Chronik Thailands



Alois Payer

Chronik 1858 (Rama IV.)

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1858 (Rama IV.). -- Fassung vom 2015-09-27. -- URL:  

Erstmals publiziert: 2013-07-10

Überarbeitungen: 2015-09-27 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-09-09 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-07-06 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-04-10 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-18 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-11 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-02 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-02-17 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-07 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-15 [Ergänzungen]

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Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library




Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.


Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen!

Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:

Morgenstern, Oskar <1902 - 1977>: On the accuracy of economic observations. -- 2. ed. -- Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. -- 322 S. ; 20 cm.

Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.


1858 undatiert


Rama IV. besucht mit großem Gefolge die östlichen Provinzen.


Einige Haremsdamen machen von ihrem Recht (von 1854) Gebrauch, den Harem zu verlassen. Königlicher Erlass dazu:

"Twelve ladies have been granted leave to resign by Royal Permit without the benefit of a grant of annuity." The first four, who were mostly in their late thirties, "entered the Service in the reign of His Majesty, King Phra Nang Klao. The two first named were promoted to the rank of Lady Consort attached to the Royal Bed Chamber. The third lady, however, remained without any special assignment. The fourth lady served as one of the Miladies of the Lamp. In the present reign the first two were moved down to serve as Miladies of the Lamp and Tea Service. The’" third lady was moved up to the Royal Bed Chamber, whilst the fourth remained in her former post. The four having expressed their wishes to seek physical and spiritual comfort outside the Royal Palace, were granted leave to resign."

Then followed the names of the other eight—all but one fifteen or sixteen years old.

"The eight ladies above referred to entered the Service in the Present Reign. The first lady served as Milady of the Royal Sword, but had to resign on being stricken with a nervous breakdown. The second and third ladies entered the Service after the death of their father for the purpose of getting a larger share in the inheritance of the deceased for the reason of having entered into His Majesty’s Service. Having been awarded their duly increased shares of the inheritance, they resigned.

The rest on the list are gifted dancers. A difference of opinion arose with regard to the fourth and fifth ladies. Their respective fathers wanted them to remain in the Service, but the ladies themselves and their respective mothers decided in favour of resignation. Wherefore, His Majesty gave them leave to resign. The sixth lady was much feared in the Palace for her dangerous eye and ear. After a violent quarrel with her friends in the Palace she was permitted to resign on the approval of her parents. As for the seventh on the list, the lady was possessed of doubtful beauty. Her mannerism was altogether over-cultivated. Considering that she might be desirable in the eye of someone who desired her, His Majesty graciously granted her leave to resign. The eighth and last lady on the list was afflicted with the malady of fast hand, and having been found by responsible persons in the Palace to be untrustworthy with valuables and such like, was advised to resign from the Service.

The twelve ladies above named are now resigned from the Palace and are wholly free to pledge their services to any prince or noble. Should there be any such a prince or noble who would desire any of them in marriage, His Majesty would gladly and sincerely offer them congratulations. That a man should be free to choose a woman of his heart’s desire is the wish of His Majesty, and so happy He will feel to know that the satisfaction of any such man is shared by any of the ladies who recently resigned. In fact, His Majesty might have gone one step further by graciously giving the said ladies away in marriage; but he was restrained by the consideration that He might have erred in His choice to the dismay of the parties concerned. Wherefore, the present middle course has been adopted in the hope that the honour and liberality of His Majesty will be firmly established in the newly founded custom."

[Zitiert in: Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. -- S. 151ff.]

1858 - 1863

Erbfolgekrieg in Pahang (‏ڤهڠ‎). Siam und Großbritannien mischen mit Kriegsschiffen mit.

Abb.: Lage von Pahang
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]

"In 1862 Siam abandoned its policy of obscure manoeuvring in favour of a scarcely disguised attempt to obtain control of Trengganu [‏ترڠڬانو] and possibly Pahang [ڤهڠ] as well. The ultimate cause of the incident was the death in 1858 of the Bendahara [بنداهارا] of Pahang. He left two sons to fight for the inheritance, and almost immediately civil war broke out between the elder, who became Bendahara, and the younger Wan Ahmad [1836 - 1914]. Neither side did much harm to the other, but between them they wrought havoc with the growing British trade in Pahang. The Singapore merchants complained, and the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Colonel Cavenagh [Sir Orfeur Cavenagh, 1820–1891], offered to mediate between the two brothers. The Bendahara agreed, and promised to allow Wan Ahmad whatever pension Cavenagh might name. Ahmad refused the amount offered, and the war continued until about July 1861 his forces were driven out of Pahang by his brother.

At this point Siam-appeared upon the scene. Shortly before the Dutch had deposed and banished the Sultan of Lingga because of his incurable propensity for intriguing. The Sultan was the descendant of Sultan Abdulrahman of Johore [جوهور], whose career was described in the chapter on the foundation of Singapore. By virtue of his descent the banished Sultan declared himself to be the rightful ruler of Pahang and Johore. This claim the British Government refused to recognise, since it challenged the basic principle of the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824, the division of the Empire of Johore into British and Dutch spheres. Eventually the banished Sultan went to Bangkok, and the Siamese Ministers saw in him a fit instrument for their designs. They had determined to depose the Sultan of Trengganu, because he firmly refused to do homage in person at Bangkok, or to acknowledge the supremacy of Siam except by the customary gift of the Bunga Mas [بوڠا مس]. It was decided to install the Sultan of Lingga in his place. Wan Ahmad had also come to Bangkok, and seems to have reached an understanding with the Siamese. Cavenagh received information of the Ministers’ intentions, and asked the British Council at Bangkok, Sir Hubert Schomburgk [richtig: Robert Hermann Schomburgk,1804 – 1865], to investigate the matter. By this Time, July 1862, the Sultan had been taken to Trengganu on a Siamese warship. He was apparently accompanied by Wan Ahmad, and a small fleet of praus. Schomburgk was assured by the Siamese that the Sultan’s departure had no political significance: he merely wished to visit his aged mother in Trengganu, and the Emperor of Siam, touched by this display of filial affection, had given him a warship to make the journey. Although Schomburgk and Cavenagh had to accept this explanation, they both took the liberty of doubting its truth. For one thing, the Sultan’s arrival synchronised suspiciously with the appearance in Trengganu of three Siamese warships on which were the Crown Prince and the Chief Minister of Siam. Cavenagh had learned of their intended visit, and sent the "Hooghly," a small gunboat, to watch them. When the Siamese squadron found her at Trengganu the Prince and the Minister decided not to land, but went on to Singapore. Wan Ahmad began to prepare for another attack on his brother. In this he was assisted by the Sultan of Lingga, who, Cavenagh suspected, had been the real instigator of the attacks on Pahang. The Sultan of Trengganu also assisted. Ahmad by allowing him to gather arms and recruits, and prepare his forces in Trengganu.

Colonel Cavenagh viewed this twofold design against Pahang and Trengganu in the gravest light. He was convinced that Siam intended to use the Sultan of Lingga and Wan Ahmad as tools to bring both states under the control of Bangkok. The success of this policy would do great injury to British trade; and even, if Wan Ahmad’s attempt on Pahang should in the end fail, the renewal of civil war with the Bendahara would be harmful to the commerce of Singapore. Cavenagh was therefore convinced that he had the right to intervene in Pahang, as he had done in the preceding war, and the more so as the Siamese themselves advanced no pretensions to supremacy over it. With Trengganu the case- was somewhat different, for there was no doubt that the state was to some extent a Siamese tributary. The Governor believed however that be had the right to intervene in order to preserve its independence, on the grounds that its subjection was practically nominal, and that the aggressive policy of Siam must inevitably do great harm to British trade. These reasons he set fourth in his despatches to the Indian Government.

In a despatch of July 19, 1861, he spoke of the rumours; which had reached him of the Siamese intentions as follows:—

"The exact position with reference to the authorities at Bangkok is not very clearly defined by the treaty of 1826, but I believe there can be no doubt they do acknowledge themselves to a certain extent as tributaries."

This Cavenagh considered was proved by a statement made to him by the Sultan of Trengganu. that every thirty months the Bunga Mas and presents of camphor, cloth, etc., were sent to Bangkok in return for gifts of equal value.

Nevertheless the Governor believed the dependence to be so nominal that from the legal point of view it was negligible, for he continued :—

"By Article X of the above-quoted treaty it is evident that neither Trengganu nor Kelantan [كلنتن] have ever been considered as Siamese provinces, whilst from Article XII it is equally evident that the Siamese Kings are precluded from adopting any measure with regard to those states that might lead to any interruption of our commerce. That the measure stated to be now in contemplation would have that effect is, I conceive, beyound a doubt, for the ex-Sultan of Lingga is an intriguing, restless, character, banished by the Dutch from their territories owing to his being concerned in some conspiracy, who would almost immedately upon his resumption of power endeavour to extend his influence over the neighbouring native states and thus create a feeling prejudicial to our interests. Moreover it is not to be imagined that the Sultan (of Trengganu) would yield his post without a struggle, and the whole country would in all probability be soon involved in a civil war, to the utter prostration of our trade, which is now of considerable value, and provided peace and quietness can be maintained is likely to increase. For general reasons of policy it is also apparently advisable that we should as far as practicable prevent any interference (by Siam) in the affairs of countries so intimately connected with the British possessions as Trengganu and Kelantan."

Cavenagh believed that India was not prepared

"to recognise the right of Siam to exercise over the two above mentioned state, a protectorate of this nature under any circumstances."

The contents of this despatch were approved by the Supreme Government.

The Governor’s attitude towards Siam’s pretensions was still more clearly shown in a Report which he forwarded to the Government of India in 1862.

"Trengganu is an independent principality... .the ruler of which, as is often customary with weak Oriental states, dispatches a periodical embassy with presents to his powerful neighbour, the King of Siam; but he has never acknowledged obedience to the latter, and has always refused to do him personal homage. When the Treaty of 1826 was concluded the independence of Trengganu and the adjoining state of Kelantan was mutually guaranteed by Article XII.... he (the Sultan) has, at all times, been recognised as an independent chief."

