Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1835 (Rama III). -- Fassung vom 2016-04-12. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/thailandchronik/chronik1835.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2013-07-01
Überarbeitungen: 2016-04-12 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-06-18 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-05-09 [Teilung des Kapitels] ; 2015-05-08 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-04-22 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-16 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-04 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-15 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-04 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-10-27 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-09-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-08-20 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-08 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-02-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-01-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-20 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-05 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-05 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-10-11 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-28 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-17 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-02 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-14 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-11 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-07-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-07-10 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-07-08 [Ergänzungen]
©opyright: Dieser Text steht der
Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche
Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Herausgebers.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau
die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.
bei den Statistikdiagrammen!
Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:
Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.
Laut William Samuel Waithman Ruschenberger (1807 – 1895) hat der König folgende Einnahmen:
- 400.000 Baht Steuern und Abgaben
- 1,9 Mio. Baht durch den Fernhandel mittels Dschunken
Da das Töten von Tieren dem Buddhismus widerspricht, hebt Rama III. das Verpachten von Inseln an Sammler von Schildkröteneiern auf.
Der König lässt in Wat Kok Krabue (วัดคอกกระบือ) eine Dschunke aus Ziegeln bauen, damit in künftigen Zeiten, wenn keine Dschunken mehr gebaut werden, man sehen kann, wie eine Dschunke aussieht. Das Kloster wird daraufhin in Wat Yannawa (วัดยานนาวา - Schiffstempel) umbenannt.
Abb.: Lage von Wat Yannawa (วัดยานนาวา)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Abb.: Ziegel-Dschunke, Wat Yannawa (วัดยานนาวา), 2000
[Bildquelle: Ahoerstemeier / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
Chesua Hong beginnt die Huai Ko Kho (หวย ก. ข.) Lotterie in Bangkok
Abb.: Huai Ko Kho (หวย ก. ข.)
[Bildquelle: http://teen.mthai.com/variety/52394.html. -- Zugriff am 2013-06-25. -- Fair use]
"The Huey [หวย / 花會] Lottery had its origin in China, and was introduced into Siam under the following circumstances:
—In the Third Reign, in the year of the Rabbit B. E. 2374 (A. D. 1831), the rainfall was very large; but in the year following the amount of rain was small and rice was very dear and so scarce that it had to be imported into Siam. Many had no money wherewith to buy food and in consequence had to work and receive rice as wages: even the tax-farmers had no cash and were obliged to pay in merchandise, and the Chinese being unable to pay their poll-tax had to work in the city. At last the King cogitated that although much money had been coined, it had apparently all disappeared: he suspected that the populace had been attempting a corner in opium, and so he ordered that much opium should be seized and burnt; but still the coin remained in obscurity. One day the Spirit Farmer, Chesua Hong remarked to the King that the populace had buried the money, but that if a lottery were started he was sure that they would dig it up again. Hence, the King was pleased to tell Chin Hong to start one, and it is on record that Chesua Hong actually started the Huey Lottery in Siam in the Third Reign, Year of the Horse B. E. 2378 (A. D. 1835).
The Lottery House was originally situated at Sapan Han [สะพานหัน], but was soon moved to a site near the Burapha Palace [วังบูรพาภิรมย์]. It was burnt down in the year B. E 2415 , after which it was opened again near Pratu Samyot [ประตูสามยอด], where it remained until the lottery was abolished.
Chesua Hong started by drawing a letter once a day (tua chao) but very soon another person, one Phra Sriwirot, seeing that Hong was making a goodly profit asked the King for permission to run another Huey and it was started at Banglampu [บางลำพู], drawing one letter per diem (tua kham). Thus there were two Huey Lotteries, called
respectively the '‘Rong Chao” and the “Rong Kham." Phra Sriwirot’s lottery seems to have been mismanaged so it was taken over by Hong, and thus it came about that the Huey Lottery drew two letters per diem. At first the price of the Huey Farm was 20, 000 ticals. It is not clear for how many years Chesua Hong carried on the lottery, but it is certain that afterwards the Farm was put up to auction in the same way as the Gambling Farm, and the holder of the Farm received the title of Khun Banbökburiratn. —He was popularly called “Khun Ban” just as the Gambling Farmer was known as “ Khun Pat, ” and the farm fetched a higher price every time it was put up. In the Fourth Reign Huey lotteries were set up in Pechaburi [เพชรบุรี] and in Ayuthia [อยุธยา], but they did not last for long. As a result of the King's trip to these places he noticed that the populace were getting impoverished, so he commanded that these provincial lotteries should cease, and since that time there has only been the lottery held in Bangkok.
