Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Quellenkunde zur indischen Geschichte bis 1858. -- 14. Quellen auf Arabisch, Persisch und in Turksprachen. -- 7. Zum Beispiel: Abū 'l-Faẓl ibn Mubārak <1551 - 1602> (ابو الفضل): Ā’īn-i-Akbarī (آئین اکبری), III.15 <Auszug>. -- Fassung vom 2008-05-17. -- http://www.payer.de/quellenkunde/quellen147.htm
Erstmals publiziert als:
Abū 'l-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak <1551-1602>: The Ā'īn- Akbarī / [by] Abū 'l-Faẓl 'Allāmī; translated into English by H. Blochmann [1838 - 1878]. -- 2nd ed. / revised and ed. by D. C. Phillott. -- Calcutta : Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1927-1949. -- 3 Bde : Ill. ; 25 cm. -- (Bibliotheca Indica ; work no. 61,270,271). -- Vol. 2-3: translated into English by H. S. Jarrett [1839 - 1919]; corrected by Jadu-Nath Sarkar. -- Bd. II, S. 129 - 162. -- Online: http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main. -- Zugriff am 2008-05-15
Erstmals hier publiziert: 2008-05-17
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung FS 2008
©opyright: Public domain.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
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In the fortieth year of the Divine Era His Majesty's dominions consisted of one hundred and five Sarkārs (division of a Sūbah) subdivided into two thousand seven hundred and thirty-seven townships. When the ten years' settlement of the revenue was made (which amounted to an annual rental of three Arbs, sixty-two krōrs, ninety-seven lakhs, fifty-five thousand two hundred and forty-six dāms and twelve lakhs of betel leaves), His Majesty apportioned the Empire into twelve divisions, to each of which he gave the name of Sūbah and distinguished them by the appellation of the tract of country or its capital city. These were Allahabad, Agra, Oudh, Ajmēr, Ahmadābād, Behār, Bengal, Dehli, Kābul, Lāhor, Multān, Mālwah: and when Berār, Khāndesh and Aḥmadnagar were conquered, their number was fixed at fifteen. A brief description of each is here set down, and an account of their rulers together with the periods in which they flourished, duly recorded.
Since the conceptions of sovereign rule embrace the universe, I propose to begin with Bengal which is at one extremity of Hindustān and to proceed to Zabulistān and I hope that Turān and Irān and other countries may be added to the count. The country lying to the east will be first described, followed by the north, the south, and the west.
This Sūbah is situated in the second climate. Its length [S. 130] from Chittagong to Garhi is four hundred kos. Its breadth from the northern range of mountains to the southern frontier of the Sarkār of Madāran, is two hundred kos, and when the country of Orissa was added to this Sūbah, the additional length was forty-three kos and the breadth twenty-three. It is bounded on the east by the sea, on the north and south by mountains and on the west by the Sūbah of Behār. The tract of country on the east called Bhāti, is reckoned a part of this province. It is ruled by Īsa Afghān and the Khutbah is read and the coin struck in the name of his present Majesty. In this country the mango trees grow to the height of a man or not so high and produce abundant fruit. Adjoining it, is an extensive tract of country inhabited by the Tipperah tribes. The name of the ruler is Bijay Mānik. Whosoever obtains the chieftainship, bears the title of Mānik after his name, and the nobles that of Narāin. He has a force of two hundred thousand footmen and a thousand elephants. Horses are scarce. To the north is a country called Kūch. Its chief commands a thousand horse and a hundred thousand foot. Kāmrūp commonly called also Kāoṇru and Kāmtā, is subject to him. The inhabitants are as a race good looking and addicted to the practice of magic. Strange stories are told regarding them. It is said that they build houses, of which the pillars, walls and roofs are made of men. Some of these they compel by the power of sorcery, and criminals deserving of death are also thus made use of. Whoever voluntarily surrenders [S. 131] himself for this purpose, escapes retribution for a year. Various conveniences are reserved for him. In due time, men armed with swords cut them down, and from their movements or immobility or other aspects, they have cognizance of scarcity or plenty or duration of years or the longevity of the ruler or defeat of enemies. They also cut open a pregnant woman who has gone her full term of months and taking out the child, divine somewhat as to the future. There grows a wonderful tree whose branches when cut, exude a sweet liquid which quenches the drought of those a-thirst. They have also a mango tree that has no trunk; it trails like a climbing vine, over a tree and produces fruit. There is likewise a flower which after it has been gathered for two months, does not wither nor lose its colour or smell. Of this they make necklaces.