From July till October 1862 Cavenagh and Schomburgk made unsuccessful attempts to persuade the Siamese to remove the Sultan of Lingga and Wan Ahmad from Trengganu. Meanwhile Ahmad again invaded Pahang, apparently at the instigation of the Sultan of Lingga. On October 23, 1862, the Government of India approved of Cavenagh’s action in asking Schomburgk to call upon the Siamese to remove Ahmad and the Sultan of Lingga from Trengganu. About the same time, Schomburgk informed Cavenagh that the Siamese had at last consented to remove the Sultan. In his reply Cavenagh wrote that if the disturbances in Pahang continued he would, in accordance with the Governor-General’s instructions, take whatever measures seemed necessary to protect British interests and maintain peace in the Peninsula.

Barely a month later it became necessary to carry the threat into execution. The time of the North-East monsoon was rapidly approaching, when from the high surf it would be impossible to make a landing at any harbour on the East Coast of the Peninsula. The Siamese kept evading the fulfilment of their promise, and made no attempt to equip a warship for the voyage to Trengganu. It appeared that they were deliberately postponing action so that it would be impossible to carry out their pledge until the change of the monsoons in April 1863. In the meantime the Sultan of Lingga and Wan Ahmad would have several months in which to carry out their plans. About the end of October 1862 the Singapore Chamber of Commerce complained to Cavenagh that their Pahang trade was at a standstill owing to a fresh invasion by Wan Ahmad, which was openly supported by the Sultan of Lingga and Trengganu. They also pointed out that the change in the monsoons would occur in eight or ten days, and begged him to act speedily. Cavenagh satisfied himself of the truth of' their information about the monsoons, and then being convinced by the despatches from Bangkok that the Siamese intended to take no steps until the weather made effective action impossible, he determined that drastic measures were necessary. A warship was sent to Trengganu with orders to bombard the port and blockade it unless within twenty-four hours after its arrival the Sultan of Trengganu handed over the Sultan of Lingga for conveyance to Bangkok, and promised that no further assistance should be given to Wan Ahmad. The Sultan of Trengganu refused to give way, and his fort was accordingly shelled, the town and its population being pared. The Sultan of Lingga escaped in the country, and although the coast was blockaded for some weeks he was not surrendered. Cavenagh’s actions were approved by the Government of India.

While the bombardment failed in its immediate objects, it ultimately produced the effect which Cavenagh had desired. The Siamese Government sent a warship to Trengganu on November 25 with the obvious result that as the monsoon had changed the Sultan of Lingga could not be taken off. The Siamese also sent letters to the British Government, claiming Kelantan and Trengganu as tributaries, and protesting at the bombardment as a violation of their territorial rights. But despite their complaints, in March 1863 they removed the Sultan of Lingga from Trengganu, and sent him back to Siam. Thereafter he ceased to trouble the peace of the Peninsula. A few years later his ally, Wan Ahmad, became Bendahara of Pahang on the death of his brother, without any objections being raised on the part of the British Government.

The bombardment of Trengganu gave rise to two debates in the House of Commons, and on the whole Cavenagh’s conduct was condemned. In Trengganu however his firmness had excellent results. Soon after the incident was closed the Chief Minister of Siam visited Cavenagh at Singapore, and vainly tried to obtain from him an admission of Siam’s rights of suzerainty over Trengganu. Cavenagh also refused to use the Government of Bangkok as an intermediary in any communications which he might in future find it necessary to make to the Sultan of Trengganu. After this date Siam made no further overt attempts to destroy the independence of the state; and although threats and intrigues were lavishly employed, they proved unavailing. In 1909, when Trengganu was transferred to the British sphere of influence, its independence was still substantially unimpaired."

[Quelle: Mills, L. A. (Lennox Algernon) <1896 - 1968>: British Malaya, 1824-1867 : with appendix by C. O. Blagden. -- Singapore : Methodist Publ., 1925. -- 338 S. ; 25 cm. -- S. 165 - 169]


Fertigstellung der Silom Road (ถนนสีลม).

Abb.: Lage der Silom Road (ถนนสีลม)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Windmühlen-Denkmal, Silom Road (ถนนสีลม), Bangkok, 2006
[Bildquelle: Heinrich Damm / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Die Thanon Silom (ถนนสีลม - wörtl.: Windmühlen-Straße, im englischen Sprachgebrauch: Silom Road) ist eine Straße im Bezirk Bang Rak (บางรัก) von Bangkok, der Hauptstadt von Thailand.


Westlich der Charoen Krung Road (ถนนเจริญกรุง, auch New Road genannt) befanden sich früher Viertel mit nur wenigen Häusern und vielen Gemüsefeldern und Obstplantagen. Die erste Kanalstraße wurde sozusagen als Nebenprodukt zu einem Khlong erschaffen, der als Verbindung vom Chao-Phraya-Fluss zum Khlong Hualamphong (heute ist er zugeschüttet, die Thanon Rama IV – ถนนพระรามที่ 4 - Rama-IV.-Straße – befindet sich über ihm) ausgeschachtet wurde. Die ausgehobene Erde wurde benutzt, um das Niveau der Silom Road über Hochwasserniveau zu erheben. Dies Projekt wurde von der Regierung finanziert und im Jahre 1858 fertiggestellt. Spätere Straßen, die bald parallel zur Silom angelegt wurden, wie die Thanon Satorn (ถนนสาทร) oder die Thanon Surawong, wurden privat finanziert. Der Name der „Silom“ (สีลม) stammt von den zahlreichen Windmühlen ab, die Wasser aus dem Khlong auf die umliegenden Gemüsegärten pumpten. Ähnliche Windmühlen (สมุทรสาคร) aus Bambus und Tuch werden noch heute südöstlich von Bangkok in Samut Sakhon benutzt, um Salzwasser aus dem Meer zur Gewinnung von Salz in Salinen zu pumpen. Eine moderne Stahl-Skulptur, die an diese Mühlen erinnern soll, steht seit 1998 einige Meter nördlich der Silom Road am Ufer des Khlong Chong Nongsi, der quer zur Silom Road in der Mitte der Narativat Rajanakarin Road entlangführt.

Etwa in der Mitte der Silom Road befand sich zwischen Soi 9 und Soi 11 (ซอย - Soi: Thai für „Nebenstraße“) bis vor wenigen Jahren ein sehr alter Friedhof mit vielen christlichen, aber auch einigen chinesischen Gräbern. In den 1990er Jahren war das Gelände bereits abgeschlossen, der Friedhof schien irgendwie aufgegeben worden zu sein, was aber zu seiner Atmosphäre beitrug. Im Jahr 2000 fing die Stadtverwaltung von Bangkok damit an, die zum Teil sehr pittoresken Grüfte abzureißen. Erst gegen Ende 2004 konnten die Abrissarbeiten fertiggestellt werden.


  • Steve Van Beek: Bangkok Einst und Jetzt. AB Publications, Bangkok 2001, ISBN 974-87616-2-2 (engl. Version: ISBN 974-870639-7)

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2012-04-08]


Aus einem Brief von Rama IV. an den Leiter und den stellvertretenden Leiter der siamesischen Gesandtschaft nach London:

"A great number of Englishmen have been and are now residing in this country. They seem to have an accurate knowledge of everything that is to be known here, but it is rather regrettable that they still retain a fixed idea regarding four phenomena characteristic to this country. The four unchanging phenomena, according to them, are that the river running through Bangkok has no other name but "Menam" [its name is the "Chao Phya"; "menam" means "river"]; that three-quarters of the houses in Bangkok are built in water, only one quarter being built on dry land; that nine parts out of ten of the local population are Chinese; and that the First King is a decrepit old man, so weak and thin and stupid as to be entirely incapable of conducting any official business. The only reason why he ever became King at all was that he happened to be elder brother to the Second King, who is actually at the head of affairs, and by whom both the present Treaty with Great Britain and the Embassy to that country have been originated. The First King is really so ancient that his power of speech is now restricted to only "ohs" and "ahs," punctuated by meaningless nods of the head. Whenever he is called upon to receive foreign guests, the Second King must always be behind his back, to tell him what to say.

The Second King, on the other hand, is a strong young man ho delights in riding either a great tusker elephant in must, or a stallion over five sok [ศอก, seven and a half feet] high. His Majesty shoots every day, loves all things military, is so very learned and so full of culture as to become the central figure surrounded by worshiping pundits and the intelligentsia. The Second King is also a ladies’ man. ... I came to the throne when my age was four years less than the Second King’s present age, but I was then already alleged to be old. The Second King is now more than three years older than I was when I came to the throne, but people still say that he is a young man. He cannot make even a chance visit to any provincial towns without being offered the daughters of governors or officials. He went to Saraburi [สระบุรี] and came back with a daughter of the Deputy Governor; he went to Nakorn Ratchasima [นครราชสีมา] and came back with nine or ten Lao wives; he went to Phanat Nikhom [พนัสนิคม] and came back with a daughter of another Deputy Governor; and after his trip to Ratchaburi [ราชบุรี] in the sixth month last, he returned with another wife. I have not been able to discover the identity of her father.

Abb.: Lage von Saraburi [สระบุรี
], Nakorn Ratchasima [นครราชสีมา], Phanat Nikhom [พนัสนิคม] und Ratchaburi [ราชบุรี]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

As for me, I am always looked upon as an old man wherever I go. No one has ever presented me with his daughter, and I always have to return home empty-handed, on account of my being an ancient relic. Although my hair is getting thin, I am not really bald, and whatever hair there is left to me is naturally black without the aid of hair-dyes, but people looking at me from a distance always insist that I am completely bald. I have even gone to the expense of buying myself a riding cap, and have taken pains to go out riding wearing it with the hope of creating an impression of youthfulness. I was a failure; people still maintain that I am old and still refuse to give me their daughters. . . .

These false impressions have been going on for a long time now, no one has ever been able to rectify them, not even in Bangkok itself. If you, who are abroad, tell the truth, you will not be believed, since people have tried to make things sound otherwise by writing to the papers that the government of this country is carried on by the brains and influence of the Second King alone, the First King being aged to the point of imbecility. Have you not been a little careless in your speech, in making an understatement of the Second King’s military strength, which is in reality much greater than that of the First King? I have an uneasy feeling that people abroad may say that the Siamese Ambassadors are nothing but liars.


As regards the case of Para Intradit who has committed adultery with your wife, Sarapeth, I have ordered the judges to hold a trial. They have decided on fines and compensations amounting to over 28 catties of money [the equivalent of about U.S. $1,300 at that time]. The fines are not to be paid to the Government, but are to be paid to you, since I have sent you far away from home. I should like to bring to your notice the fact that the amount of fines decided by the Law Court in the case of abduction of one of the King’s women from a royal boat was a little more than one catty of money only [a little less than U.S. $50]."

