Wilhelm II.: "Völker Europas, wahrt Eure heiligsten Güter!"
Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Materialien zum Neobuddhismus. -- 8. Buddhismus in Indien. -- 1. Bis 1956. -- Fassung vom 2005-07-01. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/neobuddhismus/neobud0801.htm . -- [Stichwort].
Erstmals publiziert: 1996-07-18
Überarbeitungen: 2005-07-01 [Ergänzungen];2005-05-07 [überarbeitet und erweitert]; 2003-07-25 [überarbeitet und stark erweitert]; 1998-07-18
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung Neobuddhismus, Univ. Tübingen, SS 1987, SS 2003
Copyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Buddhismus von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Buddhisten in Indien in den Censusjahren 1951, 1971, 1991
Indien, Prozent der Gesamtbevölkerung
Davon in Maharashtra
Gosain Giri, ein Hindu Mahant, errichtet sein Math in den völlig vergessenen Ruinen des Mahabodhi-Tempels in Bodh Gaya
Abb.: Ausschnitt aus einem der Felsenedikte Ashokas [Bildquelle: http://www.cmp.caltech.edu/~mcc/India/PictureShow/Ashoka_edict.html. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]
James Prinsep (1799—1840) gelingt die Entzifferung der Brahmi-Schrift der Ashoka-Inschriften. Damit beginnt ein neues Zeitalter der Erkundung des indischen Altertums, besonders auch des buddhistischen.
Abb.: James Prinsep [Bildquelle: http://www.picatype.com/dig/da2/da2aa02.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]
"PRINSEP, JAMES (1799—1840), Anglo-Indian scholar and antiquary, was born on the 20th of August 1799. In 1819 he was given an appointment in the Calcutta mint, where he ultimately became assay-master, succeeding H. H. Wilson, whom he likewise succeeded as secretary of the Asiatic Society. Apart from architectural work (chiefly at Benares), his leisure was devoted to Indian inscriptions and numismatics, and he is remembered as the first to decipher and translate the rock edicts of Asoka. Returning to England in 1838 in broken health, he died in London on the 22nd of April 1840. Prinsep’s Ghat, an archway on the bank of the Hugh, was erected to his memory by the citizens of Calcutta."
[Encyclopedia Britannica. -- 1911. -- http://54.1911encyclopedia.org/P/PR/PRINSEP_JAMES.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07}
1861 - 1865, 1871 - 1885
Abb.: Sir Alexander cunningham [Bildquelle: http://www.picatype.com/dig/da2/da2aa03.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]
Alexander Cunningham (1814-1893) ist Director des Archaeological Survey of India. Er entdeckt unzählige alte buddhistische Stätten und bringt so die buddhistische Geschichte Indiens wieder zu Bewusstsein.
"Cunningham (spr. könning-äm), Alexander, namhafter Indianist und Archäolog, geb. 23. Jan. 1814 in London, gest. daselbst 28. Nov. 1893, ward auf dem Christ's Hospital und dem Military College zu Addiscombe gebildet und 1834 zum Adjutanten des Generalgouverneurs von Indien ernannt. Nachdem er 1839 in spezieller Mission in Kaschmir gewesen, wurde er 1840 Ingenieur des Königs von Audh, erhielt 1846 eine Mission nach Tibet und ward 1858 zum Oberingenieur der Nordwestprovinzen sowie 1870 zum archäologischen Generalinspektor von Indien ernannt, legte aber 1885 diese Stelle nieder. um nach England zurückzukehren. Außer antiquarischen Abhandlungen in Zeitschriften und den umfangreichen offiziellen Berichten über die Altertümer von Nordhindostan, die u. d. T.: »Archaeological survey of India« (1871ff., 23 Bde.; Index dazu von V. Smith, Kalkutta 1887) erschienen, hat Cunningham noch verfasst: »Essay on the Arian order of architecture« (1846); »Ladak, physical, statistical and historical« (1854); »The Bhilsa topes« (1854); »Ancient geography of India« (Bd. 1: »The Buddhist period«, 1871); »Corpus inscriptionum indicarum« (Lond. 1878, Bd. 1) u. a."
[Quelle: Meyers großes Konversations-Lexikon. -- DVD-ROM-Ausg. Faksimile und Volltext der 6. Aufl. 1905-1909. -- Berlin : Directmedia Publ. --2003. -- 1 DVD-ROM. -- (Digitale Bibliothek ; 100). -- ISBN 3-89853-200-3. -- s.v.]
Geburt David Hewivitarne, dem späteren Anagarika Dharmapala (1864-1933) in Ceylon
Cunningham, Alexander <1814-1893>: The ancient geography of India.
I. The Buddhist period, including the campaigns of Alexander, and the travels of Hwen-Thsang.. -- London : Trübner, 1871. xx, 589 p.,  leaves of plates (1 folded) : maps. -- [Grundlegend zur Identifikation der alten buddhistischen Stätten]
König Mindon von Burma lässt in Buddha Gaya ein Rest Haus errichten und lässt (ohne großen Erfolg) den Mahabodhi-Tempel reparieren..
Die Zeitung Englishman in Kalkutta veröffentlicht einen Augenzeugenbericht über den Zustand des Heiligtums in Bodh Gaya:
'The whole of the plinth and lower moundings buried under accumulation of rubbish; the floor of the sanctum and of the great hall in front 4 feet lower than the level of
rough stone floor laid by the Burmese, who had partially cleared away the rubbish in front; the great hall roofless; the half hall or porch of the second storey roofless; the whole of the front of the Temple above the third chamber fallen, disclosing a great triangular gap 20 feet high and 12 feet wide at base; the whole of the facade of the platform to the east a mound of ruins; the whole south facade of platform ruinous, but retaining here and there portions of original work; the entire west face of the Temple buried under rubbish".
[Zitiert in: .A panorama of Indian Buddhism : selections from the Mahabodhi journal, 1892-1992 / edited by D.C. Ahir. -- Delhi, India : Sri Satguru Publications, 1995. -- 623 S. -- ISBN 8170304628. -- S. 518f.]
Erster Besuch Dharmapalas in Indien
Der bengalische buddhistische Mönch Kripasaran gründet die Bauddha Dharmankur Sabha (Bengal Buddhist Association)
Mahavira, der erste als Hindu geborene Inder nach langer Zeit, der Mönch wurde, lässt sich in Kushinagar, der völlig ruinierten Stätte des Hinscheidens des Buddha, nieder.
"The first Hindu to become a Buddhist monk in modem times was Mahavira. He was nephew of Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur in Bihar who had taken part in India's Revolt in 1857 against the British rule. Later in life, Mahavira took to wrestling, and while taking part in the wrestling matches, he went to Sri Lanka via Madras. There, he embraced Buddhism and became a Bhikkhu in 1890. He returned to India by way of Burma in 1891, and started living at Kushinara, the site of Buddha's Mahaparinirvana. In 1901, he constructed there a Dharmashala for the convenience of the pilgrims. And in 1902, he constructed a modern Buddha Vihara at Kushinagar, which was in fact the first modern Vihara to be constructed any where in India."
[Ahir, Diwan Chand <1928 - >: Buddhism in modern India. -- Delhi, India : Sri Satguru Publications, ©1991. -- 201 S. -- (Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica ; no. 82). -- ISBN 8170302544. -- S. 97]
Dharmapala bleibt nach der buddhistischen Konferenz in Adyar in Indien. Er reist mit einem der japanischen Mönche durch Indien. Beide hatten Edwin Arnold's Artikel über den Zustand von Bodh Gaya im London Daily Telegraph 1885 gelesen (s. Kapitel 4). Sie besuchen1m 1891-01-22 Bodh Gaya und Dharmapala macht vor dem Bodhi Baum das Gelübde, dass er sein Leben der Aufgabe widmen will, den Heiligen Platz der erlösenden Einsicht Gautamas der Vernachlässigung zu entreißen.
Abb.: Bodh Gaya, Fotografie von Thomas Peppé, 1870
[Bildquelle: Allen, Charles <1940 - >: The search for the Buddha : the men who discovered India's lost religion . -- London ; Murray, ©2002. -- ISBN 0-7195-5425-X. -- Pl. 23]
Dharmapala gründet die Buddha Gaya Maha Bodhi Society (später: Maha Bodhi Society of India)
Cunningham, Alexander <1814-1893>: Mahâbodhi, or the great Buddist temple under the Bodhi tree at Buddha-Gaya. -- London : Allen, 1892. -- 87 S. : 31 Tafeln
Gründung der Buddhist Text Society in Calcutta.
Journal of the Maha Bodhi Society. -- Colombo -- 1.1892 - . -- ISSN 0970-7492
Eröffnung des Hauptquartiers der Maha Bodhi Society in Calcutta
Dharmapala spricht vor dem World's Religions Parliament in Chicago
Siehe dazu: Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Materialien zum Neobuddhismus. -- 2. International. -- 2. Das Weltparlament der Religionen in Chicago 1893. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/neobuddhismus/neobud0202.htm
Auf seiner Anschließenden Welttour trifft er in Honolulu (Hawaii) Frau Mary E. Foster (1844-1930), die später seine wichtigste finanzelle Unterstützerin wurde.
Anstalten, den Buddha Gaya Maha Bodhi Tempel zu restaurieren
Pandit Ayodhya Dasa [Iyothi Thass, Iyothee Thass] gründet in Madras die South India Buddhist Association. In den 1890er-Jahren hat der die Sakya Buddhist Society gegründet.
"He [Iyothee Thass] was born into an untouchable family, and from his own studies concluded that untouchables had originally been Buddhist. Like Dharmapala whom he knew well, he also was encouraged by western Theosophits, notably Colonel H. S. Olcott. He and some other untouchables from Tamil Nadu decided thence forth to call themselves Buddhist, and live accordingly. Although this movement did not spread, it still remains a positive religious and social influence in those areas."
[Quelle: http://www.zennow.org.tw/garden/ten6-1/ten6-1-21/ten6-1-21-12.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-13]
Das neugegründete Department of Buddhist Studies der Calcutta University erteilt den ersten M. A. in Pali an Satish Chandra Vidyabhusan (1870 - 1920)
Eröffnung des ersten neuen Vihâra im modernen Indien: Der indische Mönch Mahavira errichtet ein Kloster (Vihara) in Kushinagar, der Stätte des Hinscheidens des Buddha. Er beginnt auch mit dem Wiederaufbau Kushinagars.
Der bengalische buddhistische Mönch Kripasaran gründet in Calcutta den Dharmankur Vihara. Dieser wird Hauptquartier der Bengal Buddhhist Association. Diese widmet sich besonders den Barua Buddhists, die der Geburt nach Buddhisten sind, aber keine Tradition buddhistischer Lehre mehr hatten.
Pandit Iyothee Thass beginnt mit der Publikation der Wochenzeitschrift tamilischen Oru Paisa Tamizhan
"Oru Paisa Tamizhan
On June, 19, 1907, Pandit Iyothee Thass launched Oru Paisa Tamizhan, a weekly newsmagazine, from his Royapettah Office and printed it at the Buddhist Press of one Thiru Adimoolam. The journal's statement of intent explains; "....some philosophers, natural literateurs got together and published this Oru Paisa Tamizhan in order to teach justice, right path, and truthfulness to people who could not discriminate between the excellent, medicre and the bad". However, Swapneswari Ammal, an early colleague of Iyothess Thass, publisher and editor of a magazine called Tamil Woman, put down the objective of the paper simply as 'to explain and propagate Buddhism'. Of the two, it was probably the editor Iyothee Thass's view that was more accurate. Oru Paisa Tamizhan was, also indeed, a buddhist weekly as Swapneswari Ammal put it; it served as a newsletter linking all the new branches of the Sakya Buddhist Society.
It instructed the neophytes in the tenets, traditions and practices of Tamil buddhism, gave information and reports of the new developments in the buddhist world, sought to interpret the subcontinent's history, in general, and tamilakam's in the particular, from the buddhist point of view, etc. But it was nate national-moral discourse against all forms of brahminism that had gained ascendancy under the colonial regime.
Oru Paisa Tamizhan came out week after week without fail for the rest of Pandit Iyothee Thass's life, carrying a wealth of informations on current events, interpretation of Tamil history, religion and literature and polemics, against the dominant and oppressive religio-cultural discourses of the time. The influence and significance of this modern vehicle of thought went far beyond the narrow confines of religious buddhism. Along with the creation and nurture of a religiously united community cutting across caste barriers it undoubtedly sowed the early seeds of social revolution, cultural renaissance and political movement in colonial tamilakam as a whole.
The role of Pandit Iyothee Thass in wielding this double-edged sword was clearly primary and his initiative certainly bore the marks of charisma. Soon, the eidtor-publisher was able to gather around himself progressive elements from all over the Tamil land - men and women no less erudite and committed to the emancipatory cause of the sub-alternised communities. Regular writers in the opening years of the journal included C.M.E.Murthy, Swapneswari Ammal, T.C.Nayarana Pillay, A.P.Periasswami Pulavar and others. The intellectual contribution of these combined with the material support by scores of others. Thamizhan was shortly transformed into a centre and an institution with a distinct religio-cultural ideology and strategy for social action. "
[Quelle: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/tisexclusive/message/4. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-13]
Der bengalische buddhistische Mönch Kripasaran gibt das erste Heft der Zeitschrift Jagajjyoti heraus. Die Zeitschrift erscheint mit Unterbrechungen bis heute.
Bodhananda (gest. 1952) wird in einem Boot auf dem Ganges zum Mönch ordiniert. Dies war nötig, weil es in ganz Indien keine gültige Sima (Abgrenzung für Rechtshandlungen des Ordens) mehr gab.
"Dharmananda Kosambi was followed by Bodhananda. He was born in a Bengali family in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. His parents passed away when he was just a child. So he came to live with his widow aunt who was residing at Varanasi (Banaras), where he became a Sadhu and was given the name of Nij Bodhananda. In 1896, he met per chance some Buddhist monks from Sri Lanka who were on a pilgrimage to Sarnath. Impressed by their serenity, dignity and way of life, he was attracted to Buddhism. He became a Buddhist monk in 1914, and was the first monk to be ordained in India. As at that time there was no consecrated Seema in India for the ordination of monks, Ven. Bodhananda was ordained in 1914 by Ven. Kripasaran Maha Thera and others in a boat in the Ganges near Calcutta. According to the Vinaya, a Bhikkhu can be ordained on water in the absence of a consecrated land Seema. It is a matter of pride that consecrated Seemas for the Upasampada (ordination) of the monks now exist at Sarnath, the Holy Isipatana, and Kushinagar in U.P. : Dharmankur Vihara, Calcutta and Siliguri in West Bengal, Asoka Mission Vihara, New Delhi, and at a few other places in Assam and Tripura.
In 1916, Ven. Bodhananda founded the Indian Buddhist Society, with headquarters at Lucknow, in order to preach and propagate Buddhism in North India. In 1925, he constructed a beautiful Buddha Vihara at Risaldar Park, Lucknow. He also established a Buddhist Library to which he added a large number of books in Pali, Sanskrit, Bengali, Hindi Urdu, Persian and English. With the establishment of this Vihara and the Library, Lucknow
became a good centre of Buddhism. And over the years, he inspired many persons to come to the refuge of the Buddha. Ven. Bodhananda passed away in 1952."
