Chronik Thailands



Alois Payer

Chronik 1857 (Rama IV.)

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1857 (Rama IV.). -- Fassung vom 2014-08-24. -- URL:  

Erstmals publiziert: 2013-07-10

Überarbeitungen: 2015-08-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-04-16 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-18 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-22 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-04 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-07-02 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-08 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-06 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-08-17 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Herausgebers.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library




Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.


Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen!

Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:

Morgenstern, Oskar <1902 - 1977>: On the accuracy of economic observations. -- 2. ed. -- Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. -- 322 S. ; 20 cm.

Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.


1857 undatiert

1857 - 1844

Abb.: Durchschnittlicher jährlicher Reisexport in 1000-Picul / 60-Tonnen (1 Picul = 60 kg), 1857 - 1944
[Datenquelle: Ingram (1971), S. 38]


Bau des Wihan (วิหาร) von Wat Buak  Khrok Luang (วัดบวกครกหลวง) bei Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) mit Wandmalereien von Jataka-Motiven.

nach 1857

Chao Ananta, der König des Vasallenstaats Nan (น่าน) lässt den großen Vihara (วิหาร) des Wat Phumin (วัดภูมินทร์) in Nan bauen. Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts wird dieser mit Wandmalereien geschmückt.

Abb.: Wandmalerei, Wat Phumin (วัดภูมินทร์),  2007
[Bildquelle: Nicolai Bangsgaard. -- -- Zugriff am 2013-06-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

Abb.: Wandmalerei, Wat Phumin (วัดภูมินทร์), 2000
[Bildquelle: Heinrich Damm / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLiccense]

Abb.: Raucherin, Wandmalerei, Wat Phumin (วัดภูมินทร์), 2000
[Bildquelle: Heinrich Damm / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLiccense]


Rama IV. lässt das Wat Pathum Wanaram (วัดปทุมวนาราม = Wat Pa Bua - วัดป่าบัว) in Bangkok bauen. Der Tempel liegt "weit vor den Toren Bangkoks mitten zwischen Reisfeldern in einer sumpfigen Umgebung." "Die einzige Möglichkeit, den Tempel zu erreichen, ist per Boot über den Khlong Saen Saeb (คลองแสนแสบ)." (Wikipedia)

Abb.: Lage von Wat Pathum Wanaram (วัดปทุมวนาราม = Wat Pa Bua - วัดป่าบัว)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Wat Pathum Wanaram (วัดปทุมวนาราม = Wat Pa Bua - วัดป่าบัว), 2001
[Bildquelle: sven.petersen / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Königliche Orden:

Abb.: Königliche Orden, 1857
[Bildquelle: ศกดา ศิริพันธุ์ = Sakda Siripant, 2012. -- S. 75. -- Fair use]


Amerikanische Missionare nehmen eines ihrer Schulmädchen, Esther (1845 -1930), mit in die USA und lassen sie zur Hebamme ausbilden. Esther kehrt nach Siam zurück und wirkt bis 1910 als Hebamme bei der siamesischen Oberschicht und den Westernern. Esther ist die erste westlich ausgebildete Hebamme Siams.


Henry Alabaster (1836 - 1884) kommt als britischer Vize-Konsul nach Siam. Er wird ein Freund von Rama IV.

Abb.: Henry Alabaster
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Vietnam schließt sich gegen ausländische Einflüsse ab und weist die europäischen Diplomaten aus. Dies nimmt Frankreich zum Vorwand für seine imperialistische Expansion.


Inbetriebnahme des ersten japanischen Kriegs-Schraubendampfers, Kanrin Maru (咸臨丸). Japan hatte ihn in den Niederlanden bestellt.

Abb.: Kanrin Maru (咸臨丸)


In Bremen wird der Norddeutsche Lloyd (NDL) gegründet. Er wird später die wichtigste Schifffahrtsgesellschaft für den Verkehr zwischen Bangkok und China.

Abb.: Lage von Bremen
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Einbandtitel


Es erscheint:

Bowring, John <1792 - 1872>: The kingdom and people of Siam : with a narrative of the mission to that country in 1855. -- London : Parker, 1857. -- 2 Bde. : Ill. ; 23 cm.

Abb.: Titelblatt

Abb.: Karte von Südsiam und Malaya (oberer Teil der Karte fehlt]
[a.a.O., Bd. 2, Beilage]

Abb.: Bd. I, Frontispize: König Mongkut

Abb.: "Front palace" (กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล)
[a.a.O., Bd. I., nach S. 448]


Abb.: Prostration
[a.a.O., Bd. I, nach S. 128]

Abb.: Vornehme Männerkleidung
[a.a.O., Bd. I, nach S. 130]

Abb.: Alltagskleidung
[a.a.O., Bd. I, nach S. 32]

Abb.: Magische Quadrate
[a.a.O., Bd. I., S. 153]

Abb.: Magische Quadrate
[a.a.O., Bd. I., S. 154]

Über Strafen:

"The capital punishment of nobles is extraordinary in Siam. They are put into a sack, and beaten to death in a public place. Such, a few years ago, was the fate of the son of the most powerful noble in the land, the present Somdetch, who was supposed to have been intriguing with one of the wives of the late King.

