha's Disciples.— Buddha says : " He who is not generous, who is fond of sensuality, who is distressed at heart, who is of uneven mind, who is not reflective, who is not of calm mind, who is discontented at heart, who has no control over his senses—such a disciple is far from me though he is in body near me."
The Compassionateness Shown by Buddhist Missionaries.—Actuated by the spirit of compassion, the disciples of Buddha have ever been in the forefront of missionary propaganda. The whole of Asia was brought under the influence of the Buddha's law. Never was the religion propagated by force, not a drop of blood has ever been spilt in the name of Buddha. The shrines of Sakya Muni are stainless. The following story is interesting as it shows the nature of the Buddhist missionaries. Punna, the Bhikshu, before he was sent on his mission to preach to the people of Sunaparanta was warned by Buddha in the following manner:
"The people of Sunaparanta are exceedingly violent. If they revile, what will you do' ? "
" I will make no reply."
"And if they strike you ? "
" I will not strike in return."
" And if they try to kill you ? "
"Death is no evil in itself, many even desire it, to escape from the vanities of life; but I shall take no steps either to hasten or to delay the time of my departure."
The Ultimate Goal of Man,—The ultimate goal of the perfected man is eternal peace. To show humanity the path on which to realize this state of eternal peace, Buddha promulgated the noble eight-fold path. The Nirvana of Buddha is beyond the conception of the ordinary mind. Only the perfected man realizes it. It transcends all human thought. Caught in the vortex of evolution man undergoes change and is constantly subject to birth and death. The happiness in the highest heaven comes some day to an end. This change, Buddha declared, is sorrowful. And until you realize Nirvana you are subject to birth and death. Eternal changefulness in evolution becomes eternal rest. The constantly dissipating energy is concentrated in Nirvanic. life. There is no more birth, no more death. It is eternal peace. On earth the purified, perfected man enjoys Nirvana, and after the dissolution of the physical body there is no birth in an objective world. The gods see him not, nor does man.
The Attainment of Salvation.—It is by the perfection of self through charity, purity, self-sacrifice, self-knowledge, dauntless energy, patience, truth, resolution, love and equanimity, that the goal is realized. The final consummation is Nirvana.
The Glorious Freedom of Self—the last words of Buddha—" Be ye lamps unto yourselves. Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake yourself to no external refuge. Hold fast to the truth as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the the truth. Look not for refuge to any one besides yourselves. Learn ye then, O Bhikshus, that knowledge have I attained and have declared unto you, and walk ye in it, practice and increase, in order that this path of holiness may last and long endure, for the blessing of many people to the relief of the world, to the welfare, the blessing, the joy of gods and men. O
Bhikshus, everything that cometh into being changeth. Strive on unceasingly for the consummation of the highest ideal."
The Spread of the Religion of Humanity.—Two thousand one hundred years ago the whole of Asia came under the influences of the scepter of one emperor and he was truly called Asoka, the delight of the gods. His glory was to spread the teachings of the Buddha throughout the world by the force of love, and indeed nobody could say that he had failed. His only son and daughter were made apostles of the gentle creed; and, clad in the orange-colored robes, they went to Ceylon, converted the king and established Buddhism there. For the first time in the history of civilization the brotherhood of Humanity is recognized, different nations accept one living truth, virtue is enthroned. It was a proud achievement, unprecedented in history since the dawn of civilization. Pure religion recognizing no Deity finds welcome everywhere. There is a grandeur inherent in it, for it does not ' want to appeal to the selfishness of man. When the human mind reaches a higher stage of development, the conception of a Deity becomes less grand. Nearly three hundred millions of people of the great empire of Asoka embrace ft system of pure ethics ; a social polity is for the first time enunciated. The king sees much that is sinful in the destruction of animals, and therefore " one must not kill any living animal." He declares that at the time when the edict is engraved " three animals only are killed for the royal table, two pea fowls and a gazelle. Even these three animals will not be killed in future. Everywhere in his empire, and in the neighboring kingdoms, such as Greece, etc., the king has provided medicines of two sorts, medicines for men and medicines for animals. Whenever useful plants, either for men or for animals, were wanting they have been imported and planted. And along public roads wells have been dug for the use of animals and men. It is good and proper to render dutiful service to one's father and mother, to friends, to acquaintances and relations; it is good and proper to bestow alms on religious teachers and students of religion, to respect the life of living beings, to avoid prodigality and violent language."
" Thanks to the instructions of the religion spread by the king, there exist to-day a respect for living creatures, a tenderness towards them, a regard for relations and for teachers, a dutiful obedience to father and mother, and obeisance to aged men, such as have not existed for centuries. The teaching of religion is the most meritorious of acts, and there is no practice of religion without virtue."
" The practice of virtue is difficult, and those who practice virtue perform what is difficult. Thus in the past there were no ministers of religion; but I have created ministers of religion. They mix with all sects. They bring comfort to him who is in fetters."
" The king ardently desires that all sects may live in all places. AH of them equally purpose the subjection of the senses and the purification of the soul; but man is fickle in his attachments. Those who do not bestow ample gifts may yet possess a control over the senses, purity of soul and gratitude and fidelity in their affections ; and this is commendable."
" In past times the kings went out for pastimes. These are my pastimes,—visits and gifts to teachers, visits to aged men, the distribution of money, visits to the people of the empire, etc."
" There is no gift comparable with the gift of religion."
"The king honors all sects, he propitiates them by alms. But the beloved of the gods attaches less importance to such gifts and honors than to the endeavor to promote their essential moral virtues. It is true the prevalence of essential virtues differs in different sects. But there is a common basis, and that is gentleness and moderation in language. Thus one should not exalt one's own sect and decry the others ; one should not deprecate them without cause but should render them on every occasion the honor which they deserve. Striving thus, one promotes the welfare of his own sect while serving the others. Whoever from attachment to his own sect, and with a view to promote it, exalts it and decries others, only deals rude blows to his own sect. Hence concord alone is meritorious, so that all bear and love to bear the beliefs of each other. All people, whatever their faith may be, should say that the beloved of the gods attaches less importance to gifts and external observances than to the desire to promote essential moral doctrines and mutual respect for all sects. The result of this is the promotion of my own faith and its advancement in the light of religion."
" The beloved of the gods ardently desires security for all creatures, respect for life, peace and kindliness in behavior. This is what the beloved of the gods considers as the conquest of religion, ... I have felt an intense joy—such is the happiness which the conquests of religion procure. It is with this object that this religious inscription has been engraved, in order that our sons and grandsons may not think that a new conquest is necessary; that they may not think that conquest by the sword deserves the name of conquest; that they may see in it nothing but destruction and violence; that they may consider nothing as true conquest as the conquest of religion."
In the eighth edict the great emperor says : " I have also appointed ministers of religion in order that they may exert themselves among all sects, monks as well as worldly men. I have also had in view the interest of the clergy, of Brahmans, of religious mendicants, of religious Nirganthas and of various sects among whom my officers work. "The ministers exert themselves, each in his corporation, and the ministers of religion work generally among all sects. In this way acts of religion are promoted in the world as well as the practice of religion, viz., mercy and charity, truth and purity, kindness and goodness. The progress of religion among men is secured in two ways, by positive rules and by religious sentiments. Of these two methods that of positive rules is of poor value, it is the inspiration in the heart which best prevails. It is solely by a change in the sentiments of the heart that religion makes a real advance in inspiring a respect for life, and in the anxiety not to kill living beings." Who shall say that the religion of this humane emperor has not endured, and within the two thousand years which have succeeded, mankind has discovered no nobler religion than to promote in this earth "mercy and charity, truth and purity, kindness and goodness."
To what degree has each religion helped the historic evolution of the Race ?—When Buddhism flourished in India, the arts, sciences and civilization reached their zenith, as witnessed in the edicts and monuments of Asoka's reign. Hospitals were first founded for man and beast. Missionaries were sent to all parts of the world.. Literature was encouraged. Wherever Buddhism has gone, the nations have imbibed its spirit, and the people have become gentler and milder. The slaughter of animals and drunkenness ceased, and wars were almost abolished..
What the Buddhist Literature has wrought for mankind.—With the advent of Buddhism into Ceylon, and other Buddhist countries, literature flourished, and wherever it went it helped the development of arts and letters. The monasteries became the seats of learning, and the monks in obedience to their Master's will, disseminated knowledge among the people.
Religion and the Family. The Domestic Education of Children. The Marriage Bond.—The Sigatowada Sutta lays down the relations of the members of the household to one another:
Parents should: (i) Restrain their children from vice; (2) Train them in virtue; (3) Have them taught arts and sciences; (4) Provide them with - suitable wives and husbands; (5) Endow them with an inheritance.
Children should; (l) Support their parents; (2) Perform the proper family duties; (3) Guard their property; (4) Make themselves worthy to be the heir; (5) Honor their memory. The gift of the whole world with all Its wealth would be no adequate return to parents for all that they have done.
The Husband should: (l) Treat his wife with respect; (2) Treat his wife with kindness; (3) Be faithful to her; (4) Cause her to be honored by others; (5) Give her suitable ornaments and clothes.
The Wife should: (i) Order her household aright; (2) Be hospitable to kinsmen and friends; (3) Be chaste; (4) Be a thrifty housekeeper; (5) Show diligence and skill.
