Zitierweise / cite as:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1858 (Rama IV.). -- Fassung vom 2015-01-24. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/thailandchronik/chronik1858.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2013-07-10
Überarbeitungen: 2015-01-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-02 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-02-17 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-07 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-15 [Ergänzungen]
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Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau
die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.
bei den Statistikdiagrammen!
Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:
Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.
Rama IV. besucht mit großem Gefolge die östlichen Provinzen.
Einige Haremsdamen machen von ihrem Recht (von 1854) Gebrauch, den Harem zu verlassen. Königlicher Erlass dazu:
"Twelve ladies have been granted leave to resign by Royal Permit without the benefit of a grant of annuity." The first four, who were mostly in their late thirties, "entered the Service in the reign of His Majesty, King Phra Nang Klao. The two first named were promoted to the rank of Lady Consort attached to the Royal Bed Chamber. The third lady, however, remained without any special assignment. The fourth lady served as one of the Miladies of the Lamp. In the present reign the first two were moved down to serve as Miladies of the Lamp and Tea Service. The’" third lady was moved up to the Royal Bed Chamber, whilst the fourth remained in her former post. The four having expressed their wishes to seek physical and spiritual comfort outside the Royal Palace, were granted leave to resign."
Then followed the names of the other eight—all but one fifteen or sixteen years old.
"The eight ladies above referred to entered the Service in the Present Reign. The first lady served as Milady of the Royal Sword, but had to resign on being stricken with a nervous breakdown. The second and third ladies entered the Service after the death of their father for the purpose of getting a larger share in the inheritance of the deceased for the reason of having entered into His Majesty’s Service. Having been awarded their duly increased shares of the inheritance, they resigned.
The rest on the list are gifted dancers. A difference of opinion arose with regard to the fourth and fifth ladies. Their respective fathers wanted them to remain in the Service, but the ladies themselves and their respective mothers decided in favour of resignation. Wherefore, His Majesty gave them leave to resign. The sixth lady was much feared in the Palace for her dangerous eye and ear. After a violent quarrel with her friends in the Palace she was permitted to resign on the approval of her parents. As for the seventh on the list, the lady was possessed of doubtful beauty. Her mannerism was altogether over-cultivated. Considering that she might be desirable in the eye of someone who desired her, His Majesty graciously granted her leave to resign. The eighth and last lady on the list was afflicted with the malady of fast hand, and having been found by responsible persons in the Palace to be untrustworthy with valuables and such like, was advised to resign from the Service.
The twelve ladies above named are now resigned from the Palace and are wholly free to pledge their services to any prince or noble. Should there be any such a prince or noble who would desire any of them in marriage, His Majesty would gladly and sincerely offer them congratulations. That a man should be free to choose a woman of his heart’s desire is the wish of His Majesty, and so happy He will feel to know that the satisfaction of any such man is shared by any of the ladies who recently resigned. In fact, His Majesty might have gone one step further by graciously giving the said ladies away in marriage; but he was restrained by the consideration that He might have erred in His choice to the dismay of the parties concerned. Wherefore, the present middle course has been adopted in the hope that the honour and liberality of His Majesty will be firmly established in the newly founded custom."
[Zitiert in: Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. -- S. 151ff.]
1858 - 1863
Erbfolgekrieg in Pahang (ڤهڠ). Siam und Großbritannien mischen mit Kriegsschiffen mit.
Abb.: Lage von Pahang
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]
"In 1862 Siam abandoned its policy of obscure manoeuvring in favour of a scarcely disguised attempt to obtain control of Trengganu [ترڠڬانو] and possibly Pahang [ڤهڠ] as well. The ultimate cause of the incident was the death in 1858 of the Bendahara [بنداهارا] of Pahang. He left two sons to fight for the inheritance, and almost immediately civil war broke out between the elder, who became Bendahara, and the younger Wan Ahmad [1836 - 1914]. Neither side did much harm to the other, but between them they wrought havoc with the growing British trade in Pahang. The Singapore merchants complained, and the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Colonel Cavenagh [Sir Orfeur Cavenagh, 1820–1891], offered to mediate between the two brothers. The Bendahara agreed, and promised to allow Wan Ahmad whatever pension Cavenagh might name. Ahmad refused the amount offered, and the war continued until about July 1861 his forces were driven out of Pahang by his brother.