Coining is so common in Siam, that it is said more than one-tenth of the whole silver circulation (ticals) is spurious. On conviction, the man who blows the bellows is punished by having his right-hand fingers chopped off; he who forms the coin has his right hand cut off; he who impressed the King’s mark will lose his right arm. These punishments were inflicted in a case which occurred just before I visited Siam.

Executions are rare; beheading is the common mode of their infliction. In case of murder or suicide, the houses within a circle of sixty fathoms from the spot where it has been committed are made responsible, and subjected to a heavy fine. Thus, there is a great anxiety to prevent quarrels terminating in bloodshed, and a general confederation to remove and to fling into the river any dead body that may be found, lest the neighbourhood be compromised.

Some offences are visited by very barbarous punishments. The penalty for melting an idol of gold or silver, stolen from a temple, is to be burnt alive. Adulterers arc punished by marking with a hot iron on the cheeks, and the forehead is sometimes branded for other crimes. A bonze convicted of adultery is stripped in public of his yellow robes, flagellated till the blood springs, and condemned to cut grass for the royal elephants to the end of his days. This is one of the most infamizing punishments, from which the criminal is never redeemed. The ta ven is another punishment to which particular opprobrium attaches. The convict, loaded with chains, and wearing the cangue* is marched through the principal streets of the town, preceded by cymbals and accompanied by police-officers; he is compelled to cry without ceasing, in a loud voice, " My crime is—[so and so]. Be warned by my example." When his voice is weak or silent, he is beaten with swords. He is thus escorted for three successive days through the town on foot, and three times in a boat round the city, subjected to the same conditions.

*  A collar of wood, fastened round the neck.

Murder is punishable with death: but executions, which are ordinarily by beheading or piercing the body with spears, are unfrequent. After death, the bodies are impaled, and left to be devoured by birds of prey.

I had no opportunity of visiting the interior of the prisons of Siam, of which I heard a miserable account from all who had obtained access. But the prisoners are mostly turned out by day, and employed in public works of all sorts. At night they are all fastened together by one long chain, and it is said they are so crowded that there is scarcely room for their bodies on the ground where they lie. Groups of criminals are constantly met with in the streets, bearing fetters from the lightest to the heaviest, and escorted by the police, armed with muskets or thick staves of bamboo. A majority of those who bear the least quantity of irons were said to be debtors, who could at any moment be redeemed on the payment of their debts; but no criminal convicted of any serious offence could be released without the interposition of the King. The worst convicts carry a collar of iron round the neck, handcuffs, leg-gyves, and an iron belt round the waist, to all which the cangue is sometimes superadded,—the sufferings caused by which depend upon the weight of the instrument."

[Bowring, a.a.O., Bd. I., S. 181ff.]


Herders Conversations-Lexikon Bd. 5

Herders Conversations-Lexikon : Kurze aber deutliche Erklärung von allem Wissenswerthen aus dem Gebiete der Religion, Philosophie, Geschichte, Geographie, Sprache, Literatur, Kunst, Natur- und Gewerbekunde, Handel, der Fremdwörter und ihrer Aussprache etc. etc. -- Freiburg i. Br. : Herder, 1854 - 1857.

"Siam, von den Siamesen Thai genannt, Reich in Hinterindien, zwischen China, Birma, Britischindien, den Malayenstaaten Perak und Tringano, dem Meerbusen von S., Anam, besteht aus S. u. Cambodscha (1822 größtentheils verloren) und aus tributpflichtigen Fürstenthümern der Malayen u. Laos, wird zu 14000 QM. berechnet. Im Norden ist S. Hochland; 3 Gebirgsarme ziehen sich südl. bis an das Meer, zwischen denen sich die Thäler der mächtigen Flüsse Thalayn od. Salwen, Menam u. Cambodscha ausbreiten. Klima und Produkte sind die des tropischen Indien. Die E. sind etwa 5 Mill. S.esen, die sich Thai d.h. Freie nennen, mongolischer Abkunft, doch mit Hindu gemischt, 1 Mill. Chinesen, ferner Malayen, Laos, wenige Abkömmlinge portug. Kolonisten. Die herrschende Religion ist die buddhistische; die zahlreichen Priester heißen Talapoinen; die Christen, theils portug. Abkömmlinge, theils bekehrte Eingeborne, haben einen apostolischen Vikar. Die Regierungsform ist unbeschränkter Despotismus; der König, Kong tuang d.h. mächtiger Alleinherr genannt, wird als Halbgott verehrt. Hauptst. ist Bankok (s. d.). Die Talapoinen führen die Geschichte S.s bis in das 15. Jahrh. v. Chr. hinauf; im 7. Jahrh. n. Chr. wurde der Buddhismus eingeführt und herrschend, was aber die in Asien gewöhnlichen Thronrevolutionen nicht verminderte. Im 16. Jahrh. erhielten die Portugiesen einige Niederlassungen eingeräumt und die Erlaubniß das Christenthum zu verkündigen, sie wurden aber durch die arglistigen Holländer im 17. Jahrh. verdrängt, die sich auch gegen die Bemühungen Ludwigs XIV., der mit dem Hofe von S. eine Gesandtschaft wechselte, behaupteten. 1757 wurde S. von den Birmanen erobert, machte sich jedoch 1781 wieder frei; 1788 wurde Cambodscha Schutzstaat, 1822 aber theilweise an Cochinchina abgetreten. Chromchiat, ein Usurpator, eroberte 1829 Laos, 1831 den Malayenstaat Queda auf der Halbinsel Malacca, benahm sich gegen die Europäer feindselig, st. 1851. Der gegenwärtige König, ein Abkömmling der früheren Dynastie, scheint ein humaner und kluger Regent zu sein; er schloß 1855 mit England einen Handelsvertrag ab. (»Description du royaume de Thai ou Siam« par Pallegoix. 2 vol., Par. 1855.)"

