Materialien zum Neobuddhismus


Wilhelm II.: "Völker Europas, wahrt Eure heiligsten Güter!"

10. Buddhismus in Ungarn

von Alois Payer


Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Materialien zum Neobuddhismus.  --   10. Buddhismus in Ungarn. -- Fassung vom 2005-05-05. -- URL: . -- [Stichwort].

Erstmals publiziert: 1996-07-18

Überarbeitungen: 2005-05-05 [überarbeitet];2003-07-03 [überarbeitet und stark erweitert]; 1998-07-18

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung Neobuddhismus, Univ. Tübingen, SS 1987, SS 2003

Copyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Buddhismus von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Ungarische Übersetzung von Subhadra Bhikshu's Katechismus durch einen protestantischen Geistlichen; erlebte bis 1895 fünf Auflagen. [S. Levy, Jenö: Buddhism in Magyar literature. -- In: The Buddhist review. -- 1 (1909). -- S.84-86. -- S. 85]. Derselbe Übersetzer übersetzte auch aus K. E. Neumanns Übersetzung zwei kleine Sutta's ins Ungarische

Auch Paul Carus: Karma wurde ins Ungarische übersetzt.

Der Buddhasasana Samagama hatte in Jenö Levy einen Repräsentanten für Ungarn.

In Ungarn wurde auch -- zum ersten Mal in Europa -- der Versuch gemacht, den Buddhismus als Religionsgemeinschaft offiziell staatlich anerkennen zu lassen, damit die buddhistische Religion in den Schulen gelehrt werden kann. Doch scheiterte dies am Widerstand der katholischen Kirche.

Jenö, Lénard: Dhammo bevezetés a Buddhó Tanába. -- Budapest: ?. -- 352 S. [Rezension von Francis J. Payne in: The Buddhist review. -- 3 (1911). -- S. 233-234].

[Einige weitere Notizen bei: Hetény, Ernest: Eine kurze Geschichte des Buddhismus in Ungarn. -- In: Wege zur Ganzheit : Festschrift A. Govinda. -- 1973. -- S. 75-78].


Gründung der Buddhista Misszió, Magyarországi Árya Maitreya Mandala Egyházközösség (Buddhist Mission,  Buddhist Church Arya Maitreya Mandala of Hungary) [Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2003-067-01]

"The Hungarian Buddhist Mission was established in 1952 to become the first accepted denomination representing Buddhism, one of the largest world religions in Hungary. Like all other churches, the Buddhist Mission managed by its founder Dr. Ernő Hetényi had to be registered and supervised by the State Board for Church Affairs at that time. The Buddhist Mission joined a movement for spiritual revival prevailing in Europe and America in particular, initiated by the famous Buddhist teacher Lama Anagarika Govinda who was born in Europe but lived in Ceylon and India. One of the specific features of this Order is that its followers try to retain the genuine spiritual teachings that are independent of time and culture from the existing Buddhist traditions maintained in the countries of the East; giving up, however, the formalities of some traditional schools which seem to be unusual, or even exotic to the Western eyes. Our intention has been to develop such forms of Buddhist practice which, on the one hand preserve the essence of universal Buddhist teachings, on the other hand match the Western culture and can be integrated into the normal way of life within our current society. The Order has taken the name of Arya Maitreya, the future Buddha predicted by the prophecies of the Buddhist Scriptures, who embodies the redeeming power of love and compassion. Up to 1993, the Buddhist Mission worked as the Eastern European Centre of the International Order Arya Maitreya Mandala. However, as a result of the political changes in the countries of Eastern Europe, it has become possible to organise freely local Buddhist communities in each of this countries, consequently the need for such a function has ceased to exist by now. The Hungarian community itself could reach an independent legal status as well. Thus, instead of maintaining the reference to the international organization, it has changed its name to “Buddhist Mission, Buddhist Church Arya Maitreya Mandala Hungary”. Since the transformation of the political system in Hungary in 1989, the status of the community has been regulated by the new Ecclesiastical Act of Hungary. Based on this legislation, the Capital City Court of Budapest registered the Buddhist Mission among the churches and church organisations on 3 July 1990."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2003-067-01]


Gründung der A Tan Kapuja Buddhista Egyház (Gate of Dharma Buddhist Church) [Webpräsenz: -- Zugriff am 2003-07-01]

"The Gate of Dharma Buddhist Church was established by 108 founders (members of various Buddhist communities) in 1991/2535 so that it would represent the teachings of Buddhism in Hungary. Its leading body is the Council of Communities, which consists of one Japanese, one Tibetan and two Hungarian communities at the present.