Buddhist Brotherhood.—Buddha was the first to establish the brotherhood without distinction of caste and race. Twenty-four centuries ago he declared, " As the great streams, O disciples, however many they may be, the Ganges, Jumna, Achiravati, Sarabhu, when they reach the great ocean lose their old name and their old descent, and bear only one name—the great ocean, so also do the Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras, lose their distinctions when they join the brotherhood." The outcast as well as the prince was admitted to this order. Virtue was the passport, not wealth
Buddha's Exalted Tolerance.— " Bhikshus, if others speak against me, or speak against my doctrine, or speak against the order, that is no reason
why you should be angry, discontented or displeased with them ... If you, in consequence thereof, become angry and dissatisfied, you bring yourself
into danger ... If you become angry and dissatisfied will you be able to judge whether they speak correctly or incorrectly ? ' We shall not, O Lord, fir be able, ... If others speak against me you should repudiate the falsehood as being a falsehood, saying, ' These things are not so, they are not
true, these things are not existing amongst us, they are not in us.
" Bhikshus, if others speak in praise of me, speak in praise of my doctrine, or speak in praise of the order, that is no reason why you should be pleased, gratified, or elated in mind ... If you, in consequence thereof, be pleased, gratified, or elated in mind, you bring yourselves thereby into danger. The truth should be received by you as being the truth, knowing that these things exist, that they are true, that they exist among you and are seen in . you ..."
Buddhism and Modern Science.—Sir Edwin Arnold says : " I have often said, and I shall say again and again, that between Buddhism and modern science there exists a close intellectual bond. When Tyndall tells us of sounds we cannot hear, and Norman Lockyer of colors we cannot see, when Sir William Thompson and Prof. Sylvester push mathematical investigation to regions almost beyond the calculus, and others, still bolder, imagine and I try to grapple a space of four dimensions, what is all this except the Buddhist Maya ? And when Darwin shows us life passing onward and upward through a series of constantly improving forms toward the Better and the Best, each individual starting in new existence with the records of bygone good and evil stamped deep and ineffaceably from the old ones, what is this again but the Buddhist doctrine of Karma and Dharma?" Finally, if we gather up all the results of modern research, and look away from the best literature to the largest discovery in physics and the latest word in biology, what is the conclusion -- the high and joyous conclusion--forced upon the mind, if not that which renders true Buddhism so glad and so hopeful ?
Can the Knowledge of Religion be Scientific ?—Buddhism is a scientific religion, inasmuch as it earnestly enjoins that nothing whatever be accepted on faith, Buddha has said that nothing should be believed merely because it is said. Buddhism is tantamount to a knowledge of other sciences.
Religion in its Relation to Morals. -The highest morality is inculcated in the system of Buddha, since it permits freedom of thought and opinion, sets its face against persecution and cruelty, and recognizes the rights of animals. Drink, opium, and all that tend to destroy the composure of the mind are discountenanced.
Different Schemes for the Restoration of Fallen Man,—It is the duty of the Bhikshus and of the religious men (Upasakas) not only to be an example of holy life, but continually to exhort their weaker brethren by pointing out the pernicious effects of an evil life, and the gloriousness of a virtuous life, and urge them to a life of purity. The fallen should on no account be neglected ; they are to be treated with sympathy.
Religion and Social Problems,—The basic doctrine of Buddhism is to relieve human suffering. A life of sensual pleasures is condemned, and the conflicts of labor and capital and other problems which confront Europe are not to be met with in Buddhistic countries. In the Vesala Sutta he who does not look after the poor is called a Vasala or low-born man. In the Sigatowada Sutta, Buddha enjoins on men to devote one-fourth of their wealth in the cause of the relief of the needy. In the Mahadhamma Samadana Sutta Buddha says the poverty of a man is no excuse for his neglect of religion. As the dropsy patient must take bitter medicine, so the poor, notwithstanding their poverty, must lead the religious life which is hard.
Religion and Temperance,—Buddha said : " Man already drunk with ignorance should not add thereto by the imbibition of alcoholic drinks." One of the vows taken by the Buddhist monks and by the laity runs thus: " I take the vow to abstain from intoxicating drinks because they hinder progress and virtue." The Dhammika Sutta says: "The householder that delights in the law should not indulge in intoxicating drinks, should not cause others to drink, and should not sanction the acts of those who drink, knowing that it results in insanity. The ignorant commit sins in consequence of drunkenness and also make others drink. You should avoid this. It is the cause of demerit, insanity and ignorance—though it be pleasing to the ignorant."
The dangers of modern life originate chiefly from drink and brutality, and in Buddhist countries the law, based upon teachings of Buddhism, prohibits the manufacture, sale and use of liquor, and prevents the slaughter of animals for food. The inscriptions of Asoka and the histories of Ceylon, Burmah and other Buddhist countries prove this.
Benefits Conferred on Woman by Buddhism. -The same rights are given to woman as to man. Not the least difference is shown, and perfect equality has been proclaimed. " Woman," Buddha says in the Culavedala Sutta and in the Mahavagga, " may attain the highest path of holiness, Rahatship, which is open to man."
Love of Country and Observance of Law.—In the Mahaparinibhana Sutta Buddha enjoined love for one's country. " So long as a people meet together in concord and rise in concord, and carry out their undertakings in concord, so long as they enact nothing not already established, abrogate nothing that has been already enacted, and act in accordance with the ancient institutions as established in former days, so long as they esteem and honor and revere the elders, so long as no women or girls are detained among them by force or abduction, so long as they honor and revere the shrines in town and country, so long will they be expected not to decline, but to prosper."
The Fraternity of People.—As Buddhism acknowledges no caste system, and admits the perfect equality of all men, it proclaims universal brotherhood. But peoples should agree in the acceptance of the universal virtues. Buddhism advocates universal peace amongst nations, and deplores war and bloodshed. The rights of smaller tribes and nations for a separate existence should be protected from aggressive warfare. In the Anguttara Nikaya, Tika Nipata, Brahmanavagga, Buddha advocates arbitration, instead of war. Buddhism strongly condemns war on the ground of the great losses it brings on humanity. It says that devastation, famine and other such evils have been brought on by war.
WORKS TREATING ON BUDDHISM. -The Idea of Rebirth, by F. Arundale ; The Wheel of the Law, by Alabaster; The Light of Asia, by Sir Edwin Arnold ; Religions of India, by A. Barth ; Imitation of Buddha, by Ernst M. Bowden ; Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, by S. Beal ; Buddhism in China, by S. Beal ; Chinese Buddhist Literature, by S. Beal ; Romantic Legend of Sakya Muni, by S. Beal; Buddhist Records of the Western World, by S. Beal, 2 vols; Life of Hioucn Thsang, by S. Beal ; Dhammapada, by S. Beal ; Sutta Nipata, by Sir M. Coomaraswamy ; Sarva Darsana Sanghra, by Cowell ; Pali Dictionary, by R. C. Childers ; History of Ancient Civilization in India, by Romesh Chandra Dutt; Indian Empire, by Sir W. W. Hunter; Buddhist Birth Stories, Buddhism, Hibbcrt Lectures, by Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids; Buddhism, by Dr. Eitel; Hand-book for the Student pf Chinese Buddhism, by Dr. Eitel; Legend of Gautama, by Bishop Bigandet, 2 vols; The Unknown God, by Loring Brace; Chinese Buddhism, Religions in China, by Dr. Ch. Edkins; Philosophy of the Upanishads, by Gough ; Oriental Religions, by S. Johnson, 2 vols ; Manual of Hindu Pantheism, by Col. Jacob ; Vicissitudes of Aryan Civilization, by M. M. Kunte ; His Life and Works, by Korosi; Sacred Books of the East, vols., viii., x., xi., xiii., xvii., xix., xx., xxi., xxii., xxxv., by Max Müller; Buddhist Catechism, by H. S. Olcott; Golden Rules of Buddhism, by H. S. Olcott; Theosophy, Religion and Occult Science, by H. S. Olcott: Buddha; his Life, Law and Order, by Dr. Hermann Oldenberg ; Udana Varga, Life of Buddha, by W. W. Rockhill; Tibetan Tales, by Ralston; Buddha Ghosha's Parables, by Captain Rogers ; Manual of Buddhism, Eastern Monachism, by R. Spence Hardy; Buddhist Catechism, by Subhadra Bhikshu; Buddhism in China, by Schlagintweit; Ceylon Mahavansa, by Wijesinha."
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 862 - 880]
Am zwölften Tag sprach Dharmapala eine Adress zu Criticism and Discussion of Missionary Methods
"The question is how to evangelize the non-Christian countries. For nineteen centuries you have had Christianity in Europe. Only during the last three centuries have attempts been made to propagate it in the East, and with unsuccessful results. The platform you have built up must be entirely reconstructed if Christianity is to make progress in the East. You must send men full of unselfishness. They must have a spirit of self-sacrifice, a spirit of charity, a spirit of tolerance. We want the lowly and meek and gentle teachings of Christ, not because we do not have them now, but we want more of them. The missionaries sent to Ceylon, China or Burmah, as a rule, have not the tolerance that we need. The missionary is intolerant; he is selfish. Why do not the natives mix with him ? Because he has not the tolerance and unselfishness he should have. Who are his converts ? They are all men of low type. Seeing the selfishness and intolerance of the missionary not an intelligent man will accept Christianity. Buddhism had its missionaries before Christianity was preached. It conquered all Asia and made the Mongolians mild. But the influence of western civilization is undoing their work.
It is left for you, this younger family of European nations, to change this. I warn you that if you want to establish Christianity in the East it can only be done on the principles of Christ's love and meekness. Let the missionary study all the religions ; let them be a type of meekness and lowliness and they will find a welcome in all lands."