Bordering on this country are the dominions of the Rājah of Ashām (Assam) whose great pomp and state are subjects of general report. When he dies, his principal attendants of both sexes voluntarily bury themselves alive in his grave. Neighbouring this is Lower Tibet and to its left is Khata. This is also called Mahāchīn which the vulgar pronounce Māchīn. From Khān Bāligh its capital, to the ocean, a forty days' journey, they have cut a canal both sides of which are embanked with stone and mortar. Alexander of Greece advanced to that country by this route. Another road is also mentioned which can be traversed in four days and four nights. [S. 132]
To the south-east of Bengal is a considerable tract called Arakan which possesses the port of Chittagong. Elephants abound, but horses are scarce and of small size. Camels are high priced: cows and buffaloes there are none, but there is an animal which has somewhat of the characteristics of both, piebald and particoloured, whose milk the people drink. Their religion is said to be different to that of the Hindus and Muḥammadans. Sisters may marry their own twin brothers, and they refrain only from marriages between a son and his mother. The ascetics, who are their repositaries of learning, they style Wali whose teaching they implicitly follow. It is the custom when the chief holds a court, for the wives of the military to be present, the men themselves not attending to make their obeisance. The complexion of the people is dark and the men have little or no beard.
Near to this tribe is Pegu which is also called Chīn. In some ancient accounts it is set down as the capital city of Chīn. There is a large military force of elephants and infantry, and white elephants are to be found. On one side of it is Arakan. There are mines of rubies, diamonds, gold, silver, copper, naptha and sulphur, and over these mines there is continual contention between this country and the Maghs as well as the tribes of Tipperah.
The original name of Bengal was Bang. Its former rulers raised mounds measuring ten yards in height and twenty in breadth throughout the province which were called Āl. From this suffix, the name Bengal took its rise and currency. The summer heats are temperate and the cold season very short. The rains begin when the sun is midway in Taurus, (May) and continue for somewhat more than six months, the plains being under water and the mounds alone visible. For a long time past, at the end of the rains, the air had been felt to be pestilential and seriously affected [S. 133] animal life, but under the auspices of his present Majesty, this calamity has ceased.
Its rivers are countless and the first of them in this province is the Ganges: its source cannot be traced. The Hindu sages say that it flows down from the hair of Mahadeva's head. Rising in the mountains towards the north, it passes through the province of Delhi, and imperial Agra, and Allahabad and Behār into the province of Bengal, and near Ḳāzihattah in the Sarkar of Bārbakābād, it divides into two streams. One of these, flowing eastwards, falls into the sea at the port of Chittagong. At the parting of the waters, it takes the name of Padmāwati and the other pursues a southern course. It is divided into three streams; one, the Sarsuti; the second the Jamna (Jamuna) and the third the Ganges, called collectively in the Hindi language Tribeni, and held in high veneration. The third stream after spreading into a thousand channels, joins the sea at Sātgāon. The Sarsuti and the Jamna unite with it. In praise of this stream the Hindu sages have written volumes. From its source to its mouth it is considered sacred but some spots have a peculiar sanctity. Its water is carried as an offering of price to far distant places. Believing it to be a wave of the primeval river, they hold its worship to be an adoration of the supreme being, but this is no part of the ancient tradition. Its sweetness, lightness and wholesomeness attest its essential virtues. Added to this, it may be kept in a vessel for years without undergoing change.
Another river is the Brahmaputra. It flows from Khatā to Kūch and thence through the Sarkār of Bāzohā and fertilising the country, falls into the sea.
And again there is the sea which is here a gulf of the great ocean, extending on one side as far as Baṣrah and on the other to the Egyptian Ḳulzum and thence it washes [S. 134] both Persia and Ethiopia where are Dahlak and Sūākin, and is called (the Gulf of) Omān and the Persian Sea.