[Zitiert in: Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. --254 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- S. 57ff.]


Der amerikanische presbyterianische Missionar Daniel McGilvary (1828 - 1911) kommt nach Siam.

Abb.: Daniel McGilvary , ca. 1911
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Frau McGilvary, 1893
[Bildquelle: McGilvary, Daniel <1812 - 1911>: A half century among the Siamese and the Lāo : an autobiography. -- New York [u. a.] : Revell, 1912.]

"Daniel McGilvary (1828-1911) was an American Presbyterian missionary who played an important role in the expansion of Protestantism in Northern Siam.

Throughout his life, his colleagues and the general public held McGilvary in great esteem, and businesses and government offices in Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) were officially closed in mourning on the day of his death.[1]


He was born 16 May 1828, in North Carolina, USA and, after a largely informal education, taught school until he entered Princeton Theological Seminary in 1853. He graduated from Princeton in 1856 and returned to NC to pastor two rural churches. He was ordained in 1857. In 1858 he arrived in Thailand (then Siam) as a member of the Bangkok Station, Siam Mission, Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, and married Sophia Royce Bradley in 1860.

In 1861, the McGilvarys participated in the opening of the Phetchaburi (เพชรบุรี) Station, the first Protestant missionary station outside of Bangkok. In 1867, the McGilvary family moved to Chiang Mai, the chief city of Thailand's northern dependencies, and founded a new Presbyterian mission, the Laos Mission. The McGilvarys worked alone for one year and were chiefly responsible for the conversion of six men by early 1869. Persecution of these Christians in September 1869 led to the execution of two, the scattering of the others, and the threatened closure of the Laos Mission.

McGilvary's perseverance, however, prevented the lapse of Protestant work in Northern Thailand. From 1870 until roughly 1890 McGilvary was the unofficial leader of the Laos Mission and took the leading hand in expanding its work including establishing several rural Christian communities which became important Christian centers. In 1878 he played a leading role in obtaining the so-called "Proclamation of Religious Toleration" from the Thai central government, which gave certain civil rights to northern Thai converts.

McGilvary took a number of exploratory tours, beginning in the 1870s, going as far as the Shan States in Burma and Yunnan Province (云南) in Southern China in the 1890s. Those tours inspired the Laos Mission with the vision of a greater mission to the Tai peoples of China and French Indochina, a vision which dominated mission work until the 1920s.

McGilvary supported theological training for northern Thai evangelists and pastors. He took a leading role in promoting central Thai literacy among the northern Thai and he played an important role in promoting mission school education, particularly female education. In 1888 McGilvary established a school in Chiang Saen District (เชียงแสน), Chiang Rai Province, that was moved to Chiang Rai (เชียงราย) city and eventually became Chiang Rai Witthayakhom School (โรงเรียนเชียงรายวิทยาคม), the oldest school in Northern Thailand.

McGilvary is also credited with introducing Western medicine into Northern Siam. He continued active evangelistic work, including visiting established Christian groups, up until his death on 22 August 1911, in Chiang Mai.

Notes and references
  • McFarland, George B., ed. Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions in Siam 1828-1928. Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, 1928. (Reprint. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 1999).
  • McGilvary, Daniel. A Half Century Among the Siamese and the Lao. New York: Revell, 1912. (Reprint. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 2001).
  • Herbert R. Swanson, Khrischak Muang Nua. Bangkok: Chuan Press, 1984.
  • Zehner, Edwin. "Church Growth and Culturally Appropriate Leadership: Three Examples From the Thai Church." Unpublished paper, School of World Mission, 1987.
  • Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, 'Under a Spreading Banyan Tree' in: Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-06-28]

"McGilvary, Sophia Bradley (1839-1923)

Sophia McGilvary was the first woman missionary to serve in the Laos Mission and played a key early role in the introduction of women's education into northern Siam. She was the daughter of Dr. Dan Beach and Emelie Royce Bradley and was born in Bangkok on 8 October 1839. Her mother died in August 1845, and in 1847 her father took her and her two siblings to Oberlin, Ohio, where she went to school for a period. Her father, while in the United States, married Sarah Blachly in November 1848, and the family returned to Bangkok, where Sophia was home schooled by Sarah Bradley, one of the first women in the United States to receive a B.A. degree.

In 1860, Sophia married the Rev. Daniel McGilvary, a Presbyterian missionary; and in 1861, they joined the S. G. McFarlands in founding a mission station in Phet Buri [Phetchaburi - เพชรบุรี]. In April 1867, the McGilvary family founded the Laos Mission when they moved to Chiang Mai. Sophia conducted women's literacy classes, assisted in the translation of the Gospel of Matthew, and in about 1875 started a small class for Christian girls that was the seed for the founding of the Chiang Mai Girls' School in 1879. The McGilvarys had five children, three of whom became members of the Laos Mission."

[Quelle: Dictionary of Thai Christianity. -- -- Zugriff am 2013-10-05]

1858 - 1861

Der französische Naturforscher Alexandre Henri Mouhot (1826 - 1861) bereist Siam, Laos und Kambodscha. Er sammelt u.a. Tiere für das Natural History Museum in London.

Abb.: Mouhotia gloriosa Castelnau, 1862, von Mouhot in Laos entdeckter Käfer
[Bildquelle: Mouhot, Henri <1826-1861>: Travels in the central parts of Indo-China (Siam), Cambodia, and Laos, during the years 1858, 1859, and 1860. -- London : Murray, 1864. -- Bd. II, S. 183]

Abb.: Von Mouhot entdeckte Landschnecken
[a.a.O., nach S. 186]


"Professor MacNair consequently cited the following incident:

A conversation recorded by Mr. W.A.P. Martin, interpreter to the American plenipotentiary, the Honorable William B. Reed, in May, 1858, breathes the spirit of the emperors of earlier centuries. The dialogue between Captain Dupont, one of Mr. Reed’s representatives, and Viceroy and Commissioner Tan, of the metropolitan province of Chihli, took place during the negotiations preceding the signing of the Tientsin treaties.

In the course of conversation Captain Dupont suggested to the viceroy that China ought to send consuls to look after her people in the United States.

Viceroy. It is not our custom to send officials beyond our own borders.

Dupont. But your people on the farther shore of the Pacific are very numerous, numbering several tens of thousands.

Viceroy. When the emperor rules over so many millions, what does he care for the few waifs that have drifted away to a foreign land?

Dupont. Those people are, many of them, rich, having gathered gold in our mines. They might be worth looking after on that account.

Viceroy. The emperor’s wealth is beyond computation; why should he care for those of his subjects who have left their home, or for the sands they have scraped together?"

[Quelle: MacNair, Harley Farnsworth <1891 - 1947>: The Chinese abroad, their position and protection. -- Shanghai : Commercial Press, 1924. -- S. 11. -- Zitiert in: Landon, Kenneth Perry <1903 - 1993>: The Chinese in Thailand. -- Londondon : Oxford UP, 1941. -- 310 S. ; 23 cm. -- (International Research Series of the Institute of Pacific Relations). -- S. 25]


Der Amerikaner Hamilton Smith lässt die erste Trommelwaschmaschine patentieren.

Abb.: Trommelwaschmaschine, ca. 1900
[Bildquelle: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 1905]


Es erscheint:

Virchow, Rudolf <1821 - 1902>: Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre : zwanzig Vorlesungen, gehalten während der Monate Februar, März und April 1858 im pathologischen  Institute zu Berlin. -- Berlin : Hirschwald, 1858. -- 440 S. : 144 Holzschnitte.

Es ist ein Grundlagenwerk der modernen Medizin.

Abb.: Titelblatt

Abb.: Rudolf Virchow / von Leslie Ward (1851–1922)
[Bildquelle: Vanity fair. -- 1893-05-25 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Der Britische Beamte des Indian Civil Service, William James  Herschel, 2nd Baronet (1833 - 1917) führt in Bengalen Handabdrücke als Unterschrift ein. Er ist der Vorläufer der Verwendung von Fingerabdrücken als Identifikationsmerkmal.

Abb.: Von William James  Herschel, 2nd Baronet 1859/60 gemachte Finger- und Handabdrücke
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1858 datiert


Bangkok: Gründung von Pickenpack, Thies & Co.

"Paul Pickenpack (Siamesischer Ehrentitel: Luang Sayam Yotban; * in Hamburg; † 22. Oktober 1903 ebendort) gründete mit Theodor Thies am 1. Januar 1858[1] die erste deutsche Firma in Siam, dem heutigen Thailand. Man trieb aber nicht nur gemeinsam Handel, sondern war auch Agent z. B. für die Hongkong und Shanghai Bank, der Bank von Rotterdam sowie für mehrere Transport- und Schiffsversicherungen. Dadurch erwarben sich Thies und Pickenpack offenbar so viel Vertrauen, daß beide bis mindestens 1868 nicht nur jeweils abwechselnd Konsul bzw Vizekonsul für die Hansestädte Hamburg, Bremen und Lübeck wurden, sondern auch für Schweden/Norwegen und die Niederlande. Die Konsulatsräume befanden sich in der Firma Pickenpack, Thies & Co.

Die Firma hatte von Anfang an auch das Konsulat für Schweden/Norwegen und seit 1860[2] auch das der Niederlande übernommen[3].

Thies war nach dem am 25. Oktober 1858 erfolgten Abschluss eines Handelsvertrages zwischen den Hansestädten Hamburg, Bremen und Lübeck auf der einen und Siam auf der anderen Seite, offiziell Konsul geworden; Pickenpack wird trotz zeitweiser Abwesenheit z. B. im Bangkok Calender 1861 als Stellvertreter benannt. Thies seinerseits ging 1864 wegen Krankheit nach Deutschland zurück, wurde jedoch ebenfalls weiter offiziell sowohl als Firmenmitinhaber als auch als Konsul bzw. Vizekonsul angegeben.

Die konsularische Vertretung der Hansestädte Hamburg, Bremen und Lübeck, Schweden/Norwegens sowie der Niederlande durch Thies und Pickenpack bestand noch jahrelang parallel zur preußischen Vertretung, die ab 1862 zunächst der britische Botschafter Sir Robert H Schomburgk kommissarisch, ab April 1865 dann die Inhaber der Firma Markwald & Co., Anton Markwald und Paul Lessler, übernommen hatten. Bei Markwald & Co. handelte es sich bemerkenswerterweise um eine direkte Konkurrenzfirma zu Pickenpack, Thies & Co., die zum Beispiel für sehr ähnliche Firmen, insbesondere Schiffsversicheurngen, als Agenten fungierten.