[a.a.O. -- Bd. 5 (1857). -- S. 203.]


Es erscheint:

Osborn, Sherard <1822 - 1875>: My journal in Malayan waters or: The blockade of Quedah. -- 2. ed. -- London :Routledge, 1860. -- 360 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- Aufnahme nach der 2. Aufl.!. -- Der Autor hat an der Niederschlagung des Aufstands von Kedah (‏قدح‎) 1838 teilgenommen.

Abb.: Titelblatt der 2. Aufl. 1860


Die Firma Smith & Wesson aus Springfield MA (USA) produziert die ersten Revolver Smith & Wesson Model 1. Es sind die ersten Revolver, die Metallpatronen verschießen. Dadurch sind die bisherigen Perkussionsrevolver überholt.

Abb.: Smith & Wesson No. 1 Erstes Modell, 1857 - 1860
[Bildquelle: sandy / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Kaliber .22 Short Patrone zu diesem Revolver
[Bildquelle: malis / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Der Amerikaner Joseph Cayetti erfindet das perforierte Klopapier.

Abb.: In Thailand wird Klopapier häufig als echtes Toilette-Papier (Serviette usw.) benutzt, Restaurant, Thailand, 2008
[Bildquelle: Andrea Pomini. -- -- Uigriff am 2013-08-25. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Es erscheint:

Morel, Bénédict Augustin <1809 - 1873>: Traité des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles, et morales de l'espèce humaine et des causes qui produisent ces variétés maladives. -- Paris : Baillière, 1857 -- 700 S. ; Ill.

Abb.: Titelblatt

Darin vertritt der Autor seine in der Folgezeit sehr wirksame Degenerationstheorie, die z.B. in Frankreich zur Furcht führt, die grande nation könne degenerieren:

"Morels Degenerationstheorie

Ursache der Abweichungen ist bei Morel der Sündenfall der menschlichen Natur. Am Anfang stand der »type primitif« bzw. »type normal«, der Ursprungsmensch, der mit Adam als identisch angesehen werden kann. Nach dem Sündenfall kann sich der Mensch den äußeren Einflüssen der Welt, dem Klima, der Nahrung und der Erblichkeit dieser Einflüsse nicht mehr entziehen und weicht von diesem Ursprungsmenschen ab. Dies führt zu zwei verschiedenen Arten menschlicher Spezies:

  1. Ein Teil der Nachkommen bleibt durch Anpassung gesund, erfüllt das göttliche Gebot und setzt die Einheit der Gattung Mensch fort.
  2. Bei den Entarteten führen Belastungen, hervorgerufen durch die Eltern, das soziale Milieu und einen falschen Lebenswandel (wie etwa Alkoholismus) zu fortschreitender Degeneration.

Letztere werden von zwei fundamentalen Gesetzen beherrscht:

  1. der doppelten Vererbung im Sinn des körperlichen und moralischen Übels und
  2. der Progressivität der Entartung bis zum Aussterben des Geschlechts.

Er klassifiziert die Entartungen unter ätiologischen Gesichtspunkten und erklärt die Erblichkeit zur bedeutendsten Ursache der Geisteskrankheiten, so dass Entartete und Geisteskranke identisch werden. Unter die Entartungen fallen als schwerste Kategorie die Abweichungen des Geschlechtssinns, die sexuellen Perversionen, bei denen er vorerst Satyriasis, Nymphomanie, Erotomanie und als schwerste die Nekrophilie nennt. Die Progression über die Generationen entwickelt sich in vier Stadien:

  1. charakterliche Anomalien wie etwa nervöse Reizbarkeit
  2. körperliche Krankheiten wie etwa Schlaganfall
  3. schwere Geistige Störungen wie Psychosen und Geistesschwäche
  4. angeborene Blödsinnszustände und Missbildungen

Seine Theorie verbreitete sich rasch in der Wissenschaft, wie auch in der Öffentlichkeit. Bald konnte sich ein jeder auf die “natürlichen Gesetze“ berufen und die progressive Degeneration wurde zu einer offenkundigen Tatsache, die auf Schritt und Tritt sichtbar war: Alkoholismus, Armut, Kriminalität, volle Nervenheilanstalten."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2015-08-24]

1857 datiert


König Mindon Min (မင်းတုန်းမင်း, 1808 - 1878)  gründet Mandalay (မန္တလေး) als neue Hauptstadt Burmas.

Abb.: Lage von Mandalay (
[Bildquelle: Joppen, Charles <1878 - >: Historical atlas of India for the use of high schools, colleges, and private students. -- London : Longmans, 1907.]