At this point Siam-appeared upon the scene. Shortly before the Dutch had deposed and banished the Sultan of Lingga because of his incurable propensity for intriguing. The Sultan was the descendant of Sultan Abdulrahman of Johore [جوهور], whose career was described in the chapter on the foundation of Singapore. By virtue of his descent the banished Sultan declared himself to be the rightful ruler of Pahang and Johore. This claim the British Government refused to recognise, since it challenged the basic principle of the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824, the division of the Empire of Johore into British and Dutch spheres. Eventually the banished Sultan went to Bangkok, and the Siamese Ministers saw in him a fit instrument for their designs. They had determined to depose the Sultan of Trengganu, because he firmly refused to do homage in person at Bangkok, or to acknowledge the supremacy of Siam except by the customary gift of the Bunga Mas [بوڠا مس]. It was decided to install the Sultan of Lingga in his place. Wan Ahmad had also come to Bangkok, and seems to have reached an understanding with the Siamese. Cavenagh received information of the Ministers’ intentions, and asked the British Council at Bangkok, Sir Hubert Schomburgk [richtig: Robert Hermann Schomburgk,1804 – 1865], to investigate the matter. By this Time, July 1862, the Sultan had been taken to Trengganu on a Siamese warship. He was apparently accompanied by Wan Ahmad, and a small fleet of praus. Schomburgk was assured by the Siamese that the Sultan’s departure had no political significance: he merely wished to visit his aged mother in Trengganu, and the Emperor of Siam, touched by this display of filial affection, had given him a warship to make the journey. Although Schomburgk and Cavenagh had to accept this explanation, they both took the liberty of doubting its truth. For one thing, the Sultan’s arrival synchronised suspiciously with the appearance in Trengganu of three Siamese warships on which were the Crown Prince and the Chief Minister of Siam. Cavenagh had learned of their intended visit, and sent the "Hooghly," a small gunboat, to watch them. When the Siamese squadron found her at Trengganu the Prince and the Minister decided not to land, but went on to Singapore. Wan Ahmad began to prepare for another attack on his brother. In this he was assisted by the Sultan of Lingga, who, Cavenagh suspected, had been the real instigator of the attacks on Pahang. The Sultan of Trengganu also assisted. Ahmad by allowing him to gather arms and recruits, and prepare his forces in Trengganu.
Colonel Cavenagh viewed this twofold design against Pahang and Trengganu in the gravest light. He was convinced that Siam intended to use the Sultan of Lingga and Wan Ahmad as tools to bring both states under the control of Bangkok. The success of this policy would do great injury to British trade; and even, if Wan Ahmad’s attempt on Pahang should in the end fail, the renewal of civil war with the Bendahara would be harmful to the commerce of Singapore. Cavenagh was therefore convinced that he had the right to intervene in Pahang, as he had done in the preceding war, and the more so as the Siamese themselves advanced no pretensions to supremacy over it. With Trengganu the case- was somewhat different, for there was no doubt that the state was to some extent a Siamese tributary. The Governor believed however that be had the right to intervene in order to preserve its independence, on the grounds that its subjection was practically nominal, and that the aggressive policy of Siam must inevitably do great harm to British trade. These reasons he set fourth in his despatches to the Indian Government.
In a despatch of July 19, 1861, he spoke of the rumours; which had reached him of the Siamese intentions as follows:—
"The exact position with reference to the authorities at Bangkok is not very clearly defined by the treaty of 1826, but I believe there can be no doubt they do acknowledge themselves to a certain extent as tributaries."
This Cavenagh considered was proved by a statement made to him by the Sultan of Trengganu. that every thirty months the Bunga Mas and presents of camphor, cloth, etc., were sent to Bangkok in return for gifts of equal value.
Nevertheless the Governor believed the dependence to be so nominal that from the legal point of view it was negligible, for he continued :—
"By Article X of the above-quoted treaty it is evident that neither Trengganu nor Kelantan [كلنتن] have ever been considered as Siamese provinces, whilst from Article XII it is equally evident that the Siamese Kings are precluded from adopting any measure with regard to those states that might lead to any interruption of our commerce. That the measure stated to be now in contemplation would have that effect is, I conceive, beyound a doubt, for the ex-Sultan of Lingga is an intriguing, restless, character, banished by the Dutch from their territories owing to his being concerned in some conspiracy, who would almost immedately upon his resumption of power endeavour to extend his influence over the neighbouring native states and thus create a feeling prejudicial to our interests. Moreover it is not to be imagined that the Sultan (of Trengganu) would yield his post without a struggle, and the whole country would in all probability be soon involved in a civil war, to the utter prostration of our trade, which is now of considerable value, and provided peace and quietness can be maintained is likely to increase. For general reasons of policy it is also apparently advisable that we should as far as practicable prevent any interference (by Siam) in the affairs of countries so intimately connected with the British possessions. as Trengganu and Kelantan."
Cavenagh believed that India was not prepared
"to recognise the right of Siam to exercise over the two above mentioned state, a protectorate of this nature under any circumstances."
The contents of this despatch were approved by the Supreme Government.
The Governor’s attitude towards Siam’s pretensions was still more clearly shown in a Report which he forwarded to the Government of India in 1862.
"Trengganu is an independent principality... .the ruler of which, as is often customary with weak Oriental states, dispatches a periodical embassy with presents to his powerful neighbour, the King of Siam; but he has never acknowledged obedience to the latter, and has always refused to do him personal homage. When thé Treaty of 1826 was concluded the independence of Trengganu and the adjoining state of Kelantan was mutually guaranteed by Article XII.... he (the Sultan) has, at all times, been recognised as an independent chief."
From July till October 1862 Cavenagh and Schomburgk made unsuccessful attempts to persuade the Siamese to remove the Sultan of Lingga and Wan Ahmad from Trengganu. Meanwhile Ahmad again invaded Pahang, apparently at the instigation of the Sultan of Lingga. On October 23, 1862, the Government of India approved of Cavenagh’s action in asking Schomburgk to call upon the Siamese to remove Ahmad and the Sultan of Lingga from Trengganu. About the same time, Schomburgk informed Cavenagh that the Siamese had at last consented to remove the Sultan. In his reply Cavenagh wrote that if the disturbances in Pahang continued he would, in accordance with the Governor-General’s instructions, take whatever measures seemed necessary to protect British interests and maintain peace in the Peninsula.