As far as we know, when the Huey lottery was started in China, the names of 34 personages of the period were taken to represent the 34 letter’s of the lottery, but at the time when the Huey was introduced into Siam this number was increased by 2 more, thus making a total of 36.
At the Lottery house there were pictures painted, so that people might know on what to put their money, as follows
- A portrait of the individual who represented the letter.
- A Chinese character giving the name of the said personage.
- A picture of the animal which was the former birth state of the said personage.
When the Huey was first brought to Siam, the Siamese could not read or speak Chinese, they could only see the pictures but did not know which was which; so Chesua Hong got out of that difficulty by assigning a Siamese consonant character to each of the pictures so that the Siamese could fall victims.
Owing to the fact that the Siamese consonants were thus employed, the lottery was officially styled “the Akhon Huey Ko Kho," [อักษร หวย ก. ข.] and punters usually called the numbers of the lottery by the name of the Siamese consonant, coupled with the Chinese designatory personage e. g. they would say “ Ko [ก] sam huey, kho [ข] nguey poh" etc. and in some cases they would use a Siamese term instead of the Chinese, as for example, Cho khai mu, to rua chang, and sometimes they would use the Siamese terms for the letters for example Pho pi, fo fon, fo fai. But the Chinese always used the Chinese names and never the Siamese consonants. When the Huey lottery was introduced into Cambodia, no use was made of the Cambodian letters, the names of animals in Cambodian were used as significants, but the Chinese in Cambodia used the Chinese names as elsewhere.
It is said that when Chesua Hong first started the lottery, he had a Set of pictures hungฅ up representing the figures of the Huey and a set of little boards each with a Chinese and a Siamese character in little bags hidden away in a back room at the lottery house. When the time for staking arrived, Chesua Hong would bring out one of those bags and hang it up. Those who wished to stake had to do so at the lottery house, and no stake might exceed one tical. Clerks were stationed outside, who took the money and gave tickets in receipt. When all had finished staking, Chesua Hong came out and pulled the little board out of its bag for all to see, those who had picked the winner were paid 29 times their stake and the others went away with lighter pockets.
It is said that when people went to put their money on, there were crowds of people assembled in front of the lottery house at the time when Chesua Hong would come forth, and many of the crowd begged for tips as to what letter was coming out. The Farmer to please the mob gave tips (of sorts) and on such occasions as he refrained, the crowd became annoyed, so the Farmer had to get a man to act as tipster and it thus became a custom. But as the tipster himself did not know what letter the Farmer was going to produce, his ‘dead certs’ merely deceived the foolish; hence we see another case of history being but a repetition.
There were many inducements to gamble on the lottery, in the first place, the fact that winners were paid 30 times their stake. This alone raised visions of wealth, for by picking a winner once in 10 or even 20 times, some profit would accrue, also by staking on 10 or 20 letters and winning on one of them, would likewise be productive of lucre, and many a poor wretch vainly trusting in his imagination, and thinking that he would be rolling in wealth by spotting the winner once or twice, went joyfully along the road to ruin. Habitual lottery gamblers had various methods of trying to hit upon the winning letter, and one of the favourite means was by dividing the letters into groups of a similar nature and the lottery clerks had many of those short cuts to poverty for the delectation of their customers. The usual form was as follows: —the letters were divided into 6 groups
- Group. 1 the letters ถ ย ญ ฃ known as the si tjo nguan meaning the four nobles.
- Group. 2 The letters ข บ จ น ว ล known as lak t’ae sü meaning the six Phras,
- Group 3. the letters ฝ ฬ พ ซ known as si khit tjia’ meaning the four mendicants.
- Group 4 the letters ท ร ค ฅ known as si tjape meaning the four ladies.
- Group 5 the letters ช ม ต ฮ ภ known as ngo woho wotjang meaning the five tigers.
- Group 6 the remaining 11 letters of the lottery known as sui yi meaning unclassified letters.
The object of this arrangement was to try to catch the ideas of the farmer, as for example on the day the farmer 'made merit' he would be sure to bring out one of the “Phra” letters, and so much money was staked on the letters ข บ จ น ว ล or if it were some lucky day for the farmer such as the day on which he drew the lottery for the first time, people were sure that he would not draw any inauspicious letter from either the tiger or mendicant classes. The lottery farmer had to be a real 'Artful Dodger ’ to avoid being caught by such tricks. There were various other events against which he had to guard, for example once a big fire occurred, and the farmer was rash enough to bring out fo fai [ฟ ไฟ] ฟ that night, and many wily naklengs [นักเลง] had staked their last farthing on that letter to the great undoing of the farmer.
