Chronik Thailands



Alois Payer

Chronik 1876 (Rama V.)

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1876 (Rama V.). -- Fassung vom 2016-01-27. -- URL:    

Erstmals publiziert: 2013-09-11

Überarbeitungen: 2016-01-27 [Ergänzungen] ;  2015-10-05 [Ergänzungen] ;  2015-09-29 [Ergänzungen] ;  2015-04-29 [Ergänzungen] ;  2015-03-05 [Ergänzungen] ;  2015-02-28 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-18 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-07 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-12-21 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-10-06 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-28 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-12 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Herausgebers.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library




Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.


Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen!

Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:

Morgenstern, Oskar <1902 - 1977>: On the accuracy of economic observations. -- 2. ed. -- Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. -- 322 S. ; 20 cm.

Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.



1876 - 1881

Sultan Ahmad Muadzam Shah II ist Sultan (‏سلطان‎) von Terengganu (ترڠڬانو)

Abb.: Lage von Terengganu (ترڠڬانو)
[Bildquelle: Constables Hand Atlas of India, 1893. -- Pl. 59]


Rama V. lässt mit 1500 Überlebenden der Ho-Kriege (สงครามปราบฮ่อ) aus Xieng Khouang (ຊຽງຂວາງ ) Muong Borikhan (ເມືອງບໍລິຄັນ / เมืองบริคัณฑ์)  gründen, es wird Nong Khai (หนองคาย) unterstellt.

Abb.: Lage von Muong Borikhan (ເມືອງບໍລິຄັນ / เมืองบริคัณฑ์), Xieng Khouang (ຊຽງຂວາງ) und Nong Khai (หนองคาย)
[Bildquelle: UNOSAT / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Es werden staatliche Kupfermünzen in Umlauf gebracht in vier Werten:


Prinz Vajirañāṇavarorasa (วชิรญาณวโรรส, 1880 - 1921) trifft den schottischen Arzt Dr. Peter Gowan (1847 - 1902). Der Prinz schreibt darüber:

"I had an audience with the king every day, and I became acquainted with Dr. Peter Gowan [1847 - 1902]], a Scotsman who served as a royal physician. At that time he was between twenty-five and thirty years old. He lived alone—young people would say he lived like an Indian ascetic [rishi {ฤๅษี}]. He had no love for a good time the way gamblers did. I liked him because he was a European, and I attached myself to him to learn something of his character and conduct and to receive advice from him. I wanted to follow his example. I observed those excesses which disturbed Dr. Gowan the most. I surrendered myself and followed his example, so that my excesses progressively diminished to the point where I became an ascetic like Dr. Gowan. When he forbade me to smoke cigarettes because I was still a child— he himself did not smoke either—I willingly obeyed, and I have not smoked to this day. I could see the advantages. I had a frail body, the result of serious illness as an infant. If I had smoked cigarettes, even if I had lived until now, I would surely have been chronically ill. In this way Dr. Gowan was the cause of my reform. I subsequently came to look up to him as my teacher. Then and afterwards he taught me some English and also a little about medicine."

[Übersetzung: Vajirañāṇavarorasa [วชิรญาณวโรรส] <1880 - 1921>: Autobiography : the life of Prince-Patriarch Vajirañāṇa of Siam, 1860-1921 / translated, edited, and introduced by Craig J. Reynolds. -- Athens : Ohio University Press, 1979. -- 86 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- ISBN 0821403761. -- Originaltitel: พระประวัติตรัสเล่า. -- S. 25]

1876 - 1878

Verheerende Hungersnot in Südindien und Südwestindien (im zweiten Jahr auch in Teilen Nordindiens). Die britischen Behörden versagen. In britisch beherrschten gebieten über fünf Millionen Hungertote.

Abb.: Gebiete der Hungersnot in Süd- und Südwestindien 1876 - 1878
[Bildquelel: Pope: Text-book of Indian History. -- 1871. -- Vor S. 1.]]


Der britische Konsularbeamte Edward Blencowe Gould (1847 - 1916) über laotische Sklaven Siams:

"The Laos fugitives in the hills being aware of what had taken place naturally thought that they time had come when they might return to their homes. They however regarded the stranger Siamese with some distrust and a considerable number determined not yet to leave their asylum in the hills. That these poor people were wise, the event proved, and every person of humanity will when the result is known, wish that none of these Laos had left their shelter at all.