The Church established the Gate of Dharma Buddhist College so that it would offer a higher education on Buddhist world-view, religion, philosophy and Buddhism-related Oriental teachings. The College has been performing this task for ten years now. We can no way complain about the outer conditions."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2003-07-01]

"The Gate of Dharma Buddhist College is a denominational college forming a part of the Hungarian higher educational system. It offers four years of full-time higher education in Buddhist and Buddhism-related studies for Hungarian students of all age. Its fundamental task is to teach and research Buddhist religion, Oriental studies and philosophy. The College pursues single degree training in one scientific field, in one branch of science. Students graduate as Buddhist teachers; the title is equivalent with the BSc degree. The term "Buddhist teacher" is the translation of a Hungarian title, and. as such, it does not carry the traditional meaning of the word but refers to a person who is able to research and interpret the traditional texts and commentaries as well as to expound and explain the Buddha's teaching for an audience.

Education at the College started in September 1991. The College issued degrees for the first time in 1995. Presently we have 152 students.

The College is the institute of The Gate of Dharma Buddhist Church, a non-sectarian church-organisation that was founded in 1991. It endeavours to encompass the entirety of the Buddhist tradition and thus does not limit its beliefs and activities to those of any particular Buddhist school or national tradition. We do not engage in missionary activities, but we do not reject anyone who comes to us from their free will. Applicants are not necessarily Buddhists: in fact, they are mostly open-minded young people who would like to gain mastery over the course of their lives.

Teachers do not consider it their task to indoctrinate students with the teachings of Buddhism but to help them awaken and expand their own intelligence and wisdom. Religious instruction is coupled with scientific methods of learning and investigation: we encourage both the assiduous study of the traditional doctrines and intellectual probing into their truth. We do not assert dogmas but accept the free dynamism of the process of understanding. We want to establish a free spiritual community where the members with different beliefs and preferences do not obstruct but inspire each other.

Our Mission Statement incorporates the traditional values that have been established and preserved by teachers and students ahead of us, during the 2,500 years of transmitting the Buddha's teachings. In order to realise our objectives, we have developed an attitude based on three strong pillars. The first one is of the greatest importance: the intention to establish Hungarian Buddhism that complies with the Hungarian culture and language, with modern age and life-style.

The second pillar is the translation of sacred texts from the original language into Hungarian, that is, sounding a clear voice in our mother tongue that enables us to find our way and act properly in our ever-complicated world. The third one is the mission inherited from our honourable predecessor Alexander Csoma de Kőrös: to save the relics of the endangered Tibetan culture, philosophy, religion, way of life and language.

Our primary device of achieving our objectives can be a gentle way of life, penetrated by Buddhist teachings, the personal relationship between teacher and disciple and a most practical devotion towards teachings acquired in theory.

The training provides general knowledge of the fundamental topics and profound knowledge on certain special fields. Through the research work of its teachers and talented students, the College joins national and international scientific life on these special fields of studies. It introduces Buddhist religious life, traditional and modern religious practice. It provides an opportunity for its teachers and students to join the Buddhist communities in Hungary, primarily The Gate of Dharma Buddhist Church. (Some of the Hungarian Buddhist communities apply the term "church" instead of "community", since this is the term that traditionally refers to communities performing serious religious activity.)"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2003-07-01]


Exkurs: Alexander Csoma de Körös (1784-1842) -- Bahnbrecher der Tibetkunde

Abb.: Alexander Csoma de Körös

Obwohl man Alexander Ksoma aus Körös (Transsylvanien) nicht zu den Buddhisten oder Neobuddhisten zählen kann, sind seine unter größten Abenteuern und Strapazen gewonnenen Veröffentlichungen von unschätzbarem Wert für die Kenntnis des tibetischen Buddhismus gewesen. So verdient er eine kurze Erwähnung im Rahmen von Materialien zum Neobuddhismus. Interessant ist auch, wie ungarischer Nationalismus zur Kenntnis des Buddhismus beigetragen hat.