A story is told of a happening just shortly before the lottery was abolished. A Chinaman played Poh at a gambling house owned by the lottery farmer, and lost no less than 10, 000 ticals. He thought that the lottery farmer would be so elated by this win at Poh that it would give him a tip for the lottery that night, so the crafty follow put all he could raise on the letter nguey poh and won 20, 000 ticals, but it is curious that no tales of great losses are so eagerly retailed.
The price paid by the farmer for running the lottery. At first when the lottery was started in the Third Reign the price was 20,000 ticals per annum but reached the figure of 200,000 ticals during the 4th Reign. The highest price ever paid was in the year B. E. 2454 (A. D. 1911) when the sum of 3, 849, 600 ticals was bid for it. This money had to be paid into the Treasury by the farmer in the same manner as the money for all other farms, namely three months payment in advance for the first month (the two months instalments being of the nature of a guarantee) and so on at the rate of 1/12 of the total sum per month until the 10th month, the guarantee money being used for the 11th and 12th months payments. The amount of stakes received during the latter part of the lottery's existence averaged about 40,000 ticals per day, but at the Ok Pansa [วันออกพรรษา] it was as much as 120,000 to 140,000 ticals. The farmer’s usual daily payments on winnings were somewhere about 10,000 ticals on the average, but there were usually several lucky winners every year of sums ranging up to 30,000 ticals. So it can be seen that the lottery was a highly profitable undertaking for the farmer and it only happened once that he had to surrender the lottery through inability to make his payments to the Treasury and this was due to the fact that the farmer in question had no funds of his own to make good the loss, but as there were several others willing to take on the farm, it was put up to auction every year from that time. The Huey Lottery was started in Siam in the Year B. E. 2378 (A. D. 1835) and was stopped in the present reign on April 1st B. E. 2459 (A. D. 1916) thus having had an existence of 81 years."
[Quelle: Cartwright, Basil Osborn <1877 - 1928>: The Huay lottery. -- In: Journal of the Siam Society. -- 18,3 (1924). -- S. 221 - 229, 239]
Die US-Navy bildet das East India Squadron. 1868 entsteht daraus das Asiatic Squadron, das bis 1902 besteht.
[Jones, John Taylor] <1802 – 1851>: คำสอนพระสาศะหนา. -- [Singapore, 1835]. -- "Religionsunterweisung", eine Zusammenfassung des Matthäusevangeliums.
[Bildquelle: http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/asian-and-african/page/11/. -- Zugriff am 2015-03-16. -- Public domain]
Neubau der katholischen Kirche Santa Cruz (วัดซางตาครู้ส) an der Stelle der alten Holzkirche von 1770.
Abb.: Lage von Santa Cruz (วัดซางตาครู้ส)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Siamesische Invasionstruppen brandschatzen eine katholische Kirche in Phnom-Penh (ភ្នំពេញ, Kambodscha)s
Abb.: Lage von Phnom-Penh (ភ្នំពេញ)
[Bildquelle: Scottish Geographical Magazine. -- 1886. -- Public domain]
Charles-Louis Havas (1783 - 1858) gründet in Paris die Nachrichtenagentur Bureau Havas (heute: Agence France-Presse - AFP).
1835-03-02 - 1848-12-02
Ferdinand I. (1793 - 1875) ist Kaiser von Österreich.
„Seine Kaiserlich-königliche Apostolische Majestät, Ferdinand I., von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, König von Hungarn und Böhmen, dieses Namens der Fünfte, König der Lombardei und Venedigs, König von Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slavonien, Galizien, Lodomerien und Illyrien; König von Jerusalem etc. Erzherzog von Oesterreich, Großherzog der Toskana, Herzog von Lothringen, Salzburg, Steyer, Kärnthen, Krain, Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Herzogtum Piacenza und Herzogtum Guastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; Großfürst von Siebenbürgen; Markgraf von Mähren; Gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg und Tirol, von Kyburg, Görz und Gradiska; Fürst von Trient und Brixen; Markgraf der Ober- und Nieder-Lausitz und in Istrien, Graf von Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg etc. Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der windischen Mark.“ (1839)
Abb.: Ferdinand I., 1840
[Bildquelle. Francesco Hayez (1791 - 1882) / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
1835-04-18 - 1841-08-30
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne (1779 - 1848) ist Prime Minister Großbritanniens.
1835-05 - 1835-08
Die Handelsflotte, die nach China fährt, umfasst 60 bis 80 Schiffe (Dschunken).