Barely a month later it became necessary to carry the threat into execution. The time of the North-East monsoon was rapidly approaching, when from the high surf it would be impossible to make a landing at any harbour on the East Coast of the Peninsula. The Siamese kept evading the fulfilment of their promise, and made no attempt to equip a warship for the voyage to Trengganu. It appeared that they were deliberately postponing action so that it would be impossible to carry out their pledge until the change of the monsoons in April 1863. In the meantime the Sultan of Lingga and Wan Ahmad would have several months in which to carry out their plans. About the end of October 1862 the Singapore Chamber of Commerce complained to Cavenagh that their Pahang trade was at a standstill owing to a fresh invasion by Wan Ahmad, which was openly supported by the Sultan of Lingga and Trengganu. They also pointed out that the change in the monsoons would occur in eight or ten days, and begged him to act speedily. Cavenagh satisfied himself of the truth of' their information about the monsoons, and then being convinced by the despatches from Bangkok that the Siamese intended to take no steps until the weather made effective action impossible, he determined that drastic measures were necessary. A warship was sent to Trengganu with orders to bombard the port and blockade it unless within twenty-four hours after its arrival the Sultan of Trengganu handed over the Sultan of Lingga for conveyance to Bangkok, and promised that no further assistance should be given to Wan Ahmad. The Sultan of Trengganu refused to give way, and his fort was accordingly shelled, the town and its population being pared. The Sultan of Lingga escaped in the country, and although the coast was blockaded for some weeks he was not surrendered. Cavenagh’s actions were approved by the Government of India.
While the bombardment failed in its immediate objects, it ultimately produced the effect which Cavenagh had desired. The Siamese Government sent a warship to Trengganu on November 25 with the obvious result that as the monsoon had changed the Sultan of Lingga could not be taken off. The Siamese also sent letters to the British Government, claiming Kelantan and Trengganu as tributaries, and protesting at the bombardment as a violation of their territorial rights. But despite their complaints, in March 1863 they removed the Sultan of Lingga from Trengganu, and sent him back to Siam. Thereafter he ceased to trouble the peace of the Peninsula. A few years later his ally, Wan Ahmad, became Bendahara of Pahang on the death of his brother, without any objections being raised on the part of the British Government.
The bombardment of Trengganu gave rise to two debates in the House of Commons, and on the whole Cavenagh’s conduct was condemned. In Trengganu however his firmness had excellent results. Soon after the incident was closed the Chief Minister of Siam visited Cavenagh at Singapore, and vainly tried to obtain from him an admission of Siam’s rights of suzerainty over Trengganu. Cavenagh also refused to use the Government of Bangkok as an intermediary in any communications which he might in future find it necessary to make to the Sultan of Trengganu. After this date Siam made no further overt attempts to destroy the independence of the state; and although threats and intrigues were lavishly employed, they proved unavailing. In 1909, when Trengganu was transferred to the British sphere of influence, its independence was still substantially unimpaired."
[Quelle: Mills, L. A. (Lennox Algernon) <1896 - 1968>: British Malaya, 1824-1867 : with appendix by C. O. Blagden. -- Singapore : Methodist Publ., 1925. -- 338 S. ; 25 cm. -- S. 165 - 169]
Vertrag mit Dänemark.
Abb.: Dänemark 1815
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Fertigstellung der Silom Road (ถนนสีลม).
Abb.: Lage der Silom Road (ถนนสีลม)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Abb.: Windmühlen-Denkmal, Silom Road (ถนนสีลม), Bangkok, 2006
[Bildquelle: Heinrich Damm / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
"Die Thanon Silom (ถนนสีลม - wörtl.: Windmühlen-Straße, im englischen Sprachgebrauch: Silom Road) ist eine Straße im Bezirk Bang Rak (บางรัก) von Bangkok, der Hauptstadt von Thailand.
Westlich der Charoen Krung Road (ถนนเจริญกรุง, auch New Road genannt) befanden sich früher Viertel mit nur wenigen Häusern und vielen Gemüsefeldern und Obstplantagen. Die erste Kanalstraße wurde sozusagen als Nebenprodukt zu einem Khlong erschaffen, der als Verbindung vom Chao-Phraya-Fluss zum Khlong Hualamphong (heute ist er zugeschüttet, die Thanon Rama IV – ถนนพระรามที่ 4 - Rama-IV.-Straße – befindet sich über ihm) ausgeschachtet wurde. Die ausgehobene Erde wurde benutzt, um das Niveau der Silom Road über Hochwasserniveau zu erheben. Dies Projekt wurde von der Regierung finanziert und im Jahre 1858 fertiggestellt. Spätere Straßen, die bald parallel zur Silom angelegt wurden, wie die Thanon Satorn (ถนนสาทร) oder die Thanon Surawong, wurden privat finanziert. Der Name der „Silom“ (สีลม) stammt von den zahlreichen Windmühlen ab, die Wasser aus dem Khlong auf die umliegenden Gemüsegärten pumpten. Ähnliche Windmühlen (สมุทรสาคร) aus Bambus und Tuch werden noch heute südöstlich von Bangkok in Samut Sakhon benutzt, um Salzwasser aus dem Meer zur Gewinnung von Salz in Salinen zu pumpen. Eine moderne Stahl-Skulptur, die an diese Mühlen erinnern soll, steht seit 1998 einige Meter nördlich der Silom Road am Ufer des Khlong Chong Nongsi, der quer zur Silom Road in der Mitte der Narativat Rajanakarin Road entlangführt.