Paul Pickenpack kehrte Ende der 1860er Jahre nach Deutschland zurück und gab die Bangkoker Firma in die Hände seines Bruders V. Pickenpack. Er selbst war in Hamburg neben der Führung seiner Geschäfte auch als Generalkonsul von Siam tätig. Im März 1900 gründete er zusammen mit anderen an Ostasien interessierten Kaufleuten den Ostasiatischen Verein[4] und wurde deren stellvertretender Vorsitzender.

Paul Pickenpack starb am 22. Oktober 1903 in Hamburg."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2015-03-11]


Die Briten verbannen Bahadur Shah Zafar II (بہادر شاہ دوم‎) (1775 - 1862), den letzten Moghulkaiser Indiens, nach Yangon (Burma). Ende des Moghulreichs in Indien.

Abb.: Bahadur Shah Zafar II (
بہادر شاہ دوم‎) 1857-05 / von Robert Tytler (1818 - 1872) and Charles Shepard
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Der britische Außenminister George William Frederick Villiers, 4. Earl of Clarendon (1800 - 1870) lehnt das Ansuchen von König Mongkut ab, dass Großbritannien die außenpolitischen Beziehungen Siams unter seine Kontrolle nimmt. Clarendon: Siam soll "throughly independent" bleiben.

Abb.: George William Frederick Villiers, 4. Earl of Clarendon
[Bildquelle: Carlo Pellegrini (1839 - 1889). -- In: Vanity Fair. -- 1869-04-24. -- Public domain]

1858-02-20 - 1859-06-11

 Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (1799 - 1869) ist Prime Minister Großbritanniens.


US-Baptistenmissionar Dan Beach Bradley (1804 - 1873) über Knappheit von Baht-Münzen:

"The Royal Mint cannot nearly supply ticals for the merchants who bring in dollars to exchange. It turns out only enough to exchange $20,000 a week. Merchants and other foreigners under consular jurisdiction are allowed to go and exchange their dollars every Monday. As there are not ticals enough to exchange all the dollars presented, there has been a law made which gives each man the privilege of exchanging his proportion of the whole amount of dollars brought in that day. He may bring in $20,000 himself alone — and if there was no other person at the exchange but himself he would have the whole of the $20,000 exchanged. But as there are some 8 or 10 others with each 10 or 20 thousand he can get only his proportion among them. As I only had $196, my proportion was $12 for which I got 20 ticals. The whole amount presented that day was about $335,000."

[Zitiert in: Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: A history of modern Thailand 1767 - 1942. -- St. Lucia [u. a.] : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1983. -- S. 180]


Abb.: Napoléon III. (1808 - 1873) und Maria Eugénia Ignacia Augustina Palafox de Guzmán Portocarrero y Kirkpatrick (1826 - 1920)

Die Gesandtschaft Siams (1857-08-28 - 1858-03-04) zur britischen Königin Victoria reist über Paris - Marseille zurück nach Siam. In Paris wird sie von Kaiser Napoléon III. (1808 - 1873) und Kaiserin Maria Eugénia Ignacia Augustina Palafox de Guzmán Portocarrero y Kirkpatrick (1826 - 1920) im Palais des Tuileries in Paris in Privataudienz empfangen.


Es erscheint die erste Nummer von

 ราชกิจจานุเบกษา = Royal Gazette (RG). -- 1858 - 1859, 1874 - 1879, 1888 -

Abb.: Titelblatt einer späteren Ausgabe

"Die Royal Thai Government Gazette oder kurz Royal Gazette (RG; Thai ราชกิจจานุเบกษา Ratcha Kitcha Nubeksa) ist eine offizielle Veröffentlichungsstelle für amtliche Bekanntmachungen der thailändischen Regierung.

Frühe Geschichte

Die Royal Gazette wurde erstmals am 15. März 1858 von König Mongkut (Rama IV.) herausgegeben, um Regierungsbeamte und die Öffentlichkeit über Neuigkeiten im Land zu informieren. Bereits 1839 hatte König Phra Nang Klao (Rama III.) 9.000 Kopien eines Gesetzes gegen den Handel und das Rauchen von Opium drucken lassen. Ansonsten hatten königliche Schreiber alle Dekrete per Hand auszufertigen.

König Mongkut (Rama IV.) ließ im Palast eine Druckerei einrichten, um die Royal Gazette zu veröffentlichen und offizielle Verlautbarungen der Regierung zu verbreiten. Es gilt als sicher, dass die ersten Texte der Royal Gazette in den Anfangsjahren aus der Feder des Königs stammten, denn die Veröffentlichungen wurden für etwa 18 Monate unterbrochen, als Rama IV. keine Zeit zum Texten hatte.

Im Mai 1874 begann König Chulalongkorn (Rama V.) mit der wöchentlichen Herausgabe der Gazette, wobei nun eine Seriennummer eingeführt wurde, an der man die verschiedenen Ausgaben erkennen kann. 1879 trat erneut eine Unterbrechung der Herausgabe ein, und erst 1882 - zur Hundertjahrfeier der Hauptstadt Bangkok - wurde die Herausgabe mit der Royal Gazette Special fortgesetzt. Seit 1884 erscheint sie wieder im wöchentlichen Rhythmus.

1889 wurde der Inhalt mehr an westlichen Standards angepasst. Ankündigungen der Regierung, Befehle des Königs, Gesetze und Richtlinien für Ministerien und Beamte erschienen nun ebenfalls in der Gazette.

Der Subskriptionspreis war acht Baht pro Jahr für Selbstabholer und zehn Baht pro Jahr für die Zusendung mit Boten."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-11-13]


Abb.: Die siamesischen Gesandten in Paris. -- In: Le Monde illustré <Paris, Frankreich>. -- No 49. -- 1858-03-20. -- Titelblatt


Bericht von Edward Fowle, dem Betreuer der Gesandtschaft Siams (1857-08-28 - 1858-03-04) zur britischen Königin Victoria, an das Foreign Office:

“Sir, I have the honour to report for the information of the Earl of Malmesbury [Foreign Secretary James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of Malmesbury, 1807 - 1889] that having been selected by Lord Clarendon [Außenminister George William Frederick Villiers, 4. Earl of Clarendon, 1800 - 1870] to take charge of the Siamese embassy that on the 18th of October 1857 in pursuance of my orders I proceeded to Portsmouth to wait the arrival of the ambassadors. H. M. S. Steamer Caradoc [1847 - 1870] with the Siamese embassy reached Portsmouth on the 27th October and on the morning of the 28th I was introduced by Admiral Sir George Seymour [1787 - 1870] to the Siamese ambassadors as the gentleman appointed by Her Majesty’s government to attend upon them during their stay in England.

Abb.: Lage von Portsmouth
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]

On the same day their Excellencies landed and after visiting the Dock Yards, Arsenal, and other places of interest in Portsmouth the next day the 29th I brought them up to London with the presents for Her Gracious Majesty by special train and took them to Claridge’s Hotel which place had been liberally allotted to them as their Headquarters to reside in.

Abb.: Claridge’s Hotel London

It may be perhaps unnecessary for me to enter into the details of their residence in England as doubtless their proceedings are well known but I will briefly mention that during their stay in London that they lost no opportunity of visiting and inspecting everything in and about London commencing with

  • Her Majesty’s Court and Palaces,
  • House of Lords and Commons,
  • Mint,
  • Bank,
  • Docks,
  • Ship Building Establishments,
  • Manufactories,
  • Museums,
  • Hospitals,
  • Prisons,
  • Churches,
  • Clubs,
  • Laboratories,
  • Galleries of Paintings,
  • Crystal Palace,
  • Gas Works,
  • Theatres,
  • Amusements,
  • Public Dinners,
  • Reviews,
  • Observatories,
  • the River Thames as far down as Woolwich giving them a view of the vast amount of shipping in the river and in the Docks and ending with a minute inspection of the Great Leviathan [SS Great Eastern, 1858] within and without.

Abb.: Great Leviathan [SS Great Eastern], 1857-11-12
[Bildquelle: Robert Howlett (1831-1858) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

From London their Excellencies took a provincial tour through

  • Birmingham,
  • Manchester,
  • Liverpool and
  • Sheffield

Abb.: Lage der von der Gesandtschaft besuchten Städte
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public doimain]

visiting every Manufacturers of consequence and witnessing with eager interest from morning till night the practical methods used in our manufactures and examining with curiosity the different and varied kinds of machinery employed in each district upon its special industry, in short I should be puzzled to mention any place worth visiting that they have not seen within the radius of their journey.

Abb.: Henry Richard Charles Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley
[Bildquelle: Mayer & Pierson / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

I had the honour to be again selected by the Earl of Malmesbury [Foreign Secretary James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of Malmesbury, 1807 - 1889] to accompany the ambassadors on their visit through France to Marseilles and on the fourth of March we left London, the same day crossed the Channel and on the following day reached Paris after paying their respects to His Excellency Lord Cawley [britischer Botschafter Henry Richard Charles Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley, 1804 – 1884] he kindly procured for them an early interview with Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress of the French [Kaiser Napoléon III. (1808 - 1873) und Kaiserin Maria Eugénia Ignacia Augustina Palafox de Guzmán Portocarrero y Kirkpatrick (1826 - 1920)] which was intimated by a letter to Their Excellencies stating that an audience would be granted to them on Sunday the 7th March. This letter I was desired to acknowledge and to ask on the part of the Chief Ambassador the manner in which the Emperor would wish him to show his mark of respect whether according to the French or Siamese custom. I represented to His Excellency that as they were not accredited Agents to the Court of France but merely travellers passing through and as it was mentioned in the invitation that it was to be a private audience that he would be placing himself in a false position to offer to pay the same homage to the Emperor that he had done to Her Gracious Majesty who had received them on the Throne and with extraordinary honours, His Excellency however insisted upon my sending the letter and the next day the assistant Master of the Ceremonies called and told them that they might please themselves. His Excellency the Chief Ambassador then asked if the Emperor intended to receive them on the throne he was told not but in a private way. He then said we cannot then offer our respects in the Siamese manner as we only go through our ceremonies to Majesty on the throne. It was then finally settled that they should be presented in the French fashion. At half past one on the same day the assistant Master of the Ceremonies came with three of the Emperor’s carriages and conveyed the three ambassadors, two interpreters and the son and half-brother of the Chief Ambassador and myself to the Tuileries. After waiting for a few minutes the Emperor and Empress came in and the Duc de Cambaceres [Zeremonienmeister Marie Jean Pierre Hubert, 2e duc de Cambacérès, 1798 - 1881] introduced me to Their Majesties and I had the honour of being French interpreter upon the occasion and of introducing with the Duc de Cambraceres the three ambassadors and the Nephew of the King of Siam to the Emperor and Empress of the French.