1835-05 - 1840-08, 1844/1845
Mahārājinīangamī (สมเด็จพระมหาราชินีองค์มี = Ang Mey - ក្សត្រីអង្គមី / นักองเม็ญ, 1815 -1874) ist (von Annam abhängige) Königin von Kambodscha.
Abb.: Mahārājinīangamī (สมเด็จพระมหาราชินีองค์มี = Ang Mey - ក្សត្រីអង្គមី / นักองเม็ญ)
[Bildquelel: th.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
"Ang Mey (Khmer: ក្សត្រីអង្គមី) (1815 – December 1874) was the 97th Monarch ruler during the Udong (ឧដុង្គ) era of Cambodia. She is famous for being one of few female rulers in Cambodia's history. Installed on the Cambodian throne by the Vietnamese, she reigned during the domination of Siamese-Vietnamese War (1841-1845)
Queen Ang Mey Also known as Ba-cong-chua (Her Majesty) or Ksat Trey, she was proclaimed on the death of her father by the Vietnamese faction at court with the title of My-lam-quan-chua (Princess My Lam) in January 1835, and deposed in August 1840. She was reinstated in 1844, and again deposed by the Vietnamese and taken to Huế with her sisters in 1845Title
Her official title is Her Majesty Samdech Preah Maha Rajini Ang Mey.Biography
Ang Mey was born in 1815 as the second daughter of H.M. Brhat Pada Samdach Brhat Rajankariya Brhat Udayarajadhiraja Ramadipati Brhat Sri Suriyapura Parama Surindra Maha Chakrapatiratta Paramanatha Bupati Sadithpen Isvara Kambujaratta Chau Brhat Jatha Varavarman Damramsa Krung Kambuja Adipati Sri Sudhana Negara Indrapati Kururajapuri Rama Uda Maha Sadhana known as Ang Chan II, King of Cambodia during the Oudong period, by his second wife, Anak Munang Krachap.
After King Ang Chan II died in 1834, there was no heir apparent to the Khmer throne; for the king had no son but four daughters, Princess Baen, Mey, Peou and Sngon. This delighted both Vietnam and Siam who wanted to eliminate the royal rulers in Cambodia. Although Ang Chan's surviving brothers, Ang Im and Ang Doung, immediately laid claim to the throne, they could not succeed as Vietnamese who were occupying Cambodia did not approve.
In contrast, the Vietnamese emperor and Cambodian Okha wished to install Ang Chan's eldest daughter, Princess Ang Baen as the sovereign, but she was passed over due to her being sympathetic to Thai interests and her refusal to marry the emperor's son. Ang Mey was an alternative to her sister, Baen. A Thai manuscript stated that the Vietnamese had tried to persuade Ang Mey to marry the son of emperor Gia Long (1762 - 1820) in order to facilitate the incorporation of Cambodia into Vietnam's state but gave up in view of strong objections from the Cambodian noblemen.In the region as a puppet queen of Vietnam
In May 1835, Ang Mey was crowned with the title of quan-chua bestowed by Húe. Her three sisters were given the title huyen quan, "sub-prefecture rulers". The Cambodian people, not accustomed to be ruled by a Queen and despairing of the "Vietnamization" of their country, asked the Siamese to bring back their male ruler Ang Duong. The Vietnamese kept close guard over the Ang princesses. Queen Ang Mey had two companies of soldiers, 100 men in total, for her personal protection. The other three Cambodian princesses were each assigned thirty soldiers. Ostensibly for their safety, the guards were in reality assigned to ensure that they did not escape. In outside society, all women were ordered to wear pyjamas instead of the Khmer Sampot (សំពត់, similar to the sarong), and had to grow their hair long in Vietnamese style. The market sold only Vietnamese food. Khmer classical dance had assimilated elements of Vietnamese and Chinese tradition. Cambodian officials had to don Vietnamese ceremonial garb.
Wats (វត្ត) were destroyed in order to eradicate the Khmer identity. Places also received Vietnamese names. The area around Phnom Penh (ភ្នំពេញ) was renamed from Annam to Tran Tay, or "Western Commandery". 
The elder sister of Ang Mey, Princess Baen, suffered a similar fate. After the Vietnamese discovered her relation with her mother and uncle who were living in Battambang (ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង) and her plans to escape to them, she was imprisoned, pending her trial in Phnom Penh. The Vietnamese emperor, Minh Mạng (1791 - 1841), demoted Mey and the other princesses. In August 1841 they were all arrested and deported to Vietnam with the royal regalia. Around that time, some of Ang Mey's relatives were imprisoned on the island of Poulo Condore. According to Thai and Cambodian sources, Ang Baen was drowned in the Mekong river, although Khin Sok, states that Baen was tortured to death by the Vietnamese general and her body thrown in the river.