The principal cultivation is rice of which there are numerous kinds. If a single grain of each kind were collected, they would fill a large vase. It is sown and reaped three times a year on the same piece of land with little injury to the crop. As fast as the water rises, the stalks grow, so that the ear is never immersed, inasmuch as those experienced in such matters have taken the measure of a single night's growth at sixty cubits. The people are submissive and pay their rents duly. The demands of each year are paid by instalments in eight months, they themselves bringing mohurs and rupees to the appointed place for the receipt of revenue, as the division of grain between the government and the husbandman is not here customary. The harvests are always abundant, measurement is not insisted upon, and the revenue demands are determined by estimate of the crop. His Majesty in his goodness has confirmed this custom. Their staple food is rice and fish; wheat, barley and the like not being esteemed wholesome. Men and women for the most part go naked wearing only a cloth about the loins. The chief public transactions fall to the lot of the women. Their houses are made of bamboos, some of which are so constructed that the cost of a single one will be five thousand rupees or more and they last a long time. Travelling is by boat, especially in the rains, and they make them of different kinds for purposes of war, carriage or swift sailing. For a siege they are so adapted that when run ashore, they overtop the fort and facilitate its capture. For land travel they employ the Sukhāsan. This is a crescent-shaped litter covered with camlet or scarlet cloth and the like, the two sides of which have fastenings of various metals and a pole supporting it is attached by means of iron hooks. It is conveniently adapted for sitting in, lying at full length or sleeping during travel. As a protection against sun and rain they provide a commodious covering which is removable at pleasure. Some enjoy the luxury of riding on elephants but they rarely take to horseback. The mats made here often resemble woven silk. [S. 135] Tria inde genera eunuchorum veniunt, quos Sandalos, Bādāmos et Kāfūros nuncupant. Priores, partibus genitalibus radicaliter exsectis, Aṭlīses etiam nominant. Bādāmis pars solum penis relinquitur. Kāfuros adhuc tenerœ ætatis, testes vel compressi conficiuntur vel exsecantur: tamen notatum est, castrationem, quæ pervicaciam cæteris omnibus animalibus tollit, hominibus solis excitare. [Von dort kommen drei Arten Eunuchen, die sie Sandali, Bādāmi und Kāfūri nennen. Die ersten, der Geschlechtsteile vollkommen abgeschnitten sind, nennen sie auch Aṭlīses. Die Bādāmi haben nur einen Teil des Penis. Den Kāfuri zerwuetscht man im Kindeslater die Hoden oder schnedet sie ab. Es ist aber bekannt, dass die Kastration, die allen anderen Tieren die Starrköpfigkeit nimmt, sie allein bei den Menschen verstärkt.] Salt is in great demand and is brought from long distances. Diamonds, emeralds, pearls, cornelians and agates are imported. Flowers and fruit are in plenty. The betel-nut is of a kind that stains of a red colour the lips of those who chew it.
Jannatābād is an ancient city: for a time, it was the capital of Bengal and was widely known as Lakhnauti and for a while as Gaur. His Majesty the late Emperor Humāyūn distinguished it by this title of Jannatābād. It has a fine fort and to the eastward of it is a lake called Chhatiāpatiā in which are many islands. Were the dam that confines it to break, the city would be under water. About a kōs to the north of the fort, is a large building and a reservoir, monuments of great antiquity. From time immemorial, its water has been considered to be of a poisonous character. The place was called Piyāsbāri, and criminals condemned to death, were there confined who in a short time perished from the effects of this brackish water. At present in the blessed reign of His Majesty, this practice has been discontinued.
Maḥmūdābād.—The marshes around the fort have added to its impregnability. The ruler of this district, at the time of its conquest by Sher Khān, let some of his elephants loose in its forests from which time they have abounded. Long pepper grows in this tract.