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 1093]
Am 16. Tag sprach Dharmapala über Points of Resemblance and Difference between Buddhism and Christianity
"Max Müller says: " When a religion has ceased to produce champions, prophets and martyrs, it has ceased to live in the true sense of the word, and the decisive battle for the dominion of the world would have to be fought out among the three missionary religions which are alive — Buddhism, Mohammedanism and Christianity." Sir William W. Hunter, in his " Indian Empire," says: " The secret of Buddha's success was that he brought spiritual deliverance to the people. He preached that salvation was equally open to all men and that it must be earned, not by propitiating imaginary deities but by our own conduct. His doctrines thus cut away the religious basis of caste, denied the efficiency of the sacrificial ritual, and assailed the supremacy of the Brahmans as the mediators between God and man." Buddha taught that sin, sorrow and deliverance, the state of man in this life, in all previous and in all future lives, are the inevitable results of his own acts. He thus applies the inexorable law of cause and effect to the soul. What a man sows he must reap.
As no evil remains without punishment and no good deed without reward, it follows that neither priest nor God can prevent each act bearing its own consequences.
By this great law of Karma Buddha explained the inequalities and apparent injustice of man's estate in this world as the consequence of acts in the past, while Christianity compensates those inequalities by rewards in the future. A system in which our whole well-being, past, present, and to come, depends on ourselves, theoretically, leaves little room for the interference, or even existence, of a personal God. But the atheism of Buddha was a philosophical tenet, which, so far from weakening the functions of right and wrong, gave them new strength from the doctrine of Karma, or the metempsychosis of character. To free ourselves from the thraldom of desire and from the fetters of selfishness was to attain to the state of the perfect disciple in this life and to the everlasting rest after death.
The great practical aim of Buddha's teaching was to subdue the lusts of the flesh and the cravings of self, and this could only be attained by the practice of virtue. In place of rites and sacrifices Buddha prescribed a code of practical morality as the means of salvation.
The life and teachings of Buddha are also beginning to exercise a new influence on religions thought in Europe and America. Buddhism will stand forth as the embodiment of the eternal verity that as a man sows he will reap, associated with the duties of mastery over self and kindness to all men, and quickened into a popular religion by the example of a noble and beautiful life.
Here are some Buddhist teachings as given in the words of Jesus, and claimed by Christianity:
Whosoever cometh to me and heareth my sayings and doeth them, he is like a man which built a house and laid the foundation on a rock.
Why call ye me Lord and do not the things which I say?
Judge not, condemn not, forgive.
Love your enemies and do good, hoping for nothing again, and your reward shall be great.
Blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep it.
Be ready, for the Son of Man cometh at an hour when ye think not.
Sell all that ye have and give it to the poor.
Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years, take thine ease, eat, drink and be merry. But God said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee, then whose shall these things be which thou has provided ?
The life is more than meat and the body more than raiment. Whosoever he be of yon that forsaketh not all that he hath he cannot be my disciple.
Here are some Buddhist teachings for comparison:
Hatred does not cease by hatred at any time. Hatred ceases by love. This is an ancient law. Let us live happily, not hating those who hate us. Among men who hate us, let us live free from hatred. Let one overcome anger by love. Let him overcome evil by good. Let him overcome the greedy by liberality. Let the liar be overcome by truth.
As the bee, injuring not the flower, its color or scent, flies away, taking the nectar, so let the wise man dwell upon the earth.
Like a beautiful flower, full of color and full of scent, the fine words of him who acts accordingly are full of fruit.
Let him speak the truth, let him not yield to anger, let him give when asked, even from the little he has. By these things he will enter heaven.
The man who has transgressed one law and speaks lies and denies a future world, there is no sin he could not do.
The real treasure is that laid up through charity and piety, temperance and self-control; the treasure thus hid is secured, and passes not away.
Nirvana is a state to be realized here on this earth. He who has reached the fourth stage of holiness consciously enjoys the bliss of Nirvana. But it is beyond the reach of him who is selfish, skeptical, realistic, sensual, full of hatred, full of desire, proud, self-righteous and ignorant. When by supreme and unceasing effort he destroys all selfishness and realizes the oneness of all beings, is free from all prejudices and dualism, when he by patient investigation discovers truth, the stage of holiness is reached.
Among Buddhist ideals are self-sacrifice for the sake of others, compassion based on wisdom, joy in the hope that there is final bliss for the pure-minded, altruistic individual.
In his inaugural address, delivered at the Congress of Orientals, last year, Max Müller remarked: " As to the religion of Buddha being influenced by foreign thought, no true scholar now dreams of that. The Religion of Buddha is the daughter of the old Brahman religion, and a daughter in many respects more beautiful than the mother. On the contrary, it was through Buddhism that India, for the first time, stepped forth from its isolated position and became an actor in the historical drama of the world."
R. C. Dutt says: " The moral teachings and precepts of Buddhism have so much in common with those of Christianity that some connection between the two systems of religion has long been suspected. Candid inquirers who have paid attention to the history of India and of the Greek world during the centuries immediately preceding the Christian Era, and noted the intrinsic relationship which existed between these countries in scientific, religious and literary ideas, found no difficulty in believing that Buddhist ideas and precepts penetrated into the Greek world before the birth of Christ""
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 1288-1290]
Der St. Louis Observer vom 21. Sept. 1893 beschreibt Dharmapalas Auftritt so:
"With his black, curly locks thrown back from his broad brow,-his keen, clear eye fixed upon the audieri~~. his long brown fingers emphasizing the utterances of his vibrant voice, he looked the very image of a propagandist, and one trembled to know that such a figure stood at the head of the movement to consolidate all the disciples of Buddha and to spread 'the light of Asia' throughout the civilized world." "Mit seinen schwarzen Locken, die von seiner breiten Stirn nach hinten geworfen waren, mit seinem scharfen klaren Auge, das er auf die Zuhörer heftete, mit seinen langen braunen Fingern, die die Äußerungen seiner vibrierenden Stimme betonten, schaute er aus wie das wahre Abbild eines Propagandisten. Und man zitterte beim Gedanken, dass eine solche Gestalt an der Spitze der Bewegung stand, die alle Jünger Buddhas festigen und das »Licht Asiens« in der ganzen zivilisierten Welt verbreiten wollte."
Die wirklich umjubelte Person auf buddhistischer Seite (so wie auf hinduistischer Vivekananda) war Dharmapala (1864 - 1933). Er hielt noch mehrere Reden und nahm an den Diskussionen teil.
Dharmapalas Wirkung scheint auch eine stark erotische Komponente gehabt zu haben, wie Philangi Dasa, der Hrsg. von The Buddhist Ray, bemerkte:
Bruder Dharmapala, "der ohne Murren den vielen hundert christlichen Frauen die Hand schüttelte, die sich zu diesem Zweck um ihn drängten, und der seinen Namen in ihre Alben schrieb und auf ihre Fächer. Sehr weise Handlungen, die dazu führen werden, dass die Spenden für die Missionen an den kommenden Weihnachten abnehmen werden, und die auch christliche Mädchen weniger vor einem buddhistischen Liebhaber zurückschrecken werden lassen."
[Buddhist Ray. - 6 (1893), No 11-2 (Nov./Dec.). - S. 1 ; Zitat bei: Fields, Swans, S. 130.]
Am achten Tag, dem 18. September 1893, verlas Dharmapala auch ein Paper, das Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Nayaka Thera (1827 - 1911) verfasst hatte, und in dem dieser Colonell Olcott's Werk pries.
BY RIGHT REV. H. SUMANGALA, HIGH PRIEST OF THE SOUTHERN BUDDHIST CHURCH OF CEYLON.
The Sinhalese followers of Arya Dharma, miscalled Buddhism by Western scholars, through their chosen delegate, Mr. Dharmapala, greet the delegates representing all the World's Religions in open Parliament assembled at Chicago, in the year 2436 of Buddha's Nirvana—A.D. 1893. To the Advisory Council of the Exposition, and to all and several the delegates, the salutations of peace, tolerance, and human and divine brotherhood.
Be it known to you, brethren, that ours is the oldest of missionary religions, the principle of propaganda having been adopted by its promulgator at the very beginning and enforced by him in the despatch of his immediate followers, " The Brethren of the Yellow Robe," shortly after his attainment of the state of perfect spiritual illumination, 2481 years ago, under the Bodhitree at Buddha Gaya in Middle India. Traces of these ancient missions have been discovered of late years, and the influence of their teachings recognized by Western scholars in various directions. The spread of these ideas has invariably been effected by their intrinsic excellence, and never, as we rejoice to know, by the aid of force, or appeal to the superstitious weakness of the uneducated masses. No blood stains our temples, no profitable harvest have we reaped from human oppression. The Tathagata Buddha has enjoined his followers to promote education, foster scientific inquiry, respect the religious views of others, frequent the company of the wise, and avoid unproductive controversy. He has taught them to believe nothing upon mere authority, however seemingly influential, and to discuss religious opinions in a spirit of love and forbearance, without fear and without prejudice, confident that truth protects the righteous seeker after truth.
It is evident then, brethren, that the scheme of your Parliament of Religions recommends itself to the followers of Sakya Muni, and that we, one and all, are bound to wish it the most complete success. We should have been glad to accede to the wishes of your council in sending one or more of our ordained monks; but being ignorant of Western languages, their presence as active members of the Parliament would be useless. For centuries circumstances have put a stop to our organized foreign propaganda, and the life of our monks has been one of quiet study, meditation and good works in and near their monasteries. It was, therefore, a joy to us that, through the liberality of your council, our young lay-missionary, H. Dharmapala, has been enabled to undertake the honorable duty of presenting this address of greeting and taking part in your parliamentary deliberations. We commend him to you as worthy of confidence, and hope that good may result from his mission.