Many Cambodian Okha and their followers had ready revolt against Vietnamese polices depend on the death of Princess Ang Baen and The absence of their queen ang mey. Vietnamese Official in Phnom Penh had called for Mey to be return in Cambodia to quit the rebellion but Ming Mang refused. However, in March 1841, Upon her return to Phnom Penh issue a letter to provincial official and leader asking for their support of her reign. At that times, Doung was issuing similar call for help from Oudong (ឧដុង្គ). Queen Ang Mei was reinstated as a queen and her sisters, Poeu appointed for the heir parents in 1844. However, most of Cambodian Court remain under Vietnamese control until October 1846 when Vietnamese release the daughter of King Ang Duong and another members of Cambodian to joint with him in Oudong.There were a discussion were underway between Thai and Vietnamese for the resolution for The Cambodia problem resulting in Compromise whereby both Ang Duong (ព្រះបាទ អង្គ ឌួង, 1796 - 1860) and Ang Mei would be rule together are co-sovereigns. However, a simultaneous coronation was held in Bangkok and Phnom Penh in 1848 recording only Ang Duong's accession, succeed his niece, Ang Mey from Throne.A life with a scandal
Ang Mei's story is told dispassionately in The Cambodia Chronicle where she portrayed as a puppet of Vietnamese emperor and Officials. Ang Doung took care to emphasize association between Mei and Vietnamese, and blamed her who ruled during the Annamite period for the loss of indentured slaves. Most histories of the period imply that Okha and Cambodians in general acquiesced to Ang Mey as their sovereign reluctantly holding out Forlorny for Dunong or for Ang Im and Duong to return as Sovereign.
There were even the rumor that Ang Mey was engaged in an affair with Troung Ming Giang, The Vietnamese governor in Phnom Penh. Jean Mora consulted Oknha and women of the palace who had the position at the court during the reign of Ang Mey and independent Observer told that the rumor was not true. Other tempered their allegation of Ang Mey's wrongdoing; the once beautiful princess who may be sold her country but not her body to the Vietnamese. Yet History had construct Mey as a passive victim hardly legitimate in the eye of her own people. Ang Mey also began blame as her reign seem as completely negative, during which Khmer territory, culture, and independence was almost lost. While it cannot be denied that Vietnamese were in control of Cambodia during Ang Mey's reign, she inherited a country that had been already been mortgaged to Húe by her father, Ang Chan. Mei was crowned Sovereign of a kingdom which The Vietnamese was already in charge. It is difficult to ascertain what course of action other than acquiescence was available to her. However, Ang Mey seem to have sought of Peaceful solution to the factionalism in her country, telling envoys sent by Ang Duong that she wished for a return to peace and amicability and hoping that she and her sisters would be able to live together with their uncle. This may of course had been at diplomatic responce, the Vietnamese annal described her as an intelligent young lady at the time of her accession. Nothing sudden flights to Vietnam, the murder to her sisters and continued changes in her status seem to have induced hysterical or untoward behaviour. Ang Mey then reportly turned mad.The Latest Life
During Ang Mey's lived with the memory of the death and dishonour for over twenty years. Norodom left her in the care of old retainer when he and his court moved to Phnom Penh. At Oudong An Mey could still believed that she had some dignity, and her servants could placate the villagers whom she assaulted when her mind was unbalanced or pay for the goods as she took the right from the merchants in the market.
During she allowed to return to Oudong after the cession of hostilities in 1847. She later married an unknown man and had two daughters (This note does not verify that she had children) She and her husband died in an accident in late December 1874 but cremated at Phnom Penh in 1884."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ang_Mey. -- Zugriff am 2013-06-18. -- Original Thai-English]
Das US-Baptisten-Missionars-Ehepaar William Dean (1807 - 1895) und Matilda Conan Dean (gest. 1835) kommen nach Siam.