However, large numbers did, and returned to their homes in Chieng Kwang [Xieng Khouang - ຊຽງຂວາງ] and the neighbourhood, and no doubt felt thankful to the power which had driven out their enemies.

Abb.: Lage von Xieng Khouang (ຊຽງຂວາງ)
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]

Whether what followed was due to special orders from Bangkok or whether action was taken independently by the Chiefs of the army I had no means of ascertaining, but however the matter may stand, the Laos who were now settling down again into their homes and endeavouring to repair the damage done by the Chin Haw [สงครามปราบฮ่อ] invasion were called upon to take the oath of allegiance to the King of Siam in the usual form of "kin nam sabot" [กินน้ำสบถ].

Various places were appointed, all on the same day, for the taking of the oath, and the unsuspecting people were summoned. As soon as they had thus been called together, they were, after taking the oath, suddenly set upon and made prisoners. The number thus treacherously seized amounted to 5,700.

The Siamese military expedition had been converted into a slave hunting operation on a large scale. It only remained to drive the slave gangs to Bangkok. The unfortunate creatures, men, women and children, many of the latter still in arms, were driven off in droves through the jungles from Muang Puen [Muang Phuan - เมืองพวน, in Xieng Khouang - ຊຽງຂວາງ] to Pichai [Phichai - พิชัย], the nearest point on the Menam River [แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา].

Abb.: Lage von Muang Phuan (เมืองพวน) und Phichai (พิชัย)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

This terrible march occupied more than a month and is hardly surpassed in its details of miserable suffering by any story of the slavers of Africa told by Sir Samuel Baker [1821 – 1893] and others.

The captives were hurried mercilessly along, many weighted by burdens strapped to their backs, the men who had no wives or children with them and were therefore capable of attempting escape, were tied together by a rope passed through a sort of wooden collar. Those men who had their families with them were allowed the free use of their limbs.

Great numbers died from sickness, starvation and exhaustion on the road. The sick when they become too weak to struggle on were left behind. If a house happened to be near, the sick man or woman was left with the people in the house. If no house was at hand which must have been oftener the case in the wild country they were traversing, the sufferer was imply flung down to die miserably in the jungle. Any of his or her companions attempting to stop to assist the poor creatures were driven on with blows.

Thus the slave gangs were driven down to Pichai [พิชัย]. There they were placed on rafts and brought down the river to the place where I saw them. A good many have not yet completed the journey and are, I was told, scattered about at various places on the upper waters of the river.

As to those I saw active ill-treatment by their masters is for the present at an end and indeed there is now some show of humanity towards them. They have been supplied with a staff of Siamese doctors from Bangkok and they are given daily a sufficiency of rice and fish. For all the smaller necessaries which go to make up a native curry they are obliged to depend upon the charity of the country people among whom they go about begging and upon whom their sad story is not without effect. Still their condition even now is in the last degree pitiable.

They are nearly all in a state of disease aggravated by being compelled to live upon the low country rice instead of the glutinous rice "kow neeo" to which alone they are accustomed. Some of the middle-aged people only seemed to have retained their health. All the rest were very thin and wretched. Great numbers had every joint swollen up to a great size and numbers more were covered with a foul erruption on the skin often extending over the entire body. The little children of whom there were still a great many were in a condition of terrible emaciation.

Fever and dysentery were still at work among them and many more will probably die. Already I was told, more than half of the original 5,700 so treacherously seized are dead.

My information as to the present condition of the prisoners was of course obtained by direct inspection. The particulars of their history I gained from many conversations with individual captives among whom was the son of the Governor of Wieng Kang who shared the fate of his countrymen and was still possessed of some authority over them. (Gould 1876 FO 69:#64)."

[Zitiert in: Bowie, Katherine A.  <1950 - >: Slavery in nineteenth century northern Thailand: archival anecdotes and village voices. -- In: Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia. -- 2006. -- Online: -- Zugriff am 2015-02-18]


Abb.: Lage von Phuket (ภูเก็ต)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Aufstand der chinesischen Arbeiter in den Zinnminen von Phuket (ภูเก็ต) und Ranong (ระนอง). Der Aufstand artet in Bandenunwesen (Angyee - อั้งยี่: chinesische Geheimgesellschaften - Triaden) aus. Besonders aktiv ist die Hokkien (福建) Triade (三合會) Kian Teck (建德) / Kian Teik / Putuagong. Sie hat in Phuket über 20.000 Mitglieder. Diese Triade steht unter der Kontrolle der Bosse (頭家/towkay) des Tan-Clans Phukets. Auch Hakka (客家) aus der Triade Gee Hin (義興公司) sind beteiligt. Die Banden töten einige siamesische Grenzposten an der Grenze zu Burma sowie viele Personen in Phuket Town. Sie plündern die Stadt und ihre Umgebung.