[Ahir, Diwan Chand <1928 - >: Buddhism in modern India. -- Delhi, India : Sri Satguru Publications, ©1991. -- 201 S. -- (Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica ; no. 82). -- ISBN 8170302544. -- S. 98f.]
Die Maha Bodhi Society wird registrierte Körperschaft
Bodhananda (gest. 1952) gründet die Bhartiya Baudh Samiti (Indian Buddhist Association)
Einweihung des Sri Dharmarajika Chaitya Vihara in Calcutta. Dort werden die Relquien Buddhas, die in Bhattiprolu (Andhra Pradesh) entdeckt worden waren, aufbewahrt.
Dr. Anandarao L. Nair gründet in Bombay die Buddha Society. Diese errichtet 1931 Ananda Vihara in Bombay. Die Gesellschaft versucht durch Traktate und Zeitschriften den Buddhismus in Westindien zu verbreiten.
Der zum Buddhismus konvertierte Herausgeber von Mitavadi C. Krishnan gründet in Calicut die Kerala Buddhist Association. Er wird vom keralischen Mönch Dharmakkhanda bei seinen Missionierungsversuchen unterstützt.
All India Buddhist Conference in den Räumen der Maha Bodhi Society in Calcutta. Es sind fast 300 Delegierte anwesend.
Der sehr angesehene Hindischriftsteller Kedarnath Pandeya (1893 - 1963) wird in Ceylon unter dem Ordensnamen Rahul Sankrityayan zum buddhistischen Mönch ordiniert. Er trat nach einigen Jahren wieder aus dem Orden aus behielt aber den Ordensnamen als Künstlernamen. Rahul Sankrtyayan veröffentlichte ca. 175 Monographien und Broschüren in Hindi.
"Während in den Jahren nach 1932 die These von der Vereinbarkeit des sowjetischen Kommunismus und des Buddhismus aus der Literatur des buddhistischen Modernismus in Indien weitgehend verschwindet, — in der Sowjet-Union selbst war sie von den Kommunisten bekanntlich inzwischen verdammt worden, — blieb ihr ein sehr angesehener Hindi-Schriftsteller auch damals treu. Es handelt sich um Kedârnâth Pândeya. Dieser wurde am 8. April 1893 in Pandhâ (Distrikt Âjamgarh) als Hindu geboren und erhielt 1926 bei seinem ersten Besuch in Ceylon im Vidyâlankâra-Pirivena in Kälaniya die Mönchsweihe und den Namen Râhula Sânkrtyâyana (bzw. Râhula Sankiccâyana), legte aber — unter Beibehaltung dieses Mönchsnamens — nach einigen Jahren die Mönchsrobe wieder ab. Râhula machte dann mehrere Reisen nach Tibet, wo er sich u. a. mit Erfolg der Suche nach Sanskrit-Handschriften buddhistischer Texte widmete, sowie Reisen in die Sowjet-Union. So lud ihn F. Scerbatskoj im Auftrag der sowjetischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1937 nach Russland ein553; er kehrte aber schon 1938 nach Indien zurück554. Nach dem Krieg übernahm er einen Lehrstuhl für Sanskrit in Leningrad und folgte schließlich einem Ruf auf den Lehrstuhl für Philosophie an der Vidyalankâra-Universitât in Kälaniya in Ceylon, wo er bis zu seinem Tode am 14. April 1963 wirkte.
Über seine Bedeutung als indischer Schriftsteller und die wichtigsten seiner Thesen möchte ich die Mitteilungen wiedergeben, die mir Herr Dr. Peter Gaeffke (Utrecht) [1927 - ] dankenswerterweise zur Verfügung gestellt hat:
„Die Bedeutung von Râhul Sânkrtyâyan für die Hindi-Literatur lässt sich schon daran erkennen, dass er verschiedentlich Präsident großer literarischer Tagungen war, so der dreizehnten Tagung der Baliyâ Hindi Pracârini Sabhâ 1936, des Sâran Hindi Sâhitya Sammelan 1938 und mehrerer anderer Konferenzen. Er ist Verfasser einer überaus großen Zahl von Büchern aus den verschiedensten Literaturbereichen und Sachgebieten in Hindi und Bhojpuri (Romane, Erzählungen, Reisebeschreibungen, Schauspiele, Memoiren, Essays, Biographien, historische Werke, philosophische Abhandlungen, Werke über Buddhismus, Literaturgeschichte, Staatslehre, Kommunismus, über die tibetische Sprache, sowie Editionen, Bearbeitungen und Übersetzungen buddhistischer Literaturwerke)."
,Seine historischen Romane sind kein Versuch, der Gegenwart zu entfliehen oder der Gegenwart die Vergangenheit als Vorbild hinzustellen. Er will vielmehr seine auf die Zukunft gerichtete Propaganda durch Beispiele aus der Vergangenheit stützen. Es wäre allzu vereinfachend gesagt, wenn man die von ihm propagierten Ideale einfach mit dem Marxismus gleichsetzen sollte, der eine buddhistische Legitimation vorweist. Wie mir scheint, ist er weder ein richtiger Buddhist noch ein richtiger Kommunist. Wahrscheinlich liegt seine Bedeutung darin, dass er Teile beider „Ideologien" zu einem, bzw. zu einer Art System zusammengebaut hat. Das Ergebnis ist ein typisches Produkt indischer Geisteshaltung."
[Sânkrtyâyana, Râhula <1893-1963>: Simha Senâpati : aitihâsika upanyâsa. -- 3. samskarana. -- Ilâhâbâda : Kitâba Mahala, 1949. -- 316 S.
General Simha : Interpretation und Übersetzung eines historischen Romans / von Rahul Samkrtyayan. Hildegard Fischer. -- Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 1991. -- 371 S. -- (Freiburger Beiträge zur Indologie ; Bd. 25). -- ISBN 3-447-03107-7 . -- Originaltitel: Simha Senapati. -- Zugl.: Freiburg i. Br., Univ., Diss., 1990. -- Aus d. Hindi übers.]
„Sein erster historischer Roman ,Simha Senâpati' (,General Simha', 1942 oder 1944 entstanden) spielt im Milieu des Licchavi-Stammes, dessen Führer Simha Senâpati Stammesdemokratie gegen Königtum in Wort und Tat verteidigt. Das Fachwort ,ganatantra', das ich hier mit 'Stammesdemokratie' wiedergebe, umschreibt etwa folgendes: Freiheit der Frau, Ehre der Arbeit, gemeinsamer Besitz des Eigentums. Irgendwelche Klassen existieren nicht. Das Königtum (râjatantra) hingegen ist gekennzeichnet durch Beschränkung der Freiheit der Frau und ihre Herabwürdigung zu einem Spielzeug des Mannes, durch Entwertung des Menschen im Angesicht des Königs und durch Aufspaltung der Gesellschaft in Klassen und Kasten."
„Weitere Einzelheiten sind nicht nötig, um zu zeigen, dass Râhul Sânkrtyâyan in den beiden Gesellschaftstypen den primitiven Stammeskommunismus und den Feudalismus darstellen wollte. Dabei kann Simha Senâpati als der Prototyp eines Urkommunisten im Sinne Râhul Sânkrtyâyans verstanden werden."
„Auf den letzten Seiten des Romans beschreibt der Autor die Bekehrung seines Helden zum Buddhismus. Dabei wird gezeigt, wie leicht sich ein Angehöriger der 'Stammesdemokratie' gerade dieser Lehre anschließen konnte; denn ein Leben in einer klassenlosen' Gesellschaft und eine religiöse Indifferenz sind nach Meinung des Autors ein guter Boden für den Buddhismus. Die kritische Haltung des Buddha gegen die Brahmanen war, so der Autor, zugleid) ein Kampf gegen die Feinde des Stammeskommunismus, und seine auf ratio (buddhi) und Erfahrung (anubhûti) gegründete Lehre bot eine vernünftigere Möglichkeit, das Leben zu verstehen, als die übrigen zeitgenössischen Religionen. Denn, so heißt es, nur der Buddhismus, der in der Welt und im Leben nichts als eine beständige Veränderung wahrnehmen kann, biete auch Raum für den Gedanken an einen Fortschritt. Derjenige, der das Wesen der Dinge als unveränderlich ansehe, lehre hingegen in Wahrheit, dass es überhaupt kein Leben gäbe."
„Auf diese Weise bemüht sich Râhul Sânkrtyâyan, eine grundlegende Verwandtschaft zwischen dem Buddhismus und der Arischen 'Stammesdemokratie' (d. h. dem Urkommunismus) darzulegen. Man geht sicherlich nicht fehl, wenn man annimmt, dass für den Autor der Buddha der ideale Kommunist seiner Zeit gewesen ist."
[Sankrtyayana, Rahula <1893-1963>: Jaya yaudheya eka aitihasika upanyasa. -- 2. samskarana. -- Ilâhâbada : Kitâba Mahala, 1946. -- 350 S:]
„Sein zweiter historischer Roman ,Jay Yaudheya' (,Lang lebe Yaudheya! 1944) zeigt eine ähnliche Problemstellung, wenn auch in einer anderen historischen Umgebung. Der Roman spielt in der Zeit, in der der Demokratische' Yaudheya-Stamm von Candragupta Vikramâditya unterworfen wird. Die Stammesverfassung der Yaudheyas gleicht der sowjetischen Verfassung (also sangha = Partei). In diesem Buch werden auch metaphysische Fragen behandelt. So heißt es z. B., dass der Bhikshu kein Recht auf das Nirvâna habe, solange auch nur ein Mensch Schmerz erleidet. Die Wiedergeburt wird nur im Sinne des Generationenwechsels verstanden (der Vater ist im Sohn wiedergeboren). In diesem Wechsel seien die Erneuerung des Lebens und Schönheit zu sehen. Sehnsucht nach ewiger Dauer des âtman sei nichts weiter als Todesfurcht. Der Verfasser tritt in diesem Buch auch ausdrücklich für die freie Liebe ein. Unterschiede zur buddhistischen Lehre werden als notwendige Anpassungen des Dogmas an die veränderten historischen Umstände gedeutet. So gesehen ist auch der schließliche Sieg des Feudalismus in diesem Buche eine unausweichliche dialektische Konsequenz."
„ 'Vismrt Yâtri' (,Der vergessene Pilger', 1953—54) ist die Geschichte des buddhistischen Pilgers Narendraya'sa (518—589), der aus dem Svât stammt und in China starb. Zugleich beschreibt der Autor in dem Buche seine eigene Lebensreise in verhüllter Form mit dem Helden als seinem Sprachrohr. Das Lebensziel des Helden ist der Dienst an der Gemeinschaft. Narendraya´sa gelangt nach gründlicher Einsicht in die buddhistische Lehre schließlich zu der Überzeugung, dass die Ursache für das menschliche Leid gesellschaftliche und materielle Ungleichheit' sei, die nur durch eine neue Organisation der Gesellschaft beseitigt werden könne. Das Ziel des Buddhismus, dem Heile vieler Menschen zu dienen, lasse sich aber nur durch die Weltrevolution erreichen."
„Diese wenigen Informationen lassen schon erkennen, dass für Râhul Sânkrtyâyan der Kommunismus wichtiger ist als der Buddhismus und dass für ihn letzterer nur soweit von Belang ist, wie er sich als historisch-dialektisches Argument für den Kommunismus verwenden lässt. Es wäre interessant, im einzelnen zu verfolgen, wie Râhul Sânkrtyâyan seine Abweichungen vom Dogma erklärt. Auch er gehört zu
den modernen Schriftstellern, die große Vokabeln der indischen Geistesgeschichte mit westlichen Ideen anfüllen. Dabei ist sein propagandistisches Ziel, zu zeigen, dass das Beste am Kommunismus in Indien schon seit Urzeiten bekannt sei."
[Bechert, Heinz <1932 - > : Buddhismus, Staat und Gesellschaft in den Ländern des Theravãda-Buddhismus. - Frankfurt a.M. : Metzner. -- Bd. 1., Grundlagen : Ceylon, 1966. -- 374 S. -- (Schriften des Instituts für Asienkunde in Hamburg ; Bd. 17, 1). -- S. 157 - 160]
Anagarika Dharmapala wird in Sarnath zum Novizen ordiniert und erhält den Ordensnamen Siri Devamitta Dharmapala
Abb.: Mulagandha Kuti Vihara
Einweihung des von der Maha Bodhi Society of India errichteten Mulagandha Kuti Vihara in Sarnath.
[Bildquelle: Kantowsky, Detlev <1936 - >: Buddhisten in Indien heute : Beschreibungen, Bilder und Dokumente. -- Konstanz : Univ., Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus", ©1999. -- 216 S. : Ill. -- (Forschungsberichte / Universität Konstanz, Arbeitsbereich Entwicklungsländer, Interkultureller Vergleich, Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus" ; 16). -- Online: http://www.ub.uni-konstanz.de/kops/volltexte/2000/562/. -- Zugriff am 2003-06-05. -- S. 42]
Dharmapala wird zum Mönch mit dem Namen Shri Devamitta Dammapala ordiniert.
Dharmapala stirbt in Sarnath
Abb.: Rabindranath Tagore
Der bengalische Dichter und Denker, Literturnobelpreisträger Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) hält in Bengali eine Rede im Sri Dharmarajika Caityavihara der Mahabodhi Society in Calcutta. Die Rede beginnt (Übersetzung ins Englische):
"On this full-moon day of Vaisakh I have come to join the birthday celebrations of the Lord Buddha, and to bow my head in reverence to him whom I regard in my inmost being as the greatest man ever born on this earth. This is no formal demonstration of adoration on my part, befitting the occasion. I offer him here, today, the homage I have offered him again and again in deep privacy of my soul."
[Journal of the Maha Bodhi Society. -- Vol. 69 (Nov. - Dec. 1961). -- Abgedruckt in: A panorama of Indian Buddhism : selections from the Mahabodhi journal, 1892-1992 / edited by D.C. Ahir. -- Delhi, India : Sri Satguru Publications, 1995. -- 623 S. -- ISBN 8170304628. -- S. 65. -- Dort der ganze Text der Rede in englischer Übersetzung]
Erstes Heft der Zeitschrift in Hindi:Dharmaduta / published by: Bharatiya Mahabodhi Sabha. Organ of the Mahabodhi Society of India. -- Sarnath, Varanasi. -- .Vol. 1-41 ; 1936 bis May/July 1974 (damit Erscheinen eingestellt)
Schlusssätze einer Rede ("Conversion Speech") (in Marathi) von Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956):
"Religion is for man; man is not for religion.
If you want to gain self-respect * change your religion.
If you want to create a cooperating society, change your religion.
If you want power, change your religion.
If you want equality, change your religion.
If you want independence, change your religion.
If you want to make the world in which you live happy, change your religion.
Why should you remain in a religion that does not value your manhood?*
Why should you remain in a religion that does not let you enter its temples?
Why should you remain in a religion that does not give you water to drink?
Why should you remain in a religion that does not let you become educated?
Why should you remain in a religion that bars you from good jobs?
Why should you remain in a religion that dishonors you at every step?
That religion which forbids humanitarian behaviour* between man and man is not religion but a reckless penalty.
That religion which regards the recognition of man's self-respect* as sin is not a religion but a sickness.
That religion which allows one to touch a foul animal but not a man is not a religion but a madness.
That religion which says that one class may not gain knowledge, may not acquire wealth, may not lake up arms, is not a religion but a mockery of man's life.
That religion which teaches that the unlearned should remain unlearned, that the poor should remain poor, is not a religion but a punishment.