Etwa in der Mitte der Silom Road befand sich zwischen Soi 9 und Soi 11 (ซอย - Soi: Thai für „Nebenstraße“) bis vor wenigen Jahren ein sehr alter Friedhof mit vielen christlichen, aber auch einigen chinesischen Gräbern. In den 1990er Jahren war das Gelände bereits abgeschlossen, der Friedhof schien irgendwie aufgegeben worden zu sein, was aber zu seiner Atmosphäre beitrug. Im Jahr 2000 fing die Stadtverwaltung von Bangkok damit an, die zum Teil sehr pittoresken Grüfte abzureißen. Erst gegen Ende 2004 konnten die Abrissarbeiten fertiggestellt werden.
- Steve Van Beek: Bangkok Einst und Jetzt. AB Publications, Bangkok 2001, ISBN 974-87616-2-2 (engl. Version: ISBN 974-870639-7)
[Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanon_Silom. -- Zugriff am 2012-04-08]
Aus einem Brief von Rama IV. an den Leiter und den stellvertretenden Leiter der siamesischen Gesandtschaft nach London:
"A great number of Englishmen have been and are now residing in this country. They seem to have an accurate knowledge of everything that is to be known here, but it is rather regrettable that they still retain a fixed idea regarding four phenomena characteristic to this country. The four unchanging phenomena, according to them, are that the river running through Bangkok has no other name but "Menam" [its name is the "Chao Phya"; "menam" means "river"]; that three-quarters of the houses in Bangkok are built in water, only one quarter being built on dry land; that nine parts out of ten of the local population are Chinese; and that the First King is a decrepit old man, so weak and thin and stupid as to be entirely incapable of conducting any official business. The only reason why he ever became King at all was that he happened to be elder brother to the Second King, who is actually at the head of affairs, and by whom both the present Treaty with Great Britain and the Embassy to that country have been originated. The First King is really so ancient that his power of speech is now restricted to only "ohs" and "ahs," punctuated by meaningless nods of the head. Whenever he is called upon to receive foreign guests, the Second King must always be behind his back, to tell him what to say.
The Second King, on the other hand, is a strong young man ho delights in riding either a great tusker elephant in must, or a stallion over five sok [ศอก, seven and a half feet] high. His Majesty shoots every day, loves all things military, is so very learned and so full of culture as to become the central figure surrounded by worshiping pundits and the intelligentsia. The Second King is also a ladies’ man. ... I came to the throne when my age was four years less than the Second King’s present age, but I was then already alleged to be old. The Second King is now more than three years older than I was when I came to the throne, but people still say that he is a young man. He cannot make even a chance visit to any provincial towns without being offered the daughters of governors or officials. He went to Saraburi [สระบุรี] and came back with a daughter of the Deputy Governor; he went to Nakorn Ratchasima [นครราชสีมา] and came back with nine or ten Lao wives; he went to Phanat Nikhom [พนัสนิคม] and came back with a daughter of another Deputy Governor; and after his trip to Ratchaburi [ราชบุรี] in the sixth month last, he returned with another wife. I have not been able to discover the identity of her father.
Abb.: Lage von Saraburi [สระบุรี], Nakorn Ratchasima [นครราชสีมา], Phanat Nikhom [พนัสนิคม] und Ratchaburi [ราชบุรี]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
As for me, I am always looked upon as an old man wherever I go. No one has ever presented me with his daughter, and I always have to return home empty-handed, on account of my being an ancient relic. Although my hair is getting thin, I am not really bald, and whatever hair there is left to me is naturally black without the aid of hair-dyes, but people looking at me from a distance always insist that I am completely bald. I have even gone to the expense of buying myself a riding cap, and have taken pains to go out riding wearing it with the hope of creating an impression of youthfulness. I was a failure; people still maintain that I am old and still refuse to give me their daughters. . . .
These false impressions have been going on for a long time now, no one has ever been able to rectify them, not even in Bangkok itself. If you, who are abroad, tell the truth, you will not be believed, since people have tried to make things sound otherwise by writing to the papers that the government of this country is carried on by the brains and influence of the Second King alone, the First King being aged to the point of imbecility. Have you not been a little careless in your speech, in making an understatement of the Second King’s military strength, which is in reality much greater than that of the First King? I have an uneasy feeling that people abroad may say that the Siamese Ambassadors are nothing but liars.
As regards the case of Para Intradit who has committed adultery with your wife, Sarapeth, I have ordered the judges to hold a trial. They have decided on fines and compensations amounting to over 28 catties of money [the equivalent of about U.S. $1,300 at that time]. The fines are not to be paid to the Government, but are to be paid to you, since I have sent you far away from home. I should like to bring to your notice the fact that the amount of fines decided by the Law Court in the case of abduction of one of the King’s women from a royal boat was a little more than one catty of money only [a little less than U.S. $50]."
[Zitiert in: Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. --254 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- S. 57ff.]