Abb.: Mandalay (
မန္တလေး), 1904
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

1857-03-04 - 1861-03-04

James Buchanan Jr. (1791 - 1868) ist Präsident der USA.

Abb.: James Buchanan, 1856
"Political cartoon of the 1856 United States presidential election. Satirizes the Democratic Party platform, with James Buchanan as a plank being ridden on by a slaveholder and his slave; the slaveholder says he doesn't care "as long as the platform suports me and my Nigger". Brother Johnathan observes from left; prominent Democrats are below supporting Buchanan.

Brother Johnathan
"Mister Fire-eater [pro-southern radical], I would not rely too much on the supporters of that Platform; they are liable to give way at any moment."
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1857-05-09 - 1857-06-22

Der US-Clipper Sweepstakes (Stapellauf 1853) schafft die Strecke New York - Bombay (Mumbai, मुंबई) in der Rekordzeit von 74 Tagen.

Abb.: Sweepstakes / von Fannier Palmer, 1853
[Bildquelel: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1857-05-10 - 1859

Indischer Aufstand (Indian Mutiny) gegen die Briten. Führt zur Übernahme der direkten Herrschaft der britischen Krone über Indien.

Abb.: Indian Mutiny 1857
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]


In Bangkok ankern zwei US-Schiffe: das Kriegsschiff "USS Portsmouth (1843)" und der Klipper "N. B. Palmer (1851)".

Abb.: USS Portsmouth (1843), 1897
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: N. B. Palmer (1851) / von Goerge C. Wales (1868-1940)
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1857-08-24 - 1859

Konkurs der Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company führt zu Panik an der New Yorker Wertpapierbörse: dies führt zur ersten Weltwirtschaftskrise.

Abb.: Run auf eine Bank, New York 1857
[Bildquelle: Harper's Weekly / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1857-08-28 - 1858-03-04

Eine siamesische Gesandtschaft bricht nach London (Großbritannien) auf, dort wird sie am 1857-11-19 von Queen Victoria (Thai: สมเด็จพระราชินีนาถวิกตอเรียแห่งสหราชอาณาจักร)  empfangen.

  1. Erster Gesandter (Delegationsleiter): Phraya Montri Suriyawong (Chum Bunnag, พระยามนตรีสุริยวงศ์ - ชุ่มบุนนาค, 1820–1866)
  2. Zweiter Gesandter: Chao Muen  Sarpet Pakdi (เจ้าหมื่นสรรเพธภักดี)
  3. Dritter Gesandter (Gesandter des Vizekönigs):  Chao Muen Montien Pitak (เจ้าหมื่นมณเฑียรพิทักษ์)
  4. Dolmetscher: Mom Rajotai (หม่อมราโชทัย, 1821 - 1867)
  5. Erster Beamter für die Geschenke: Chao Muen Rajamat (เจ้าหมื่นราชามาตย์)
  6. Zweiter Beamter für die Geschenke: Nai Picharn Sanpakit (นายพิจารณ์สรรพกิจ)
  7. Dolmetscher: Mr. Chune
  8. Dolmetscher: Mr. Noree
  9. Dolmetscher: Mr. Dis
  10. Tet Bunnag (เทศบุนนาค, 1842 - 1907), Student
  11. Tot Bunnag, Student
  12. 3 Sekretäre
  13. 1 Arzt
  14. 1 Masseuse
  15. Diener
  16. 1 Koch

Großbritannien stellt für den Transport von Bangkok bis Suez die Dampf-Fregatte "H.M.S. Encounter" zur Verfügung, für die Reise von Alexandria nach Portsmouth die Dampfyacht "H.M.S. Caradoc".

Eine Zeitung in Portsmouth berichtet, der erste Gesandte habe 52 Frauen und sei von den britischen Frauen so begeistert, dass er unter ihnen eine 53. Frau suche. Die Zeitung muss das am nächsten Tag dementieren.

Abb.: Queen Victoria (Thai: สมเด็จพระราชินีนาถวิกตอเรียแห่งสหราชอาณาจักร) (1819 - 1901), 1856
[Bildquelle: Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1805 - 1873)]

Abb.: Empfang der siamesischen Gesandtschaft durch Königin Viktoria 1857-11-19; The ILlustrated London News, 1857-12-05

Abb.: Die siamesische Gesandtschaft, 1858-01; Daguerreotype von Caldesi

Soon after the conclusion of the treaty of 1855 the question of sending a return mission to England was debated. Eventually, in August, 1857, an embassy of which Praya Montri Suriwongse was the head left Bangkok for England. A curious account of their experiences was afterwards published by the interpreter of the mission. On arrival in London the visitors were received in private audience by the Queen, but as her Majesty was in delicate health the public audience was postponed for a few days. At length the great day for the reception of the mission arrived. Having arrayed themselves in their finest robes, the members of the mission proceeded in royal carriages to Windsor Castle. "The streets were crowded as we approached our destination," says the interpreter, "and the waiting crowds lifted their hats and welcomed us with a ringing hurra. Then they spoke of us to each other, pointing out the ambassador and his associates one by one. I looked upon the beautiful ladies, most elegantly dressed, and yet I must turn away : the young will despise me, I said ; I am already old. I fear the elder have husbands and so are lost to me."