Do not say: men who treat animals with more respect than humans and who respect all Brahmans as Gods are religious.
Do not say: men who feed ants with sugar and let men go without water are religious.
Do not say: men who embrace another religion and push their own far from them hate society."
*The Marathi word manuski, a key word in the Mahar movement literature, is used four times in this segment of Ambedkars address. It may be variously translated as humanitarian attitude, self-respect, manhood, humanity. Its literal meaning is "of man".
The excerpt is the end of the speech, arranged as free verse to stress its rhythmic qualities.
[Übersetzt von Eleanor Zelliot. -- Zitiert in: Kantowsky, Detlev <1936 - >: Buddhisten in Indien heute : Beschreibungen, Bilder und Dokumente. -- Konstanz : Univ., Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus", ©1999. -- 216 S. : Ill. -- (Forschungsberichte / Universität Konstanz, Arbeitsbereich Entwicklungsländer, Interkultureller Vergleich, Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus" ; 16). -- Online: http://www.ub.uni-konstanz.de/kops/volltexte/2000/562/. -- Zugriff am 2003-06-05. -- S. 29 f.]
Kalon Tsewang Rigzin und Munshi Sonam Tsewang gründen die Ladakh Buddhist Association
Die Mönche Nandabhansha und Jinaratana gründen die All Assam Buddhist Association
Abb.: Dharmananda Kosambi [Bildquelle: http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/itihas/kosambi.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-10]
Kosambi, Dharmananda <1876-1947>: Bhagavâna Buddha. -- Nâgapûra : Suvicâra Prakâ´sana Mandala, 1940-1941. -- 2 Bde. -- [In Marathi]
Dieses Werk ist das am meisten übersetzte buddhistische Werk in Indien: es wurde durch die Sahitya Akademi in fast alle indischen Sprachen übersetzt.
"Acharya Kosambi : biography of a Great Scholar
by Dr.(Mrs.) Jyotsna Kamat
Our special thanks to Mrs. Leela of University of Mumbai in assistance in this research.
Dharmananda Damodar Kosambi was born in the Sankhval village of Goa in 1876. Goa then was a Portuguese colony and was very backward in education. Smarter boys of good means went to Bombay (present day Mumbai) for higher education or/and proceeded to Portugal for medical degree. Dharma, as he was known, could not get any education at any school for more than three months. His childhood and adolescence was spent watering coconut trees and he was married at the young age of sixteen. His father, Mr. Damodar Shenoy had limited resources. But Dharma went on reading Marathi books and was drawn to Buddha's teachings. He decided to study Buddhism.
However no academic guidance or financial help was forthcoming. He went to Pune to consult with Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar, the great orientalist and Sanskrit scholar. He was advised to go to Benaras to study Sanskrit which could help him in his further study of Pali language and Buddhist texts. Living on alms and undertaking his long journey by foot, Dharma reached Ujjain-Varanasi and was able to study Sanskrit grammar and holy texts with great hardship.
Dharma's main goal was far from being reached. He wanted to study Buddhism in its original form, in Pali. But by then the Pali language had disappeared from India already for centuries along with Buddhism. From Varanasi Dharma went to Nepal hoping to study Buddhism only to face further disappointment.
He returned to Calcutta and came to know that the only way to study Buddhism in its ancient form, in Pali, was to go to Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Determined in his pursuit, he reached Ceylon, where he was admitted to Vidyodaya University. The University was under the charge of Sumangalalacharya, an internationally known scholar of Pali and Buddhism. In only three years Dharma mastered the Pali language and all existing sacred works compiled in three Pitakas. He specialized in Visuddi Magga (Vishuddhi Marga in Sanskrit), a compilation of Buddha's complete teachings, edited by Buddhaghoshain in the 5th century. He became a Buddhist receiving initiation from his great Guru and assumed the name of Dharmananda.
Thereafter he proceeded to Myanmar and undertook comparative study of Buddhist texts in Burmese. Here he met a German Bhikku (Buddhist monk) and both used to converse in English. In a few months Dharmananda could speak fluently in English. By the end of the7th year of his sojourn abroad, he returned to India. In addition to Sanskrit ( specified by Dr. Bhandarkar ) Dharma attained mastery in Pali as well as in Sinhalese and Burmese.
His mastery in Pali brought him a remunerative post of reader at Calcutta University. He returned to a householder's life and brought his wife and daughter Manik to Calcutta. His son Damodar (later Prof. Dr. D. D. Kosambi ), the renowned mathematician, historian, and Sanskrit scholar was born in 1907. However monkshood marked deep Dharma. He was very fond to travel, to see new places, to meet and study people. He wanted to devote his life for the study and the propagation of Buddhism. Hence he gave up his university job to accept a research fellowship of fifty rupees per month and proceeded to Baroda. He started touring and lecturing in Western India and landed in Bombay.
At that time Dr. James Wood from Harvard University was in Bombay and was looking for a scholar adept in Sanskrit, Ardhamagadhi, and Pali. Dharma Kosambi met all the requirements and was invited to Harvard to help edit and translate Visudalhi Marga into English. There Kosambi not only completed successfully the job, but studied the Russian language and Marx's teachings on his own. Later he went to Soviet Russia and taught Pali at the Leningrad University. By the time he returned to India the freedom struggle was at its peak. Under Gandhi's influence he took a teaching assignment, without remuneration, at the Gujarat University. However, the call of freedom was too tempting. He started recruiting volunteers for Salt Satyagraha where he also participated. In return he got six years of imprisonment.
But nevertheless his research and translations of Buddhist works continued. Until then Buddhism was known to outsiders only through the translations and interpretations of Westerners. Acharya Kosambi's interpretation was purely Indian, rooted in his knowledge of Sanskrit and Pali. He was fearless and honest to the core and many of his conclusions angered the traditionalists, including some Buddhists and Jains. But nobody could dare question his scholarship. He continued to translate many Buddhist and Jain works with detailed notes.
Perhaps the long association with these two religions left an unusual mark on Dharma. First he renounced the world. Then he wanted to give up life by practicing prayo pavesa. But Gandhiji prevented him at this stage. He then founded Bahujanavihara, a shelter house for Buddhist monks in Bombay, which received people from all over the world.
Goa's status as a Portuguese colony always pained him. He wanted to start a freedom movement in his motherland, like Gandhiji did, but he was getting old. The time of privation and hardship has taken its toll. He was bent on fast unto death and breathed his last at Sevagram on the 5th of June 1947 just two and a half months before the Indian Independence Day. Gandhiji, who was in Delhi at the time, paid a lasting tribute to Acharya Dharmananda Kosambi during the prayer meeting of that evening.
Kosambi's 'Bhagavan Buddha', written originally in Marathi, is translated in English and in all Indian languages by Central Sahitya Academy- New Delhi. Kosambi also authored eleven books on Buddhism and Jainism. His autobiography in Marathi, 'Nivedan' gives glimpses on the social life in Goa at the tail end of the 19th century, besides providing insight of a rare genius who weathered all storms in life, without any resources, background, or encouragement, but attained his goal. His education started at the age of twenty-three and he earned name and fame in two ideologically opposite countries at the time: United States and Soviet Russia. But, until his last, he was a follower of Buddha and of Ahimsa (non-violence)."
[Quelle: http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/itihas/kosambi.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-10]
Kushak Bakula gründet die Himalayan Buddhist Society, Kulu/Manali
Abb.: Moderne Hindi-Postkarte mit Dr. Ambedkars Vermächtnis an die Jugend: "My final words of advice to you is educate, agitate and organise, have faith in yourself."
[Bildquelle: Kantowsky, Detlev <1936 - >: Buddhisten in Indien heute : Beschreibungen, Bilder und Dokumente. -- Konstanz : Univ., Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus", ©1999. -- 216 S. : Ill. -- (Forschungsberichte / Universität Konstanz, Arbeitsbereich Entwicklungsländer, Interkultureller Vergleich, Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus" ; 16). -- Online: http://www.ub.uni-konstanz.de/kops/volltexte/2000/562/. -- Zugriff am 2003-06-05. -- S. 107]
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956) gründet in Bombay die People's Education Society. Diese gründet unter anderem folgende Bildungseinrichtungen:
- 1946 Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Bombay
- 1951 Milind Mahavidyalaya, Auranbgabad
- 1953 Siddharth College of Comerce and Economics, Bombay
- 1955 Milind Multi-Purpose High School, Aurangabad
- 1956 Siddharth College of Law, Bombay
- 1968 Dr. Ambedkar College of Law, Aurangabad
- 1972 Dr. Ambedkar College of Commerce and Economics, Wadala
- 1977 Dr. Ambedkar College of Law, Wadala
Der neue Staat hat in seinen nationalen Emblemen -- wohl auf Betreiben von Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956) -- buddhistische Symbole:
Nationalfahne: buddhistisches Rad der Lehre
Abb.: Nationalfahne Indiens
Wappen: Löwenkapitel Ashokas, das darstellt, dass Buddhas Rede bei Göttern einen solchen Schrecken verbreitete wie das Gebrüll eines Löwen, da sie erkannten, dass auch sie vergänglich sind.
Abb.: Wappen Indiens
Über 50.000 Personen begrüßen in Patna begeistert, die Reliquien von Buddhas Hauptjüngern, Sariputta und Moggallana, die 1851 von Alexander Cunningham in Sanchi bei der Öffnung eines Stupa entdeckt und nach London ans Victoria and Albert Museum gesandt worden waren. Die Britische Regierung übergab diese Reliquien auf Bitte der Maha Bodhi Society im Januar 1949 an Indien.
Bodh Gaya Temple Act (Bihar Act 17 of 1949) wird verabschiedet. Es wird für den Mahabodhi-Tempel ein Temple Management Committee konstituiert, das von der Regierung Bihars für jeweils drei Jahre eingesetzt wird:
THE BODHGAYA TEMPLE ACT, 1949 (BIHAR ACT 17 OF 1949)
(as modified up to the 8th February, 1955)
An Act to make provision for the better management of the Bodh Gaya Temple and the properties appertaining thereto.
Whereas it is expedient to make provision for the better management of the Bodh Gaya Temple and properties appertaining thereto.
It is hereby enacted as follows :
- (1) As soon as may be after the commencement of this the [State] Government shall constitute a committee as hereinafter provided and entrust it with the management and control of the temple land and the properties appeartaining thereto.
- (2) The Committee shall consist of a Chairman and eight members nominated by the [State] Government, all of whom shall be Indians and of whom four shall be Buddhists and four shall be Hindus including the Mahanth:
- Provided that if the Mahanth is a minor or of unsound mind or refuses to serve on the committee, another Hindu member shall be nominated in his place.
- (3) The District Magistrate of Gaya shall be the ex-officio Chairman of the Committee: Provided that the [State] Government shall nominate a Hindu as Chairman of the Committee for the period during which the district Magistrate of Gaya is non-Hindu.
- (4) The [State] Government shall nominate a person from among the members to act as Secretary of the Committee.
4. The Committee shall be a body corporate by the name of the Bodh Gaya Temple Management Committee, having perpetual succession and a common seal, with power to acquire and hold property, both movable and immovable, and to contract, and shall by the said name sue or be sued.
5. (1) The term of office of the members of the committee shall be three years :<
10. Subject to the provisions of this Act or of any rules made thereunder, it shall be the duty of the Committee -
- (1) to arrange for -
- (a) the upkeep and repair of the temple ;
- (b) the improvement of the temple land ;
- (c) the welfare and safety of the pilgrims ; and
- (d) the proper performance of worship at the temple and pindadan (offering of pindas) on the temple land ;
- (2) to prevent the descration of the temple or any part thereof or of any image therein;
- (3) to make arrangements for the receipt and disposal of the offerings made in the Temple, and for the safe custody of the statements of accounts and other documents relating to the temple or the temple land and for the preservation of the property appertaining to the temple;
- (4) to make arrangement for the custody, deposit and investment of funds in its hand; and
- (5) to make provision for the payment of suitable emoluments to its salaried staff.
- (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or in the rules framed thereunder, Hindus and Buddhists of every sect shall have access to the temple and the temple land for the purpose of worship or pindadan.
Provide that nothing in this Act shall entitle any person to perform animal sacrifice or to bring any alcoholic liqueur within the temple or on the temple land, or to enter the temple with shoes on.
- (2) If any person contravenes the provisions of the proviso to sub-Section (1), he shall be punishable with fine not exceeding fifty rupees.
12. Notwithstanding anything contained in any enactment for the time being in force, if there be any dispute between Hindus and Buddhists regarding the manner of using the temple or the temple land, the decision of the [State] Government shall be final.
13. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or in the rules made thereunder, the Committee shall have no jurisdiction over the movable or immorable property of the Saivite Monastery of Bodh Gaya.
- (1) The [State] Government may constitute an Advisory Board (hereinafter referred to in this Act as the "Board") which shall consist of such number of members as the [State] Government may determine.
- (2) The majority of the members of such Board shall be Buddhists who may not all be Indians.
- (3) The members of the Board shall hold office for such term as may be fixed by the [State] Government.
- (4) The Board shall function purely as an Advisory body to the Committee and shall discharge its furctious in the ......... prescribed by the [State] Government by rules made...... behalf.
[Quelle: http://www.mahabodhi.com/en/b-gaya_tempact.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-13. -- Dort ganzes Gesetz samt Nebengesetzen]
Abb.: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar / Zeichnung von Thorsten Fessel, ©1996
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956) macht in einem Zeitschriftenartikel bekannt, dass er in Indien den Buddhismus wiederbeleben will:
"Buddha and the Future of His Religion
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
Out of the many founders of Religion there are four whose religions have not only moved the world in the past but are still having a sway over vast masses of people. They are Buddha, Jesus, Mohammed and Krishna. A comparison of the personalities of these four and the poses they assumed in propagating their religions reveals certain points of contrast between the Buddha on the one hand and the rest on the other which are not without significance.
The first point which marks off Buddha from the rest is his self abnegation. All throughout the Bible, Jesus insists that he is the son of God and that those who wish to enter the kingdom of God will fail if they do not recognise him as the son of God. Mohammed went a step further. He claimed that he was the messenger of God on earth but he insisted that he was the last messenger. On that footing he declared that those who wanted salvation must not only accept that he was a messenger of God but also accept that he was the last messenger. Krishna went a step beyond both Jesus and Mohammed. He refused to be satisfied with merely being the son of God or being the messenger of God; not even with being the last messenger of God. He was not even satisfied with calling himself a God. He claimed that he was "Paramaeshwar" or as his followers describe him Devadhideva'. God of Gods. Buddha never arrogated to himself any such status. He was born a son of man and was content to remain a common man and preached his gospel as a common man. He never claimed any supernatural origin or supernatural powers nor did he perform miracles to prove his supernatural powers. The Buddha made a clear distinction between a Margadata and a Mokshadata. Jesus, Mohammed and Krishna claimed for themselves the role of Mokshadata. The Buddha was satisfied with playing the role of a. Margadata.