Education in Ceylon on Western principles has been backward because until quite recently our children could not procure it save at the risk of the destruction of their religious belief under the interested tuition of anti-Buddhist instruction. This is now being remedied by the opening of secular schools by our people under the lead of the Theosophical Society. To Colonel Olcott we owe the very catechism out of which our children are being taught the first principles of religion, and our present brotherly relations with our co-religionists of Japan and other Buddhistic countries. The religious future of Ceylon, brethren, is full of promise, and with the growth of our enlightenment, we shall be more fit to carry abroad the teachings of the Great Master, whose mission was to emancipate the human mind from the bonds of selfishness, superstition and materialism.
The labors of Orientalists, especially of Pali scholars, have of late resulted in spreading very widely throughout the world, some knowledge of the Buddha's teachings, while Sir Edwin Arnold's epic, "The Light of Asia," has created a popular love for the stainless and compassionate character of Gautama Buddha. Justice being done to him, his personality is seen to shine with exceptional brilliance among the figures of human history. We think that our Arya Dhama reflects the spiritual sunlight of his own pure nobility and the luminousness of his own wisdom. We invite you all to examine and test it for yourselves. Our founder taught that the cause of all miseries is ignorance; its antithesis, happiness, is the product of knowledge.
He taught religious tolerance, the kinship of human families with each other and with the universe, the existence of a common law of being and of evolution for us all, the necessity for the conquest of the passions, the avoidance of cruelty, lying, lustfulness, and all sensual indulgences, of the clinging to superstitious beliefs, whether traditional or modern, and of belief in alleged infallibility of men or books. He inculcated the practice of all virtues, a high altruism in word and deed, the following of blameless modes of living and the keeping of an open mind for the discovery of truth. He taught the existence of a natural causation called Karma, which operates throughout the universe, and which, in the sphere of ethics, becomes the principle of equilibrium between the opposing forces of ignorance and wisdom, the agent of both retribution and recompense. He taught that existence in physical life is attended by fleeting pleasures and lasting pains, wherefore the enlightened mind should recognize the fact and conquer the lust for life in the plane of physical being. Every effect being related to an anterior, formative cause, the joys and sorrows of life are the fruits of our individual actions; hence man is the creator of his own destiny, and is his only possible liberator, Liberation is enfranchisement from the trammels of ignorance, which not only begets the sorrows that scourge us, but also, by keeping active the thirst for bodily life, compels us to be incarnated again and again indefinitely until wisdom dries up the salt spring at which we try to quench our maddening thirst for life and life's illusive activities, and we break out of the whirling wheel of rebirth, and escape into the calm and full wisdom of Nirvana.
The literature of Southern Buddhism is copious, yet its fundamental ideas may be easily synthesized.
Our scriptures are grouped into three divisions, called Pitakas ; of which the first (Sutta) comprises sermons or lectures on morality; the second (Vinaya) specifies the constitution, rules and discipline of the Order and of our Laity, and the the third (Abhi Dhamma) propounds the psychology of our system.
Of course, it would be useless to lay before a transient body like yours a collection of these religious books, written in an unfamiliar language ; we must trust our delegate to the inspiration of your presence to give you a summary of what Southern Buddhists believe it necessary for the world to know, in the interest of human progress and human happiness."
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 894 - 897]
Abb.: Prinz Chandradat Chudhadharn
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 643]
Am vierten Tag, Donnerstag, den 14. September 1893, trug William Pipe das Paper The Buddhism of Siam von Seiner Königlichen Hoheit. Prinz CHANDRADAT CHUDHADHARN, Bruder des Königs von Siam (heute: Thailand) vor. Der Königliche Siamesische Gesandte für The World's Columbian Exposition, Hon. PHRA SURIYA, sprache einige einleitende Worte.
"BUDDHISM AS IT EXISTS IN SIAM.
By H.R.H. PRINCE CHANDRADAT CHUDHADHARN.
Buddhism, as it exists in Siam, teaches that ail things are made up from the Dharma, a Sanscrit term meaning the " essence of nature." The Dharma presents the three following phenomena, which generally exist in every being : I. The accomplishment of eternal evolution. 2. Sorrow and suffering according to human ideas. 3. A separate power, uncontrollable by the desire of man, and not belonging to man.
The Dharma is formed of two essences, one known as matter, the other known as spirit. These essences exist for eternity; they are without beginning and without end , the one represents the world and the corporeal parts of man, and the other the mind of man. The three phenomena combined are the factors for molding forms and creating sensations. The waves of the ocean are formed but of water, and the various shapes they take are dependent upon the degree of motion in the water; in similar manner the Dharma represents the universe, and varies according to the degree of evolution accomplished within it. Matter is called in the Pali " Rupa," and spirit " Nama." Everything in the universe is made up of Rupa and Nama. or matter and spirit, as already stated. The difference between all material things, as seen outwardly, depends upon the degree of evolution that is inherent to matter; and the difference between all spirits depends upon the degree of will, which is the evolution of spirit. These differences, however, are only apparent; in reality, all is one and the same essence, merely a modification of the one great eternal truth, Dharma.
Man, who is an aggregate of Dharma, is, however, unconscious of the fact, because his will either receives impressions and becomes modified by mere visible things, or because his spirit has become identified with appearances, such as man, animal, deva or any other beings that are also but modified spirits and matter. Man becomes, therefore, conscious of separate existence. But all outward forms, man himself included, are made to live or to last for a short space of time only. They are soon to be destroyed and recreated again and again by an eternal evolution. He is first body and spirit, but through ignorance of the fact that all is Dharma, and of that which is good and evil, his spirit may become impressed with evil temptation. Thus, for instance, he may desire certain things with that force peculiar to a tiger, whose spirit is modified by craving for lust and anger. In such a case he will be continually adopting, directly or indirectly, in his own life, the wills and acts of that tiger and thereby is himself that animal in spirit and soul. Yet outwardly he appears to be a man, and is as yet unconscious of the fact that his spirit has become endowed with the cruelties of the tiger.
If this state continues until the body be dissolved or changed into other matter, be dead, as we say, that same spirit which has been endowed with the cravings of lust and anger of a tiger, of exactly the same nature and feelings as those that have appeared in the body of the man 'before his death, may reappear now to find itself in the body of a tiger, suitable to its nature. Thus, so long as man is ignorant of that nature of Dharma and fails to identify that nature, he continues to receive different impressions from beings around him in this universe, thereby suffering pains, sorrows, disappointments of all kinds, death.
If, however, his spirit be impressed with the good qualities that are found in a superior being, such as the deva, for instance, by adopting in his own life the acts and wills of that superior being, man becomes spiritually that superior being himself, both in nature and soul, even while in his present form. When death puts an end to his physical body, a spirit of the very same nature and quality may reappear in the new body of a deva to enjoy a life of happiness not to be compared to anything that is known in this world.
However, to all beings alike, whether superior or inferior to ourselves, death is a suffering. It is, therefore, undesirable to be born into any being that is a modification of Dharma, to be sooner or later again and again dissolved by the eternal phenomenon of evolution. The only means by which we are able to free ourselves from sufferings and death is therefore to possess a perfect knowledge of Dharma, and to realize by will and acts that nature only obtainable by adhering to the precepts given by Lord Buddha in the Four Noble Truths. The consciousness of self-being is a delusion, so that, until we are convinced that we ourselves and whatever belongs to ourselves is a mere nothingness, until we have lost the idea or impression that we are men, until that idea become completely annihilated and we have become united to Dharma, we are unable to reach spiritually the state of Nirvana, and that is only attained when the bodies dissolve both spiritually and physically. So that one should cease all petty longing for personal happiness, and remember that one life is as hollow as the other, that all is transitory and unreal.
The true Buddhist does not mar the purity of his self-denial by lusting after a positive happiness which he himself shall enjoy here or hereafter. Ignorance of Dharma leads to sin, which leads to sorrow; and under these conditions of existence each new birth leaves man ignorant and finite still. What is to be hoped for is the absolute repose of Nirvana, the extinction of our being, nothingness. Allow me to give an illustration. A piece of rope is thrown in a dark road ; a silly man passing by cannot make out what it is. In his natural ignorance the rope appears to be a horrible snake, and
immediately creates in him alarm, fright and suffering. Soon light dwells upon him; he now realizes that what he took to be a snake is but a piece of rope; his alarm and fright are suddenly at an end; they are annihilated as it were; the man now becomes happy and free from the suffering he has just experienced through his own folly.
It is precisely the same with ourselves, our lives, our deaths, our alarms, our cries, our lamentations, our disappointments, and all other sufferings. They are created by our own ignorance of eternity, of the knowledge of Dharma to do away with and annihilate all of them.
I shall now refer to the Four Noble Truths as taught by our merciful and omniscient Lord Buddha; they point out the path that leads to Nirvana or to the desirable extinction of self.
The first Noble Truth is suffering; it arises from birth, old age, illness, sorrow, death, separation from what is loved, association with what is hateful, and in short, the very idea of self in spirit and matter that constitute Dharma.
The second Noble Truth is the cause of suffering which results from ignorance, creating lust for objects of perishable nature. If the lust be for sensual objects it is called, in Pali, Kama Tanha. If it be for supersensual objects, belonging to the mind but still possessing a form in the mind, it is called Bhava Tanha. If the lust be purely for supersensual objects that belong to the mind but are devoid of all form whatever, it is called Wibhava Tanha.
The third Noble Truth is the extinction of sufferings, which is brought about by the cessation of the three kinds of lust, together with their accompanying evils, which all result directly from ignorance.
The fourth Noble Truth is the means of paths that lead to the cessation of lusts and other evils. This Noble Truth is divided into the following eight paths: right understanding; right resolutions; right speech; right acts; right way of earning a livelihood ; right efforts ; right meditation ; right state of mind. A few words of explanation on these paths may not be found out of place.