"Dean, William (1807-1895)
Dean pursued a long and productive missionary career in Siam and in China, and was one of the most capable pastors and evangelists to serve the Baptist Mission in Siam. He was born June 21, 1807, in Eaton, New York in 1807 to Joshua and Mary Dean. He graduated from the Hamilton Academy and Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution (Colgate University) and was ordained in 1834. That same year he and his first wife, Matilda Conan Dean, were appointed by the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to work in Bangkok, Siam, where Dean began work with Chinese immigrants. They arrived in 1835. Unlike many missionaries of that era, Dean worked closely and collegially with the converts he gained, and as a result he was an effective evangelist and pastor. Matilda died in 1835. Dean became ill in 1842 and had to leave Siam for Macao. While in Macao, he met Theodosia Ann Barker, a British missionary, and they were married. She died in 1843 just a few months after their return to Bangkok in 1843. Dean then returned to the United States. He returned to Bangkok in 1862 to again take up Chinese work, and he found that much of what he had accomplished previously had been lost. He was again able to build up the work, founding churches and expanding the number of converts. His third wife, Maria Brown Dean, died in 1882, and Dean retired and returned to the United States in 1884. He lived out his last years in San Diego, California, where he died in 1895. He is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, New York."
[Quelle: Dictionary of Thai Christianity. -- http://www.herbswanson.com/dictionary.php. -- Zugriff am 2013-10-05]
Der Baptistenmissionar Dan Beach Bradley (1804 - 1873) kommt auf dem Schiff Cashmere (Boston) nach Siam. Er war ein Jahr und 16 Tage unterwegs gewesen, davon 6 Monate Wartezeit in Singapur. Ihn begleitet seine Frau Emilie, geb. Royce (1811 - 1845).
Er arbeitet in Siam 38 Jahre lang. 1835 errichtet er eine Apotheke.
Im ersten Jahr behandelt er 3.500 Patienten. Jeder Patient erhält zusätzlich zur Behandlung einen geschriebenen Bibelspruch. Frau Bradley untersucht die Frauen.
Abb.: Dan Beach Bradley, 1865
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Nationalität der 934 chinesischen Patienten, die Dan Beach Bradley 1835/36 behandelt hat
[Datenuelle: Sng, Jeffery ; Pimphraphai Bisalputra [พิมพ์ประไพ พิศาลบุตร] <1945 - >: A history of the Thai-Chinese. -- Singapore : Didier Millet, 2015. -- 447 S. : Ill. ; 26 cm. -- ISBN 978-981-4385-77-0. -- S. 174]
"Amongst the many missionaries in Siam the name of the Rev. D. B. Bradley, M.D., of the American Baptist Committee of Foreign Missions, stands most prominent. He came to Bangkok in 1835 and laboured in Siam for thirty-eight years. He held daily religious services at his dispensary, met with many persecutions, worked under the most heart-breaking circumstances, and yet persevered. He was the first to practise surgery in Siam. He also introduced vaccination into the country. He opened hospitals for the gratuitous treatment of all who came to him to be healed. He published an annual calendar. He prepared a Siamese and English Grammar. His magnum opus was a solid dictionary of English and Siamese, which cost him years of toil ; and his translation of the Scriptures, his Bible histories, hymnbooks, and tracts are known and used all over the kingdom of Siam. Truly, as Dr. William Dean said in memoriam of him, " His life and death were a legacy richer than a kingdom.""
[Quelle: Hernry J. Hillyard in: Twentieth century impressions of Siam : its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources / ed. in chief: Arnold Wright. -- London [etc.] : Lloyds, 1908. -- S. 217]
"Dan Beach Bradley (* 18. Juli 1804 in Marcellus (New York); † 23. Juni 1873 in Bangkok) war von 1835 bis zu seinem Tod ein US-amerikanischer protestantischer Missionar in Siam (heute Thailand).
Leben in den USA
Dan Beach Bradley war der Sohn von Richter Dan Bradley in Whitehall (New York) und Eunice Beach, die kurz nach der Geburt ihres Sohnes verstarb. Er studierte Medizin am Kolleg für Ärzte und Chirurgen in New York und hoffte, als Missionar im Heildienst arbeiten zu können. Bradley studierte am College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City Medizin.
Im November 1832 wurde er von der American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) als Missionarsarzt angenommen. Er graduierte im April 1833 als Dr. med. (M.D.) und heiratete 1834 nach einer kurzen Briefbekanntschaft Emilie Royce (1811 - 1845), die ebenfalls als „Missionarin unter Heiden“ wirken wollte.Mission in Siam
Am 2. Juli 1834 setzten die Bradleys und eine Gruppe der ABCFM sowie baptistische Missionare die Segel, begleitet von Gebeten und Gesängen. Nach sechs harten Monaten kamen sie in Singapur an, mussten aber noch weitere sechs Monate warten, bevor sie ihre Reise nach Siam fortsetzen konnten. In dieser Zeit erwarb Bradley eine Druckerpresse mit siamesischen Schriftzeichen, auf denen Pamphlete und Bibelübersetzungen gedruckt werden sollten. Sie erreichten schließlich am 18. Juli 1835 Bangkok.