"When we reached the Castle some three hundred of the Queen's guard, fully equipped, arranged themselves on the right and left, leaving an open way for us to pass into the palace. At the same time the Queen's band struck up their notes of welcome. The guard was a company of magnificent men, looking as though no terror could ever make them quail. So the Siamese were Ushered into royal halls. It was Windsor Castle.

"We waited in an ante-room till one o'clock, when the music of the band announced that the time had arrived to appear before her Britannic Majesty in state and present the letters from their Majesties the First and Second Kings of Siam. The general led the way, the guard stood on the right and left, armed with battle-axes and spears, while we advanced in the opening made for us, on rich carpets.

"When we had reached the third hall (it was the room of the royal presence), Queen Victoria and Prince Consort were at the head of the room awaiting us. We prostrated ourselves and bowed three times at the door, before the ambassador advanced with the letters. He then went forward, standing, and placed the letters on a table prepared for the purpose, and stood : we had followed him, creeping Siamese fashion, and when the letter was placed, all bowed again three times, the ambassador standing. He now addressed the throne. First he introduced himself and then each of us in turn and said that the object of our mission was to cement the friendship between ourselves and the British nation, making their interests as one. Mr. Fowle interpreted and then we all together bowed again three times, as we are wont to do in our kingdom. It was now the turn of the Queen to reply. First the ambassador took the royal letters to the throne and the Prince Consort received them. The Queen then graciously expressed herself as highly gratified that the embassy had been accomplished and was sure it would be for the honour and advancement of both kingdoms. Trade, said she, will mutually receive an impulse and prosperity be accelerated as a consequence in both realms. She expressed her gratitude to the officers of the man-of-war that had accomplished for the embassy so prosperous and happy a voyage across the boisterous ocean. She said the receiving of the royal letters was so great an occasion they must not mingle with it other business. She therefore asked that any business the embassy might have to present might be postponed to another occasion. The embassy, therefore, took leave of her Majesty, and retired a la Siamese fashion from the audience hall, retiring backwards, creeping ; and the officers appointed for the purpose gave them refreshments and showed them the grounds till the time arrived to depart for the city and their hotel."

[Quelle: Arnold Wright in: Twentieth century impressions of Siam : its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources / ed. in chief: Arnold Wright. -- London [etc.] : Lloyds, 1908. -- S. 64]

Brief Rama's IV. an Königin Victoria:

“Most Excellent Madam. - We pray permit me to state very truly that we have greatest sincere heartful thanks to Your Majesty exceedingly beyond any measure or number in certain desire for our observation in benefit or advantages caused to
occurred and increased here by your majesty s good opinion... and for the greatest honour we have received from Your Majesty by treatment in true Royal friendship and correspondence and indulgence for best opportunity of this embassy etc we cannot express more with our language of writing longer have greatest thanks to Your Majesty fulfilled heaviest in our heart though we wish to say more and more desire to have more and better royal presents to be accompanied herewith but narrow time and way does not allow us to do in gratifying to your Majesty than our power can allow now. We pray whatever improper Your Majesty will be merciful to pardon us always.

Above lines are genuine our manuscript from Your Majesty’s distinguished friend by race of the royalty affectionate brother and by humble respect most obedient servant.

S.P.P.M. Mongkut, Major Rex of Siam and its dependencies. ”

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: King Mongkut of Thailand and the British : the model of a great friendship. -- 5. rev. ed. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 2000. -- 138 S. ; 21 cm. -- ISBN 974-85913-4-4. -- S. 102f.]

Aufzählung der Geschenke an die Königin, eigenhändig geschrieben und übersetzt von Rama IV.

Abb.: Geschenke Ramas IV. an Königin Victoria

“The list of Royal presents alluded to in the accompanying Royal letter and designed for the acceptance of her Most Gracious Majesty Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland etc etc Defender of the Faith etc etc from Her Majesty’s distinguished friend and by real race a humble and affectionate Royal Brother
The Major King of Siam and its Dependencies etc etc etc

Entrusted to the hands of the Siamese embassy

1. The Royal official customary letter slightly written in Siamese character upon a solid gold plate and wrapped in the
Royal solid golden plate and wrapped in the Royal solid golden envelope and sealed with Royal peculiar seal and enclosed in a golden case richly enamelled. The translation of this Royal letter in English annexed or appended herewith. This is made according to the Siamese Royal custom for every respectful compliment to the Sovereign of Superior Kingdom, not to the equal or inferior always - when the superior Sovereign does not allow to be omitted.

2. Two Royal Daguerreotype Portraits one of which is a likeness of His Majesty The First King of Siam dressed in full Royal Robes and decorations seated on his Throne of State. The other is the Daguerreotype of His Majesty with the Royal Consort and two children seated on their Majesty’s knees.

3. A Royal Crown beautifully enamelled and set with diamonds and rubies.

4. A Royal ribbon with circular gold broaches richly set with rubies locked together and fixed all round with blue satin.

5. A Royal golden ring set with nine kinds of precious stones.

6. A Royal gold tissue cloth jacket with seven golden buttons set with diamonds.

7. A Royal gold tissue network robe.

8. A Royal Girdle or Band made of gold wire finely wrought with nine massive gold ornaments richly set with precious stones, and Buckle of open Gold work set with diamonds, Rubies and Emeralds.