There is also another distinction between the four religious teachers. Both Jesus and Mohammed claimed that what they taught was the word of God and as a word of God what they taught was infallible and beyond question. Krishna was according to his own assumption a God of Gods and therefore what he taught being a word of God uttered by God they were original and final and the question of infallibility did not even arise. The Buddha claimed no such infallibility for what he taught. In the Mahaparinibbana Sutta he told Ananda that his religion was based on reason and experience and that his followers should not accept his teaching as correct and binding merely because they emanated from him. Being based on reason and experience they were free to modify or even to abandon any of his teachings if it was found that at a given time and in given circumstances they did not apply. He wished, his religion not to be encumbered with the dead wood of the past. He wanted that it should remain evergreen and serviceable at all times. That is why he gave liberty to his followers to chip and chop as the necessities of the case required. No other religious teacher has shown such courage. They were afraid of permitting repair. For they were afraid that the liberty to repair may be used to demolish the structure they had reared. Buddha had no such fear. He was sure of his foundation. He knew that even the most violent iconoclast will not be able to destroy the core of his religion.
Such is the unique position of Buddha. What about his Religion? How does it compare with those founded by his rivals?
Let us first compare Buddhism with Hinduism. In the short space available the comparison must be limited to a few important points indeed only to two.
Hinduism is a religion which is not founded on morality. Whatever morality Hinduism has it is not as integral part of it. It is not imbedded in Religion. It is a separate force which is sustained by social necessities and not by the injunction of Hindu religion. The Religion of the Buddha is morality. It is imbedded in religion. Buddhist religion is nothing if not morality. It is true that in Buddhism there is no God. In place of God there is morality. What God is to other religions, morality is to Buddhism.
It is very seldom recognised that he propounded a most revolutionary meaning of the word "Dhamma." The Vedic meaning of the word "Dhamma" did not connote morality in any sense of the word. The Dharma as enunciated by the Brahmins and as propounded in the Purvamimamsa of Jaimini meant nothing more than the performance of certain Karmas or to use the terminology of the Roman religion observances. Dharma to the Brahmins meant keeping up observances i.e., Yagna and Yagas and sacrifices to Gods. This was the essence of the Brahmanic or Vedic Religion. It had nothing to do with morality.
The word Dhamma as used by the Buddha, had nothing to do with rituals or observances. In fact he repudiated the Yagas and Yagnas as being essence of religion. In place of Karma he substituted morality as the essence of Dhamma. Although the word Dhamma was used both by the Brahmanic teachers as well as by the Buddha, the content of both is radically and fundamentally different. In fact, it might be stated that the Buddha was the first teacher in the world who made morality the essence and foundation of religion.
Even Krishna as may be seen from the Bhagavat Geeta was not able to extricate himself from the old conception of religion being equivalent of rituals and observances. Many people seem to be lured by the doctrine of Nishkam Karma otherwise called Anaskatiyoga preached by Krishna in the Bhagavat Geeta. It is taken to mean Boyscout sense of doing good without the expectation of reward. This interpretation of the Nishkam Karma is a complete misunderstanding of what it really means. The word Karma in the phrase Nishkam Karma does not mean action in the generic sense of the word Karma meaning 'deed.' It is used in its original sense - sense in which it is used by the Brahmins and by Jaimini. On the point of observances there is only one point of difference between Jaimini and the Bhagavat Geeta. The observances which used to be performed by the Brahmins fall into two classes :
- Nitya Karmas and
- Naimitika Karmas
The Nitya Karmas were observances which were enjoined to be performed regularly for which reasons they were called Nitya and as a matter of religious duty, for which there was not to be any expectation of reward. On that account they were also called Nishkam Karmas. The other category of Karmas was called Naimitika that is to say they were performed whenever there was occasion, that is, whenever there was a desire to perform them and they were called Kamya Karmas because from their performance some benefit was expected to come. What Krishna condemned in the Bhagavat Geeta was Kamya Karmas. He did not condemn Nishkama Karmas. On the other hand he extolled them. The point to be borne in mind is even for Krishna religion did not consist of morality. It consisted of Yagnas and Yagas though of the Nishkama Karma category.
This is one point of contrast between Hinduism and Buddhism. The second point of contrast lies in the fact that the social gospel of Hinduism is inequality. For the doctrine of Chaturvarna is the concrete embodiment of the social gospel of inequality.
On the other hand Buddha stood for equality. He was the greatest opponent of Chaturvarna. He not only preached against it, fought against it and did every thing to uproot it. According to Hinduism neither a Shudra nor a woman could become a teacher of religion nor could they take Sanyasa and reach God. Buddha on the other hand admitted Shudras to the Bhikshu Sangha. He also permitted women to become Bhikshunis. Why did he do so? Few people seem to realise the importance of this step. The answer is that Buddha wanted to take concrete steps to destroy the gospel of inequality. Hinduism had to make many changes in its doctrines as a result of an attack made by Buddha. It gave up Himsa. It was prepared to give up the doctrine of the infallibility of the Vedas.
On the point of Chaturvarna neither side was prepared to yield. Buddha was not prepared to give up his opposition to the doctrine of Chaturvarna. That is the reason why Brahmanism has so much more hatred and antagonism against Buddhism than it has against Jainism. Hinduism had to recognize the force of the Buddha's arguments against Chaturvarna. But instead of yielding to its logic Hinduism developed a new philosophic justification for Chaturvarna.
This new philosophic justification is to be found in the Bhagavat Geeta. Nobody is able to say for certain what the Bhagavat Geeta teaches. But this much is beyond question that the Bhagavat Geeta upholds the doctrine of Chaturvarna. In fact it appears that this was the main purpose for which it was written. And how does the Bhagavat Geeta justify it? Krishna says that he as God created the system of Chaturvarna and he constructed it on the basis of the theory of Guna-karma - which means that he prescribed the status and occupation of every individual in accordance with his inborn gunas (or qualities).
Two things are clear. One is that this theory is new. The old theory was different. According to the old theory the foundation of Chaturvarna was the authority of the Vedas. As the Vedas were infallible so was the system of Chaturvarna on which it rested. The attack of the Buddha on the infallibility of the Vedas had destroyed the validity of this old foundation of Chaturvarna.
It is quite natural that Hinduism which was not prepared to give up Chaturvarna and which it regarded as its very soul should attempt to find for it a better foundation which the Bhagavat Geeta proposes to do. But how good is this new justification given by Krishna in the Bhagavat Geeta? To most Hindus it appears to be quite convincing, so that they believe it to be irrefutable. Even to many non-Hindus it appears to be very plausible, very enticing. If the Chaturvarna had depended only on the authority of the Vedas I am sure it would have long disappeared. It is the mischievous and false doctrine of the Bhagavat Geeta which has given this Chaturvarna - which is the parent of the caste-system - apparently a perpetual lease of life. The basic conception of this new doctrine is taken from the Sankhya philosophy. There is nothing original about it.
The originality of Krishna lies in applying it to justify Chaturvarna. It is in its application that the fallacy lies. Kapila, the author of the Sankhya system held that there is no God, that God is necessary because matter is believed to be dead. Matter is not dead. It is active. Matter consists of three Gunas : Rajas, Tamas and Sattva. Prakriti appears to be dead only because the three Gunas are in equilibrium. When the equilibrium is disturbed by one of the Guna becoming dominant over the other two, Prakriti becomes active. This is the sum and substance of the Samkhya Philosophy.
There can be no quarrel with this theory. It is perhaps true. It may therefore be granted that each individual as form of Prakriti is made up of the three Gunas. It may even be granted that among the three Gunas there is a competition for dominance one over the other. But how could it be granted that a particular guna in a particular individual which at one time - say at the time of his birth -happens to dominate his other Gunas will continue to dominate them for all times, till his death? There is no ground for this assumption either in the Samkhya Philosophy or in actual experience. Unfortunately neither Hitler nor Mussolini were born when Krishna propounded his theory.
Krishna would have found considerable difficulty in explaining how a signboard painter and a brick-layer could become dictators capable of dominating the world. The point of the matter is that the Prakriti of an individual is always changing because the relative position of the gunas is always changing. If the Gunas are ever changing in their relative position of dominance there can be no permanent and fixed system of classification of men into Varnas and no permanent and fixed assignment of occupation. The whole theory of the Bhagavat Geeta falls to the ground. But as I have said the Hindus have become infatuated by its plausibility and its "goodlook" and have become slaves of it. The result is that Hinduism continues to uphold the Varna system with its gospel of social inequality. These are two of the evils of Hinduism from which Buddhism is free.
Some of those who believe that only the acceptance of the Gospel of Buddha can save the Hindus are filled with sorrow because they do not see much prospect of the return or revival of Buddhism in India, I do not share this pessimism.
In the matter of their attitude to their religion Hindus today fall into two classes. There are those who hold that all religions are true including Hindus and the leaders of other religions seem to join them in the slogan. There cannot be a thesis more false than the thesis that all religions are true. However this slogan gives the Hindus who have raised it the support of the followers of other religions. There are Hindus who have come to realize that there is something wrong with their religion.
The only thing is that they are not ready to denounce it openly. This attitude is understandable. Religion is part of one's social heritance. One's life and dignity and pride are bound up with it. It is not easy to abandon it. Patriotism comes in. "My country" right or wrong so also "my religion" right or wrong. Instead of abandoning it the Hindus are finding escape in other ways. Some are consoling themselves with the thought that all religions are wrong, so why bother about religion at all. The same feeling of patriotism prevents them from openly embracing Buddhism. Such an attitude can have only one result. Hinduism will lapse and cease to be at force governing life. There will be a void which will have the effect of disintegrating the Hindu Society. Hindus then will be forced to take a more positive attitude. When they do not, they can turn to nothing except Buddhism.
This is not the only ray of hope. There is hope coming from other quarters also.
There is one question which every religion must answer. What mental and moral relief does it bring to the suppressed and the downtrodden? If it does not then it is doomed. Does Hinduism give any mental and moral relief to the millions of Backward Classes and the Scheduled Castes? It does not. Do Hindus expect these Backward Classes and the Scheduled Castes to live under Hinduism which gives them no promise of mental and moral relief?
Such an expectation would be an utter futility. Hinduism is floating on a volcano. Today it appears to be extinct. But it is not. It will become active once these mighty millions have become conscious of their degradation and know that it is largely due to the social philosophy of the Hindu Religion. One is reminded of the overthrow of Paganism by Christianity in the Roman Empire. When the masses realized that Paganism could give them no mental and moral relief they gave it up and adopted Christianity. What happened in Rome is sure to happen in India. The Hindu masses when they are enlightened are sure to turn to Buddhism.
So much by way of comparison between Hinduism and Buddhism. How does Buddhism stand in comparison with other non-Hindu Religions. It is impossible to take each of these non-Hindu Religions and compare it with Buddhism in detail. All I can do is to put my conclusions in a summary form. I maintain that-
- That society must have either the sanction of law or the sanction of morality to hold it together. Without either society is sure to go to pieces.In all societies law plays a very small part. It is intended to keep the minority within the range of social discipline. The majority is left and has to be left to sustain its social life by the postulates and sanction of morality. Religion in the sense of morality, must therefore remain the governing principle in every society.
- Religion as defined in the first proposition must be in accord with science. Religion is bound to lose respect and therefore become the subject of ridicule and thereby not merely lose its force as a governing principle of life but might in course of time disintegrate and lapse if it is not in accord with science. In other words, religion if it is to function, must be in accord with reason which is merely another name for science.
- Religion as a code of morality, must also stand together another test. It is not enough for religion to consist of a moral code, but its moral code must recognise the fundamental tenets of liberty, equality and fraternity. Unless a religion recognises these three fundamental principles of social life, religion will be doomed.
- Religion must not sanctify or ennoble poverty. Renunciation of riches by those who have it may be a blessed state. But poverty can never be. To declare poverty to be a blessed state is to pervert religion, to perpetuate vice and crime, to consent to make earth a living hell.
Which religion fulfils these requirements? In considering this question it must be remembered that the days of the Mahatmas are gone and the world cannot have a new Religion. It will have to make its choice from those that exist. The question must therefore be confined to existing religions.
It may be that one of the existing religions satisfies one of these tests, some two. Question is - Is there any religion which satisfies all the tests? So far as I know the only religion which satisfies all these tests is Buddhism. In other words Buddhism is the only religion which the world can have. If the new world - which be it realised is very different from the old - must have a religion - and the new world needs religion far more than the old world did - then it can only be the religion of the Buddha.
All this may sound very strange. This is because most of those who have written about Buddha have propagated the idea that the only thing Buddha taught was Ahimsa. This is a great mistake. It is true Buddha taught Ahimsa. I do not wish to minimise its importance. For it is a great doctrine, the world will not be saved unless it follows it. What I wish to emphasize is that Buddha taught many other things besides Ahimsa. He taught as part of his religion, social freedom, intellectual freedom, economic freedom and political freedom. He taught equality, equality not between man and man only but between man and woman. It would be difficult to find a religious teacher to compare with Buddhas whose teachings embrace so many aspects of the social life of a people and whose doctrine are so modern and whose main concern was to give salvation to man in his life on earth and not to promise it to him in heaven after he is dead!
How could this ideal of spreading Buddhism be realized? Three steps appears to be quite necessary.
- First - To produce a Buddhist Bible.
- Second - To make changes in the organisation, aims and objects of the Bhikkshu Sangha.
- Third - To set up a world Buddhist Mission.
The production of a Bible of Buddhism is the first and foremost need. The Buddhist literature is a vast literature. It is impossible to expect a person who wants to know the essence of Buddhism to wade through the sea of literature.
The greatest advantage which the other religions have over Buddhism is that each has a gospel which every one can carry with him and read wherever he goes. It is a handy thing. Buddhism suffers for not having such a handy gospel. The Indian Dhammapada has failed to perform the function which a gospel is expected to. Every great religion has been built on faith. But faith cannot be assimilated if presented in the form of creeds and abstract dogmas. It needs something on which the imagination can fasten, some myth or epic or gospel—what is called in Journalism a story. The Dhammapada is not fastened around a story. It seeks to build faith on abstract dogmas.
The proposed Gospel of Buddhism should contain
- a short life of Buddha
- The Chinese Dhammapada (
- Some of the important Dialogues of Buddha
- Buddhist Ceremonies, birth, initiation, marriage and death.
In preparing such a gospel the linguistic side of it must not be neglected. It must make the language in which it is produced live. It must become an incantation instead of being read as narrative or ethical exposition. Its style must be lucid, moving and must produce an hypnotic effect.
There is a world's difference between a Hindu Sannyasi and a Buddhist Bhikkshu. A Hindu Sannyasi has nothing to do with the world. He is dead to the world. A Bhikkshu has every thing to do with the world. That being so a question arises. What was the purpose for which Buddha thought of establishing the Bhikkshu Sangha? What was the necessity for creating a separate society of Bhikkshus? One purpose was to set up a society which would live upto the Buddhist ideal embodied in the principles of Buddhism and serve as a model to the laymen. Buddha knew that it was not possible for a common man to realize the Buddhist ideal.
But he also wanted that the common man should know what the ideal was and also wanted there should be placed before a common man a society of men who were bound to practise his ideals. That is why he created the Bhikkshu Sangha and bound it down by the rules of Vinaya. But there were other purposes which he had in mind when he thought of founding the Sangha. One such purpose was to create a body of intellectuals to give the laymen true and impartial guidance. That is the reason why he prohibited the Bhikkshus from owning property. Ownership of property is one of the greatest obstacles in free thinking and free application of free thought. The other purpose of Buddha of founding the Bhikkshu Sangha was to create a society the members of which would be free to do service to the people. That is why he did not want the Bhikshus to marry.
Is the Bhikkshu Sangha of today living up to these ideals? The answer is emphatically in the negative. It neither guides the people nor does it serve them.