Emilie ging es seit Beginn ihres Aufenthalts in Siam nicht gut. Im August 1845 verstarb sie an Tuberkulose. Auch Bradley plagte anfangs eine chronische Diarrhoe, doch konnte er sich später dreißig Jahre lang bester Gesundheit erfreuen. Er befolgte eine tägliche Routine mit kalten Bädern, einfachem Essen und totaler Abstinenz.
Seine Reisen zwischen 1835 und 1850 umfassten:
- 1835: Ost-Thailand, nach Chanthaburi
- 1837: Ost-Thailand, Bang Plasoi und Ang Hin
- 1838: Nord-Thailand, eine Reihe nicht benannter Orte
- 1838: West-Thailand, nach Nakhon Chaisi
- 1838: Süd- und Ost-Thailand, nach Bang Plasoi, Bang Pakong, Tha Chin und Krok Krak
- 1838: Süd-Thailand, nach Tha Chin und Samut Songkhram
- 1840: Nord-Thailand, nach Ayutthaya und Ang Thong
- 1846: Süd-Thailand, nach Ang Hin
Bradley glaubte an die Doktrin des so genannten christlichen Perfektionismus („Christian Perfectionism“), dass Befreiung von den Sünden bereits im Leben auf der Erde möglich sei. Die ABCFM betrachtete diese Haltung als Häresie und rief ihn nach Amerika zurück. Am 4. Dezember 1847 musste er von seiner Missionsstelle zurücktreten und ohne Unterstützung die Mission in Siam verlassen.
Abb.: Sarah Blachley Bradley
1848 ging er zur American Missionary Association (AMA), während er noch in den USA weilte. Dort traf er auch Sarah Blachley (1818 - 1893), seine spätere zweite Frau, die er am 1. Oktober 1848 heiratete. Dies war der erste und letzte Aufenthalt außerhalb Siams in den 35 Jahren seines Aufenthalts in Siam. Ende Oktober des darauffolgenden Jahres setzten sie Segel nach Siam, und nach einer noch schwierigeren Reise als beim ersten Mal erreichten sie Bangkok vor Ende Mai 1850.
Die AMA leistete nur begrenzte Hilfe, so dass Bradley viel Zeit aufwenden musste, um den eigenen Lebensunterhalt und für die Mission zu sorgen. Dazu setzte er unter anderem Spenden für ansonsten kostenlose medizinische Hilfe ein, die er leistete.Ergebnisse
Trotz vieler Jahre der Predigten und Traktate-Verteilung konnte Bradley nur einen einzigen Buddhisten zum Christentum bekehren. Sein größter Erfolg lag auf dem Gebiet des Pressewesens, in seiner Beratung von König Mongkut (Rama IV.) und König Chulalongkorn (Rama V.) und bei Konsularfragen der US-Amerikaner in Siam. Bradley führte auch die westliche Medizin in Siam ein. Er führte am 13. Januar 1837 die erste moderne Operation durch, während der er nach einem Unfall mit Feuerwerkskörpern den Arm eines Mönchs amputierte und war einer der ersten, wenn nicht der erste, der die Pockenimpfung in Siam anwandte.
Mit Erlaubnis der ABCFM brachte Bradley die originalen Klischees für die thailändische Schrift, die von Ann Hasseltine Judson und George H. Hough 1817 angefertigt worden waren, aus Singapur nach Thailand, um religiöse Bücher zu drucken. 1839 mietete König Phra Nang Klao (Rama III.) die Presse, um am 18. Mai 9.000 Kopien seines Dekrets gegen das Opium zu drucken und zu verbreiten. Im Untertitel stand „it being the first official document ever printed in Siam D.B.B.“ Eine Ausgabe dieses Druckes befindet sich in der Bibliothek der Harvard-Universität. Da er mit den Lettern unzufrieden war, fertigte er 1841 einen neuen Satz an.
Bradley gründete die allererste Zeitung in Siam, den Bangkok Recorder, die zwischen dem 4. Juli 1844 und 1845 und später zwischen 1865 und 1867 monatlich erschien. Von 1859 bis zu seinem Tod gab er auch den Almanach Bangkok Calendar heraus.Tod und Vermächtnis
Wenige Monate vor seinem 69. Geburtstag starb Dan Beach Bradley am 23. Juni 1873. Er wurde auf dem „Bangkok Protestant Cemetery“ an der Charoen Krung Road beigesetzt.