Der amerikanische presbyterianische Missionar Daniel McGilvary (1828 - 1911) kommt nach Siam.
Abb.: Daniel McGilvary , ca. 1911
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Abb.: Frau McGilvary, 1893
[Bildquelle: McGilvary, Daniel <1812 - 1911>: A half century among the Siamese and the Lāo : an autobiography. -- New York [u. a.] : Revell, 1912.]
"Daniel McGilvary (1828-1911) was an American Presbyterian missionary who played an important role in the expansion of Protestantism in Northern Siam.
Throughout his life, his colleagues and the general public held McGilvary in great esteem, and businesses and government offices in Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) were officially closed in mourning on the day of his death.Biography
He was born 16 May 1828, in North Carolina, USA and, after a largely informal education, taught school until he entered Princeton Theological Seminary in 1853. He graduated from Princeton in 1856 and returned to NC to pastor two rural churches. He was ordained in 1857. In 1858 he arrived in Thailand (then Siam) as a member of the Bangkok Station, Siam Mission, Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, and married Sophia Royce Bradley in 1860.
In 1861, the McGilvarys participated in the opening of the Phetchaburi (เพชรบุรี) Station, the first Protestant missionary station outside of Bangkok. In 1867, the McGilvary family moved to Chiang Mai, the chief city of Thailand's northern dependencies, and founded a new Presbyterian mission, the Laos Mission. The McGilvarys worked alone for one year and were chiefly responsible for the conversion of six men by early 1869. Persecution of these Christians in September 1869 led to the execution of two, the scattering of the others, and the threatened closure of the Laos Mission.
McGilvary's perseverance, however, prevented the lapse of Protestant work in Northern Thailand. From 1870 until roughly 1890 McGilvary was the unofficial leader of the Laos Mission and took the leading hand in expanding its work including establishing several rural Christian communities which became important Christian centers. In 1878 he played a leading role in obtaining the so-called "Proclamation of Religious Toleration" from the Thai central government, which gave certain civil rights to northern Thai converts.
McGilvary took a number of exploratory tours, beginning in the 1870s, going as far as the Shan States in Burma and Yunnan Province (云南) in Southern China in the 1890s. Those tours inspired the Laos Mission with the vision of a greater mission to the Tai peoples of China and French Indochina, a vision which dominated mission work until the 1920s.
McGilvary supported theological training for northern Thai evangelists and pastors. He took a leading role in promoting central Thai literacy among the northern Thai and he played an important role in promoting mission school education, particularly female education. In 1888 McGilvary established a school in Chiang Saen District (เชียงแสน), Chiang Rai Province, that was moved to Chiang Rai (เชียงราย) city and eventually became Chiang Rai Witthayakhom School (โรงเรียนเชียงรายวิทยาคม), the oldest school in Northern Thailand.
McGilvary is also credited with introducing Western medicine into Northern Siam. He continued active evangelistic work, including visiting established Christian groups, up until his death on 22 August 1911, in Chiang Mai.Notes and references
- McFarland, George B., ed. Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions in Siam 1828-1928. Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, 1928. (Reprint. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 1999).
- McGilvary, Daniel. A Half Century Among the Siamese and the Lao. New York: Revell, 1912. (Reprint. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 2001).
- Herbert R. Swanson, Khrischak Muang Nua. Bangkok: Chuan Press, 1984.
- Zehner, Edwin. "Church Growth and Culturally Appropriate Leadership: Three Examples From the Thai Church." Unpublished paper, School of World Mission, 1987.
- Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, 'Under a Spreading Banyan Tree' in: Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW"
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_McGilvary. -- Zugriff am 2013-06-28]
"McGilvary, Daniel (1828-1911)
Daniel McGilvary was an American Presbyterian missionary who played an important role in the expansion of Protestantism into northern Thailand. He was born 16 May 1828, in North Carolina, USA and, after a largely informal education, taught school until he entered Princeton Theological Seminary in 1853. He graduated from Princeton in 1856 and returned to NC to pastor two rural churches. He was ordained in 1857. He arrived in Thailand in 1858 as a member of the Bangkok Station, Siam Mission, PCUSA, and married Sophia Royce Bradley in 1860. In 1861, the McGilvarys participated in the opening of the Phet Buri [Phetchaburi - เพชรบุรี] Station, the first Protestant missionary station outside of Bangkok. In 1867, the McGilvary family moved to Chiang Mai, the chief city of Thailand's northern dependencies, and founded a new Presbyterian mission, the Laos Mission.
The McGilvarys worked alone for one year and were chiefly responsible for the conversion of six men by early 1869. A persecution of these Christians in September 1869 led to the execution of two, the scattering of the others, and the threatened closure of the Laos Mission. McGilvary's perseverance prevented the lapse of Protestant work in northern Thailand. From 1870 until roughly 1890 McGilvary was the unofficial leader of the Laos Mission and took the leading hand in expanding its work including establishing several rural Christian communities which became important Christian centers. In 1878 he played a leading role in obtaining the so-called "Proclamation of Religious Toleration" from the Thai central government, which gave certain civil rights to northern Thai converts. McGilvary took a number of exploratory tours, beginning in the 1870s, going as far as the Shan States in Burma and Yunnan Province in southern China in the 1890s. Those tours inspired the Laos Mission with the vision of a greater mission to the Tai peoples of China and French Indochina, which vision dominated mission work until the 1920s. He is credited with introducing Western medicine into northern Siam. McGilvary supported theological training for northern Thai evangelists and pastors, and he played an important role in promoting mission boarding school education, particularly for women. He took a leading role in promoting central Thai literacy among the northern Thai. McGilvary continued active evangelistic work, including visiting established Christian groups, up until his death on 22 August 1911, in Chiang Mai. Throughout his life, his colleagues and the general public held McGilvary in great esteem, and businesses and government offices in Chiang Mai were officially closed in mourning on the day of his death."