1784 -- April

Alexander Csoma wird in Körös, Transsylvanien (Ungarn), geboren.


Alexander Csoma besucht die protestantische Schule Bethlnianum in Nagyenyed


Besuch des Academicum Collegium in Nagyenyed. Früh entstand in ihm der Entschluss, zu einer Entscheidung der viel diskutierten Streitfrage über den Ursprung der Ungarn dadurch zu gelangen, dass er in Asien nach der alten Heimat der Ungarn sucht.


Studium in Göttingen, besonders beim Alttestamentler Orientalisten Eichhorn

1819 -- 28 November

Alexander Csoma bricht auf. Seine Route: Vöröstorony-Pass -- Bukarest -- Sofia -- Alexandria -- Beirut -- Aleppo -- Bagdad -- Teheran (Ankunft 4. Oktober 1820) -- Srinagar (Ankunft 17. April 1822) -- Leh -- Zanskar.


Csoma studiert bei Lama Sangye Puntsog (Sang-rgyas phun-tshogs) im Kloster Zangla (Zanskskar) Tibetisch und den buddhistischen Kanon in Tibetisch. Der Lama schrieb für Csoma kurze Abhandlungen über die fünf Wissenschaften, Medizin und Astronomie. Ein anderer Lama, Kundga' chos-legs, schrieb für Csoma eine Abhandlung über den Buddhismus unter dem Titel: "Die Fragen des Europäers Skander". Tshul-khrims rgya-mtsho, ein Religionsgelehrter, schrieb für Csoma einen Kurztraktat über Logik und einheimische Wissenschaften. Csoma hatte Tshul-khrims rgya-mtsho folgende Fragen vorgelegt:

[Tibetan compendia written for Csoma de Körös by the Lamas of Zans-dkar / ed. by J. Terjék. -- New Delhi, 1976. --- S. 13ff. -- Zit in: Terjék, József: Alexander Csoma de Körös : a short biography. -- S xxi].

Auf der Grundlage dieser Kompendien schrieb Csoma später seine tibetologischen Studien.


Aufenthalt in Kulu.


Wieder Aufenthalt in Zanskar.


Aufenthalt im Kloster Kanum (auf dem Weg Indien-Lhasa), wo es einen vollständigen lamaistischen Kanon gab. In Kanum vollendete Csoma seine tibetologischen Hauptwerke:

Tibetan compendia written for Csoma de Körös by the lamas of Zans-dkar : manuscripts in the library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences / edited by J. Terjek. -- New Delhi : Society of Csoma de Körös and Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1976. -- [201] p. : ill. -- (Sata-pitaka series ; v. 231)


Alexander Csoma ist Bibliothekar bei der Asiatic Society of Bengal in Calcutta. Als solcher katalogisiert er die Sammlung tibetischer Werke, die B. H. Hodgson in Nepal gesammelt hatte. Hauptsächlich veröffentlicht er aber im Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal:

1832: Geographical notice of Tibet
1832: Translation of a Tibetan fragment
1833: Note on the origin of the Kalachakra and Adi-Buddha systems
1833: Translation of a Tibetan passport, dated A.D. 1688
1833: Origin of the Shakya race


Körösi Csoma, Sandor (1784-1842): Essay towards a dictionary, Tibetan and English / prepared by Alexander Csoma de Körös ; with the assistance of Sangs-rgyas Phun-tshogs. -- Calcutta : Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, 1834. -- 351 p.
Auflage: 500 Exemplare.