1981 errichtete das Bangkok Christian Hospital ein neues 13-stöckiges Gebäude, das nach Bradley als „Mo Bradley Building“ (Thai อาคารหมอบรัดเลย) benannt ist und am 3. August 1987 eröffnet wurde.Einzelnachweise
- Barend Jan Terwiel: Through Travellers' Eyes: An approach to early nineteenth-century Thai history. Duang Kamol, Bangkok 1989, ISBN 974-210-455-7.
- Department of State: Celebrating the Birthday of Dr. Dan Beach Bradley, zuletzt aufgerufen am 12. März 2010
- The Protestant Cemetery Bangkok mit Bildern der Grabstääte von Bradley, zuletzt aufgerufen am 12. März 2010 (in englischer Sprache)
- History of Bangkok Christian Hospital, zuletzt aufgerufen am 12. März 2010
- Bangkok Calender for the Year of the Lord 1862. (PDF-Datei; 6,39 MB, zuletzt aufgerufen am 12. März 2010)
- William L. Bradley: Siam Then. William Carey Library, Pasadena 1981.
[Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Beach_Bradley. -- Zugriff am 2011-10-29]
Bradley über den Erfolg der Missionare:
"It must be acknowledged -- and, indeed, the fact is not denied by the missionaries themselves -- that, as far as the Siamese are concerned, the labours alike of Catholics and Protestants for their conversion have been almost or altogether fruitless."
[Zitiert in: Vella, Walter Francis <1924 - 1980>: Siam under Rama III, 1824-1851. -- Locust Valley, N.Y. : Augustin, 1957. -- 180 S. ; 24 cm. (Monographs of the Association for Asian studies ; IV). -- Zugl.: Diss., Univ. Berkeley. -- S. 37.]
Der britische Captain Wellar von der Barke Pyramus wird von Mönchen verprügelt, weil er im Tempelgelände zwei Tauben geschossen hatte. Der britische Kaufmann Robert Hunter [gest. 1848], der als inoffizieller Konsul Großbritanniens gilt, macht daraus eine Staatsaffäre, droht mit britischer Herrschaft über Siam, woraufhin die Mönche (leicht) bestraft werden.
Robert Hunter hat eine starke Stellung beim siamesischen Hof, da er das Monopol für die Verpachtung westlicher Schiffe mit Rahsegeln (rechteckige oder trapezförmige Segel) hat. Allerdings geht dieses Monopol zu Ende, da Siam schon selbst dabei ist, zwei solche Schiffe zu bauen. Ende 1835 werden die ersten beiden selbsgebauten Schiffe dem König vorgeführt, der weitere bestellt.
[Bildquelle: Milan Luxembursky / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
Abb.: HMS Blone mit Rahsegeln / von Robert Dampier (1799 - 1874), 1825
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
Der US-Baptistenmissionar W. Dean über den Chinesen-Markt Bangkoks:
"The whole Bazar appears more like a trading town than a mere marketplace. It includes dry-good shops, hard-ware shops, block-tin shops, tailor shops, baskers shops, black-smiths shops, carpenters shops, coopers shops, gamblers shops, groceries and houses of ill fame, fruit-stalls, vegetable stalls, fish stalls, fowl stalls, pork stalls, druggist stores and dram shops. And all these in one continous string extending about two miles, but so arranged that almost every variety is attainable by walking a few yards."
[Zitiert in: Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: Through travellers' eyes : an approach to early nineteenth century Thai history. -- Bangkok : Duang Kamol, 1989. -- S. 212.]
1835-12-29 - 1836-05-10
David Richardson (1796 - 1846), Arzt der britischen Honourable East India Company in Moulmein (မော်လမြိုင်မြို့), reist von Moulmein nach Lamphun (ลำพูน), dort kommt er am 1836-01-26 an, reist weiter nach Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) und erstmals nach Lampang (ลำปาง), wo er vom 1836-02-28 bis 1836- 03-10 bleibt. Auf der Rückreise bleibt er vom 1836-04--13 - 1836-04-17 in Dwon Talee, der Residenz des Karen-Herrschers Pha Bho.
Abb.: Lage von Moulmein (မော်လမြိုင်မြို့), Hot (ฮอด), Lamphun (ลำพูน), Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่), Lampang (ลำปาง)
[Bildquelle: Map of Indo-China showing proposed Burma-Siam-China Railway. -- In: Scottish Geographical Magazine. -- 2 (1886)]
Zu Chronik 1836 (Rama III.)