Abb.: Napoleon III.
[Bildquelle: Jemes Tissot (1836 – 1902) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

During their interview Their Majesties alternately asked them the following questions through me “How they liked their visit to England” they replied that they had been much pleased with their visit to England and also with their visit to France. “How long they were going to remain” they replied but a short time, whether they had been to see anything of interest in Paris. They replied,

  • Napoleon’s Tomb,
  • the Louvre and
  • the Artesian Wells.

Abb.: Napoleons Grab, Paris, ca. 1890
[Bildquelle: LoC / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Louvre, ca. 1845
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Colonne du puits artésien de Grenelle construite sur la place de Breteuil à Paris, 1860
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

How old was the King and Queen, whether their garments were of Siamese manufacture to which they gave suitable replies. The Emperor then asked if there was any way in which he could be of service to them or any place they wished to see and if so that they had only to mention it. They thanked His Majesty and told him that their time was so limited that they would not be able to avail themselves of his kind offer. The Emperor then asked a few more questions of little importance and asked me in what they took great interest to which I replied chiefly in the Arts and Manufactures. The interview then closed and we returned to the Hotel in the way we came.

Abb.: Félix-Sébastien Feuillet de Conches

The next day the Master of Ceremonies [richtig: chef du protocole] Monsieur Feuillet des Conches [Félix-Sébastien Feuillet de Conches, 1798 - 1887] and the Assistant Master Monsieur le Cocque dined with us and in the evening took the principals of the embassy to one of the Emperor’s Boxes at the French opera.

Abb.: Palais Royal

After this the whole of the ambassador’s time was spent in the shops of the Palais Royal making large purchases but I succeeded in getting them to call and leave their cards upon

  • Monsieur Fould [Achille Marcus Fould,1800 - 1867], Prime Minister [ministre d'État],

Abb.: Achille Marcus Fould

  • Count [Comte de l'Empire] Walewski [Alexandre Florian Joseph comte Colonna-Walewski, 1810 - 1868, war ein außerehelicher Sohn Napoleons I.]

Abb.: Alexandre Florian Joseph comte Colonna-Walewski, 1856
[Bildquelle: Pierre-Louis Pierson (1822 - 1913) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

  • Duc de Cambreateres [wohl richtig: Duc de Cambaceres = Zeremonienmeister Marie Jean Pierre Hubert, 2e duc de Cambacérès, 1798 - 1881],

Marie Jean Pierre Hubert, 2e duc de Cambacérès
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

  • Prince Jerome [Jérôme Bonaparte, 1784 - 1860, jüngster Bruder Napoleons I.] and the

Abb.: Jérôme Bonaparte
[Bildquelle: Pierre-Louis Pierson (1822 - 1913) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

  • Princess Mathilde [Mathilde Lætitia Wilhelmine Bonaparte, 1820 - 1904, Tochter von Napoléons  I. jüngsten Bruder Jérôme Bonaparte].

Abb.: Mathilde Lætitia Wilhelmine Bonaparte
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

On the morning of the 11th we left Paris for Marseilles and reached that town early on the morning of the 12th. The English Consul paid Their Excellencies a visit and we went with him to pay a visit to the Prefect and General Commanding and on the evening of the same day I embarked the ambassadors on board of H. M. S. Caradoc [1847 - 1870] which was then waiting to receive them and on the morning of the 13th March they left Marseilles. I have much confidence in stating that I believe the Siamese ambassadors have been highly gratified in every respect with their visit to England and that they have been strongly impressed with the greatness of England and the wonderful resources of Her Majesty’s dominions which cannot fail to have instructed them in many ways and will probably lead to the introduction of many useful improvements beneficial to Siam.

During their provincial tour the manufacturing districts they made heavy purchases of machinery of different kinds among other things the requisite machinery with steam power for erecting a mint at Siam. I have remarked that they are very practical taking interest only to such things as they can grapple with and thoroughly understand without the assistance of Europeans to work them. They consequently purchased a number of portable machines of all kinds. They seemed to have no taste for Architecture but they again took great interest in scientific instruments of all kinds making any purchases of chronometers and scientific instruments and arms from the best makers and of the latest improvements, they also purchased a large number of books from the best authorities but treating principally upon the Arts, Manufactures, Mines and Agriculture.

For Her Most Gracious Majesty, the Prince Consort and the Royal Family they entertained the most unfeigned admiration and were continually speaking to everyone of how particularly generous and kind Her Majesty has been to them in treating them with marked distinction as had been shown to them. I feel confident in stating as my opinion that I do not consider any other power will be able to leave so favourable an impression upon an embassy as the present one retains from its visit to England. In the first instance I do not think it would go to the expense and secondly would not have the patience to continue the same kind of attention after the novelty of a first appearance and passed away but most likely would be treated by neglect and contempt.

My mission being now ended I take the liberty of mentioning the responsibilities I had to cope with. In the first place the whole of the presents for Her Most Gracious Majesty were in my charge without protection of any kind from Portsmouth to London and for a week at the Hotel. That the whole of the financial arrangements of the ambassadors amounting to upwards of Twenty Thousand Pounds had to be entered into by me and cash brought from the Banks in Gold and counted out at my risk. Added to my own duties of carrying on the whole executive of the embassy I had to transact all the correspondence for the ambassadors, nobles and interpreters with all ranks and grades and upon all descriptions of subjects. I have throughout considered it my duty to uphold them and to permit them to lower themselves in the estimation of the public, either in England or France in all of which I trust I have been successful. In my communication with the Siamese ambassadors I am thankful to say there has not been the slightest loss a single article and for this I am indebted to the judicious arrangements made by Sir Richard Mayne [1796 - 1868, head of the London Metropolitan Police]. In conclusion I trust that the Earl of Malmesbury and Her Majesty’s government will take a favourable view of the services rendered by me for a period of upwards of five months in charge of this mission the duties of which have been far more onerous than those connected with the Mission of any more civilized Power. I hope therefore that my knowledge of men and manners may be made useful to Her Majesty’s government upon some future occasion when my acquaintance with the languages and characters of the French, Burmese, Hindoos and natives of India generally might be usefully employed - E. Fowle”

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: King Mongkut of Thailand and the British : the model of a great friendship. -- 5. rev. ed. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 2000. -- 138 S. ; 21 cm. -- ISBN 974-85913-4-4. -- S. 117 - 123]


Die siamesische Gesandtschaft nach London kehrt auf dem britischen Kriegsschiff (wooden screw corvette mit 21 Kanonen)  H.M.S. Pylades (1854 - 1875) nach Bangkok zurück. Rama IV. gibt Schiffskapitän Michael de Courcy und seinen Offizieren eine Audienz. Der britische Gesandte Robert Hermann Schomburgk (1804 – 1865) berichtet darüber am 1857-10-14 an das Foreign Office:

[Der König sagte zu Kapitän Michael de Courcy] "that it gave him great pleasure to grant the audience, and he would take this opportunity to declare before his Princes and nobles, how gratified he felt for the kind reception his ambassadors had met with in England. Their Excellencies were unanimous in testifying their highest praise for the kindness shown to them in England. He would take an early opportunity to write to Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria to express his thanks...we were, on the king's request, conducted to one of his saloons, where refreshments were laid out. Here the King joined us later, wearing the sword Her Majesty the Queen presented to him..."

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: History of Anglo-Thai relations. -- 6. ed. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 2000. -- 494 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- S. 95f.]


“Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation” mit Dänemark.

Abb.: Dänemark 1815
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Vertrag von Aigun (瑷珲条约 / Айгунский договор) zwischen China und Russland:

Abb.: Grenzziehung zwischen China und Russland 1689, 1858, 1860
[Bildquelel: CIA / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

"Der Vertrag von Aigun (chin. 瑷珲条约, pinyin: Aìhún Tiáoyuē, russisch Айгунский договор) wurde zwischen Russland und Qing-China am 28. Mai 1858 in der mandschurischen Stadt Aigun (ᠠᡳ᠌ᡥᡡᠨ ᡥᠣᡨ᠋ᠣᠨ  / 璦琿) geschlossen. Er fügt sich in die Reihe der „Ungleichen Verträge“ ein, zu deren Abschluss China im 19. Jahrhundert aufgrund der eigenen wirtschaftlichen und militärischen Schwäche von ausländischen Mächten gezwungen werden konnte. Die russische Seite wurde durch den Generalgouverneur von Ostsibirien Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Murawjow-Amurski (Никола́й Никола́евич Муравьёв-Аму́рский, 1809 - 1881) vertreten, die chinesische durch den Oberbefehlshaber des chinesischen Heeres Yishan. Der Vertrag wurde am 14. Juni 1858 vom chinesischen Kaiser und am 20. Juli von der russischen Regierung ratifiziert.

Der Vertrag war das Ergebnis eines langen russischen Expansionsprozesses im Amur-Gebiet und im Fernen Osten. Eine besonders wichtige Rolle dabei spielte die Amur-Expedition (1851 - 1855) des russischen Forschers Gennadi Iwanowitsch Newelskoi (Генна́дий Ива́нович Невельско́й, 1813 - 1876). In der Präambel des Vertrages wurde festgestellt, dass er im „gemeinsamen Einverständnis“ und „für die große ewige Freundschaft zwei großer Staaten“ geschlossen wurde. Der russisch-chinesische Grenzverlauf wurde folgendermaßen geregelt: Das linke Ufer des Amur (Аму́р / 黑龙江) vom Fluss Argun (Аргунь 額爾古納河) bis zur Ozeanmündung wird Russland zugeschlagen, während das rechte Ufer flussabwärts bis zum Fluss Ussuri (烏蘇里江 / Уссури) im Besitz der Chinesen bleibt. Das Land vom Fluss Ussuri bis zum Meer wird „bis auf weiteres“ als „gemeinsam nutzbares Gebiet“ eingestuft. Für die anderen Staaten wird der Flussverkehr gesperrt.