The Sarkār of Khalīfatābād is well wooded and holds wild elephants. The Sarkār of Baglā extends along the sea shore. The fort is surrounded by woods. On the first day of the new moon the sea steadily rises until the fourteenth, and from the fifteenth till the end of the month as gradually falls. In the 29th year of the Divine Era, a terrible inundation occurred at three o'clock in the afternoon, which swept [S. 136] over the whole Sarkār. The Rājah held an entertainment at the time. He at once embarked on board a boat, while his son Parmānand Rāe with some others climbed to the top of a temple and a merchant took refuge in a high loft. For four hours and a half the sea raged amid thunder and a hurricane of wind. Houses and boats were engulfed but no damage occurred to the temple or the loft. Nearly two hundred thousand living creatures perished in this flood.
In the Sarkār of Ghoraghāt, silk is produced and a kind of sackcloth. Numbers of eunuchs are here and hill ponies in plenty are procurable. There are many kinds of indigenous fruits, especially one called Latkan. It is the size of a walnut with the taste of a pomegranate and contains three seeds.
The Sarkār of Bārbakābād produces a fine cloth called Gangajal (Ganges water), and a great abundance of oranges.
In the Sarkār of Bāzohā are extensive forests which furnish long and thick timbers of which masts are made. There are also iron mines.
The Sarkār of Sonārgāoṇ produces a species of muslin very fine and in great quantity. In the township of Kiyāra Sundar is a large reservoir which gives a peculiar whiteness to the cloths that are washed in it.
In the Sarkār of Sylhet there are nine ranges of hills. It furnishes many eunuchs.
There is a fruit called Sūntarah in colour like an orange [S. 137] but large and very sweet. The China root is produced in plenty. In ancient times it had not been discovered until some scientific travellers from European Turkey introduced it to universal notice. Aloes-wood is abundant in these mountains. At the end of the rains they fell the trees to the ground, and after a certain time they give them various names according to their greenness or maturity.
The Bhangrāj is a bird of a black colour, with red eyes and a long tail. Two of the feathers extend to a length of a gaz. They are snared and tamed. It catches the note of any animal that it hears, and eats flesh. The Shērganj is of the same kind but its beak and legs are red; in imitating sounds, it matches the other and pursues sparrows and the like and eats them.
Chāṭgāoṇ (Chittagong) is a large city situated by the sea and belted by woods. It is considered an excellent port and is the resort of Christian and other merchants.
In the Sarkār of Sharīfābād is a beautiful species of cattle, white in colour, and of a fine build: like camels they are laden kneeling down and carry fifteen man weight. It is noted for the Barbary goat and for fighting cocks.
In the Sarkār of Sātgāon, there are two ports at a distance of half a kos from each other; the one is Sātgāon, the other Hugli: the latter the chief; both are in the possession of the Europeans. Fine pomegranates grow here. [S. 138]
In the Sarkār of Madāran is a place called Harpah in which there is a diamond mine producing chiefly very small stones.
This was formerly a separate State. The climate is extremely healthy. His Majesty apportioned it into five Sarkārs, viz., Jalesar, Bhadrak, Kaṭak (Cuttack,) Kalang Dandpāṭ and Raja Mahandrah. These five are now included in the province of Bengal. It contains one hundred and twenty-nine masonry forts. Its ruler is entitled Gajpati. The rainy season extends over eight months; there are three cold months and one month only that is hot. The staple cultivation is rice and the food of the inhabitants consists of rice, fish, the egg-plant and vegetables. When the rice is cooked, they steep it in cold water and eat it on the second day. The men are effeminate, anointing their bodies with sandal oil and wearing golden ornaments. The women cover only the lower part of the body and many make themselves coverings of the leaves of trees. The walls of their huts are of reeds and their temples are of stone and of great height. Elephants abound. The inhabitants of Bengal do not understand the language of this country. A woman may have more than one husband. They write on palm leaves with an iron pen, holding it with the clenched fist, and pen and ink are rarely employed. The litters called Sukhāsan are much in use: cloths are manufactured and the province furnishes eunuchs: fruits and flowers are in great plenty, especially the gul i nasrīn which is very delicate and sweet-scented: its outer petals are white, the inner yellow. The keorah grows in great abundance and there are various kinds of betel-leaf. Money transactions are in kauris which is a small white shell generally divided down the middle; it is found on the sea shore. Four kauris make a ganḍa, five ganḍas, a būdi, four būdis, a pan, sixteen or according to [S. 139] some twenty pan, a khāwan, and ten khāwan, a rupee.