The Bhikkshu Sangha in its present condition can therefore be no use for the spread of Buddhism. In first place there are too many Bhikkshus. Of these a very large majority are merely Sadhus and Sanyasis spending their time in meditation or idleness. There is in them neither learning nor service. When the idea of service to suffering humanity comes to one's mind every one thinks of the Ramakrishna Mission. No one thinks of the Buddhist Sangha. Who should regard service as its pious duty? The Sangha or the Mission. There can be no doubt about the answer. Yet the Sangha is a huge army of idlers.
We want fewer Bhikkshus and we want Bhikkshus highly educated. Bhikkshu Sangha must borrow some of the features of the Christian priesthood particularly the Jesuits. Christianity has spread in Asia through service - educational and medical. This is possible because the Christian priest is not merely versed in religious lore but because he is also versed in Arts and Science. This was really the ideal of the Bhikkshus of olden times. As is well-known the Universities of Nalanda and Taxila were run and manned by Bhikshus.
Evidently they must have been very learned men and knew that social service was essential for the propagation of their faith. The Bhikkshus of today must return to the old ideal. The Sangha as composed cannot render this service to the laity and cannot therefore attract people to itself.
Without a Mission Buddhism can hardly spread. As education requires to be given religion requires to be propagated. Propagation cannot be undertaken without men and money. Who can supply these? Obviously countries where Buddhism is a living religion. It is these countries which must find the men and money at least in its initial stages. Will they? There does not seem to be much enthusiasm in these countries for the spread of Buddhism.
On the other hand time seems quite propitious for the spread of Buddhism. There was a time when religion was part of one's own inheritance. A boy or a girl inherited the religion of his or her parent along with the property of the parent. There was no question of examining the merits and virtues of religion. Sometimes the heir did question, whether the property left by the parents was worth taking. But no heir was there to question whether the religion of his or her parents was worth having.
Time seems to have changed. Many persons throughout the world have exhibited an unprecedented piece of courage with regard to inheritance of their religion. Many have, as a result of the influence of scientific enquiry, come to the conclusion that religion is an error, which ought to be given up. There are others who as a result of the Marxian teaching have come to the conclusion that religion is an opium which induces the poor people to submit to the domination of the rich and should be discarded. Whatever be the causes the fact remains that people have developed an inquiring mind in respect of religion. And the question whether religion is at all worth having and if so which religion is worth having, are questions which are uppermost
in the minds of those who dare to think about this subject.
Time has come. What is wanted is will. If the countries which are Buddhist can develop the will to spread Buddhism the task of spreading Buddhism will not be difficult. They must realize that the duty of a Buddhist is not merely to be a good Buddhist. His duty is to spread Buddhism. They must believe that to spread Buddhism is to serve mankind.
[Journal of the Maha Bodhi Society. -- April - May, 1950. -- Abgedruckt in: A panorama of Indian Buddhism : selections from the Mahabodhi journal, 1892-1992 / edited by D.C. Ahir. -- Delhi, India : Sri Satguru Publications, 1995. -- 623 S. -- ISBN 8170304628. -- S. 29 - 43]
Abb.: Devotionalbild: das Leben Dr. Ambedkars (Original farbig)
[Bildquelle: Beltz, Johannes <1967 - >: Mahar, Bouddhiste et Dalit : conversion religieuse et émancipation sociopolitique dans l'Inde des castes. -- Bern [u.a.] : : Lang, ©2001. -- 380 S. : Ill. -- (Studia religiosa Helvetica : Series altera ; 5). -- Zugl.: Lausanne, Univ., Diss., 2000. -- ISBN 3-906766-23-3. -- S. 76]
Born at Mahu (Madhya Pradesh), the fourteenth child of Subhedar Ramji Sapkal and Mrs Bhimabai Ambedkar. 1896
Death of the mother, Mrs Bhimabai Ambedkar 1900
Entered the Government High School at Satara. 1904
Entered the Elphinstone High School at Bombay. 1906
Married Ramabhai daughter of Mr. Bhiku Walangkar, one of the relations of Gopal Baba Walangkar
Passed Matriculation Examination, secured 382 marks out of 750.
Honoured in a meeting presided over by Shri S K Bole, Shri K A (Dada) Keluskar Guruji presented a book on the life of Gautam Buddha written by him. Entered the Elphinstone College, Bombay.
Birth of the son Yeshwant.
Passed B.A Examination with Persian and English from University of Bombay, secured 449 marks out of 1000.
Death of father Subhedar Ramji Maloji Ambedkar at Bombay.
Gaikwar's Scholar in the Columbia University, New York, reading in the Faculty of Political Science. 1915
Passed M.A. Examination majoring in Economics and with Sociology, History Philosophy, Anthropology and Politics as
the other subjects of study.
Read a paper on The Castes in India' before Prof. Goldernweiser's Anthropology Seminar. The paper was later published in The Indian Antiquary in May 1917. It was also republished in the form of a brochure, the first published work of Dr Ambedkar. Wrote a Thesis entitled 'The National Divident of India – A Historical and Analytical Study' for the Ph.D Degree. 1916
Left Colombia University after completing work for the Ph.D, to join the London School of Economics and Political Science, London as a graduate student. 1917
Columbia University conferred a Degree of Ph.D. 1917
Return to India after spending a year in London working on the thesis for the M.Sc. (Econ) Degree. The return before completion of the work was necessitated by the termination the scholarship granted by the Baroda State. 1917
Appointed as Military Secretary to H.H. the Maharaja Gaikwar of Baroda with a view Finance Minister. But left shortly due to ill. Treatment meted out to him because of his lowly caste.
Published "Small Holdings in India and Their Remedies".
Gave evidence before the Southborough Commission on Franchise. Attended the Conference of the depressed
Classes held at Nagpur.
Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics, Bombay. 1920
Started a Marathi Weekly paper Mooknayak to champion the cause of the depressed classes. Shri Nandram Bhatkar was the editor, later Shri Dyander Gholap was the editor. 1920
Attended depressed classes Conference held under the presidency of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj at Kolhapur. 1920
Resigned professorship at Sydenham College to resume his studies in London.
Memorable speech in Nagpur, criticised Karmaveer Shinde and Depressed Classes Mission.
Rejoined the London School of Economics. Also entered Gray's Inn to read for the Bar.
The thesis 'Provincial Decentralisation of Imperial Finance in British India' was accepted for M.Sc. (Econ) Degree by the
Spent some time in reading economics in the University of Bonn in Germany.
The Thesis 'The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution' was accepted for the degree of D.Sc. (Econ.). The thesis was published in December 1923 by P S King & Company, London. Reissued by Thacker & Company, Bombay in May 1947 under the title History of Indian Currency and Banking Vol. 1.
Called to the Bar.
Returned to India.
Started practice in the Bombay High Court.
Founded the 'Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha' for the uplift of the depressed classes. The aims of the Sabha were educate, agitate, organise.
Published 'The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India' - dissertation on the provincial decentralisation of Imperial Finance in India'.
Opened a hostel for Untouchable students at Barshi.
Gave evidence before the Royal Commission on Indian Currency (Hilton Young Commisssion).
Nominated Member of the Bombay Legislative Council.
Started Satyagraha at Mahad (Dist Kolaba) to secure to the untouchables the Right of access to the Chavdar Tank.
Started a fortnightly Marathi paper Bahiskrit Bharat Dr Ambedkar himself was the editor.
Established 'Samaj Samata Sangh'.
Second Conference in Mahad.
Introduced the "Vatan Bill" in the Bombay Legislative Council.
Gave evidence before the Indian Statutory Committee (Simon Commission).
Professor. Government Law College Bombay.
Principal. Government Law College Bombay.
Member. Bombay Presidency Committee of the Simon Committee.
Satyagraha at Kalram Temple. Nasik to secure for the Untouchables the right of entry into the temple.
Delegate. Round Table Conference representing Untouchables of India.
Signed with Mr. M.K. Gandhi the Poona Pact giving up, to save Gandhi's life. separate electorates granted to the Depressed Classes by Ramsay MacDonald's Communal Award, and accepting, instead representation through joint electorates.
Member joint Parliamentary Committee on the Indian Constitutional Reform.
Left Parel, Damodar Hall and came to stay in 'Rajagriha' Dadar (Bombay). This was done in order to get more accommodation for his library which was increasing day by day.
Death of wife. Mrs. Ramabai Ambedkar.
Dr. Ambedkar was appointed as Principal of Government Law College, Bombay. He was also appointed Perry Professor of
Historical Yeola Conversion Conference held under the Presidentship of Dr. Ambedkar at Yeola Dist., Nasik. He exhorted the Depressed Classes to leave Hinduism and embrace another religion. He declared: 'I was born as a Hindu but I will not die as a Hindu'. He also advisedhis followers to abandon the Kalaram Mandi entry Satyagriha, Nasik.
Dr. Ambedkar was invited by the Jat Pat Todak Mandal of Lahore to preside over the Conference. Dr.Ambedkar prepared his historical speech. The Annihilation of Caste'. The conference was cancelled by the Mandal on the ground that Dr.Ambedkar's thoughts were revolutionary. Finally, Dr. Ambedkar refused to preside and published his speech in book form in1937.
The Depressed Classes Conference was held at Pune.
Dr. Ambedkar reiterated his resolve of the Yeola Conference to leave Hinduism. The conference was presided over by Rav Bahadur N. Shina Raj.
Dr. Ambedkar's Conversion Resolution was supported by the Chambars (Cobblers) of East Khandesh.
Bombay Presidency Conversion Conference (Mumbai Elaka Mahar Panshad) of Mahars was held at Naigaum (Dadar) to sound their opinion on the issue of Conversion. Mr. Subha Rao, popularly known as Hydrabadi Ambedkar, presided over the Conference. In the morning the Ascetics shaved their beards, moustaches and destroyed their symbols of Hinduism in an Ascetic's Conference.
Conference of Devadasis was held m Bombay to support Dr. Ambedkar's Resolution of Conversion.
Dr. Ambedkar-Dr. Moonje talks on conversion. Pro Sikkhism.
Matang Parishad in support of Conversion.
Dr. Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, a strong opposition party in Bombay's Legislative Council.
Dr.Ambedkar sent a delegation of 13 members to the Golden Temple Amritsar to study Sikkhism.
Dr.Ambedkar left for Geneva and London. 1937
Dr.Ambedkar organised the 'Municipal Workers' Union' Bombay in 1937.
Dr. Ambedkar returned to Bombay.
The First General Elections were held under the Govt. of India Act of 1935. Dr. Ambedkar was elected Member of Bombay Legislative Assembly (Total Seats 175. Reserved Seats 15. Dr. Ambedkar's Independent Labour Party won 17 seats.)
The Mahad Chowdar Tank case was decided in favour of D.C. by which they got a legal right to use the public wells and tanks.
Dr. Ambedkar received a grand reception at Chalisgaon Railway station.
Dr. Ambedkar introduced his Bill to abolish the Mahar Watan in the Assembly
Reception at Pandhapur on the way to Sholapur, where he was going to preside over the Sholapur District D.C'. Conference.
Reception given by the Sholapur Municipal Council.
The Congress Party introduced a Bill making a change in the name of Untouchables. i.e. they would be called Harijans meaning sons of God. Dr. Ambedkar criticised the Bill. as in his opinion the change of name would make no real change in their conditions. Dr. Ambedkar and Bhaurav Gaikwad protested against the use of the term Harijans in legal matters. When the ruling party by sheer force of numbers defeated the I.L.P., the Labour-Party group walked out of the Assembly in protest under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar. He organised peasants march on Bombay Assembly. The peasants demanded the passing of Dr. Ambedkar's Bill for abolition of the Khoti system.
Dr. Ambedkar addressed a Peasants' Conference at Ahmedabad.
Dr. Ambedkar addressed a historical Conference of Railway workers at Manmad (Dist. Nasik).
Dr. Ambedkar opposed creation of a separate Karnataka State in the national interest.
Dr. Ambedkar resigned from the Principal-ship of the Government Law College, Bombay.
Dr. Ambedkar went on tour of Konkan Region. He also went to Nagpur in connection with a court case.
A meeting was held at R.M. Bhat High School, Bombay for exposing Gandhiji's attitude in disallowing a D.C. man being taken into the Central Ministry.
Dr. Ambedkar spoke on the Industrial Disputes Bill in the Bombay Assembly. He bitterly opposed it for its attempt to outlaw the right of workers to strike. He said: If Congressmen believe that Swaraj is their birth-right, then the right to strike is the birth-right of workers.
Dr. Ambedkar addressed a large gathering at Bawala, near Ahmedabad. On return he addressed another meeting at Premabhai Hall, Ahmedabad.
The Industrial Workers strike. The procession (under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar, Nirnkar, Dange, Pasulkar etc) was organised from Kamgar Maidan to Jambori Maidan, Worii. Dr.Ambedkar toured the workers areas with Jamvadas Mehta.
Dr. Ambedkar moved a Resolution for adoption of the methods for birth-control in the Bombay Assembly.
Dr. Ambedkar addressed the first D.C. Conference in Nizam's dominion at Mahad.
Dr. Ambedkar addressed a large gathering at Rajkot
Kale Memorial Lecture of Gorkhale School of Politics and Economics, Poona reviewing critically the All India Federation Scheme set out in the Govt. of India Act of 1935. The speech was issued in March 1939 as a tract for the times under the title 'Federation v/s Freedom'.
Dr. Ambedkar addressed a meeting organised for Rohidas Vidya Committee.
Dr.Ambedkar-Nehru first meeting.
The Conference at Haregaon was held under the Presidentship of Dr.Ambedkar to voice the grievances of Mahar and Mahar Watandass
Dr. Ambedkar founded the 'Mahar Panchayat'.
Netaji Subash Chandra Bose met Dr. Ambedkar in Bombay.
Dr. Ambedkar published his Thoughts on Pakistan. The second edition with the title Pakistan or Partition of India was issued in February 1945. A third impression of the book was published in 1946 under the title India's Political What's What: Pakistan or Partition of India.
Dr.Ambedkar pursued the issue of recruitment of Mahars in the Army. In result the Mahars Battallion was formed
Mahar Dynast Panchayat Samiti was Formed by Dr. Ambedkar.
Dr.Ambedkar was appointed to sit on the Defence Advisory Committee.
The Conference was held at Sinnar in protest of tax on Mahar Watams. Dr.Ambedkar launched a no-tax campaign. He saw the Governor. Finally, the tax was abolished. The Mumbai Elaka Conference of Mahars, Mangs and Derdasis were organised under the Chairmanship of Dr.Ambedkar
Dr. Ambedkar founded the All India Scheduled Castes Federation in Nagpur.
Dr. Ambedkar addressed All India D.C. Conference at Nagpur.
Dr.Ambedkar joined the Viceroy's Executive Council as a Labour Member 1942
Dr. Ambedkar submitted a paper on "The problems of the Untouchables in India" to the Institute of Pacific Relations at its Conference held in Canada. The paper is printed in the proceedings of the Conference. The paper was subsequently published in December 1943 in the book form under the title Mr Gandhi and Emancipation of the Untouchables.
Dr. Ambedkar delivered a Presidential address on the occasion of the 101st Birth Anniversary of Justice Mahader Govind Ranade. It is published in book form in April 1943 under the title Ranade. Gandhi and Jinnah.
Dr. Ambedkar founded "The Building Trust and the Scheduled Caste Improvement Trust".