[Quelle: Dictionary of Thai Christianity. -- http://www.herbswanson.com/dictionary.php. -- Zugriff am 2013-10-05]
"McGilvary, Sophia Bradley (1839-1923)
Sophia McGilvary was the first woman missionary to serve in the Laos Mission and played a key early role in the introduction of women's education into northern Siam. She was the daughter of Dr. Dan Beach and Emelie Royce Bradley and was born in Bangkok on 8 October 1839. Her mother died in August 1845, and in 1847 her father took her and her two siblings to Oberlin, Ohio, where she went to school for a period. Her father, while in the United States, married Sarah Blachly in November 1848, and the family returned to Bangkok, where Sophia was home schooled by Sarah Bradley, one of the first women in the United States to receive a B.A. degree.
In 1860, Sophia married the Rev. Daniel McGilvary, a Presbyterian missionary; and in 1861, they joined the S. G. McFarlands in founding a mission station in Phet Buri [Phetchaburi - เพชรบุรี]. In April 1867, the McGilvary family founded the Laos Mission when they moved to Chiang Mai. Sophia conducted women's literacy classes, assisted in the translation of the Gospel of Matthew, and in about 1875 started a small class for Christian girls that was the seed for the founding of the Chiang Mai Girls' School in 1879. The McGilvarys had five children, three of whom became members of the Laos Mission."
[Quelle: Dictionary of Thai Christianity. -- http://www.herbswanson.com/dictionary.php. -- Zugriff am 2013-10-05]
Der Amerikaner Hamilton Smith lässt die erste Trommelwaschmaschine patentieren.
Abb.: Trommelwaschmaschine, ca. 1900
[Bildquelle: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 1905]
Virchow, Rudolf <1821 - 1902>: Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre : zwanzig Vorlesungen, gehalten während der Monate Februar, März und April 1858 im pathologischen Institute zu Berlin. -- Berlin : Hirschwald, 1858. -- 440 S. : 144 Holzschnitte.
Es ist ein Grundlagenwerk der modernen Medizin.
Abb.: Rudolf Virchow / von Leslie Ward (1851–1922)
[Bildquelle: Vanity fair. -- 1893-05-25 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
Der Britische Beamte des Indian Civil Service, William James Herschel, 2nd Baronet (1833 - 1917) führt in Bengalen Handabdrücke als Unterschrift ein. Er ist der Vorläufer der Verwendung von Fingerabdrücken als Identifikationsmerkmal.
Abb.: Von William James Herschel, 2nd Baronet 1859/60 gemachte Finger- und Handabdrücke
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Die Briten verbannen Bahadur Shah Zafar II (بہادر شاہ دوم) (1775 - 1862), den letzten Moghulkaiser Indiens, nach Yangon (Burma). Ende des Moghulreichs in Indien.
Abb.: Bahadur Shah Zafar II (بہادر شاہ دوم) 1857-05 / von Robert Tytler (1818 - 1872) and Charles Shepard
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Der britische Außenminister George William Frederick Villiers, 4. Earl of Clarendon (1800 - 1870) lehnt das Ansuchen von König Mongkut ab, dass Großbritannien die außenpolitischen Beziehungen Siams unters eine Kontrolle nimmt. Clarendon: Siam soll "throughly independent" bleiben.
Abb.: George William Frederick Villiers, 4. Earl of Clarendon
[Bildquelle: Carlo Pellegrini (1839 - 1889). -- In: Vanity Fair. -- 1869-04-24. -- Public domain]
1858-02-20 - 1859-06-11
Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (1799 - 1869) ist Prime Minister Großbritanniens.
US-Baptistenmissionar Dan Beach Bradley (1804 - 1873) über Knappheit von Baht-Münzen:
"The Royal Mint cannot nearly supply ticals for the merchants who bring in dollars to exchange. It turns out only enough to exchange $20,000 a week. Merchants and other foreigners under consular jurisdiction are allowed to go and exchange their dollars every Monday. As there are not ticals enough to exchange all the dollars presented, there has been a law made which gives each man the privilege of exchanging his proportion of the whole amount of dollars brought in that day. He may bring in $20,000 himself alone — and if there was no other person at the exchange but himself he would have the whole of the $20,000 exchanged. But as there are some 8 or 10 others with each 10 or 20 thousand he can get only his proportion among them. As I only had $196, my proportion was $12 for which I got 20 ticals. The whole amount presented that day was about $335,000."
[Zitiert in: Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: A history of modern Thailand 1767 - 1942. -- St. Lucia [u. a.] : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1983. -- S. 180]
Es erscheint die erste Nummer von Royal Gazette (RG; ราชกิจจานุเบกษา).