Kaṭak (CUTTACK.) The city has a stone fort situated at the bifurcation of the two rivers, the Mahānadi, held in high veneration by the Hindus, and the Ganjūri. It is the residence of the governor and contains some fine buildings. For five or six kōs round the fort during the rains, the country is under water. Rajah Makand Deo built a palace here of nine courts; the first court was taken up for the elephants and the stables: the second was occupied by the artillery and the guards and quarters for attendants: the third by the patrol and gatekeepers: the fourth by the workshops: the fifth, by the kitchen: the sixth contained the public reception rooms: the seventh, the private apartments; the eighth, the women's apartments, and the ninth, the sleeping chamber of the governor. To the south is a very ancient temple. Overlooking this, in the city of Purushottama (Pūri) on the sea shore stands the shrine of Jagannāth. Near to it are the images of Krishna and of his brother and sister, made of sandal-wood. It is said that over four thousand years ago Rājah Indradaman (Indradyumna) ruler of the Nīlkar (Nilgiri) hill sent a learned Brāhman to select a suitable spot for the building of a city. He wandered much in search of his object and found a fitting site which he preferred to all other places. On a sudden he beheld a crow plunge into the water and after bathing itself, pay its devotions to the sea. He was astonished at this action and as he understood the language of animals, he inquired of the crow the reason of its proceeding. He received this answer. "I was once of the number of the deotas and through the curse of an ascetic was transformed into this shape. A spiritual guide of high illumination affirms that the Supreme Creator has a special regard for this spot and whosoever dwells here and applies his soul to the worship of God, quickly attains his desire. For some years past I have supplicated for my deliverance in this [S. 140] manner and the time is now at hand when my prayer will be answered. Since thou art essentially meritorious, watch in expectation and comprehend the wonders of this land." The Brāhman in a short time witnessed with his own eyes the things he had heard. He apprised the Rājah of these occurrences, who built a large city and appointed a special place of worship. The Rājah, one night, after having administered justice, was reposing on the couch of divine praise when it was thus revealed to him. "On a certain day, watch in expectation upon the sea shore. A piece of wood of fifty-two fingers in length and a cubit and a half in breadth will approach: this is the special image of the deity: take it and placing it in thy house, guard it for seven days and whatever shape it then assumes, place it in the temple and enshrine it." After waking, the thing happened in the same wise, and by a divine inspiration, he named it Jagannāth and decked it with gold and jewels. It became a place of devotion to high and low and many miracles are reported regarding it. Kālā Pahār the General of Sulaymān Karāni, on his conquest of the country, flung the image into the fire and burnt it and afterwards cast it into the sea. But it is now restored and these popular fables are related of it.
The three images are washed six times every day and freshly clothed. Fifty or sixty priests wearing the Brahmanical thread, stand to do them service and each time large dishes of food are brought out and offered to the images, so that twenty thousand people partake of the leavings. They construct a car of sixteen wheels which in Hindi, they call Rath, upon which the images are mounted, and they believe that whosoever draws it, is absolved from sin and is visited by no temporal distress. Near Jagannāth is a temple dedicated to the Sun. Its cost was defrayed by twelve years revenue of the province. Even those whose judgment is critical and who are difficult to please stand astonished at its sight. The height of the wall is 150 cubits high and 19 thick. It has three portals. The eastern has carved upon it the figures of two finely designed elephants, each of them carrying a man upon his trunk. The western bears sculptures of two horsemen with trappings [S. 141] and ornaments and an attendant. The northern has two tigers, each of which is rampant upon an elephant that it has overpowered. In front is an octagonal column of black stone, 50 yards high. When nine flights of steps are passed, a spacious court appears with a large arch of stone upon which are carved the sun and other planets. Around them are a variety of worshippers of every class, each after its manner, with bowed heads, standing, sitting, prostrate, laughing, weeping, lost in amaze or in wrapt attention and following these are divers musicians and strange animals which never existed but in imagination. It is said that somewhat over 730 years ago, Rāja Narsing Deo completed this stupendous fabric and left this mighty memorial to posterity. Twenty-eight temples stand in its vicinity; six before the entrance and twenty-two without the enclosure, each of which has its separate legend. Some affirm that Kabīr Mua'hhid reposes here and many authentic traditions are related regarding his sayings and doings to this day. He was revered by both Hindu and Muhammadan for his catholicity of doctrine and the illumination of his mind, and when he died, the Brāhmans wished to burn his body and the Muhammadans to bury it.