Körösi Csoma, Sandor (1784-1842): A grammar of the Tibetan language, in English / prepared, under the patronage of the government and the auspices of the Asiatic society of Bengal, by Alexander Csoma de Körös. -- Calcutta : Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, 1834. -- xii, 204, 40 p. 28 cm.
Auflage: 500 Exemplare.


Der erste Teil der umfangreichen Analysis of the Kanjur erscheint in Asiatic researches. -- 20 (1835).

1835 - 1837

Alexander Csoma studiert in Titalya (Nordbengalen) Sanskrit und Bengali


Csoma ist wieder in Calcutta und veröffentlicht:
1838: Notices on the different systems of Buddhism (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal)
1838: Enumeration of historical and grammatical works which are to be found in Tibet (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal)
1839: The life and teachings of Buddha (Asiatic researches)
1839: Analyses of the Kanjur and the Tanjur (Asiatic researches) [Später auch erweitert erschienen als: Körösi Csoma, Sandor: Analyse du Kandjour, recueil des livres sacres au Tibet / par Alexandre Csoma, de Körös ; traduite de l'anglais et augmentee de diverses additions et remarques par M. Leon Feer. -- Paris : E. Leroux, 1881. -- [131]-577 p. ; 29 cm. -- (Annales du Musee Guimet ; 2, p. [131]-577)].


Alexander Csoma macht sich im Februar auf in Richtung Lhasa. Er stirbt am 11. April 1842 in Darjeeling an Malaria.


Sanskrit-Tibetan-English vocabulary / being an edition and translation of the Mahâvyutpatti by Alexander Csoma de Körös. Ed. by E. Denison Ross, Satis Chandra Vidyâbhusana and Durga Charan Chatterjee. -- Calcutta : Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, 1910-1944. -- 389 S. -- (Memoirs of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal ; vol. IV, No 1-3) -- Part 1-3.


Körösi Csoma, Sandor (1784-1842): Tibetan studies : being a reprint of the articles contributed to the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and Asiatic researches / by Alexander Csoma de Körös. -- Calcutta : Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, 1912. -- 459 p.


Körösi Csoma, Sandor (1784-1842): Collected works of Alexander Csoma de Körös / edited by J. Terjek. Budapest : Akademiai Kiado, 1984. Description: 4 v. : port. ; 25 cm.
"Alexander Csoma de Körös, 1784-1842 : a short biography" (31 p.) inserted in pocket at back of v. 2-4.
Contents: v.1. Tibetan-English dictionary
v.2. Grammar of the Tibetan language.
v.3. Sanskrit-Tibetan-English vocabulary, being an edition and translation of the Mahavyutpatti.
v.4. Tibetan studies.

Körösi Csoma Sandor szanszkrit-magyar szojegyzeke = A list of words, Sanskrit and Hungarian by Alexander Csoma de Körös / Wojtilla Gyula. Budapest : MTAK, 1984. -- 90 p., [17] p. of plates : facsims. ; 24 cm. -- (Keleti tanulmanyok = Oriental studies ISSN: 0133-6193)


Als Eugen Lenard Jenö (1876-1924) (Budapest) versuchte, einige buddhistische Flugschriften in serbischer Übersetzung in einer Belgrader Zeitung übersetzen zu lassen, erhielt er den Bescheid, dass die Zensur das verboten habe. [Jenö, Lenard: Buddhistische Spuren in der Literatur des Balkans. -- In: Die buddhistische Welt. -- 5 (1911). -- S. 59-63].

Abb.: Grab von Lenard Jenö in Klosterneuburg

[Bildquelle: Klar, Helmut <1914 - >: Helmut Klar : zeitzeuge zur Geschichte des Buddhismus in Deutschland / hrg. von Martin Baumann. -- Konstanz, 1995. -- (Forschungsberichte / Forschungsprojekt "Buddhistischer Modernismus" ; 11). 150 S. : Ill. -- Online: -- Zugriff am 2003-06-19]

Zu 11.: Buddhismus in Italien