9. A Royal Gold tissue cloth scarf for the waist as worn by Siamese usage.

10. A Royal Gold tissue of network sash worn over the former.

11. A pair of Royal Pantaloons of varied colours of tissue cloth richly ornamented with gold enamelled devices.

12. A gold tissue woven Red silk Sarong worn on State occasions.

13. A piece of Indian cloth stamped with gold tissue devices, worn on State occasions.

14. A red silk cloth figured worn daily.

15. A conch shell with golden stand richly enamelled. The shell being ornamented with Gold and enamel and precious stones.

16. A golden water vessel with its golden stand, both richly enamelled

17. A tea pot with golden handle and ornamented tray for whole.

18. Two Tea Cups with Covers; one of gold richly enamelled with various devices, the other of silver gilt inlaid with black metal elaborately worked.

19. A Golden Cigar Case beautifully enamelled.

20. Two pairs of hair cutting scissors inlaid with gold, one set in diamonds, the other in rubies together with a hair of combs in gold and ornamented with emeralds.

21. A gold knife, fork and spoon of rich pattern and set with diamonds.

22. Two large silver stands or dishes with gilt edges and gilt tissue covers.

23. A state sword of twisted steel with gold enamelled scabbard richly mounted with precious stones and having a small
knife of twisted steel to fit in scabbard.

24. A state gold sword of twisted steel with rich gold scabbard.

25 & 26. A pair of different shaped state spears - with silver guilt sheaths.

26. A pair of state spears with hair of Tibet Goats streamers.

27. A Malay Greese [Kris] with gold handle and pinchback scabbard.

28. Different kinds of state paraphernalia consisting of one sun screen, one large State umbrella, four pairs of different shaped umbrellas all made of silk and figured.

29. A Royal Sedan Chair richly gilt and ornamented.

30. A Royal metal drum and ivory fife which precede the Royal Chair.

31. A Royal Saddle and Bridle with their attendant trappings and ornaments of gold.

32. Three drawings of Buddha’s image within the Royal Temple of the Palace of the First King at Bangkok.

33. Four painted plates showing different views of the Coronation of the First King of Siam which took place on the 15th may 1851.

Sixty seven of the different articles of merchandise mentioned in the tariff annexed to the Treaty and eight other articles produced in Siam His Majesty the King of Siam, has ordered a sample to be collected by the proper officers and given them to His Lordship Chau Phya Phraklang [เจ้าพระคลัง] Siamese Minister for Foreign Affairs to forward to Her Majesty’s Government as specimen of the various kinds of merchandise produced in Siam.

The names and particulars of all these will appear in the letter of His Lordship Chau Phya Phraklang to the Right Honourable the Earl of Clarendon [Außenminister George William Frederick Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, 1800 - 1870]... ”

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: King Mongkut of Thailand and the British : the model of a great friendship. -- 5. rev. ed. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 2000. -- 138 S. ; 21 cm. -- ISBN 974-85913-4-4. -- S. 103 - 107]

Nach Meinung der Hofjuweliere sind die Geschenke ca. £20.000 wert.

Die Gesandtschaft Siams besucht auch

Dort besuchen sie Industrieanlagen und machen Einkäufe für den König, u. a. eine Münzpräg-Maschine. Insgesamt wiegen die Einkäufe über 200 Tonnen. Die Gesandten haben für Einkäufe £40.000 in Bar bei sich.

Abb.: Lage der von der Gesandtschaft besuchten Städte
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public doimain]


Der Schotte William Mackinnon (1823 - 1893) erhält den Postvertrag für die Strecke Kolkata - Rangun. Er gründet die Calcutta and Burmah Steam Navigation Company (C&BSN) und kauft drei Dampfer. Bald nimmt die Gesellschaft die Kurse nach Madras, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Bombay (Mumbai), Karachi und Penang auf. 1862 wird die Gesellschaft umgewandelt in British India Steam Navigation Company. 1883 hat diese bereits 100 Schiffe.


Wegen des Indischen Aufstands (Indian Mutiny) gegen die Briten ist in Großbritannien nationaler Fasttag.


Anweisung des britischen Außenministers George William Frederick Villiers, 4. Earl of Clarendon (1800 - 1870) an Edward Fowle, den Betreuer der Gesandtschaft Siams:

Abb.: George William Frederick Villiers, 4. Earl of Clarendon
[Bildquelle: Carlo Pellegrini (1839 – 1889). -- In: Vanity Fair. -- 1869-04-24. -- Public domain]

"Mr. Fowle will understand that it is the wish of the government that the embassy should be entertained liberally, and that everything is to be done to make them comfortable, and to give them a good impression of England...Mr. Fowle will obtain through the Foreign of admission, where required to view any public establishments: he will generally take them to whatever sights he may think they would be interested with, to the theatre, etc. if they like..."