The Sūbah of Bengal consists of 24 Sarkārs and 787 Mahals. The revenue is 59 crores, 84 lakhs, 59,319 dāms (Rs. 14,961,482-15-7) in money. The zamīndars are mostly Kayaths. The troops number 23,330 cavalry, 801,150 infantry, 1,170 elephants, 4,260 guns, and 4,400 boats.
N. B. The Parganahs will now be entered in alphabetical order in long double columns to each page accompanied by a few descriptive notices.
[...][S. 157] A general view of the country having now been cursorily given, I proceed to record the succession of its rulers and the duration of their reigns. Twenty-four princes of the Khatri caste, kept aflame the torch of [S. 158] sovereignty from father to son in succession during 2418 years.
|Rājā Bhagrat, Khatri||reigned||218|
|Rājā Udsūr, (Adisūr,)||reigned||75|
|" Partāb Rudr,||"||65|
|Rājā Bigan (Bījjan) pāl,||reigned||75|
|Bhogpāl, his brother,||"||5|
|Jagpāl, his son,||"||74
|Balāl Sen, who built the fort of Gaur,||"||50|
|Lakhan (Lachhman) Sēn,||"||7|
|Sada (Sura) Sēn,||"||18|
|Rājā Nāujah, (Nārāyan),||"||3|
Sixty-one princes thus reigned for the space of 4,544 years when Bengal became subject to the Kings of Delhi.
From the time of Sulṭān Ḳuṭb u' ddīn Aibak to Sulṭān Muḥammad Tughlaḳ Shāh 17 governors ruled during a period of 156 years.
These were followed by—
|A. H.||A. D.||Years.||Months.|
|741||1340||Malik Fakhr'uddīn Silāḥdār, reigned||2||some|
|760||1358||Sikandar (Shāh) his son,||9||"|
|769||1367||Sulṭān Ghiyāsu'ddin his son,||7||"|
|775||1373||Sulṭān 'us Salāṭīn, his son,||10||0|
|785||1383||Shamsu'ddīn, his son,||3||some|
|787||1385||Kānsi native of Bengal,||7||0|
|812||1409||" Ahmad, his son,||16||0|
|Nāṣir his slave,||a week or according to others, half a day.|
|830||1426-7||Nāṣir Shah, descendant of Shamsu'ddīn Bangarah,||32||0|
|887||1482||Sikandar Shāh,||half a day|
|896||1490||Bārbak Shāh,||two and a half days.|
|899||1494||Mahmūd Shah, his son,||1||0|
|927||1521||Naṣrat Shāh, his son,||11 (?)|
|940||1534||Mahmūd Shāh, son of Alāu'd defeated by|
|945||1538||Humayun (held his court at Gaur).|
|946||1539||Shēr Khan, a second time.|
|962||1555||Bahādur Shāh, his son.|
|968||1560||Jalālu'ddīn, his brother.|
|Not in U. T.||Ghiyāsu'ddīn.|
|971||1563-4||Sulaimān (Karāni), his brother.|
|981||1573||Bāyazīd, his son.|
|981||1573||Dāud, his brother, (defeated by Akbar's forces)|
The first Rāja, (Bhagrat) came to Delhi by reason of his friendship for Rājā Jarjōdhan, and fell manfully fighting in the wars of the Mahābhārat, 4,096 years previous to the present time. When the cup of life of Rājā Naujah overflowed, the sovereignty fell to Lakhmaniya son of Rāe Lakhman. Nadiyā was at that time the capital of Bengal and the seat of various learning. Nowadays its prosperity has somewhat abated but the traces of its erudition are still evident. The astrologers predicted the overthrow of his kingdom and the establishment of another faith and they discovered in Muḥammad Baktiyār Khilji the individual by whom these two events would be accomplished. Although the Rājā regarding these as idle tales refused to credit them, many [S. 161] of his subjects sought refuge in distant provinces. At the time when Kuṭbu'ddin Aibak held India for Shahābu'ddīn, the Khilji took possession of Behār by force of arms, and when he marched upon Bengal, the Rāja, escaped in a boat. Muḥammad Bahktiyar, entered Bengal and having amassed enormous plunder, he destroyed the city of Nadiyā and transferred the capital to Lakhnauti. From that time Bengal has been subject to the kings of Delhi.