By right understanding is meant proper comprehension, especially in regard to what we call sufferings. We should strive to learn the cause of our sufferings and the manner to alleviate and even to suppress them. We are not to forget that we are in this world to suffer; that wherever there is pleasure there is pain, and that, after all, pain and pleasure only exist according to human ideas.
By right resolutions is meant that it is our imperative duty to act kindly to our fellow creatures. We are to bear no malice against anybody and never to seek revenge. We are to understand that in reality we exist in flesh and blood only for a short time, and that happiness and sufferings are transient or idealistic, and therefore we should try to control our desires and cravings, and endeavor to be good and kind toward our fellow creatures.
By right speech is meant that we are always to speak the truth, never to incite one's anger toward others, but always to speak of things useful, and never use harsh words destined to hurt the feelings of others.
By right acts is meant that we should never harm our fellow creatures, neither steal, take life, or commit adultery. Temperance and celibacy are also enjoined.
By right way of earning a livelihood is meant that we are always to be honest and never to use wrongful or guilty means to attain an end.
By right effort is meant that we are to persevere in our endeavors to do good and to mend our conduct should we ever have strayed from the path of virtue.
By right meditation is meant that We should always look upon life as being temporary, consider our existence as a source of suffering, and therefore endeavor always to calm our minds that may be excited by the sense of pleasure or pain.
By right state of mind is meant that we should be firm in our belief and be strictly indifferent both to the sense or feeling of pleasure and pain.
It would be out of place here to enter into further details on the Four Noble Truths; it would require too much time. I will, therefore, merely summarize their meanings, and say that sorrow and sufferings are mainly due to ignorance, which creates in our minds lust, anger and other evils. The extermination of all sorrow and suffering and of all happiness is attained by the eradication of ignorance and its evil consequences, and by replacing it with cultivation, knowledge, contentment and love.
Now comes the question, what is good and what is evil ? Every act, speech or thought derived from falsehood, or that which is injurious to others, is evil. Every act, speech or thought derived from truth and that which is not injurious to others is good. Buddhism teaches that lust prompts avarice ; anger creates animosity ; ignorance produces false ideas. These are called evils because they cause pain. On the other hand, contentment prompts charity; love creates kindness; knowledge produces progressive ideas. These are called good because they give pleasure.
The teachings of Buddhism on morals are numerous, and are divided into three groups of advantages : The advantage to be obtained in the present life, the advantage to be obtained in the future life, and the advantage to be obtained in all eternity. For each of these advantages there are recommended numerous paths to be followed by those who aspire to any one of them. I will only quote a few examples.
To those who aspire to advantages in the present life Buddhism recommends diligence, economy, expenditure suitable to one's income, and association with the good.
To those who aspire to the advantages of the future life are recommended chanty, kindness, knowledge of right and wrong,
To those who wish to enjoy the everlasting advantages in all eternity are recommended purity of conduct, of mind and of knowledge.
Allow me now to say a few words on the duties of man toward his wife and family, as preached by the Lord Buddha himself to the lay disciples in different discourses, or Suttas, as they are called in Pali. They belong to the group of advantages of present life.
A good man is characterized by seven qualities. He should not be loaded with faults, he should be free from laziness, he should not .boast of his knowledge, he should be truthful, benevolent, content, and should aspire to all that is useful.
A husband should honor his wife, never insult her, never displease her, make her mistress of the house, and provide for her. On her part a wife ought to be cheerful toward him when he works, entertain his friends and care for his dependents, never do anything he does not wish, take good care of the wealth he has accumulated, not be idle, but always cheerful when at work herself.
Parents in old age expect their children to take care of them, to do all their work and business, to maintain the household, and, after death, to do honor to their remains by being charitable. Parents help their children by preventing them from doing sinful acts, by guiding them in the path of virtue, by educating them, by providing them with husbands and wives suitable to them, by leaving them legacies.
When poverty, accident or misfortune befalls man, the Buddhist is taught to bear it with patience, and if these are brought on by himself, it is his duty to discover their causes and try, if possible, to remedy them. If the causes, however, are not to be found here in this life, he must account for them by the wrongs done in his former existence.
Temperance is enjoined upon all Buddhists for the reason that the habit of using intoxicating things tends to lower the mind to the level of that of an idiot, a madman or an evil spirit.
These are some of the doctrines and moralities taught by Buddhism, which I hope will give you an idea of the scope of the Lord Buddha's teachings. In closing this brief paper, I earnestly wish you all, my brothel-religionists, the enjoyment of long life, happiness and prosperity."
[ World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 645 - 649]
Am achten Tag des Parlaments las Dr. Barrows ein Paper von Soyen Shaku (1859-1919) über The Law of Cause and Effect as Taught by Buddha. Soyen Shaku (Shaku Soên) war Oberhaupt und Abt des Engakuji-Zweiges des Rinzai-Zen. Er hatte im Anschluss an seine traditionelle Zenausbildung eine moderne westliche Erziehung genossen
Abb.: Soyen Shaku
[Bildquelle: http://www.thuvienhoasen.org/pgtg-208-nhasuchau%20a.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-05-08]
A Presentation of Buddhism; in addresses by H. DHARMAPALA, of Ceylon ; Messrs. Y. KAWAI, SOYEN SHAKU, KINZA RIUGE M. HIRAI and Z. ASHITZU, of Japan ; and Mr. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, of India.
"SHAKU, Soyen (1859, Japan—1919, Kamakura, Japan); education: Keio University, 1884-86.
Soyen Shaku, the first person to bring Rinzai Zen Buddhism to America and to direct Zen toward non-Japanese Americans, was born in Japan in 1859. In 1871 at the age of twelve he was ordained a monk in the Rinzaishu Engakujiha, A Rinzai Zen sect founded in 1282 by Mugaku-Sogen (1213-1278). The leader of the group was Imakita Kosen Roshi (1816-1892), who had developed a unique interest in having his monks university trained and in promulgating Zen among a lay public. During his early years as a monk, Soyen was recognized as an outstanding student; in 1884 he received the dharma transmission from Kosen who declared of Soyen, "He is a born bodhisatwa."
That same year Soyen began two years of study at Keio University. On completion of his studies, he traveled to Ceylon to study Hinayana Buddhism and Sanskrit. Between his university training and travel abroad, Soyen began to develop the cosmopolitan perspective that was to characterize his life's work. On his return to Japan, he became the teacher at the Nagata Zendo, a position he held until Kosen's death in 1892, when he succeeded his teacher at Engakuji, the monastery at Kamakura.
That year he received an invitation to speak at the World Parliament of Religions that was being organized by the League of Liberal Clergymen in Chicago, Illinois. It was considered improper for a Zen monk to travel abroad, especially to a "barbarian" country such as the United States. Most advised against it, but true to his cosmopolitan stance, he accepted the invitation.
In Chicago he delivered two addresses, both read by Dr. J. H. Burrows, the president of the parliament, since Soyen could not speak English. He gave one address on Buddhist thought, "The Law of Cause and Effect as Taught by Buddha," and a second on war, "Arbitration Instead of War." More important than his speeches, however, was that Soyen met Paul Carus and after the parliament stayed at his home in LaSalle, Illinois. Carus, the owner of the Open Court Publishing Company, developed an interest in Buddhism as a result of Soyen's visiting the Parliament. The following year he wrote and published the first popular English-language book by an American "advocate" of Buddhism, The Gospel of Buddhism.
After the parliament, Soyen returned to Japan to resume his duties at Engakuji. Among his students were the three who would be most important in spreading Zen in the United States, Nyogen Senzaki, Sokatsu Shaku, and D. T. Suzuki. He pursued a normal course as teacher, abbot, and leader of the Rinzaishu Engakujiha until 1905, when Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Russell came to Engakuji to study Zen. The Russells were accepted as students, and they, in turn, persuaded Soyen to return to America with them the following summer.
He lived outside San Francisco at the Russell residence and led the family and servants in the daily practice of Zen. He introduced Mrs. Russell to the practice of the koans, and she became the first American to experience them. While living with the Russells, Soyen also gave lectures in their home and traveled to a number of localities to speak to both Japanese and non-Japanese audiences. D. T. Suzuki joined him as his interpreter. After nine months in San Francisco, accompanied by Suzuki, Soyen journeyed across the United States, lecturing, and returned home by way of Ceylon.
For the remaining years of his life, he lived quietly at Kamakura. Not only did he serve as head of the Rinzaishu Engakujiha but he also assumed leadership of the Rinzaishu Kenchojiha, another Rinzai sect, and became president of Rinzai College. He died in 1919."
[Quelle: Melton, J. Gordon: Biographical dictionary of American cult and sect leaders. -- New York : Garland Pub., 1986. -- 354 S. ; 24 cm. -- ISBN 0824090373. -- s.v.]
Zu Soyen Shaku siehe auch:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Materialien zum Neobuddhismus. -- 4. USA und Hawaii. -- 4. Japanischer Buddhismus in Amerika. -- 2. Chronik. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/neobuddhismus/neobud04042.htm
Am sechsten Tag verlas Herr Noguchi ein Paper von Banriu Yatsubuchi über Buddhism
Abb.: Banriu Yatsubuchi
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 721]
Am 11. Tag las Zitsuzen Ashitsu ein Paper über Buddha
Abb.: Zitsuzen Ashitsu
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 1043]
A Presentation of Buddhism; in addresses by H. DHARMAPALA, of Ceylon ; Messrs. Y. KAWAI, SOYEN SHAKU, KINZA RIUGE M. HIRAI and Z. ASHITZU, of Japan ; and Mr. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, of India.
Kinze Riuge M Hirai (Hirai Kinzô) (gestorben 1916) war ein buddhistischer Laie, zählte sich zum Myo Shin Ji Zweig des Rinzai Zen und war das einzige japanische Delegationsmitglied, das fließend Englisch sprach.