Insgesamt verlor China durch diesen Vertrag Teile der Mandschurei (滿洲), die ihm infolge des Vertrags von Nertschinsk  (Нерчинский договор / 尼布楚條約) 1689 zugesprochen worden waren. Der Vertrag von Aigun wurde bereits zwei Jahre später durch den Pekinger Vertrag von 1860 (北京条约) ergänzt."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2015-09-09]


Frankreich schafft ein Ministerium für Algerien und die Kolonien. Minister ist Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince Français, Count of Meudon, Count of Moncalieri ad personam, titular 3rd Prince of Montfort (aka Prince Napoléon) (1822 - 1891)

Abb.: Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince Français, Count of Meudon, Count of Moncalieri ad personam, titular 3rd Prince of Montfort (aka Prince Napoléon) / von Théobald Chartran (1849 - 1907)
[Bildquelle: Vanity fair. -- 1879-07-26 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Im den Verträgen von Tientsin (天津條約) muss sich China verpflichten, europäische Gesandte in Peking zuzulassen, weitere Häfen für den Handel zu öffnen, die Ausübung des Christentums nicht zu behindern, Großbritannien und Frankreich die Kriegskosten für den zweiten Opiumkrieg zu erstatten. Vertragspartner Chinas sind: Frankreich, Großbritannien, Russland und die USA.

Abb.: Unterzeichnung des Vertrag von Tientsin (天津條約)
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


"HER MAJESTY the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the Emperor of China, being desirous to put an end to the existing misunderstanding between the two countries, and to place their relations on a more satisfactory footing in future, have resolved to proceed to a revision and improvement of the Treaties existing between them; and, for that purpose, have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honorable the Earl of ELGIN and KINKARDINE, a Peer of the United Kingdom and Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle;

And His Majesty the Emperor of China, the High Commissioners KWEILIANG, a Senior Chief Secretary of State, styled of the East Cabinet, Captain-General of the Plain White Banner of the Manchu Banner Force, Superintendent-General of the Administration of Criminal Law, and HWASHANA, one of His Imperial Majesty's Expositors of the Classics, Manchu President of the Office for the Regulation of the Civil Establishment, Captain General of the Bordered Blue Banner of the Chinese Banner Force, and Visitor of the Office of Interpretation;

Who, after having communicated to each other their respective powers, and found them to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles:-


The Treaty of Peace and Amity between the two nations, signed at Nanking on the 29th day of August, in the year 1842, is hereby renewed and confirmed.

The Supplementary Treaty and General Regulations of Trade having been amended and improved, and the substance of their provisions having been incorporated in this Treaty, the said Supplementary Treaty and General Regulations of Trade are hereby abrogated.


For the better preservation of harmony in future, Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and His Majesty the Emperor of China mutually agree that, in accordance with the universal practice of great and friendly nations, Her Majesty the Queen, may, if she see fit, appoint ambassadors, ministers, or other diplomatic agents to the Court of Peking; and His Majesty the Emperor of China may, in like manner, if he see fit, appoint ambassadors, ministers, or other diplomatic agents to the Court of St. James'.


His Majesty the Emperor of China hereby agrees that the ambassador, minister, or other diplomatic agent, so appointed by Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, may reside, with his family and establishment, permanently at the capital, or may visit it occasionally, at the option of the British Government. He shall not be called upon to perform any ceremony derogatory to him as representing the Sovereign of an independent nation on a footing of equality with that of China. On the other hand, he shall use the same forms of ceremony and respect to His Majesty the Emperor as are employed by the ambassadors, ministers, or diplomatic agents of Her Majesty towards the Sovereigns of independent and equal European nations.

It is further agreed, that Her Majesty's Government may acquire at Peking a site for building, or may hire houses for the accommodation of Her Majesty's Mission, and that the Chinese Government will assist it in so doing.

Her Majesty's Representative shall be at liberty to choose his own servants and attendants, who shall not be subjected to any kind of molestation whatever.

Any person guilty of disrespect or violence to Her Majesty's Representative, or to any member of his family or establishment, in deed or word, shall be severely punished.


It is further agreed, that no obstacle or difficulty shall be made to the free movements of Her Majesty's Representative, and that he, and the persons of his suite, may come and go, and travel at their pleasure. He shall, moreover, have full liberty to send and receive his correspondence, to and from any point on the sea-coast that he may select; and his letters and effects shall be held sacred and inviolable. He may employ, for their transmission, special couriers, who shall meet with the same protection and facilities for travelling as the persons employed in carrying despatches for the Imperial Government; and, generally, he shall enjoy the same privileges as are accorded to officers of the same rank by the usage and consent of Western nations.

All expenses attending the Diplomatic Mission of Great Britain in China shall be borne by the British Government.


His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees to nominate one of the Secretaries of State, or a President of one of the Boards, as the high officer with whom the ambassador, minister, or other diplomatic agent of Her Majesty the Queen shall transact business, either personally or in writing, on a footing of perfect equality.


Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain agrees that the privileges hereby secured shall be enjoyed in her dominions by the ambassadors, ministers, or diplomatic agents of the Emperor of China, accredited to the Court of Her Majesty.


Her Majesty the Queen may appoint one or more Consuls in the dominions of the Emperor of China; and such Consul or Consuls shall be at liberty to reside in any of the open ports or cities of China, as Her Majesty the Queen may consider most expedient for the interests of British commerce. They shall be treated with due respect by the Chinese authorities, and enjoy the same privileges and immunities as the Consular officers of the most favoured nation.

Consuls and Vice-Consuls in charge shall rank with Intendants of Circuits; Vice-Consuls, Acting Vice-Consuls and Interpreters with Prefects. They shall have access to the official residencies of the Officers, and communicate with them, either personally, or in writing, on a footing of equality as the interests of the public service may require.


The Christian religion, as professed by Protestants or Roman Catholics, inculcates the practice of virtue, and teaches man to do as he would be done by. Persons teaching or professing it, therefore, shall alike be entitled to the protection of the Chinese authorities, nor shall any such, peaceably pursuing their calling, and not offending against the law, be persecuted or interfered with.


British subjects are hereby authorized to travel, for their pleasure or for purposes of trade, to all parts of the interior, under passports which will be issued by their Consuls, and countersigned by the local authorities. These passports, if demanded, must be produced for examination in the localities passed through. If the passport be not irregular, the bearer will be allowed to proceed, and no opposition shall be offered to his hiring persons or hiring vessels for the carriage of his Baggage or Merchandise.

If he be without a passport, or if he commit any offence against the law, he shall be handed over to the nearest Consul for punishment; but he must not be subjected to any ill-usage in excess of necessary restraint. No passport need be applied for by persons going on excursions from the ports open to trade to a distance not exceeding one hundred li, and for a period not exceeding days.

The provisions of this Article do not apply to crews of ships, for the due restraint of whom regulations will be drawn up by the Consul and the local authorities.

To Nanking, and other cities disturbed by persons in arms against the Government, no pass shall be given, until they shall have been recaptured.


British merchant ships shall have authority to trade upon the Great River [Yangtze]. The Upper and Lower Valley of the river being, however, disturbed by outlaws, no port shall be for the present opened to trade, with the exception of Chinkiang, which shall be opened in a year from the date of the signing of this Treaty.

So soon as peace shall have been restored, British vessels shall also be admitted to trade at such ports as far as Hankow, not exceeding three in number, as the British Minister, after consultation with the Chinese Secretary of State, may determine shall be ports of entry and discharge.


In addition to the cities and towns of Canton, Amoy, Fuchow, Ningpo, and Shanghai, opened by the Treaty of Nanking, it is agreed that British subjects may frequent the cities and ports of Newchwang, Tǎngchow, Taiwan [Formosa], Chawchow [Swatow], and Kiungchow [Hainan].

They are permitted to carry on trade with whomsoever they please, and to proceed to and fro at pleasure with their Vessels and Merchandise.

They shall enjoy the same privileges, advantages, and immunities, at the said towns and Ports, as they enjoy at the Ports already opened to trade, including the right of residence, of buying or renting Houses, of leasing Land therein, and of building Churches, Hospitals, and Cemeteries.


British subjects, whether at the Ports or at other places, desiring to build or open Houses, Warehouses, Churches, Hospitals, or Burial-grounds, shall make their agreement for the land or buildings they require, as the rates prevailing among the people, equitably, and without exactions on either side.


The Chinese Government will place no restrictions whatever upon the employment, by British subjects, of Chinese subjects in any lawful capacity.


British subjects may hire whatever boats they please for the transport of Goods or Passengers, and the sum to be paid for such boats shall be settled between the parties themselves, without the interference of the Chinese Government. The number of these boats shall not be limited, nor shall a monopoly in respect either of the boats, or of the porters or coolies engaged in carrying the Goods, be granted to any parties. If any smuggling takes place in them, the offenders will, of course, be punished according to law.


All questions in regard to rights, whether of property or person, arising between British subjects, shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the British authorities.


Chinese subjects who may be guilty of any criminal act towards British subjects shall be arrested and punished by the Chinese authorities, according to the Laws of China.

British subjects who may commit any crime in China shall be tried and punished by the Consul, or other public functionary authorized thereto, according to the Laws of Great Britain.

Justice shall be equitably and impartially administered on both sides.


A British subject having reason to complain of a Chinese, must proceed to the Consulate, and state his grievance. The Consul will inquire into the merits of the case, and do his utmost to arrange it amicably. In like manner if a Chinese have reason to complain of a British subject, the Consul shall no less listen to his complaint, and endeavour to settle it in a friendly manner. If disputes take place of such a nature that the Consul cannot arrange them amicably, then he shall request the assistance of the Chinese authorities, that they may together examine into the merits of the case, and decide it equitably.


The Chinese authorities shall at all times afford the fullest protection to the persons and property of British subjects, whenever these shall have been subjected to insult or violence. In all cases of incendiarism or robbery, the local authorities shall at once take the necessary steps for the recovery of the stolen property, the suppression of disorder, and the arrest of the guilty parties, whom they will punish according to Law.


If any British merchant-vessel, while within Chinese waters, be plundered by robbers or pirates, it shall be the duty of the Chinese authorities to use every endeavour to capture and punish the said robbers or pirates, and to recover the stolen property, that it may be handed over to the Consul for restoration to the owner.


If any British vessel be at any time wrecked or stranded on the coast of China, or be compelled to take refuge in any port within the dominions of the Emperor of China, the Chinese authorities, on being apprised of the fact, shall immediately adopt measures for its relief and security; the persons on board shall receive friendly treatment, and shall be furnished, if necessary, with the means of conveyance to the nearest Consular station.