During the reign of Sultān Tughlaḳ, Ḳadar Khān was viceroy in Bengal. Malik Fakhru'ddīn his sword-bearer through greed of power, disloyally determined upon the death of his master and plotting in secret, slew him and with pretentious allegations fraudfully possessed himself of the government and refused allegiance to the sovereigns of Delhi. Malik Ali Mubārak, who had been one of the principal adherents of Ḳadar Khān, assumed the title of Alāu'ddīn and rose against Fakhru'ddīn, and taking him alive in action, put him to death. Hāji Iliyās Alāi, one of the nobles of Bengal, entering into a confederacy with some others, slew him and took the title of Shamsu'ddīn. He is also called Bhangarah. Sulṭān Fīroz set out from Delhi to chastise him and a severe struggle ensued, but as the rainy season was approaching, he concluded a hasty treaty and returned. When Shamsu'ddin died, the chiefs of the army raised his eldest son to the throne under the title of Sikandar Shāh. Sulṭān Fīroz again marched into Bengal but, retreated after arranging terms of peace. On Sikandar's death his son was elected to succeed him and was proclaimed under the title of Ghiyāsu'ddīn. Khwājah Ḥāfiz of Shīrāz sent him an ode in which occurs the following verse:
And now shall India's parroquets on sugar revel all,
In this sweet Persian lyric that is borne to far Bengal.
A Zemindar of Bengal by name Kānsi fraudfully dispossesed Shamsu'ddīn who was his grandson. When he died, his son embraced Islām and took the name of Sulṭān Jalālu'ddīn. It was the custom in that country for seven thousand footmen called Pāyiks to patrol round the palace. One evening a eunuch conspiring with these guards slew Fatḥ Shāh and assumed the title of Bārbak Shāh.
Firoz Shāh was also slain by these guards and his son Maḥmūd was raised to the sovereignty. An Abyssinian slave named Muzaffar with the assistance of the same guards put him to death and mounted the throne. Alāu'ddīn, an [S. 162] attendant of Muzaffar, in turn, in conspiracy with these guards despatched his master and established himself in power. Thus through the caprice of fortune, these low footsoldiers for a considerable time played an important part in the state. Alāu'ddīn placed the administration of justice on a better footing and disbanded the Pāyiks. Naṣīb Shah is said to have followed the example of his father in his justice and liberality and treated his brothers with consideration. When Sulṭān Ibrahim (Lodi) met his death in the engagement with Sulṭan Bābar, his brother and the chiefs of the army took refuge with this monarch and lived in security. Humayūn appointed Jahāngir Ḳuli Beg to the governorship of the province. When Shēr Khān a second time rose to power, he beguiled Jahāngīr under pretext of an amicable settlement and put him to death. During the reign of Salīm Khān (at Delhi) Muḥammad Khān his kinsman, united loyalty to his lord with justice to his subjects. When he fell in action against Mamrēz Khān, his son Khizr Khān succeeded him and assumed the title of Bahādur Shāh. Mamrēz Khān entered the field against him but perished in battle. Tāj Khān, one of the nobles of Salīm Khān, slew Jalālu'ddīn and assumed the government. His younger brother Sulaimān, although disloyal at heart, yet for a time read the Khuṭbah in the name of His Majesty of a tyrannous disposition, reigned for some time, after which his sons Bāyazīd and Dāūd through misconduct dishonoured the royal privileges of the mint and the pulpit. Thus concludes my abstract.
Praise be to God, that this prosperous country receives an additional splendour through the justice of imperial majesty.
Zu: 8. Zum Beispiel: ʻAbd al-Qādir ibn Mulūk Shāh, Badāʾūnī <1540 - >: Muntaḵhab ut-tawāriḵh <Auszüge>.