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: History of Anglo-Thai relations. -- 6. ed. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 2000. -- 494 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- S. 95]


The Times bringt folgenden Artikel über die siamesische Gesandtschaft in Großbritannien:

"The Siamese Ambassadors:—The Ambassadors about visiting England are said to be—first and second from the first King of Siam, and the third from the second King of Siam—there being two kings, the first sending two ambassadors, the second one. The second Ambassador is the adopted son of the King; the first is the brother of the Prime Minister. Another younger brother and son are in the suite, coming here to be educated. They are Buddhists, and consequently do not eat beef or mutton, or use milk, cheese, butter, or anything produced from bulls or cows. Hog’s lard is the only fat allowed to be used in cooking. For the information, however, of those who may wish to invite them in England to parties we may state that they eat freely of game, poultry, pork, and curry of the hottest at every meal. They drink moderately of brandy, wine, champagne and pale ale. They are very fond of tea which they drink at every meal, and all day long, without milk. They eat no pastry or sweets. Eight of the principal members of the embassy dine together; the others, excepting servants, have a separate table, and pay great respect and homage whenever they address one of the superior eight. They are very cleanly, and all make a point of bathing every day. Their teeth are black from the use of the betel-nut. They have all sorts of European articles for ordinary purposes. They have splendid presents aboard for Her Majesty, among them two crowns and a state saddle, enriched with diamonds, rubies and other precious stones, spears with gold heads, &c. They have also 50,000 l in dollars on board, besides bars of gold; so they are tolerably well provided. Their dress is very splendid—a rich tunic with a belt of gold clasped in front with a buckle ornamented with diamond and rubies; loose trousers, and small richly-ornamented skull-cap, with a spire running from the top. Their faces are perfectly Chinese, and they look amazingly like the nodding figures in the large tea-shops in England. A number have changed their gay oriental dress for slop-made paletots and Jim Crow hats. The change is not an improvement."

[Zitiert in: Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. -- S. 197f.]


Gründung des FC Sheffield, des ältesten noch existierenden Fußballclubs der Welt.

Abb.: ®Logo
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Fair use]

1857-12-06 - 1864

Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk (1804 – 1865) ist britischer Generalkonsul. Er ist der erste britische Konsul, der direkt von London ernannt wird. Rama IV. freut sich, dass nun ein "Sir" und nicht nur ein "Mr." Konsul ist. Schomburgk spricht Englisch mit einem breiten deutschen Akzent und ist Alkoholiker.

Abb.: Robert Hermann Schomburgk

"Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk (5 June 1804 – 11 March 1865) was a German-born explorer for Great Britain who carried out geographical, ethnological and botanical studies in South America and the West Indies, and also fulfilled diplomatic missions for Great Britain in the Dominican Republic and Thailand.

Life and career

Schomburgk was born at Freyburg, Prussian Saxony, the son of a Protestant minister. In 1820, while staying with his uncle, he learned botany from a professor.

Commercial career

He entered commercial life and, in 1826, went to the United States, where he worked for a time as a clerk in Boston and Philadelphia.[1] In 1828, he was requested to supervise a transport of Saxon sheep to the American state of Virginia, where he lived for a time. The same year, he became a partner in a tobacco manufactory at Richmond. The factory was burned, and Schomburgk was ruined.[1] He suffered further setbacks on the Caribbean island of St. Thomas, where he lost all his belongings in a fire. Consequently he ceased his business activities.

Geographic and exploration career

In 1830, he left for Anegada, one of the Virgin Isles, notorious for its shipwrecks. Although he did not possess the special knowledge that is required for such a work,[1] he surveyed the island at his own expense and sent to the Royal Geographical Society (London) a report which created such an impression that, in 1835, he was entrusted by that body with conducting an expedition of exploration of British Guiana.

He fulfilled his mission (1835–1839) with great success, incidentally discovering the giant Victoria Regia water lily in 1837 and many new species of orchids, one genus of which, Schomburgkia, was named for him.[1] In 1841, he returned to Guiana, this time as a British Government official to survey the colony and fix its eastern and western boundaries. The result was the provisional boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela, known as the "Schomburgk Line", and the boundary with the Dutch colony of Surinam. He also made further geographical and ethnological observations and was joined there by his brother, Moritz Richard.[1][2] He repeatedly urged fixing the boundary with Brazil, motivated by his encounters with Brazilian enslavement of local Indian tribes, most of which no longer exist. Schomburgk's survey later played a role in the arbitration of the southern boundary between British Guiana and Brazil, with arbitration by the King of Italy in 1904.

On the brothers' return to London in June 1844, Schomburgk presented a report of his journey to the Geographical Society, for which he was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1845,[1] and continued in other official capacities. In 1846, he was stationed in Barbados, where he gathered information to compile a geographical and statistical description of the island, later to be published as the History of Barbados published in 1848 by Cass as a library series of West Indian studies.

Diplomatic career

In 1848, he was appointed British consul to the Dominican Republic. In 1850, he signed an advantageous commercial treaty for Great Britain and also secured a truce from Soulouque in behalf of the Dominican government. During the following years, he contributed valuable papers upon the physical geography of the island to the journal of the Royal Geographical Society.[1] In 1857, he was promoted to the position of British Consul-General of Siam, where Britain exercised extraterritorial jurisdiction through consular courts over British subjects. In a letter to his cousin William, Schomburgk notes, "In order to get an insight into the English summary police court proceedings, I was, before I left London, obliged to attend police courts there for some time, also to acquaint myself with these proceedings by the study of books.[3] Based in Bangkok, he also continued his geographical surveys. The letter gives a short account of his visit to the semi-independent kingdom of Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) in 1859–60,[4] thence by elephant across the mountain range to Moulmein on the Bay of Bengal, returning to Bangkok after a trip of 135 days and approximately 1000 English miles.[3]


He retired from the public service in 1864, hampered by health problems, and died in Schöneberg on 11 March 1865.