If criminals, subjects of China, shall take refuge in Hongkong, or on board the British ships there, they shall, upon due requisition by the Chinese authorities, be searched for, and, on proof of their guilt, be delivered up.

In like manner, if Chinese offenders take refuge in the houses or on board the vessels of British subjects at the open Ports, they shall not be harbored or concealed, but shall be delivered up, on due requisition by the Chinese authorities, addressed to the British Consul.


Should any Chinese subject fail to discharge debts incurred to a British subject, or should he fraudulently abscond, the Chinese authorities will do their utmost to effect his arrest, and enforce recovery of the Debts. The British authorities will likewise do their utmost to bring to justice any British subject fraudulently absconding or failing to discharge Debts incurred by him to a Chinese subject.


Should natives of China who may repair to Hongkong to trade incur Debts there, the recovery of such Debts must be arranged for by the English Courts of justice on the spot; but should the Chinese Debtor abscond, and be known to have property, real or personal, within the Chinese Territory, it shall be the duty of the Chinese authorities, on application by, and in concert with, the British Consul, to do their utmost to see Justice done between the parties.


It is agreed that British subjects shall pay, on all merchandise imported or exported by them, the duties prescribed by the tariff; but in no case shall they be called upon to pay other or higher duties than are required of the subjects of any other foreign nation.


Import duties shall be considered payable on the landing of the goods, and duties of export on the shipment of the same.


Whereas the Tariff fixed by Article X of the Treaty of Nanking, and which was estimated so as to impose on imports and exports a duty at about the rate of 5 per cent. ad valorem, has been found, by reason of the fall in value of various articles of merchandise, therein enumerated, to impose a duty upon these considerably in excess of the rate originally assumed as above to be a fair rate, it is agreed that the said tariff shall be revised, and that as soon as the Treaty shall have been signed, application shall be made to the Emperor of China to depute a high officer of the Board of Revenue to meet, at Shanghai, officers to be deputed on behalf of the British Government, to consider its revision together, so that the tariff, as revised, may come into operation immediately after the ratification of this Treaty.


It is agreed that either of the High Contracting Parties to this Treaty may demand a further revision of the tariff, and of the commercial Articles of this Treaty, at the end of ten years; but if no demand be made on either side within six months after the end of the first ten years, then the tariff shall remain in force for ten years more, reckoned from the end of the preceding ten years; and so it shall be, at the end of each successive period of ten years.


Whereas it was agreed in Article X of the Treaty of Nanking, that British imports, having paid the Tariff Duties, should be conveyed into the interior free of all further charges, except a Transit Duty, the amount whereof was not to exceed a certain percentage on Tariff value; and whereas no accurate information having been furnished of the amount of such Duty, British merchants have constantly complained that charges are suddenly and arbitrarily imposed by the provincial authorities as transit duties upon produce on its way to the foreign market, and on imports on their way into the Interior, to the detriment of trade; it is agreed that within four months from the signing of this Treaty, at all ports now open to British trade, and within a similar period at all ports that may hereafter be opened, the authority appointed to superintend the collection of duties shall be obliged, upon application of the Consul, to declare the amount of duties leviable on produce between the place of production and the Port of Shipment, and upon Imports between the Consular Port in question and the inland markets named by the Consul; and that a notification thereof shall be published in English and Chinese for general information.

But it shall be at the option of any British subject, desiring to convey produce purchased inland to a port, or to convey imports from a port to an inland market, to clear his goods of all transit duties, by payment of a single charge. The amount of this charge shall be leviable on exports at the first barrier they may have to pass, or, on imports, at the port at which they are landed; and on payment thereof, a certificate shall be issued, which shall exempt the goods from all further inland charges whatsoever.

It is further agreed, that the amount of this charge shall be calculated, as nearly as possible, at the rate of two and a half per cent. ad valorem, and that it shall be fixed for each article at the Conference to be held at Shanghai for the revision of the tariff.

It is distinctly understood that the payment of transit dues, by commutation or otherwise, shall in no way affect the tariff duties on imports or exports, which will continue to be levied separately and in full.


British merchant vessels of more than one hundred and fifty tons burden shall be charged Tonnage Dues at the rate of four mace per ton; if of one hundred and fifty tons and under, they shall be charged at the rate of one mace per ton.

Any Vessel clearing from any of the open ports of China for any other of the open Ports, or for Hongkong, shall be entitled, on application of the master, to a special certificate from the Customs, on exhibition of which she shall be exempted from all further payment of Tonnage Dues in any open port of China, for a period of four months, to be reckoned from the date of her Port Clearance.


The master of any British merchant-vessel may, within fort-eight hours after the arrival of his vessel, but not later, decide to depart without breaking bulk, in which case he will not be subject to pay Tonnage Dues. But tonnage dues shall be held due after the expiration of the said 48 hours. No other fees or charges upon entry or departure shall be levied.


No tonnage dues shall be payable on boats employed by British subjects in the conveyance of passengers, baggage, letters, articles of provision, or other articles not subject to duty, between any of the open ports. All cargo boats, however, conveying merchandize subject to duty shall pay tonnage dues once in six months at the rate of four mace per register tons.


The Consuls and Superintendents of Customs shall consult together regarding the erection of Beacons or Lighthouses, and the distribution of Buoys and Light-ships, as occasion may demand.


Duties shall be paid to the Bankers authorized by the Chinese Government to receive the same in its behalf either in Sycee or in Foreign money, according to the assay made at Canton on the thirteenth of July, one thousand eight hundred and forty three.


Sets of standard weights and measures, prepared according to the standard issued to the Canton Custom House by the Board of Revenue, shall be delivered by the Superintendent of Customs to the Consul at each Port, to secure uniformity and prevent confusion.


Any British merchant vessel arriving at one of the Open Ports, shall be at liberty to engage the services of a Pilot to take her into Port. In like manner, after she has discharged all legal Due and Duties, and is ready to take her departure, she sghall be allowed to select a Pilot to conduct her out of port.


Whenever a British merchant-vessel shall arrive off one of the open ports, the Superintendent of Customs shall depute one or more Customs officers to guard the ship. They shall either live in a boat of their own, or stay on board the ship, as may best suit their convenience. Their food and expenses shall be supplied them from the Custom House, and they shall not be entitled to any fees whatever from the master or consignee. Should they violate this regulation, they shall be punished proportionately to the amount exacted.


Within twenty-four hours after arrival, the ship's papers, bills of lading, &c., shall be lodged in the hands of the Consul, who will, within a further period of twenty-four hours, report to the Superintendent of Customs the name of the ship, her register tonnage, and the nature of her cargo. If, owing to neglect on the part of the master, the above rule is not complied with within forty-eight hours after the ship's arrival, he shall be liable to a fine of fifty taels for every day's delay; the total amount of penalty, however, shall not exceed two hundred taels.

The master will be responsible for the correctness of the manifest, which shall contain a full and true account of the particulars of the cargo on board. For presenting a false manifest, he will subject himself to a fine of five hundred taels; but he will be allowed to correct, within twenty-four hours after delivery of it to the Customs officers, any mistake he may discover in his manifest, without incurring this penalty.


After receiving from the Consul the report in due form, the Superintendent of Customs shall grant the vessel a permit to open hatches. If the master shall open hatches and begin to discharge any goods without such permission, he shall be fined five hundred taels, and the goods discharged shall be confiscated wholly.


Any British merchant who has cargo to land or ship, must apply to the Superintendent of Customs for a special permit. Cargo landed or shipped without such permit, will be liable to confiscation.


No transshipment from one vessel to another can be made without special permission, under pain of confiscation of the goods so transhipped.


When all dues and duties shall have been paid, the Superintendent of Customs shall give a port-clearance, and the Consul shall then return the ship's papers, so that she may depart on her voyage.


With respect to articles subject, according to the Tariff, to an ad valorem duty, if the British merchant cannot agree with the Chinese officer in fixing a value, then each party shall call two or three merchants to look at the goods, and the highest price at which any of these merchants would be willing to purchase them, shall be assumed as the value of the goods, and the highest price at which any of these merchants would be willing to purchase them shall be assumed as the value of the goods.


Duties shall be charged upon the net weight of each article, making a deduction for the tare weight of congee &c. To fix the tare on any article, such as tea, if the British merchant cannot agree with the custom-house officer, then each party shall choose so many chests out of every hundred, which being first weighed in gross, shall afterwards be tared, and the average tare upon these chests shall be assumed as the tare upon the whole, and upon this principle shall the tare be fixed upon all other goods in packages. If there should be any other points in dispute which cannot be settled, the British merchant may appeal to his consul, who will communicate the particulars of the case to the superintendent of customs, that it may be equitably arranged. But the appeal must be made within twenty-four hours, or it will not be attended to. While such points are still unsettled, the superintendent of customs shall postpone the insertion of the same in his books.


Upon all damaged goods a fair reduction of Duty shall be allowed, proportionate to their deterioration. Idf any disputes arise, they shall be settled in the manner pointed out in the clause of this Treaty, having reference to article which pay Duty ad valorem.


British merchants who may have imported merchandise into any of the Open Ports and paid the Duty thereon, if they desire to re-export the same, shall be entitled to make application the Superintendent of Customs, who, in order to prevent fraud on the Revenue, shall cause examination to be made by suitable officers, to see that the Duties paid on such goods, as entered in the Custom House books, correspond with the representation made, and that the goods remain with their original marks unchanged. He shall then make a memorandum on the Port Clearance of the goods and of the amount of Duties paid, and deliver the same to the merchant; and shall also certify to the facts to the Officers of Customs of the other Ports. All which being done, on the arrival in Port of the Vessel in which the goods are laden, everything being found on examination there to correspond, she shall be permitted to break bulk and land the said goods, without being subject to the payment of any additional Duty thereon. But if, on such examination, the Superintendent of Customs shall detect any fraud on the Revenue in the case, then the goods shall be subject to confiscation by the Chinese government.

British merchants desiring to re-export duty paid Imports to a Foreign Country, shall be entitled, on complying with the same conditions as in the case of re-exportation to another port in China, to a Drawback Certificate, which shall be a valid tender to the Customs in payment of Import to Export Duties.

Foreign Grain brought into any Port of China in a British Ship, if no part thereof has been landed, may be re-exported without hindrance.


The Chinese authorities at each Port shall adopt the means they may judge most proper to prevent the revenue suffering from fraud or smuggling.