Dr.Ambedkar addressed the Annual Conference of the All India S.C. Federation at Parel (Bombay) The speech was later published under the title "The Communal Deadlock and a way to solve it.'
Dr.Ambedkar published his book What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables - a complete compendium of information regarding the movement of the Untouchables for political safeguards. Dr.Ambedkar attended the Simla Conference.
Dr Ambedkar founded 'People's Education Society' in Bombay.
Dr Ambedkar gave evidence before the British delegation.
Opening of Siddharth College of Arts and Science in Bombay
The Bharat Bhushan Printing Press (founded by Dr Ambedkar) was burnt down in the clashes between D.C. and the Caste-Hindus
Siddharth College started
Dr Ambedkar went to London to urge before the British Government and the Opposition Party the need to provide safeguards for the D.C., on grant of Independence to India and thus to rectify the wrongs done to the D.C. by the Cabinet Mission.
Dr Ambedkar published his book. Who were Shudras? An enquiry into how the Shudras came to be the fourth Varna in the Indo-Aryan Society.
Dr Ambedkar was elected Member of the Constitution Assembly of India.
Dr Ambedkar's First speech in the Constituent Assembly. He called for a 'strong and United India'.
Published 'States and Minorities'. A memorandum of Fundamental Rights, Minority Rights, safeguards for the D.C. and on the problems of Indian states.
Article 17 of the Constitution of India for the abolition of Untouchability was moved by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in the Constituent Assembly and it was passed.
India obtained her Independence. Dr Ambedkar was elected to the Constituent Assembly by the Bombay Legislature Congress Party. Dr Ambedkar joined Nehru's Cabinet. He became the
First Law Minister of Independent India. The Constituent Assembly appointed him to the drafting Committee, which elected him as a Chairman on 29th August 1947.
Dr Ambedkar completed the Draft Constitution of Indian Republic.
Second marriage - Dr Ambedkar married Dr Sharda Kabir in Delhi.
Published his book The Untouchables. A thesis on the origin of Untouchability. Dr Ambedkar submitted his Memorandum, "Maharashtra as a linguistic Province" to the Dhar Commission. The Linguistic Provinces Commission).
Dr.Ambedkar presented the Draft Constitution to Constituent Assembly.
The Constituent Assembly adopted Article 17 of the Constitution for the abolition of Untouchability.
Dr Ambedkar, Law Minister of India visited Hydrabad (Deccan)
Dr Ambedkar was presented with a Purse at Manmad by his admirers. He addressed a large gathering.
He stayed at Aurangabad in connection with his opening proposed College. During the stay he visited Ajanta - Ellora Caves.
Dr Ambedkar visited Bombay in connection with College work and for a medical check-up.
Meeting between Dr Ambedkar and Madhavrao Golvalker, Chief of RRs and the residence of Dr Ambedkar at Delhi.
Dr Ambedkar came to Bombay for college work meeting and medical check-up.
Dr Ambedkar addressed the Constituent Assembly. 1949
Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution. Dr Ambedkar came to Bombay for check-up. 1950
Dr Ambedkar addressed the Siddharth College Parliament on the Hindu Code Bill. In the evening he was presented with a silver casket containing a copy of the Indian Constitution at Nare Park Maidan, Bombay.
Dr Ambedkar's article The Buddha and the Future His Religion' was published in the journal of Mahabodhi Society, Calcutta. Dr.Ambedkar addressed the Young Men's Buddhist Association on "The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women". Dr Ambedkar spoke on the "Merits of Buddhism" at the meeting arranged on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti in Delhi.
Dr Rajendra Prasad, the First President of the Indian Republic laid the foundation stone of Milind Maharidyalaya, Aurangabad. Dr.Ambedkar delivered a speech on the occasion (The printed speech is available with Mr Surwade)
Dr Ambedkar went to Colombo as a Delegate to the World Buddhist Conference.
Dr.Ambedkar, Law Minister introduced his "Hindu Code Bill" in the Parliament.
Dr Ambedkar laid the foundation stone of "Dr Ambedkar Bhavan". Delhi.
Dr Ambedkar founded "The Bhartiya Buddha Jansangh".
Dr Ambedkar compiled a Buddhist prayer book Buddha Upasana Palha
Dr Ambedkar resigned from the Nehru Cabinet because, among other reasons, the withdrawal of Cabinet support to the Hindu Code Bill in spite of the earlier declaration in the Parliament by the Prime Minister Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, that his Government would stand or fall with the Hindu Code Bill. Apart from this Nehru announced that he will sink or swim with the Hindu Code Bill.
Dr Ambedkar published his speech in book form under the title The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women.
The marriage and divorce Bill was discussed in the Parliament.
Dr Ambedkar left the Cabinet.
Dr Ambedkar was defeated in the First Lok Sabha elections held under the Constitution of Indian Republic. Congress candidate N. S. Kajrolkar defeated Dr Ambedkar.
Dr Ambedkar was introduced into Parliament as a member of the Council (Rajya Sabha) of States, representing Bombay.
Dr Ambedkar left for New York from Bombay.
Columbia University (USA) conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D., in its Bi-Centennial Celebrations Special Convocation held in New York.
Dr Ambedkar returned to Bombay.
Dr Ambedkar addressed Annual Social Gathering of Elphinstone College, Bombay.
Dr Ambedkar delivered a talk on "Conditions Precedent to the Successful working of Democracy" at the Bar Council, Pune.
The Osmania University conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D on Dr Ambedkar.
The Untouchability (offences) Bill was introduced in the Parliament by the Nehru Government.
Dr Ambedkar contested the By-Election for Lok Sabha from Bhandara Constituency of Vidarbha Region but was defeated Congress Candidate Mr Borkar.
Opening of Siddharth College of Commerce and Economics in Bombay.
Dr Ambedkar inaugurated the All India Conference of Sai devotees at the St. X'avier's Maidan Parel Bombay (His inaugural speech is available with Mr Surwade)
Dr Ambedkar visited Rangoon to attend the function arranged on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti.
The Maharaja of Mysore donated 5 acres of land for Dr Ambedkar's proposed Buddhist Seminary to be started at Bangalore
Dr Ambedkar spoke on the Untouchability (Offences) Bill in the Rajya Sabha
Dr. Ambedkar broadcast his talk "My Personal Philosophy"
Shri R. D. Bhandare, President of Bombay Pradesh S.C. Federation presented a purse of Rs 118,000 on behalf of S.C.F. to Dr Ambedkar at Purandare Stadium, Naigaum (Bombay)
Dr Ambedkar participated as delegate to the 3rd World Buddhist Conference at Rangoon.
Delivered a speech "Why Religion is necessary".
Dr Ambedkar established Bhartiya Bauddha Mahasabha (The Buddhist Society of India
Founded 'Murnbai Rajya Kanishtha
Published his opinions on linguistic states in book form under the title Thoughts on linguistic States.
Dr Ambedkar installed an image of Buddha at Dehu Road (near Pune)
Dr Ambedkar spoke against reservation of seats in the State and Central Legislatures.
Dr Ambedkar completed his The Buddha and His Dhamma, Revolution & Counter-revolution in Ancient India.
Dr Ambedkar wrote and dictated the Preface of The Buddha and His Dhamma.
Dr Ambedkar spoke on Linguistic states in the Council of States.
Dr Ambedkar spoke on BBC London on "Why I like Buddhism", Also, he spoke for Voice Voice of America on "The Future of Indian
Dr Ambedkar attended a meeting at Nare Park organised on the eve of Buddha Jayanti, Shri B.G.Kher, Prime Minister of Bombay was Chief Guest. This meeting was the last meeting of Dr Ambedkar in Bombay.
Opening of Siddharth College of Law in Bombay.
Dr Ambedkar embraced Buddhism at an historic ceremony at Diksha Bhoomi, Nagpur with his millions of followers. Announced to desolve S.C.F and establish Republican Party.
Delegate, 4th World Buddhist Conference, Khalinandu, where he delivered his famous speech famous speech 'Buddha or Karl Marx'.
Maha Nirvana at his residence, 26 Alipore Road,New Delhi. 1956
Cremation at Dadar Chawpatti – Now known as Chaitya Bhoomi Dadar (Bombay).
[Quelle der Zeittafel: http://www.ambedkar.org/. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]
Abb.: Hauptgebäude Nava Nalanda Mahavihara
Grundsteinlegung der staatlichen Hochschule Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, die dem Studium des Buddhismus bestimmt ist. [Webpräsenz: http://18.104.22.168/indiaculture/en/Org/nalanda.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]. Treibende Kraft hinter dieser Gründung ist der aus Bihar stammende buddhistische Mönch Jagdish Kashyap (1908 - 1976).
Abb.: Jagdish Kashyap [Bildquelle: http://www.vwbo.nl/toevluchtsboom/acht_leraren/kashyap.html. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]
"Nava Nalanda Mahavihara
The primary research institute for Pali studies is the Institute of Research and Post-Graduate Studies in Buddhist Learning and Pali at Nalanda in Bihar. The Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, as this institute is better known, was founded in 1951 by the great educationist Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap, in association with the Government of Bihar. He took over as Founder-Director on 1st August 1951, and started functioning from Rajgir. The foundation stone of the present buildings at Nalanda was laid by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India, on 1st November 1951. Ven. Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap continued to hold the post of Director of the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara till 28 February 1955 when he was assigned another arduous task of preparing a complete edition of the Pali Tripitaka in Devanagari script.
Ven. Kashyap did a commendable job in bringing out the entire Pali Tripitaka in Devanagari script in 41 volumes, with short introduction in English, in just five years, from 1956-1961.
In the meanwhile, Dr. Satkari Mookerjee took over as Director of the Mahavihara, with Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap as Honorary Director.
Ven. Kashyap again returned as Director of this Institute in 1965, and held that post till his retirement in January 1973.
The next Director of the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara was Dr. Nathmal Tatia (1973-1977).
He was followed by Dr. Chandrika Singh Upasak (1977-1981).
The Nalanda Mahavihara is affiliated to the Magadha University, Bodh Gaya, for conducting M.A. Course in Pali, Philosophy and follows the syllabus of that University. Similarly, the Mahavihara is affiliated for research courses of Ph.D. and D.Litt. to the Magadha University. The Mahavihara is also affiliated to the Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University, Darbhanga, for Pali Acharya Course.
Buddhist Studies and Scholars
The Mahavihara also conducts the Diploma Courses of two years each in Pali, Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Hindi. There is also a one year course for Certificate in Pali.
The topics of research at the Nalanda Mahavihara primarily cover Pali language and literature, Buddhist philosophy, cultural, social and religious history of the Buddhist countries of South Asia and South-East Asia. Uptil now, more than 75 research scholars, both Indian and foreign, have successfully completed their theses for Ph.D. and D.Litt. degrees of the Magadha University. To help the research scholars, the Mahavihara has a well-stocked library with about 36,000 books, including 160 MSS.
As regards publications, besides the entire Pali Tipitaka in 41 volumes in Devanagari script published during the period 1956-1961 under the General Editorship of the Founder-Director of the Mahavihara, Ven. Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap, the Mahavihara has published four Nava Nalanda Mahavihara Research Volumes, Mahavamsatika, Sasanavamso, and about 30 volumes of the Pali Atthakathas in Devanagari script. The Mahavihara's other publications include Nalanda: Past and Present, Homage to Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap, and Proceedings of the Second Conference of the International Association of Buddhist (Wisconsin, U.S.A.)
In February 1982, the Government of Bihar converted the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara into an autonomous body, and from that day its downfall began. On seeing the deteriorating condition of the Mahavihara, the Government of Bihar, on the advice of the then Director, Dr. Gustav Roth, proposed in 1984 that the Institute be taken over by the Government of India, and run as a National Institution. It took more than ten years for the Government of India to decide on the modalities of the take over, and ultimately took it over in February 1994. In the meanwhile, the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara had lost all lustre, and was deserted by the teachers as well as students.
The Nava Nalanda Mahavihara is now managed by an Autonomous Board of Management constituted by the Government of India with Governor of Bihar as Chairman, and Director of the Institute as Ex-Officio Secretary, assisted by nine members.
Keen to revamp and tone up the academic activities of the Mahavihara, the Government of India have appointed an experienced scholar. Dr. Dipak Kumar Barua, who was the Head of the Department of Pali, Calcutta University, as Director of the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. Dr. Barua took over as Director on 1st April 1996, and since then he has taken various steps to put the Mahavihara back on rails. With his energetic efforts, the Mahavihara is again pulsating with life, and it is hoped that soon it would attract students and research scholars from far and wide. In order to make this premier Pali Research Institute more attractive and meaningful for the scholars it would be better if it is given the status of a deemed University."
[India : 50 years of independence, 1947-97 : status, growth & development. -- Delhi : B. R. Publishing Corp. -- Vol 6: Buddhism / by D. C. Ahir >1928 - >. -- ©1998. -- 212 S. -- ISBN 8170189861. -- S. 158 - 160]
Abb.: Foundation Stone [Bildquelle: ©http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/sanchi/5735.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]
Die von der britischen Regierung 1949 an Indien zurückgegebenen Reliquien von Buddhas Hauptjüngern, Sariputta und Moggallana, werden in Sanchi, ihrem ursprünglichen Ort, im Chetiyagiri Vihara eingeschreint.
"A Note on the Relics of Sariputta and Maha Moggallana
On Sanchi Hill in Bhopal are the remains of ten stupas which are among the oldest buildings still standing in India. By their architectural features and sculpture they have always been recognised as belonging to the high noon of Buddhist art, the characters in which their numerous inscriptions are written placing them at about the period of Asoka; that is, some time around the middle of the third century B.C. Some are in good preservation, while others have been reduced in the course of centuries to mere mounds of earth and stone.
It was in one of these, the now famous Third Stupa, that Sir Alexander Cunningham discovered the sacred Body Relics of the Buddha's Chief Disciples, Sariputta and Maha Moggallana, in 1851. At about the same time, more relics of the two great Arahats were found in a stupa at Satadhara, about six miles distant from Sanchi.
On sinking a shaft in the centre of the stupa on Sanchi Hill, Cunningham came upon a large stone slab, upwards of five feet in length, lying in a direction from north to south. Beneath the slab were found two boxes of grey sandstone, each with a brief inscription in Brahmi characters on the lid. The box to the south was inscribed "Sariputtasa" "(Relics) of Sariputta," while that to the north bore the legend "Maha-Mogalanasa." "(Relics) of Maha Moggallana."
The southernmost box contained a large flat casket of white steatite, rather more than six inches broad and three inches in height. The surface was hard and polished and the box, which had been turned on a lathe, was a beautiful piece of workmanship. Around this casket were some fragments of sandalwood believed to have been from the funeral pyre, while inside it, besides the Relic, various precious stones were found. This casket contained a single bone relic of the Venerable Sariputta, not quite one inch in length.
The stone box to the north enclosed another steatite casket, similar to that of Sariputta but slightly smaller and with a softer surface. Inside it were two bone relics of the Venerable Maha Moggallana, the larger of them being something less than half an inch in length.
Each of the two steatite caskets had a single ink letter inscribed on the inner surface of the lid: "Sa" for Sariputta on the southern and "Ma" for Maha Moggallana on that to the north. In Cunningham's words, "Sariputta and Maha Moggallana were the principal followers of the Buddha, and were usually styled his right and left hand disciples. Their ashes thus preserved after death the same positions to the right and left of Buddha which they had themselves occupied in life." This is explained by the fact that the Buddha customarily sat facing east.