Address by KINZE RIUGE M. HIRAI, of the Myo Shin Ji branch of the Rinzai Zen sect of Japanese Buddhism.
Abb.: Zenshiro Noguchi
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 419]
The Ultimate Religion; brief address by ZENSHIRO NOGUCHI, Buddhist layman, of Japan.
Am vierten Tag verlas Kinze Riuge M. Hirai ein Paper von Horin Toki über Buddhism in Japan
Abb.: Horin Toki
[Bildquelle: World's Parliament. -- 1893. -- S. 1043]
Japanese Buddhism; by PETER GORO KEBURAJI, Tokyo, Japan.
Am 17. Tag sprach Yoshigiro Kaway über A Declaration of Faith and the Truth of Buddhism
Die japanische Delegation hatte viele Tausend Kopien englischer Übersetzungen buddhistischer Werke mitgebracht:
Kuroda, Shinto: Outlines of the Mahayana as taught by Buddha / by S.
Kuroda ... Carefully examined by the scholars of the Tendai, Shingon, Rinzai,, Soto, and
Shin sects, and traslated [!] by M. Waku [etc.] ... Edited by the Bukkyo gakkuwai. - Tokyo
: Japan, 1893. - 27 p. 19 cm.
[Japanese title on leaf at end]
["For circulation among the members of the Parliament of religions to be held in Chicago in connection with the World's Columbian fair."]
S. Kuroda war Superintendent der Unterrichtswesens bei Jodo Shinshu.
Das Büchlein wurde von Karl Seidenstücker 1904 in deutscher Übersetzung herausgegeben:
Kuroda, S.: Mahâyâna : die Hauptlehren des nördlichen Buddhismus / autorisierte deutsche Ausg. nach dem englisch- japanischen Originale von K. B. Seidenstücker. - Leipzig : Buddhistischer Missions-Verlag, 1904. - 49 S.
Seidenstücker im Vorwort:
|"Mit dem Erscheinen dieser Schrift ist der Anfang zur Herausgabe
weiterer buddhistischer Werke aus Japan gemacht, zu deren Übersetzung mir Herr Nakamura,
Direktor der inneren Mission für den sechsten Sprengel der Jôdô-Gemeinschaft in
liebenswürdigster Weise die Genehmigung erteilt hat. Alle diese Schriften sind, es sei
hier ein für allemal bemerkt, weder für diejenigen geschrieben, die in der kindlichen
Einfalt ihres Herzens sich mit der ihnen von Kindesbeinen an gereichten gesitigen Kost
begnügen, noch für diejenigen, welche in pharisäischem Hochmute und selbstischer
Verblendung den Buddhismus eine Sekte schelten und deren Weltanschauung natürlich »viel
umfassender« als die buddhistische ist. Wer vorurteilsfrei, ohne sein Inneres mit
dogmatischem oder occultistischem Ballast beladen zu haben, sich nach wahrer Erlösung,
d.h. wirklicher Freiheit sehnt und nicht auf sein wonnevolles Wolkenkuckucksheim im
Jenseits reflektiert, der wird die kleinen mahâyânistischen Schriften richtig lesen und
in ihnen dasjenige finden, was er sucht.
Wenn nicht alle Anzeichen trügen, so ist jetzt endlich, endlich die Zeit gekommen, da die buddhistische Mission in Deutschland festen Fuß gefasst hat und die Strahlen der Wahrheitssonne auch unserem Volke zu leuchten beginnen. Wir begrüßen das Erscheinen einer jeden buddhistischen Schrift mit Freuden, ganz gleichgültig, ob es sich hierbei um das Mahâyâna oder Hînayâna handelt. Ich sehe der weiteren Entwicklung der buddhistischen Bewegung in Deutschland mit festem Vertrauen und froher Zuversicht entgegen. Wenn dieses kleine Büchlein dazu beiträgt, innerhalb der deutschen Leserwelt Hochachtung und Bewunderung für die buddhistische Religion und Weltanschauung zu erwecken, dann hat es einen Zweck erreicht.
Es ist mir zum Schlusse eine angenehme Pflicht, den Herren K. Watanabe und S. Nakamura an dieser Stelle meinen verbindlichsten Dank abzustatten. Durch ihre Bemühung und ihr freundliches Entgegenkommen wurde es ermöglicht, dass die buddhistische Mission in Deutschland mit Japan in Verbindung treten konnte, und dass buddhistische Bücher aus Japan deutsch herausgegeben werden dürfen.
K. B. Seidenstücker"
[Vorwort zur deutschen Übersetzung, S. VII-VIII]
Auch vierhundert Exemplare chinesischer Sutren wurden dem Vorsitzenden des Parlaments übergeben in der Hoffnung, dass sie ins Englische übertragen würden.
Nach dieser Einführung sprach Kinzai R.M. Hirai. Er beschwerte sich über die Diskriminierungen, die Japaner in Amerika erleiden mussten: sie durften in San Franzisko weder Universitäten noch öffentliche Schulen besuchen, es gab Umzüge mit der Devise Japs raus!. Wenn das die christliche Ethik ist, dann sind wir froh, Heiden zu sein. Er erhielt viel Applaus.
Am vierten Tag verlas vor einem überfüllten Saal Kinzai R.M. Hirai Horin Toki's Paper: The history of Buddhism and Its sects in Japan. Er zeigte darin die Unterschiede der verschiedenen Yâna's, Mahâyana, Hînayâna, Tantrayâna, und behauptete:
"Die Wahrheit der Yânas ist die gleiche, der Unterschied liegt im Geist derer, die diese Wahrheit aufnehmen."
Am sechsten Tag verlas Z. Noguchi ein Paper über Buddhism von Banryu Yatsubuchi. Die Rede basierte auf der Tendai Schule. Er betonte:
"Raum hat keine Grenzen, es gibt unendlich viele Welten, unzählige Buddhas".
"In der stufenweisen Lehre kann man die Wahrheit erreichen, indem man gute Werke anhäuft und böse Werke unterlässt. Bei der plötzlichen Lehre muss man verstehen, dass die Ursache der Leidenschaft Buddhaschaft ist, dass Geburt und Tod Nirwana sind, dass unser gegenwärtiger Körper Buddha ist." Dies "ist die geheime Lehre, die Buddha Dainichi lehrte und die der große japanische Gelehrte, Kobo erklärte."
Soyen Shaku (1859-1919), ein Rinzai-Zen-Meister, hatte in Japanisch ein Paper vorbereitet über The law of cause and effect as taught by Buddha, es war von seinem Schüler D. T. Suzuki übersetzt worden, und wurde vom Vorsitzenden vorgetragen. Es ist bemerkenswert, dass Soyen Shaku nicht ein einziges mal Satori oder Koans erwähnte. Er widmete sich vielmehr der Frage "Warum ist das Bewusstsein in ständigem Fluss? Warum ändert sich alles?" Die Antwort gibt das buddhistische Gesetz von Ursache und Wirkung. Der Buddhismus betrachtet das Universum als anfangslos und endlos. Buddha ist nicht der Schöpfer dieses Naturgesetzes, sondern sein Entdecker. Mit dieser Rede rief Soyen Shaku nicht gerade Beifallsstürme hervor.
Soyen Shaku hielt auch ein leidenschaftliches Plädoyer für ein Schiedsgericht statt Krieg.
Zu Soyen Shaku s.:
Shaku, Soyen <1859-1919>: Sermons of a Buddhist abbot : addresses on religious subjects / by the Rt. Rev. Soyen Shaku, lord abbot of Engaku-ji and Kencho-ji, Kamakura, Japan, including the sutra of forty-two chapters ; translated from the Japanese ms. by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki. With portrait of the author. - Chicago : The Open court publishing company; [etc., etc.] 1906. - vi p., 2 l., 3-220 p. front. (port.) pl. 20 cm.c21 cm.
Nachdrucke: 1913, 1971, 1974
Zitsuzen Ashitsu von der Tendai Richtung bedauerte in einer Rede, dass viele Europäer und Amerikaner, die den Buddhismus interessiert studieren, unglücklicherweise nie vom Mahayana gehört hatten.
"Sie kennen das unendliche Meer von Buddhas Lehre überhaupt nicht."
Yoshigirai Kawai von der Nichiren Sekte erklärte, dass auch unwissende Männer und Frauen, die Analphabeten sind, die Buddhaschaft erreichen können, wenn sie reinen Herzens die Formel Namu-myo-ho ren-ge-kyo wiederholen.
Selbstverständlich gab es Antworten christlicher Missionare auf diese Selbstdarstellungen der Buddhisten.
Die Reden und Diskussionen am Weltparlament dauerten 16 Tage lang. Wenn sie nicht bei den Vorträgen waren, verbrachten Dharmapala und Mr. Hirai viele Stunden in speziellen Inquiry Rooms, umgeben von neugierigem Publikum.
Das Weltparlament endete mit dem Vater-Unser und America , gesungen von fünfhundert Sängern. John Henry Barrows (1847 - 1902), der Vorsitzende, verkündete:
"Das Parlament hat gezeigt, dass das Christentum immer noch der große Beschleuniger der Menschheit ist..., dass es keinen Lehrer gibt, der sich mit Christus vergleichen kann, kein Erlöser außer Christus. ... Ich bezweifle, ob irgendein Orientale, der anwesend war, die Höflichkeit, mit der sie empfangen wurde, verwechselt hat mit einer Bereitschaft auf Seite des amerikanischen Volkes, orientalische Religionen anstelle ihrer eigenen anzunehmen."