British merchant-vessels are not entitled to resort to other than the Ports of Trade declared open by this Treaty. They are not unlawfully to enter other Ports in China, or to carry on clandestine trade along the coasts thereof. Any vessel violating this provision, shall, with her cargo, be subject to confiscation by the Chinese Government.


If any British merchant-vessel be concerned in smuggling, the goods, whatever their value or nature, shall be subject to confiscation by the Chinese authorities, and the Ship may be prohibited from trading further, and sent away as soon as her accounts shall have been adjusted and paid.


All penalties enforced, or confiscations made, under this Treaty, shall belong and be appropriated to the public service of the Government of China.


All official communications, addressed by the Diplomatic and Consular Agents of Her Majesty the Queen to the Chinese authorities, shall, henceforth, be written in English. They will for the present be accompanied by a Chinese version, but it is understood that, in the event of there being any difference of meaning between the English and Chinese text, the English Government will hold the sense as expressed in the English text to be the correct sense.

This provision is to apply to the Treaty now negotiated, the Chinese text of which has been carefully corrected by the English original.


It is agreed, that henceforward the character "I" 夷 ('barbarian') shall not be applied to the Government or subjects of Her Britannic Majesty, in any Chinese official document issued by the Chinese authorities, either in the capital or in the provinces.


British Ships of War coming for no hostile purpose, or being engaged in the pursuit of Pirates, shall be at liberty to visit all ports within the dominions of the Emperor of China and shall receive every facility for the purchase of provisions, procuring water, and, if occasion require, for the making of repairs. The Commanders of such Ships shall hold intercourse with the Chinese authorities on terms of equality and courtesy.


In consideration of the injury sustained by native and foreign commerce from the prevalence of piracy in the seas of China, the High Contracting Parties agree to concert measures for its suppression.


The British Government and its subjects are hereby confirmed in all privileges, immunities, and advantages conferred on them by previous Treaties; and it is hereby expressly stipulated, that the British Government and its subjects will be allowed free and equal participation in all privileges, immunities, and advantages that may have been, or may be hereafter, granted by His Majesty the Emperor of China to the Government or subjects of any other nation.


In evidence of Her desire for the continuance of a friendly understanding Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain consents to include in a separate Article, which shall be in every respect of euqal validity with the Articles of this Treaty, the conditions affecting indemnity for expenses incurred and losses sustained in the matter of the Canton question.


The ratifications of this Treaty, under the Hand of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and His Majesty the Emperor of China, respectively, shall be exchanged at Peking, within a year from this day of signature.

In token whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed and sealed this Treaty.

Done at Tientsin, this Twenty-Sixth day of June, in the year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-Eight Hundred and Fifty-Eight, corresponding with the Chinese date the Sixteenth day, Fifth moon, of the Eighth Year of HIEN FUNG.


Chinese signatures (2)."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2015-09-09]


Bericht der preußischen Kapitäne Woller und Krause an das preußische Außenministerium:

„Siams Handel und Schifffahrt ist in den letzten Jahren sehr bedeutend belebt worden durch die Handelstraktate von Großbritannien, Frankreich, Nord-Amerika und zuletzt Dänemark. Jetzt stehen die Hansestädte im Begriff, einen Handels- und Schifffahrtsvertrag mit Siam abzuschließen. Preußens Flagge hat lohnend Teil genommen an der hiesigen Schifffahrt und gegenwärtig sind zwei preußische Schiffe zugleich anwesend. Die Preuß. Flagge ist hier nicht vertreten oder anerkannt und nur dem gef.(älligen) Schutz und Unterstützungen des Großbritannischen General-Konsuls haben wir es zu danken, dass wir überhaupt zugelassen werden, weil ein von der hiesigen Regierung anerkannter Konsul seine Nation vertreten soll. Sir Robert Shomburgh hat dies bis jetzt gut für uns getan.

Es wäre dessen ungeachtet sehr wünschenswert für uns, hier einen preußischen Konsul ernennen lassen zu wollen, um danach einen Handels- und Schifffahrts-Vertrag einzuleiten und abzuschließen."

[Zitiert in: Sawasdee : 150 Jahre Deutsch-Thailändische Freundschaft, 50 Jahre Deutsch-Thailändische Gesellschaft / Andreas Stoffers (Hrsg.). -- Rosenheim : Rosenheimer, 2012. -- 240 S. : Ill. ; 28 cm. -- ISBN 978-3-475-54134-6. -- S. 26]

1858-09-01 - 1862-06-05

Französisch-spanische Cochinchina-Kampagne (Campagne de Cochinchine / Expedición franco-española a Cochinchina / Chiến dịch Nam Kỳ). Die französischen Angriffskriege führen zur Bildung der französischen Kolonie Cochinchina (Südvietnam).

Abb.: Lage von Cochinchina
[Bildquelle: Bearsmalaysia / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Unterzeichnung des französisch-japanischen Freundschaftsvertrags.


Eröffnung der ersten dampfbetriebenen Reismühle in Siam.


Hansestädte Hamburg, Lübeck und Bremen schließen über ihren Repräsentanten in Singapur, Konsul Johannes Mooyer (1830 - 1903), einen Handelsvertrag mit dem Königreich Siam ab. Der in Bangkok ansässige deutsche Kaufmann Theodor Thies wird von König Rama IV. als deutscher Konsul anerkannt. Die Hansestädte geben Rama IV. Geschenke im Wert von 6000 Talern.

Noch 1858 ankern 3 Schiffe unter Hamburger Flagge vor Bangkok.

Abb.: Lage von Hamburg, Lübeck und Bremen


Nach der Niederschlagung des Sepoy-Aufstands übernimmt die britische Krone die Macht in Indien von der British East India Company. Indien wird nicht als Kolonie angesehen (untersteht nicht dem Colonial Office), sondern als besonderer Bestandteil des British Empire. Es untersteht darum dem India Office.

Abb.: British India 1860
[Bildquelle: Kmusser / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


US-Baptistenmissionar Dan Beach Bradley (1804 - 1873) über den Defaitismus Ramas IV. bezüglich der kolonialen Zukunft Siams:

"... the usual thought among the Siamese rulers is that Siam is destined to pass into the hands of the English. They seem almost instinctively to think so and so to express themselves. And it is a remarkable fact that they are training no one for the Throne as if they really expect he will be called to it after the present incumbents shall have left it. My mind cannot light upon a single individual whom God seems in any way to be preparing for a future Sovereign in Siam. If I could see either of the present kings taking measures to educate some of their sons for the Throne as they themselves have been educated, I should by that providence be inclined to expect that the present Dynasty would be prolonged much beyond the days of the present sovereign. But they are doing no such thing. They seem to me to be wonderfully careless in educating their sons."

[Zitiert in: Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: A history of modern Thailand 1767 - 1942. -- St. Lucia [u. a.] : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1983. -- S. 184]

Verwendete Ressourcen


Thipākō̜nwongmahākōsāthibō̜dī (Kham), Čhaophrayā [เจ้าพระยาทิพากรวงศ์ มหาโกษาธิบดี] <1813-1870>: The dynastic chronicles. Bangkok era, the Fourth Reign, B.E. 2394-2411 (A.D. 1851-1868) / by Câwphrajaa Thíphaakrawon. Translated by Chadin (Kanjanavanit). --  Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, 1965 - 1974. -- 5 Bde. ; 22 cm. -- Originaltitel: Phrarātchaphongsāwadan Krung Rattanakōsin. Ratchakān thī 4, Phō̜. Sō̜. 2394-2411 [พระราชพงศาวดารกรุงรัตนโกสินทร์. รัชกาลที่๔, พ.ศ. ๒๓๙๔ - ๒๔๑๑] (published 1934)

Moffat, Abbot Low <1901 - 1996>: Mongkut, the king of Siam. -- Ithaca N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1961. --254 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm.

Blofeld, John <1913 - 1987>: King Maha Mongkut of Siam. -- 2. ed. -- Bangkok : Siam Society, 1987. -- 97 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm.

Chula Chakrabongse [จุลจักรพงษ์] <1908 - 1963>: Lords of life : History of the Kings of Thailand. -- 2., rev. ed. -- London : Redman,  1967. -- 352 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm.

Phongpaichit, Pasuk <ผาสุก พงษ์ไพจิตร, 1946 - > ; Baker, Chris <1948 - >: Thailand : economy and politics. -- Selangor : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1995. -- 449 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 983-56-0024-4. -- Beste Geschichte des modernen Thailand.

Terwiel, Barend Jan <1941 - >: A history of modern Thailand 1767 - 1942. -- St. Lucia [u. a.] : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1983. -- 379 S. ; 22 cm.

Ingram, James C.: Economic change in Thailand 1850 - 1870. -- Stanford : Stanford Univ. Pr., 1971. -- 352 S. ; 23 cm. -- "A new edition of Economic change in Thailand since 1850 with two new chapters on developments since 1950". --  Grundlegend.

Akira, Suehiro [末廣昭] <1951 - >: Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855 - 1985. -- Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, ©1989. -- 427 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN 4896561058. -- Grundlegend.

Skinner, William <1925 - 2008>: Chinese society in Thailand : an analytical history. -- Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press, 1957. -- 459 S. ; 24 cm. -- Grundlegend.

Simona Somsri Bunarunraksa [ซีมอนา สมศรี บุญอรุณรักษา]: Monseigneur Jean-Baptiste Pallegoix : ami du roi du Siam, imprimeur et écrivain (1805 - 1862). -- Paris : L'Harmattan, 2013. -- 316 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- (Chemins de la mémoire ; Novelle série). -- ISBN 978-2-336-29049

Morgan, Susan <1943 - >: Bombay Anna : the real story and remarkable adventures of the King and I governess. -- Berkeley [u.a.] : Univ. of California Press, 2008. -- 274 S. : Ill.  ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 978-0-520-26163-1

ศกดา ศิริพันธุ์ = Sakda Siripant: พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว พระบิดาแห่งการถ่ายภาพไทย = H.M. King Chulalongkorn : the father of Thai photography. --  กรุงเทพๆ : ด่านสุทธา, 2555 = 2012. -- 354 S. : Ill. ; 30 cm. -- ISBN 978-616-305-569-9

Lavery, Brian: Schiffe : 5000 Jahre Seefahrt. -- London [u. a.] : DK, 2005. -- S. 184. -- Originaltitel: Ship : 5000 years of marine adventure (2004)

Zu Chronik 1859 (Rama IV.)