"Die Royal Thai Government Gazette oder kurz Royal Gazette (RG; Thai ราชกิจจานุเบกษา Ratcha Kitcha Nubeksa) ist eine offizielle Veröffentlichungsstelle für amtliche Bekanntmachungen der thailändischen Regierung.
Die Royal Gazette wurde erstmals am 15. März 1858 von König Mongkut (Rama IV.) herausgegeben, um Regierungsbeamte und die Öffentlichkeit über Neuigkeiten im Land zu informieren. Bereits 1839 hatte König Phra Nang Klao (Rama III.) 9.000 Kopien eines Gesetzes gegen den Handel und das Rauchen von Opium drucken lassen. Ansonsten hatten königliche Schreiber alle Dekrete per Hand auszufertigen.
König Mongkut (Rama IV.) ließ im Palast eine Druckerei einrichten, um die Royal Gazette zu veröffentlichen und offizielle Verlautbarungen der Regierung zu verbreiten. Es gilt als sicher, dass die ersten Texte der Royal Gazette in den Anfangsjahren aus der Feder des Königs stammten, denn die Veröffentlichungen wurden für etwa 18 Monate unterbrochen, als Rama IV. keine Zeit zum Texten hatte.
Im Mai 1874 begann König Chulalongkorn (Rama V.) mit der wöchentlichen Herausgabe der Gazette, wobei nun eine Seriennummer eingeführt wurde, an der man die verschiedenen Ausgaben erkennen kann. 1879 trat erneut eine Unterbrechung der Herausgabe ein, und erst 1882 - zur Hundertjahrfeier der Hauptstadt Bangkok - wurde die Herausgabe mit der Royal Gazette Special fortgesetzt. Seit 1884 erscheint sie wieder im wöchentlichen Rhythmus.
1889 wurde der Inhalt mehr an westlichen Standards angepasst. Ankündigungen der Regierung, Befehle des Königs, Gesetze und Richtlinien für Ministerien und Beamte erschienen nun ebenfalls in der Gazette.
Der Subskriptionspreis war acht Baht pro Jahr für Selbstabholer und zehn Baht pro Jahr für die Zusendung mit Boten."
[Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Thai_Government_Gazette. -- Zugriff am 2011-11-13]
Abb.: Die siamesischen Gesandten in Paris. -- In: Le Monde illustré <Paris, Frankreich>. -- No 49. -- 1858-03-20. -- Titelblatt
Die siamesische Gesandtschaft nach London kehrt auf einem britischen Kriegsschriff nach Bangkok zurück.
Vertrag von Tientsin (Tianjin - 天津) zwischen Russland und China stellt Beziehungen beider Staaten auf die Grundlage von "politischer und wirtschaftlicher Gleichberechtigung".
Abb.: Expansion des russischen Kaiserreichs 1533 - 1894
[Bildquelle: Marxist Internet Archive / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Abb.: Entwicklung der chinesischen Reiche
[Bildquelle: Pojanji / Wikpedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
Frankreich schafft ein Ministerium für Algerien und die Kolonien. Minister ist Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince Français, Count of Meudon, Count of Moncalieri ad personam, titular 3rd Prince of Montfort (aka Prince Napoléon) (1822 - 1891)
Abb.: Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince Français, Count of Meudon, Count of Moncalieri ad personam, titular 3rd Prince of Montfort (aka Prince Napoléon) / von Théobald Chartran (1849 - 1907)
[Bildquelle: Vanity fair. -- 1879-07-26 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]
Im Vertrag von Tientsin (天津條約) muss sich China verpflichten, europäische Gesandte in Peking zuzulassen, weitere Häfen für den Handel zu öffnen, die Ausübung des Christentums nicht zu behindern, Großbritannien und Frankreich die Kriegskosten für den zweiten Opiumkrieg zu erstatten. Vertragspartner Chinas sind: Frankreich, Großbritannien, Russland und die USA.
Abb.: Unterzeichnung des Vertrag von Tientsin (天津條約)
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]
Bericht der preußischen Kapitäne Woller und Krause an das preußische Außenministerium:
„Siams Handel und Schifffahrt ist in den letzten Jahren sehr bedeutend belebt worden durch die Handelstraktate von Großbritannien, Frankreich, Nord-Amerika und zuletzt Dänemark. Jetzt stehen die Hansestädte im Begriff, einen Handels- und Schifffahrtsvertrag mit Siam abzuschließen. Preußens Flagge hat lohnend Teil genommen an der hiesigen Schifffahrt und gegenwärtig sind zwei preußische Schiffe zugleich anwesend. Die Preuß. Flagge ist hier nicht vertreten oder anerkannt und nur dem gef.(älligen) Schutz und Unterstützungen des Großbritannischen General-Konsuls haben wir es zu danken, dass wir überhaupt zugelassen werden, weil ein von der hiesigen Regierung anerkannter Konsul seine Nation vertreten soll. Sir Robert Shomburgh hat dies bis jetzt gut für uns getan.
Es wäre dessen ungeachtet sehr wünschenswert für uns, hier einen preußischen Konsul ernennen lassen zu wollen, um danach einen Handels- und Schifffahrts-Vertrag einzuleiten und abzuschließen."