Brian (Daizen) A. Victoria schreibt in seinem sehr lesenswerten Buch:
Victoria, Brian (Daizen) A. <1939 - >: Zen, Nationalismus und Krieg : eine unheimliche Allianz. -- Berlin : Theseus-Verl., ©1999. -- 399 S. -- Originaltitel: Zen at war (1997). -- ISBN: 3-89620-132-8. -- S. 34-37. -- Dort Quellennachweise.
"In seinen frühen Publikationen sowohl in englischer als auch in japanischer Sprache widmete sich [Daisez T.] Suzuki [1870 - 1966] insbesondere dem Ziel, dem Mahayana-Buddhismus zu größerem Ansehen zu verhelfen. Suzukis allererste Veröffentlichung war die Übersetzung von Shaku Sôens (1859-1919) Rede vor dem Weltparlament der Religionen, das im Jahre 1893 anlässlich der Weltausstellung in Chicago, Illinois, zusammentrat. Sôen, Abt und Oberhaupt des Engakuji-Zweiges des Rinzai-Zen, war ein typischer Vertreter des Neuen Buddhismus, der im Anschluss an seine traditionelle Zen-Ausbildung eine moderne westliche Erziehung genossen hatte.
Sôen nahm als einer von acht Repräsentanten des japanischen Buddhismus an jenem Weltparlament der Religionen teil. Drei dieser acht Repräsentanten waren ebenso wie er selbst buddhistische Priester verschiedener Schulrichtungen, die übrigen waren Laien oder fungierten als Übersetzer. Sôen hielt einen Vortrag mit dem Titel »Das Gesetz von Ursache und Wirkung, so wie es der Buddha lehrt«, der vom Präsidenten des Parlaments, Reverend John H. Barrows, verlesen wurde.
Die Zusammenkunft des Parlaments der Religionen hatte eine Reihe von Konsequenzen, die das religiöse Bewusstsein der westlichen Welt entscheidend veränderten. Dies allerdings hing weniger mit dem Inhalt der Vorträge dort zusammen, als vielmehr mit der simplen Tatsache, dass ein solches Treffen überhaupt stattfand. Thelle schreibt darüber:
»Das Parlament wurde zu einer prächtigen Demonstration der Macht der Religion und der Harmonie zwischen den unterschiedlichen Glaubensrichtungen. Zum ersten Mal in der gesamten Menschheitsgeschichte hatten sich Repräsentanten aller wichtigen Religionen unter einem Dach zu einer friedlichen Konferenz versammelt.«
Obgleich diese Konferenz nach Außen wie ein Modell für die Kooperation der verschiedenen Religionen erschien und eine Haltung gegenseitigen Respekts demonstrierte, gab es unter der Oberfläche tiefe Zwistigkeiten zwischen den westlichen, größtenteils christlichen, und den östlichen buddhistischen und hinduistischen Delegierten. Yatsubuchi Banryû (1848-1926), ein Shin-Priester und Delegierter aus Kumamoto, äußerte angesichts der unterschwelligen Zwistigkeiten und Spannungen sogar, die buddhistischen Delegierten sähen sich in einen
»friedlichen Krieg« verstrickt, und in diesem werde der Buddhismus »einen seiner größten Siege erringen und zu den größten Ehren gelangen.«
Angesichts der stark christlichen Tendenz der gesamten Konferenz mag Banryûs Versicherung als ein wenig übertrieben, wenn nicht gar als egozentrisch erscheinen. Doch waren die japanischen Delegierten tatsächlich davon überzeugt, dass der Mahayana-Buddhismus genau das sei, was der Westen brauche. In ihren Augen waren die Menschen des Westens zwar in materieller Hinsicht äußerst wohlhabend, doch war ihr Seelenleben durch einen starken Mangel gekennzeichnet. Die »formlose Form« des Mahayana-Buddhismus, so wie er sich in Japan manifestiert hatte, erschien ihnen als besonders geeignet, diesen Mangelzustand zu beseitigen.
Die japanischen Delegierten versuchten, die japanische Variante des Mahayana-Buddhismus als eine echte Weltreligion hinzustellen, wenn nicht gar als die wahre und einzige Weltreligion schlechthin. Durch diese Neudefinition ihrer religiösen Überzeugung schufen sich die japanischen Buddhisten eine Mission, die sie sowohl zu Hause als auch in anderen Ländern zu verfolgen gedachten, und sie übernahmen bereitwillig eine Art »japanischer spiritueller Bürde«, womit sie die Verpflichtung verbanden, ihren Glauben den unwissenden Völkern der Welt aktiv nahezubringen. 1899 brachte Anesaki Masaharu (1873-1949), einer der angesehensten buddhistischen Gelehrten der damaligen Zeit, jene selbst auferlegte Bürde auf folgende Weise zum Ausdruck:
»Unsere Nation [Japan] ist die einzige buddhistische Nation auf der ganzen Welt. Auf ihren Schultern lastet die Verantwortung für die Vereinigung des östlichen und des westlichen Denkens und für den stetigen Fortschritt des Ostens.«
Buddhistische Reaktionen auf die heimische Kritik
Die buddhistischen Delegierten des Weltparlaments der Religionen kehrten als siegreiche Helden nach Japan zurück. Sie wurden in ganz Japan zu Vorträgen über die materiellen Errungenschaften des Westens und über ihre Erfolge bei der Verkündigung der buddhistischen Lehren vor dem aufgeschlossenen westlichen Publikum eingeladen. Ôhara Kakichi begrüßte, dass der Buddhismus in Japan, im fernen Osten, nun die Möglichkeit habe, auch in Amerika, im fernen Westen, das Rad des Dharma zu drehen.
Besonders beeindruckt waren heimische Beobachter davon, dass es den japanischen buddhistischen Delegierten gelungen war, sich nicht nur gegenüber der weitaus größeren Zahl christlicher Teilnehmer zu behaupten, sondern außerdem die nationalistischen Bestrebungen des japanischen Volkes in gebührender Weise zum Ausdruck zu bringen. Hirai Kinzô (gestorben 1916), ein buddhistischer Laie, der als einziges Delegationsmitglied fließend Englisch sprach, liefert uns das in dieser Hinsicht beste Beispiel.
Hirai hatte einen Vortrag mit dem Titel »Die wahre Einstellung Japans zum Christentum« gehalten. Zunächst verteidigte er darin das Verbot des Christentums in der Zeit des Tokugawa-Shogunats im 17. Jahrhundert, indem er diese Maßnahme als legitime Reaktion auf die damals durchaus vorhandene Gefahr einer Kolonisierung Japans durch westliche Nationen im Namen des Christentums bezeichnete. Weiterhin erwähnte er, auch in der Meiji-Zeit hätten christliche Nationen sein Land durch Aufzwingen unfairer Verträge bedroht, die jenen Nationen einseitig das Recht der Exterritorialität (der Unantastbarkeit von Ausländern durch japanisches Recht) garantiert hätten. Zum Schluss berief er sich auf Amerikas Gründerväter und auf die Präambel der amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung, um seine Forderung nach wahrer Gleichheit der Nationen zu untermauern.
Hirai war es, wie nur wenigen ausländischen Delegierten außer ihm, gelungen, seine Botschaft erfolgreich zu vermitteln, weil er sich »christlicher« präsentiert hatte als die Christen und »amerikanischer« als die Amerikaner. Die Tatsache, dass das überwiegend amerikanische Publikum Hirai am Ende seiner Rede begeistert applaudiert hatte, wurde in Japan als Beweis dafür angesehen, wie gut Buddhisten die Interessen der Nation im Ausland zu vertreten verstanden.
Aufgrund ihres Erfolgs in Amerika traten die buddhistischen Delegierten, besonders Yatsubuchi Banryû, auf ihren Vortragsreisen durch ganz Japan für eine Intensivierung der buddhistischen Missionsarbeit ein. Yatsubuchi forderte nachdrücklich, dass angehende Missionare zusätzlich zu ihrer strengen spirituellen Erziehung auch Fremdsprachen erlernen und eine gute Allgemeinbildung erhalten sollten. Missionare sollten im Ausland zunächst unter japanischen Immigranten arbeiten, darüber hinaus sah er auch andere nutzbringende Arbeitsmöglichkeiten für sie. Als ob er die zukünftigen Entwicklungen bereits erahnt hätte, schlug er vor, die Missionare könnten die japanische Armee unterstützen, indem sie den Soldaten eine spirituelle Schulung ermöglichten.
»>Blitzend wie ein Schwert und strahlend wie eine Blüte< ... können die kaiserliche Armee und Flotte, so wie die gläubigen Muslime, die die Russen in der Krim besiegten, oder die Soldaten der Honganji, die die Armeen von Nobunaga aufhielten, allen Prüfungen und Unbilden mit Zuversicht und Stärke begegnen.«
Yatsubuchi und seine Kollegen waren nicht die ersten, die die Buddhisten zu missionarischen Aktivitäten aufforderten. Selbst während der schlimmsten Unterdrückung des Buddhismus zu Anfang der Meiji-Zeit hatte sich die Shin-Schule aktiv an den Bemühungen der Meiji-Regierung beteiligt, die Nordinsel von Hokkaido zu kolonisieren, ein Gebiet, das sich nur formell unter japanischer Herrschaft befand. Der Higashi-Honganji-Zweig des Shin hatte zunächst über 100 Priester zu diesem Vorposten im Norden beordert und mehr als 33 000 Ryô (im Jahre 1871 ca. 110 Pfund Gold) für den Bau von Straßen zur Verfügung gestellt. Die Shin-Anhänger versuchten so zu beweisen, dass der Buddhismus dem japanischen Staat durchaus nützlich sein könnte, und sie nahmen dafür in Kauf, dass die Buddhisten in diesem Zusammenhang selbst als Kolonisatoren auftraten."