In the stupa at Satadhara, one of a group which Cunningham noted was called locally "Buddha Bhita" or "Buddha Monuments," he discovered two caskets of pale mottled steatite. These were inscribed, like those at Sanchi, "Sariputtasa" and "Maha Mogallanasa" respectively. This stupa showed signs of having been violated by robbers, but the bone relics had been left undistrubed. Cunningham, who is a very capable archaeologist, has left a detailed account of everything his excavations brought to light in these and other stupas, and it is thanks to him that the authenticity of the relics is established beyond all doubt.
The relics from both stupas were removed to England and placed in the Victoria and Albert Museum, but some discrepancies between Cunningham's description of the caskets and the actual boxes in which the relics were deposited gives reason to believe that he, or someone else, transferred the relics from Sanchi to the caskets discovered at Satadhara, and what became of the Sanchi steatite caskets is not known for certain.
The Sacred Relics were preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum until 1939, when the Maha Bodhi Society approached the British government with a request that they be returned to India. The request was at once granted, but owing to the outbreak of the second World War in that year, the actual transfer was delayed for reasons of safety until Feb 24th, 1947. On that date they were handed over to the representatives of the Maha Bodhi Society at the Victoria and Albert Museum, and so began their journey back to the land of their origin.
Before being restored to India, however, the relics were taken to Sri Lanka, where they were received with great honor and amid general rejoicing. For two and a half months in 1947, they were displayed for public worship at the Colombo Museum, where it has been estimated that well ov*er two million people paid homage to them. It is said that not only Buddhists but Hindus, Christians and Muslims joined in paying reverence to them.
The next stage of their journey to the new Vihara that was being erected for their re-enshrinement at Sanchi, was Calcutta. There the relics were displayed for public homage at the Dharmarajika Vihara, headquarters of the Maha Bodhi Society of India. The same scenes of religious devotion were enacted there. Every day for two weeks an unbroken stream of people filed past the shrine where the relics were exposed, from morning until late evening. Most of the devotees were Hindus, but there was also a large number of Muslims among them, and the reverence shown by all was a deeply impressive sight. Many had come from distant parts to pay their respects to the remains of these great sons of India.
Next came a request from Burma that the relics should be taken for exposition here. This was readily granted. The reception given to them in that country revived all the pomp and religious fervor of ancient times. In order that everyone in Burma should be given an opportunity of worshipping them, the relics were conducted on a riverine tour along the Irrawaddy from Mandalay to Rangoon. The steamer that conveyed them was escorted by boats decorated in traditional Burmese style, and at every town along the river the relics were taken ashore in procession for worship at the chief pagoda. At the same time religious meetings were held, drawing vast crowds of people from the adjacent villages to hear sermons and the recitation of suttas, which usually continued all through the night.
Subsequently, at the request of the respective governments, the relics were taken for exposition to Nepal and Ladakh.
After they were returned to India the Burmese government asked that a portion of the Sacred Relics should be given to Burma. The Maha Bodhi Society of India agreed to this, and the then Prime Minister of Burma went in person to Calcutta to receive them. They were ceremonially transferred to him on the 20th October 1950. The portion allotted to Burma was afterwards enshrined in the Kaba Aye Zedi (World Peace Pagoda), built on the site of the Sixth Great Buddhist Council, close to Rangoon. The elaborate ceremonies connected with the crowning of the pagoda and the installation of the relics lasted from the 5th to 11th of March, 1952.
Another portion was given to Sri Lanka to be enshrined in a new stupa built by the Maha Bodhi Society of Sri Lanka to receive them. At the time of writing they are housed in the temple of the Maha Bodhi Society, Colombo, awaiting the completion of the building.
On the 30th November, 1952, the remaining relics were duly enshrined at Sanchi on completion of the new Chetiyagiri Vihara built to receive them. There they remain, objects of the deepest veneration to pilgrims from every Buddhist country, and a lasting reminder of the lives of those in whom the Buddha's Teaching bore its finest fruit."
[Nyanaponika <1901 - 1994.>: The Life of Sariputta / Compiled and translated from the Pali texts by Nyanaponika Thera . -- Kandy, Sri Lanka : Buddhist Publication Society, ©1987. -- (The Wheel ; No. 90/92). -- ISBN 955-24-0015-5. -- URL: http://www.tipitaka.net/moments/mmnts001/page06.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-07]
Abb.: Periyar E. V. Ramasamy [Bildquelle: http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gk1415/periyar.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-13] .
Auf die Aufforderung durch Periyar E.V.Ramasamy (1879 - 1973) hin, feiern Dalits in Tamil Nadu Buddhas Geburtstag und zerstören Bilder von Ganesha.
"Buddhist Principles and PeriyarK.Veeramani
Gautama Siddhartha (B.C. 566-486) became the Buddha, the Enlightened One after which he led a life of selfless and dedicated service, spreading the message of compassion and reason. His conception of religion was purely ethical. He put all his emphasis on conduct. In his view saintliness and contentment were to be found not in worship or rituals, but in selfless and virtuous labour. He did not accept the authority of the Vedas, and opposed the Varna-Jaathi (caste) system. In Buddha's philosophy, there was no place for heaven, purgatory or hell. Matter has force and all substance motion. The soul is a myth. He never pretended that God was speaking through him. He taught in Pali, the language of the common people who found emancipation from fear and superstition in his noble teachings.
Buddha's simple and open-minded approach, his adherence to rational outlook, his abhorrence of obscurantist speculation about elusive (non) entities, and his opposition to hierarchical birth-based graded inequality appealed to Periyar E.V.Ramasamy (17.9.1789 - 24.12.1973) who ceaselessly and wholeheartedly strived hard for restructuring the ignorant, superstitious, divided and discriminatory Indian society on the basis of liberty, equality, enlightenment and self-respect. Though he rarely cited the ideas and opinions of others to prove his point or to add weight to his judgement, he used to speak in praise of Buddha and Thiru Valluvar for their stress on the spirit of inquiry, and on the virtues of love, wisdom and fraternal social relations.
Periyar formulated the Indian social issues in relation to religion in this way : How to wean people from their belief in the Vedic and Puranic gods around whom the orthodoxy, to promote their own vested interests, have spun despicable and degrading stories? How to make them give up their wasteful and harmful worship of the idols, participating in meaningless, mechanical and extravagant rites, rituals, ceremonies and festivities? How to make people imbibe noble principles and values and to adopt a cultured rational way of life? Periyar resorted to two kinds of solutions to these issues : First, he demonstrated to the masses the powerlessness of 'gods' by breaking the idols and burning their pictures. In this way, he also encouraged them to hate the injurious and baneful beliefs and practices. Secondly, he propagated the virtuous, truthful and beneficial ideas, values and ways of living by organising functions in the name of the Buddha and Thiru Valluvar.
In pursuit of this policy, Periyar asked his followers to celebrate on 27th May 1953 the festival of Buddha and to break the idols of the elephant-headed god, Ganesha, who is also variously called as Pillaiyar, Vigneswara, Ganapathi, Gajapathi, Vinayaka etc. His appeal was carried out through out Tamil Nadu. Periyar and his companions celebrated the Buddha day in Tiruchirappalli and broke the idols in the open ground (maidan) before the Town Hall. This daring unheard of activity stirred the minds of the people. They began to question the authenticity of the 'puranic' stories and doubt the efficacy of gods. The Hindu orthodoxy perceived this trend to be a dangerous one as it threatened the psychological basis of their traditional privileged status. So the Hindu Sanathanists formed an association to 'eradicate' Atheism, and through its secretary filed a case, under section 295 of I.P.C. against Periyar and two of his companions, T.P.Vedhachalam, a senior advocate, and M.R.Radha, a popular rationalist actor, stating that they had hurt the religious sentiments by their iconoclastic activity. First, the Divisional First Class Magistrate and then the District Sessions Judge declared the case unsustainable. Consequently, the complainants appealed to the Madras High Court. Justice N. Somasundaram dismissed the appeal petition on 13th October, 1954, stating that though the intentions of the respondents might have been to hurt the religious sentiments of a large numbers of people, their action was not an offence because they broke only the images they had themselves made or bought, and not those worshipped in a temple.
To propagate the principles of Buddha, Periyar E.V.R convened a conference at his native town of Erode on 23rd anuary, 1954. presiding over the conference, Dr.G.P.Mallalasekhara, Professor of Buddhist Culture in the University of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), observed that the teachings of Buddha, when properly followed, would contribute to international understanding and world peace. He complimented Periyar for endeavouring to reform the society, amidst concerted and sustained opposition, in accordance with the path shown by Buddha.
Raj Boj, General Secretary of All India Depressed Classes Federatifon and Member of Parliament inaugurated the conference. He said the depressed classes and a vast majority of others in India were subjected to various kinds of cruelties and deprivations under Brahminical social order. Buddhism treated all equally, and in ancient times it overthrew the authority of Brahminism. But Brahminical revival took place through the spread of Saiva and Vaishnava sects and social inequalities got entrenched. The people in the south of India stood unitedly behind Periyar E.V.Ramasamy for the purpose of putting an end to Brahminism. The various struggles they launched under his leadrshlip in this regard had inspired those in other parts also, told Raj Boj.
Periyar unveiled the portrait of Buddha and spoke on the occasion. He told that the conference convened to propagate the principles of Buddha might also be termed as one opposed to Brahmins who were responsible for driving out Buddhism from the land of its origin. Buddha advised that no one should follow him blindly nor accept unquestionably whatever he uttered. The Self-respect movement stressed the same view for about 30 years from its very inception in 1925. Periyar welcomed the revival of Buddhism in India.
One of the resolutions passed in the Erode conference for the propagation of Buddha's principles said this :
"As the Hindu scriptures (Sastras), mythologies (Puranas) and epics (Ithihasas) are concocted and used by the Aryans for their domination and progress and to enslave, degrade and keep in ignorance the Dravidians, they should be eradicated."
Another resolution stated : "As Buddha's life and teachings expose the falsity of the concepts of god, soul, heaven, hell, fate, rites, rituals and ceremonies and stress non-discriminatory, egalitarian social order based on love and mutual help, all sections of people in Tamil Nadu, all organisations and institutions should take steps for the spread of his principles and their application in the actual life of the human race."
While speaking in a public meeting in Madras (now Chennai) on January 31, 1954, Periyar said: "Buddha's philosophy, teachings and principles are very useful for the activities of upholding our principles (stated in Self-respect movement) and of eradicating harmful things."
Periyar went to Rangoon, capital of Burma (now Yangoon and Myanmar respectively) to attend the world Buddhists conference, and spoke in it on 3rd December 1954. He met there Dr. Mallalasekhara, President of the World Buddhists Association and Baba Saheb Dr. B.R.Ambedkar. Periyar and Ambedkar had a long discussion for more than an hour on 5th December. Perhaps this was their last extensive exchange of ideas in person before the latter passed away two years later on 6th December 1956. Baba Saheb had by that time decided to get converted to Buddhism, and asked Periyar to follow suit. But the latter told that he preferred to expose the cruelties of Hinduism by remaining within its fold as otherwise his adversaries would divert the minds of the people and mislead them saying a non-Hindu had no right to criticise the Hindu way. He also requested Ambedkar to take along with him a very large number of people in case he embraced Buddhism.
In his rationalist Tamil daily 'Viduthalai' dated 4th April, 1956, Periyar wrote thus : " I request members of Dravidar Kazhagam and all others to celebrate in a grand manner the 2500th birth anniversary of Buddha in Chennai and in all parts of Tamil Nadu and to take all efforts to propagate his precepts in such a way as to make all people to imbibe them in their hearts. To my knowledge the following are the important among his precepts.
1. Subject everything (you come across) to thorough inquiry using your intellect.
2. Accept only those that you reason finds as proper.
3. Do not accept the incomprehensible and merely imaginary words like god, sou 0.l, devas, heaven, hell, Brahmin, Sudra and Panchama.
Of all the creatures in the world, humans are supreme being endowed with the faculty of reason that is capable of comprehending a thing after proper inquiry and analysis (rational thinking.)
4. Do not believe any thing just because it is claimed to be god's revelation, it is mentioned in the scriptures (Vedas), it is the opinion of a great person, it is followed by a very large number of people or it is practised for quite a long time. Believe only that which appeals to your well informed mind and reason.
Periyar undertook a north Indian tour in February 1959. He addressed very large gatherings in Kanpur and Lucknow. What he spoke about Buddha in those meetings was reported briefly in 'Viduthalai' dated 21st February, 1959 : "To eradicate the degradation of Sudras and Panchamas who are nowadays known as backward people, we have to eradicate religion, scriptures (Shastras) and gods created by the Aryans. So long as these entities remain, we cannot abolish caste. It is for this reason Ambedkar became a Buddhist. He also made many others to join Buddhism. So all should come forward to get red of Hindu religion, god and caste, by means of adopting the Buddhist path.
Buddha's philosophy of compassion and reason, mutual understanding and peace appealed to Periyar. What we have given here is only a glimpse of what he did through out his life to emphasise the Buddhist concern to uphold human dignity and establish an egalitarian social order.
[Quelle: The modern rationalist online. -- URL: http://www.themronline.com/200302m1.html. -- Zugriff am 2003-07-13]
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956) gründet die Bhartiya Baudh Maha Sabha (Buddhist Society of India). Nach Dr. Ambedkars Tod wirdt sein Sohn Yashwant Ambedkar zum Präsidenten dieser Gesellschaft gewählt. Nach dessen Tod 1977 dessen Gattin Miratai Ambedkar. Die Gesellschaft hat ihr Hauptquartier in Bombay unbd Zweigstellen in fast allen Ortschaften Maharashtras.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956) weiht mit einer ihm von burmesischen Buddhisten geschenkten Buddhastatue den Buddha-Vihara in der Dehu Road Pune ein.
1956 bis 1961
Anlässlich von Buddha Jayanti (s.unten) erscheint in 41 Bänden das ganze Tipitaka in Devanagari-Schrift herausgegeben von Khikkhu Jagdish Kashyap (1908 - 1976) vom Nava Nalanda Mahavihara
1956-05-24 = Jahr 2500 Buddhist Era
Abb:: Indische Gedenkbriefmarken zu Buddha Jayanti, 1956
Buddha Jayanti -- Gedenkjahr 2500 Jahre seit Buddhas Mahapariinirvana (Dahinscheiden). Die indische Regierung setzte dafür ein Buddha Jayanti Celebration Committee ein unter der Leitung von Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888 - 1975), Vice-President von Indien. Die Feierlichkeiten dauerten ein ganzes Jahr.
Abb.: Buddharakkhita inmitten einer Meditationsgruppe von Schweizern und Deutschen
[Bildquelle: http://home.earthlink.net/~brelief2/india.html. -- Zugriff am 2005-07-01]
Ven. Buddharakkhita gründet die Maha Bodhi Society Bangalore
Webpräsenz: http://education.vsnl.com/mahabodhi/. -- Zugriff am 2005-07-01
"Ven. Acharya Buddharakkita’s history is most remarkable. Born into a wealthy, orthodox Bengali Brahmin family in Manipur, he graduated as an engineer, joined the Government of India Defence Ordinance and saw various fronts during the Second World War. The experience of war led him to become a wandering ascetic, and he sought truth and freedom, traveling the whole of India and studying under various sages. At last he decided to become a follower of Buddha and took ordination in 1948 under the most Venerable U Chandramani, Abbot of Kushinara. He pursued Buddhist studies in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and practiced meditation under Mahasi Sayadaw in Burma. He served on the editorial board of the Sixth Buddhist Synod in Rangoon, which brought out a complete edition of the Pali Canon, and taught at Nalanda Institute, before establishing the MahaBodhi Society of Bangalore in 1956, which has flourished to affect so many lives for the good. "
[Quelle: http://home.earthlink.net/~brelief2/india.html. -- Zugriff am 2005-07-01]
Abb.: Titelblatt des Amar Chittra Katha Hefts über Dr. Ambedkar
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956) nimmt in Nagpur formell die Dreifache Zuflucht und konvertiert damit öffentlich zum Buddhismus. Anschließend konvertiert ca. eine halbe Million Unberührbare (Dalits) zum Buddhismus.