[Zitiert in: Sawasdee : 150 Jahre Deutsch-Thailändische Freundschaft, 50 Jahre Deutsch-Thailändische Gesellschaft / Andreas Stoffers (Hrsg.). -- Rosenheim : Rosenheimer, 2012. -- 240 S. : Ill. ; 28 cm. -- ISBN 978-3-475-54134-6. -- S. 26]
1858-09-01 - 1862-06-05
Französisch-spanische Cochinchina-Kampagne (Campagne de Cochinchine / Expedición franco-española a Cochinchina / Chiến dịch Nam Kỳ). Die französischen Angriffskriege führen zur Bildung der französischen Kolonie Cochinchina (Südvietnam).
Abb.: Lage von Cochinchina
[Bildquelle: Bearsmalaysia / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]
Unterzeichnung des französisch-japanischen Freundschaftsvertrags.
Eröffnung der ersten dampfbetriebenen Reismühle in Siam.
Hansestädte Hamburg, Lübeck und Bremen schließen über ihren Repräsentanten in Singapur, Konsul Johannes Mooyer (1830 - 1903), einen Handelsvertrag mit dem Königreich Siam ab. Der in Bangkok ansässige deutsche Kaufmann Theodor Thies wird von König Rama IV. als deutscher Konsul anerkannt. Die Hansestädte geben Rama IV. Geschenke im Wert von 6000 Talern.
Noch 1858 ankern 3 Schiffe unter Hamburger Flagge vor Bangkok.
Abb.: Lage von Hamburg, Lübeck und Bremen
Nach der Niederschlagung des Sepoy-Aufstands übernimmt die britische Krone die Macht in Indien von der British East India Company. Indien wird nicht als Kolonie angesehen (untersteht nicht dem Colonial Office), sondern als besonderer Bestandteil des British Empire. Es untersteht darum dem India Office.
Abb.: British India 1860
[Bildquelle: Kmusser / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]
US-Baptistenmissionar Dan Beach Bradley (1804 - 1873) über den Defaitismus Ramas IV. bezüglich der kolonialen Zukunft Siams:
"... the usual thought among the Siamese rulers is that Siam is destined to pass into the hands of the English. They seem almost instinctively to think so and so to express themselves. And it is a remarkable fact that they are training no one for the Throne as if they really expect he will be called to it after the present incumbents shall have left it. My mind cannot light upon a single individual whom God seems in any way to be preparing for a future Sovereign in Siam. If I could see either of the present kings taking measures to educate some of their sons for the Throne as they themselves have been educated, I should by that providence be inclined to expect that the present Dynasty would be prolonged much beyond the days of the present sovereign. But they are doing no such thing. They seem to me to be wonderfully careless in educating their sons."
[Zitiert in: Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: A history of modern Thailand 1767 - 1942. -- St. Lucia [u. a.] : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1983. -- S. 184]
Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. --254 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm.
Blofeld, John <1913 - 1987>: King Maha Mongkut of Siam. -- 2. ed. -- Bangkok : Siam Society, 1987. -- 97 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm.
Chula Chakrabongse [จุลจักรพงษ์] <1908 - 1963>: Lords of life : History of the Kings of Thailand. -- 2., rev. ed. -- London : Redman, 1967. -- 352 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm.
Phongpaichit, Pasuk <ผาสุก พงษ์ไพจิตร, 1946 - > ; Baker, Chris <1948 - >: Thailand : economy and politics. -- Selangor : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1995. -- 449 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 983-56-0024-4. -- Beste Geschichte des modernen Thailand.
Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: A history of modern Thailand 1767 - 1942. -- St. Lucia [u. a.] : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1983. -- 379 S. ; 22 cm.
Ingram, James C.: Economic change in Thailand 1850 - 1870. -- Stanford : Stanford Univ. Pr., 1971. -- 352 S. ; 23 cm. -- "A new edition of Economic change in Thailand since 1850 with two new chapters on developments since 1950". -- Grundlegend.
Akira, Suehiro [末廣昭] <1951 - >: Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855 - 1985. -- Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, ©1989. -- 427 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 4896561058. -- Grundlegend.
Skinner, William <1925 - 2008>: Chinese society in Thailand : an analytical history. -- Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press, 1957. -- 459 S. ; 24 cm. -- Grundlegend.
Simona Somsri Bunarunraksa [ซีมอนา สมศรี บุญอรุณรักษา]: Monseigneur Jean-Baptiste Pallegoix : ami du roi du Siam, imprimeur et écrivain (1805 - 1862). -- Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013. -- 316 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- (Chemins de la mémoire ; Novelle série). -- ISBN 978-2-336-29049
Morgan, Susan <1943 - >: Bombay Anna : the real story and remarkable adventures of the King and I governess. -- Berkeley [u.a.] : Univ. of California Press, 2008. -- 274 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 978-0-520-26163-1
ศกดา ศิริพันธุ์ = Sakda Siripant: พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว พระบิดาแห่งการถ่ายภาพไทย = H.M. King Chulalongkorn : the father of Thai photography. -- กรุงเทพๆ : ด่านสุทธา, 2555 = 2012. -- 354 S. : Ill. ; 30 cm. -- ISBN 978-616-305-569-9
Lavery, Brian: Schiffe : 5000 Jahre Seefahrt. -- London [u. a.] : DK, 2005. -- S. 184. -- Originaltitel: Ship : 5000 years of marine adventure (2004)
Zu Chronik 1859 (Rama IV.)