Schomburgk was a member of various European, American, and Asiatic learned societies, and was a knight of the Legion of Honour and of the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle. Schomburgk's deer (Rucervus schomburgki) was named after him. His botanical collection is at Kew and his ethnographical collection from Guyana at the British Museum.[3][5]

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-12-04]

Unter Schomburgk ereignet sich z.B. folgender Vorfall:

Abb.: Lage von Nakhon Si Thammarat (นครศรีธรรมราช)

"In one case, an Afghan called Kabully [کابلي] residing at Nakorn Sithammarat [นครศรีธรรมราช] proclaimed himself a holy saint and found many worshippers. He challenged the authority of the Governor, who had him arrested. But Kabully's followers came to release him. A fight ensued and two officers were shot dead. Kabully was accused of revolt and sentenced to life imprisonment. When Schomburgk met him, Kabully had already served eight years in prison. He sent a petition to King Mongkut asking for a pardon. Schomburgk said that although this was not a case of a British subject, powerful countries like England should be magnanimous and act against all forms of savage treatment for the cause of humanity. King Mongkut consented to release him, but put a question of great doubt to Schomburgk whether he was a British subject, because if Kabully was indeed a British subject, it would be perfectly in order for the British Consul to ask for his release. In this case however, the King had already granted the pardon."

[Quelle: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: History of Anglo-Thai relations. -- 6. ed. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 2000. -- 494 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- S. 135f.]

Verwendete Ressourcen


Thipākō̜nwongmahākōsāthibō̜dī (Kham), Čhaophrayā [เจ้าพระยาทิพากรวงศ์ มหาโกษาธิบดี] <1813-1870>: The dynastic chronicles. Bangkok era, the Fourth Reign, B.E. 2394-2411 (A.D. 1851-1868) / by Câwphrajaa Thíphaakrawon. Translated by Chadin (Kanjanavanit). --  Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, 1965 - 1974. -- 5 Bde. ; 22 cm. -- Originaltitel: Phrarātchaphongsāwadan Krung Rattanakōsin. Ratchakān thī 4, Phō̜. Sō̜. 2394-2411 [พระราชพงศาวดารกรุงรัตนโกสินทร์. รัชกาลที่๔, พ.ศ. ๒๓๙๔ - ๒๔๑๑] (published 1934)

Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. --254 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm.

Blofeld, John <1913 - 1987>: King Maha Mongkut of Siam. -- 2. ed. -- Bangkok : Siam Society, 1987. -- 97 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm.

Chula Chakrabongse [จุลจักรพงษ์] <1908 - 1963>: Lords of life : History of the Kings of Thailand. -- 2., rev. ed. -- London : Redman,  1967. -- 352 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm.

Phongpaichit, Pasuk <ผาสุก พงษ์ไพจิตร, 1946 - > ; Baker, Chris <1948 - >: Thailand : economy and politics. -- Selangor : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1995. -- 449 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 983-56-0024-4. -- Beste Geschichte des modernen Thailand.

Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: A history of modern Thailand 1767 - 1942. -- St. Lucia [u. a.] : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1983. -- 379 S. ; 22 cm.

Ingram, James C.: Economic change in Thailand 1850 - 1870. -- Stanford : Stanford Univ. Pr., 1971. -- 352 S. ; 23 cm. -- "A new edition of Economic change in Thailand since 1850 with two new chapters on developments since 1950". --  Grundlegend.

Akira, Suehiro [末廣昭] <1951 - >: Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855 - 1985. -- Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, ©1989. -- 427 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN 4896561058. -- Grundlegend.

Skinner, William <1925 - 2008>: Chinese society in Thailand : an analytical history. -- Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press, 1957. -- 459 S. ; 24 cm. -- Grundlegend.

Simona Somsri Bunarunraksa [ซีมอนา สมศรี บุญอรุณรักษา]: Monseigneur Jean-Baptiste Pallegoix : ami du roi du Siam, imprimeur et écrivain (1805 - 1862). -- Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013. -- 316 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- (Chemins de la mémoire ; Novelle série). -- ISBN 978-2-336-29049

Morgan, Susan <1943 - >: Bombay Anna : the real story and remarkable adventures of the King and I governess. -- Berkeley [u.a.] : Univ. of California Press, 2008. -- 274 S. : Ill.  ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 978-0-520-26163-1

ศกดา ศิริพันธุ์ = Sakda Siripant: พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว พระบิดาแห่งการถ่ายภาพไทย = H.M. King Chulalongkorn : the father of Thai photography. --  กรุงเทพๆ : ด่านสุทธา, 2555 = 2012. -- 354 S. : Ill. ; 30 cm. -- ISBN 978-616-305-569-9

Lavery, Brian: Schiffe : 5000 Jahre Seefahrt. -- London [u. a.] : DK, 2005. -- S. 184. -- Originaltitel: Ship : 5000 years of marine adventure (2004)

Zu Chronik 1858 (Rama IV.)