Abb.: Carl Theodor Strauss
Charles T. [Carl Theodor] Strauss <1852-1937>, ein in Deutschland geborener New Yorker Geschäftsmann jüdischer Eltern, nimmt vor Dharmapala, der in Chicago bei der Theosophischen Gesellschaft über Buddhismus und Theosophie sprach, die dreifache Zuflucht: dies ist die erste formelle Konversion auf amerikanischem Boden.
[Zu Carl Theodor Strauss s. Hecker, Hellmut: Lebensbilder deutscher Buddhisten. - Bd. 2. - S. 252 -254]
Presseecho im September und Oktober 1893 auf Dharmapala:
Das Presseecho gibt zwar nicht die wirklichen Wirkungen wieder, wohl aber ist es eine Bedingung für Bekanntheitsgrad:
- 09.08.93 New York Post: Photographie
- 09.12.93 Sentinel, Milwaukke, Wisconsin
- 09.12.93 Interocean, Chicago: über World's debt to Buddha, I
- 09.13.93 Republican Leader, Lacrosse
- 09.14.93 Journal, Chicago
- 09.15.93 New York Herald
- 09.15.93 Interocean, Chicago
- 09.16.93 San Francisco Call: Dharmapala's Rede über Buddha in Christian Unity Church
- 09.16.93 Times, Leavensworth, Kansas
- 09.17.93 Inquirer, Philadelphia
- 09.17.93 Register, Springfield
- 09.18.93 Tribune, Chicago
- 09.19.93 New York World
- 09.19.93 Journal, Indianapolis
- 09.19.93 Interocean, Chicago: über World's debt to Buddha, II
- 09.20.93 Tribune, Chicago
- 09.20.93 Star, Richmont
- 09.22.93 Standard, Bridgeport
- 09.23.93 Interocean, Chicago
- 09.24.93 Bloomington, Illinois
- 09.26.93 Republican, Williamsport
- 09.28.93 Chicago Herald
- 10.01.93 New York Morning Advertiser
- 10.06.93 San Francisco Call
- 10.09.93 Chronicles, San Francisco. Dharmapalas Rede in Unitarian Church
- 10.09.93 Tribune, Oakland
- 10.09.93 Women's Tribune, Washington
- 10.14.93 The Record, Toledo
[Nach einer Sammlung von Zeitungsausschnitten, die Mr. Strauss gesammelt hatte, und die im Buddhist, Dezember 1893, veröffentlicht wurde. Abegedruckt in: Dharmapala: Return, S. xliii-xlvii]
Dharmapala verließ die USA in San Francisco am 10.Okt. 1893 und kehrte via Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Bangkok nach Colombo zurück. Er versucht in Japan, China und Siam Geld für Bodh Gaya zu bekommen, aber ohne Erfolg. In Ceylon wird er aber mit Elefanten, Trommeln und einer Mönchsprozession empfangen.
In den USA hatte Dharmapala auch Philangi Dasa, den Hrsg. von The Buddhist Ray in Santa Cruz besucht. Er versuchte ihn dazu zu überreden, öffentlich aufzutreten und ein öffentlicher Propagandist des Buddhismus zu werden. Philangi Dasa gab seine Antwort im Buddhist Ray:
"Wir können Bruder Dharmapalas Rat nicht folgen aus den Gründen, die wir ihm nannten, als er in Buddharay war:
- weil unsere Hautfarbe zu hell ist und die Amerikaner uns für irische oder amerikanische hochkastige Brahmanen der Theosophical Society halten würden,
- weil wir keine Beglaubigungsschreiben der Mahatmas aus dem Himalaya haben, wahrlich ein ernsthaftes Hindernis."
Wichtig war das Weltparlament der Religionen auch und für allem in den buddhistischen Ländern Ceylon (s.oben Dharmapalas Empfang in Ceylon) und Japan. Zu Japan folgender Bericht des bedeutenden protestantischen Missionstheoretikers Gustav Warneck (1834 - 1910):
"Ein Echo des Weltreligions=Kongresses aus Japan.
Nach ihrer Rückkehr von Amerika haben die Vertreter des Buddhismus in Japan ihren Landsleuten sehr lehrreiche Berichte erstattet über die Eindrücke, welche sie von dem famosen Weltreligions=Kongress in Chikago erhalten. Die beiden Hauptredner waren Bourin Yatsubuchi, Priester in Kamakura, ein gebildeter Mann, der auch in Chikago das Wort geführt, und Shaku Soyen, der famose Vertreter der »allgemeinen Bruderliebe«, von dem wir bereits S. 126 ein nettes Histörchen erzählt haben, Priester in Kinschin. Der Inhalt ihrer Berichte ist folgender.
"Als wir die Einladung zu dem allgemeinen Religionsparlament erhielten, würden uns unsere buddhistischen Gemeinden nicht als ihre Delegierten abgeordnet haben. Denn die große Majorität derselben befand sich in dem Glauben, es handle sich um eine listige Unternehmung seitens der Christen, um uns entweder lächerlich zu machen oder zu bekehren. Wir gingen also nur als Privatpersonen. Aber eine wunderbare Überraschung wartete unsrer. Unsre Vorurteile waren alle falsch. Das Parlament war zusammenberufen worden, weil die westlichen Nationen überingekommen sind, die Schwäche und Thorheit des Christentums darzustellen (realize), im Ernst durch unsre Religion kennen zu lernen und zu untersuchen, welche die beste Religion sei. Es giebt keinen geeigneteren Ort in der Welt, um die Lehren des Buddhismus zu verbreiten als Amerika. Während der Versammlung wurde ein sehr reicher Mann aus New York ein Buddhist und unsre Aufnahmegebräuche an ihm vollzogen. Er ist ein Mann von großem Einfluss und seine Bekehrung ist gleichbedeutend mit der von 10 000 gewöhnlichen Leuten, so dass wir in Wahrheit sagen können, wir haben in dieser einen Versammlung 10 000 Amerikaner zu Buddhisten gemacht. Das Christentum ist nichts als ein Ornament der Gesellschaft in Amerika. Wahrhaft geglaubt wird es nur von sehr wenigen. Die große Mehrzahl der Christen trinkt, begeht große Verbrechen und führt ein lüderliches Leben, obgleich das Christentum als allgemeiner Glaube gilt und gesellschaftlicher Zierat ist. Sein Mangel an Kraft ist der Beweis seiner Schwäche. Die Versammlungen zeigten die große Überlegenheit des Buddhismus über das Christentum und die bloße Thatsache ihrer Abhaltung bewies, dass die Amerikaner und die andern westlichen Völker den Glauben an das Christentum völlig verloren haben und bereit sind, die Lehren unsrer überlegenen Religion anzunehmen."
Und das wird von der Masse der japanischen Bevölkerung für bare Münze genommen. Man kann kein vernichtenderes Urteil über das Monstrum des Weltreligionskongresses fällen als jener junge gebildete japanische Christ gethan, der zu einem amerikanischen Missionar sagte: "Wie konnten amerikanische Christen einen solchen Missgriff machen, dass sie eine Versammlung beriefen, welche das Christentum so schädigte, und seinen Einfluss in Japan untergrub!" (Indep. 14. Dezember 1893)"
[Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift : Monatshefte für geschichtliche und theoretische Missionskunde. - 21 (1894). - S.186f .]
(Man sollte überhaupt die vielen Missionszeitschriften viel mehr auswerten!)
Der Vorgang, das "Histörchen", auf das sich Warneck beruft:
"Eine Illustration zum Weltreligionskongress
Auf dem von Vancouver nach Yokohama fahrenden Dampfer Empress of India kehrte als Passagier erster Klasse einer der Buddhistenpriester, die am Weltreligionskongress teil genommen, Namens Schaku Soyen, nach Japan zurück. Wie seine Kollegen, so hatte auch er in Chikago die allgemeine Bruderliebe als charakteristische Lehre des Buddhismus mit viel rednerischem Pathos proklamiert. Als Zwischendeckpassagier befand sich auf demselben Schiff ein japanischer Arbeiter, der tödlich erkrankte. Als der ihn behandelnde Schiffsarzt sah, dass dad Ende nahe war und erfuhr, ein buddhistischer Priester sei auf dem Schiff, ließ er Herrn Schaku Soyen bitte, den Sterbenden zu besuchen, um ihn der Tröstungen seiner Religion teilhaftig zu machen. Der Priester that betreffs des Kranken viele Fragen und als er gehört, dass derselbe zur arbeitenden Klasse gehöre, ließ er antworten, es verlohne sich nicht, zu ihm zu gehen. Der Mann starb und seine Leiche wurde in der üblichen Weise ins Meer versenkt. Auch an dieser Ceremonie beteiligte sich der Lobredner der allgemeinen Bruderliebe nicht, obgleich die Leichenbestattung für den Buddhisten eine Angelegenheit von größter religiöser Bedeutung ist. Der Vorgang ist aktenmäßig konstatiert durch einen Brief des betreffenden Schiffsarztes, in welchem derselbe auf ausdrückliches Befragen versichert, dass jedes Missverständnis über das, worum es sich gehandelt, seitens des buddhistischen Priesters ausgeschlossen gewesen sei. (Indep. vom 18. 1 1894)"
[Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift : Monatshefte für geschichtliche und theoretische Missionskunde. - 21 (1894). - S.126]
Unter allen Begegnungen die Soyen Shaku und Dharmapala am Weltparlament hatten, war die für die Geschichte des Buddhismus wichtigste die mit Dr. Paul Carus (1852-1919).
Zu 2.3.: Die ersten europäischen Mönche und Versuche der Gründung eines Vihâra auf dem europäischen Festland