"Dr. Ambedkar's Pilgrimage to Buddhism
Dr. Ambedkar chose Buddhism of his own volition after an in-depth study of the Dhamma for more than 20 years. Buddhism appealed to him as he found that the centre of the Dhamma is Man, its base is morality, and its aim is welfare of Mankind. He preferred Buddhism because it gives three principles in combination: it teaches Prajna (Wisdom), Karuna (compassion) and Samata (equality).
In 1950, Dr. Ambedkar asked his followers for the first time to celebrate the Buddha Jayanti. Same year, he contributed an article for the first time in Vaisakha Number of the Maha Bodhi Journal of Calcutta under the title 'Buddha and the Future of His Religion'. Summing up his thoughts on Buddhism, he said in this article that he preferred Buddhism because he found the religion of the Buddha rational, scientific, and an epitome of liberty, equality and fraternity.
In May 1950, he participated in the First Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists held at Kandy in Sri Lanka. And on 29 September 1950, he declared at a meeting held at the Japanese Buddhist Temple in Worli, Bombay that he would devote the rest of his life to the revival and spread of Buddhism in India.
In the first week of December 1954, Dr. Ambedkar visited Burma to participate in the Third Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists held at Rangoon. While in Burma Dr. Ambedkar visited Mandalay, where he stayed for a week as guest of Dr. R.L. Soni, a Punjabi who had gone to Burma in 1929; settled there; embraced Buddhism and was working hard for its revival through the World Institute of Buddhist Culture founded by him. The historic decision to come formally to Buddhism in 1956 was taken by Dr. Ambedkar at Mandalay, after prolonged discussion with Dr. Soni on the merits of coming formally to Buddhism.
On return from Burma, Dr. Ambedkar concentrated all his attention on the plans for the conversion ceremony. Thoughtfully, he selected the site for this historic event and requested the Most Venerable U Chandramani Maha Thera of Kushinagar to lead him to the blessed religion of the Buddha at Nagpur on 14 October 1956, the Vijaya Dashmi day. This day was chosen as it was the auspicious day of 'Dhamma Vijaya', the day on which Asoka the great had embraced Buddhism in 262 BC.
For this historic ceremony, a fourteen-acre vacant plot of Government land near the Vaccine Institute at Shardhanand Peth was selected as venue. At the northern end of the huge pandal stood a huge rostrum which was tastetfully decorated with buntings and with the five-hued Buddhist flags, stood a huge rostrum lined with white cloth and surmounted by a replica of the Sanchi Stupa.
On the bright morning of Sunday, 14 October 1956, lakhs of men and women, who had been pouring into the Nagpur city by train and bus from all parts of Maharashtra or had trekked on foot hundreds of miles, prepared themselves for the ceremony wearing white clothes. Procession after procession of white-clad men and women with Buddhist flags in their hands made their way to the Deeksha Bhoomi or the Initiation Ground. By 9.00 A.M. they had reached the site and turned into a vast ocean of humanity.
When Babasaheb Ambedkar reached the pandal, the vast crowd lustily cheered their uncrowned king. Wearing the white silk dhoti and white coat, he was seated at the dais next to Venerable U Chandramani Maha Thera, the oldest and seniormost Buddhist monk in India. Seated in the second row were Devapriya Valisinha, General Secretary of the Maha Bodhi Society of India, Venerable monks, and some leading members of the Buddhist Society of India founded by Babasaheb, About four lakh people witnessed the auspicious ceremony which began at 9.40 A.M. The 80 years old Ven, U Chandramani of Kushinagar administered in Pali to Dr. Ambedkar and his wife, the Tisarana (Triple-Refuge). Standing solemnly before the shining image of Lord Buddha, they recited three times "Buddham Saranam Gacchami, Dhamman Saranam Gacchami, Sangham Saranam Gacchami". The Three Refgges were followed by the Five Precepts (Pancasila). They repeated the same in Marathi. Then they vowed thrice with clasped hands before the Buddha image and offered white lotus flowers before it. With this, the conversion ceremony was over. When Dr. Ambedkar's entry into Buddhism was announced, the vast concourse of humanity gathered there gave thunderous applause and raised full-throated cries of' Victory to Lord Buddha' 'Victory to Babasaheb Ambedkar'.
The historic Nagpur ceremony marked the end of pilgrim's journey. Addressing the vast gathering, Dr. Ambedkar, now a Buddhist, said in a emotional voice: "I started the movement of renouncing the Hindu religion in 1935 and since then I have been continuing struggle. This conversion has given me enormous satisfaction and pleasure unimaginable. I feel as if I have been liberated from hell'.
He then called upon those to stand up who were prepared to embrace Buddhism. Thereupon, the entire crowd rose as one man. And in loud and joyous tones they repeated the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts after Babasaheb. In addition, he also administered to them the twenty-two vows which he had specially prepared to ensure that his followers renounce their old religion fully and become good Buddhists.
Of these special vows, the first eight vows require the initiates into Buddhism not to worship the Hindu gods and goddesses; not to regard the Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu; not to perform the traditional Hindu rites for the dead; and not to employ Brahmin priests for any rites and ceremonies. The next two vows lay emphasis on equality of all human beings. The vows from 11 to 18 call upon the new initiates into Buddhism to practise the Noble Eightfold Path and the Ten Paramitas and to lead a life in which Knowledge, Right Conduct and Compassion are harmoniously interwoven. The last four vows practically sum up all the vows. These vows enjoin upon the new comer to renounce Hinduism because it is based on inequality and adopt Buddhism as his religion; to firmly believe that the Dhamma of the Buddha is the true religion; to believe that he is experiencing a (spiritual) rebirth; and to solemnly declare and affirm that hereafter he will lead his life according to the teachings of the Buddha.
On the next day, the vast crowd again assembled at the same place to hear the roaring voice of their liberator. Before he spoke, another conversion ceremony was held to admit into the fold of Buddhism about one lakh men and women who had arrived late the previous day and could not participate in the initiation ceremony. Thereafter, in his three hour long speech, Dr. Ambedkar traced the history of the suffering of the down-trodden people through the ages; his life-long struggle to mitigate their sufferings, and as to why he had chosen Buddhism of all the religions. This epoch-making speech holds a very high place in the history of the conversion ceremony. The entire function on 14 and 15 October. 1956 was a unique experience for the people who had gathered there. They had experienced rejuvenation, new hope and new life."
[India : 50 years of independence, 1947-97 : status, growth & development. -- Delhi : B. R. Publishing Corp.
Vol 6: Buddhism / by D. C. Ahir <1928 - >. -- ©1998. -- 212 S. -- ISBN 8170189861. -- S. 111- 115]
Die 22 Gelübde (Vows) von Dr. Ambedkar:
- I shall have no faith in Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh nor shall I worship them.
- I shall have no faith in Rama and Krishna who are believed to be incarnation of God nor shall I worship them.
- I shall have no faith in ‘Gauri’, Ganapati and other gods and goddesses of Hindus nor shall I worship them.
- I do not believe in the incarnation of God.
- I do not and shall not believe that Lord Buddha was the incarnation of Vishnu. I believe this to be sheer madness and false propaganda.
- I shall not perform ‘Shraddha’ nor shall I give ‘pind-dan’.
- I shall not act in a manner violating the principles and teachings of the Buddha.
- I shall not allow any ceremonies to be performed by Brahmins.
- I shall believe in the equality of man.
- I shall endeavour to establish equality.
- I shall follow the ‘noble eightfold path’ of the Buddha.
- I shall follow the ‘paramitas’ prescribed by the Buddha.
- I shall have compassion and loving kindness for all living beings and protect them.
- I shall not steal.
- I shall not tell lies.
- I shall not commit carnal sins.
- I shall not take intoxicants like liquor, drugs etc.
- I shall endeavour to follow the noble eightfold path and practise compassion and loving kindness in every day life.
- I renounce Hinduism which is harmful for humanity and impedes the advancement and development of humanity because it is based on inequality, and adopt Buddhism as my religion.
- I firmly believe the Dhamma of the Buddha is the only true religion.
- I believe that I am having a re-birth.
- I solemnly declare and affirm that I shall hereafter lead my life according to the principles and teachings of the Buddha and his Dhamma.
Abb.: Dikshabhumi (Ort der Konversion) in Nagpur
[Bildquelle: Beltz, Johannes <1967 - >: Mahar, Bouddhiste et Dalit : conversion religieuse et émancipation sociopolitique dans l'Inde des castes. -- Bern [u.a.] : : Lang, ©2001. -- 380 S. : Ill. -- (Studia religiosa Helvetica : Series altera ; 5). -- Zugl.: Lausanne, Univ., Diss., 2000. -- ISBN 3-906766-23-3. -- S. 192]
Abb.: Devotionalbild: Dr. Ambedkars Caityabhumi (Ort der Verbrennung) in Bombay/Mumbai (Original farbig)
[Bildquelle: Beltz, Johannes <1967 - >: Mahar, Bouddhiste et Dalit : conversion religieuse et émancipation sociopolitique dans l'Inde des castes. -- Bern [u.a.] : : Lang, ©2001. -- 380 S. : Ill. -- (Studia religiosa Helvetica : Series altera ; 5). -- Zugl.: Lausanne, Univ., Diss., 2000. -- ISBN 3-906766-23-3. -- S. 192]
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891 - 1956) stirbt. Ein ähnlich charismatischer Führer ist bei den indischen Buddhisten nicht in Sicht.
Anlässlich Buddha Jayanti werden die Hindi-Filme Anjali und Angulimala produziert
Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji <1892-1956>: The Buddha and his dhamma. -- Bombay : People's Education Society, 1957. -- 599 S. -- (Siddharth College publication ; I, Siddharth College publication ; I). -- Online: http://www.mahabodhi.com/en/dhamma/visay_suchi.htm -- Zugriff am 2003-07-13. -- Das Werk wurde auch in Hindi und Punjabi übersetzt-
Indications of a growth in the volume of interest in Buddhism are noticeable in some sections of the Indian people. Along with it there is naturally a growing demand for a clear and consistent statement of the life and teachings of the Buddha.
Anyone who is not a Buddhist finds it extremely difficult to present the life and teachings of the Buddha in a manner which would make it a consistent whole. Depending on the Nikayas, not only the presentation of a consistent story of the life of the Buddha becomes a difficult thing and the presentation of some parts of his teachings becomes much more so. Indeed it would not be an exaggeration to say that of all the founders of religions in the world the presentation of the life and teachings of the founder of Buddhism presents a problem which is quite puzzling if not baffling. Is it not necessary that these problems should be solved and the path for the understanding of Buddhism be made clear? Is it not time that those who are Buddhists should take up these problems at least for general discussion and throw what light they can on these problems?
With a view to raise a discussion on these problems I propose to set them out here. The first problem relates to the main event in the life of the Buddha, namely, Parivraja. Why did the Buddha take Parivraja? The traditional answer is that he took because he saw a dead person, a sick person old person. This answer is absurd on the face of it. The Buddha took Parivraja at the age of 29.
If he took Parivraja as a result of these three sights, how is it he did not see these three sights earlier? These are common events occurring by hundreds and the Buddha could not have failed to come across them earlier. It is impossible to accept the traditional explanation that this was the first time he saw them. The explanation is not plausible and does not appeal to reason. But if this is not the answer to the question, what is the real answer?
The second problem is created by the four Aryan Truths. Do they form part of the original teach ings of the Buddha? This formula cuts at the root of Buddhism. If life is sorrow, death is sorrow and re birth is sorrow, then there is an end of everything. Neither religion nor philosophy can help a man to achieve happiness in the world. If there is no escape from sorrow, then what can religion do, what can Buddha do to relieve man from such sorrow which is ever there in birth itself? The four Aryan Truths are a great stumbling block in the way of non-Buddhists accepting the gospel of Buddhism. For the four Aryan Truths deny hope to man. The four Aryan Truths make the gospel of the Buddha a gospel of pessimism. Do they form part of the original gospel or are they a later accretion by the monks?
The third problem relates to the doctrines of soul, of karma and rebirth. The Buddha denied the existence of the soul. But he is also said to have affirmed the doctrine of karma and rebirth. At once a question arises. If there is no soul, how can there be karma? If there is no soul, how can there be rebirth? These are baffling questions. In what sense did the Buddha use the words karma and rebirth? Did he use them in a different sense than the sense in which they were used by the Brahmins of his day? If so, in what sense? Did he use them in the same sense in which the Brahmins used them? If so, is there not a terrible contradiction between the denial of the soul and the affirmation of karma and rebirth? This contradiction needs to be resolved.
The fourth problem relates to the Bhikkhu. What was the object of the Buddha in creating the Bhikkhu? Was the object to create a perfect man? Or was his object to create a social servant devoting his life to service of the people and being their friend, guide and philosopher? This is a very real question. On it depends the future of Buddhism. If the Bhikkhu iS only a perfect man he is of no use to the propagation of Buddhism because though a perfect man he is a selfish man. If, on the other hand, he is a social servant he may prove to be the hope of Buddhism. This question must be decided not so much in the interest of doctrinal consistency but in the interest of the future of Buddhism.
If I may say so, the pages of the journal of the Mahabodhi Society make, to me at any rate, dull reading. This is not because the material presented is not interesting and instructive. The dullness is due to the fact that it seems to fall upon a passive set of readers. After reading an article, one likes to know what the reader of the journal has to say about it. But the reader never gives out his reaction. This silence on the part of the reader is a great discourage ment to the writer. I hope my questions will excite the readers to come and make their contribution to their solution."
Ahir, Diwan Chand <1928 - >: Buddhism in modern India. -- Delhi, India : Sri Satguru Publications, ©1991. -- 201 S. -- (Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica ; no. 82). -- ISBN 8170302544
India : 50 years of independence,
1947-97 : status, growth & development. -- Delhi : B. R. Publishing
Vol 6: Buddhism / by D. C. Ahir >1928 - >. -- ©1998. -- 212 S. -- ISBN 8170189861
Kantowsky, Detlev <1936 - >: Buddhisten in Indien heute : Beschreibungen, Bilder und Dokumente. -- Konstanz : Univ., Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus", ©1999. -- 216 S. : Ill. -- (Forschungsberichte / Universität Konstanz, Arbeitsbereich Entwicklungsländer, Interkultureller Vergleich, Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus" ; 16). -- Online: http://www.ub.uni-konstanz.de/kops/volltexte/2000/562/. -- Zugriff am 2003-06-05
Eine Darstellung im der Ereignisse um Dharmapala im Kontext, bis zu seinem Tod findet man in folgenden Kapiteln der "Materialien zum Neobuddhismus":
Zu Teil 2: Buddhismus in Indien ab 1956