Siam schickt das Kanonenboot Murathavissawat mit Marinesoldaten. Als aus Ranong einige Banditen nach Phuket in den Schutz der Kian Teck Triade fliehen, entsendet Siam ein zweites Kanonenboot. Auch der britische Polizeichef von Phuket greift mit seinen Männern ein.

Chum Bunnag (ชุ่ม บุนนาค aka Phraya Montri Suriyawong - พระยามนตรีสุริยวงศ์, 1820–1866), der Befehlshaber des Militärs, trifft sich mit den Triaden-Bossen. Diese stellen drei Forderungen:

  1. Die Besteuerung auf Zinn muss außer Kraft gesetzt werden bis der Zinn-Preis steigt
  2. Der Anbau von Marijuana und dessen Export müssen erlaubt werden
  3. Die Aufständischen müssen straffrei bleiben

Chum stimmt zu und verspricht die Lebensbedingungen der Bevölkerung zu verbessern. Die Unruhen dauern an und fordern viele Todesopfer.

Chum lässt aus Kedah (قدح) und Nakhon Si Thammarat (นครศรีธรรมราช) weitere Truppen kommen. Dann gelingt es, einigermaßen Ruhe herzustellen. Es kommt aber immer wieder zu einzelnen Unruhen.

Siam muss die chinesischen Banditen amnestieren, da es so viele sind und Siam faktisch keine Macht über die Triaden hat.

Die beiden Mönche Luang Pho Chaem (หลวงพ่อแช่ม, 1827 - 1908) und Pho Chuang (หลวงพ่อช่วง) von Wat Chalong (วัดฉลอง) rufen die Bevölkerung zur Selbstverteidigung auf. Luang Po Chaem bindet jedem Einwohner einen Stoffstreifen mit einer magischen Formel um die Stirn. Die Einwohner vertreiben die Banden. Andere Orte schließen sich an und so wird der Aufstand niedergeschlagen. Luang Pho Chaem wird weit herum berühmt für seine magischen Fähigkeiten. Rama V. verleiht ihm den Namen Phra Wisuthi Wongsajahn Yannamunee und macht ihn zum Oberhaupt der Mönche von Phuket. Wat Chalong erhält von Rama V. den Namen Wat Chaiyathararam (วัดไชยธาราราม).

Bangkok gibt dem Boss der Hokkien (福建) Triade (三合會) Kian Teck (建德), Tan Jao, einen Titel sowie das Opiummonopol, 1878 wird er auch Steuerpächter in Krabi (กระบี่). Damit versucht Siam, diese Triade zu domestizieren.

Abb.: Luang Pho Chaem (หลวงพ่อแช่ม), Wat Chalong (วัดฉลอง), Phuket (ภูเก็ต)
[Bildquelle: Media lib / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Wat Chalong (วัดฉลอง), Phuket (ภูเก็ต), 2005
[Bildquelle: Lerdsuwa / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Erlass: Besitzer von Last- und Arbeitstieren müssen für ihre Tiere Legitimationspapiere haben mit: Name und Adresse des Besitzers, Verkäufers, Käufers, Kauf- und Verkaufsort, genaue Beschreibung des Tiers, Name des ausstellenden Beamten. Damit sollen Tiere gegen Diebstahl gesichert werden.


54 Studierende des Ingenieurwesens legen eine Telegraphenleitung von Bangkok nach Paknam (ปากน้ำ; heute: Samut Prakan - สมุทรปราการ). Die Linie dient ausschließlich dem Dienstverkehr.

Abb.: Lage von  Paknam (ปากน้ำ)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

1876 - 1878

Es erscheint in Fortsetzungen:

กฎหมายตราสามดวง (Three Seals Code). -- ราชกิจจานุเบกษา = Royal Gazette. -- (1876 - 1878)


Es erscheint:

อาซตรอโนมี = Lessons in Astronomy / compilled chiefly from Elements of Astronomy by John Davis and translated into Siamese by N. A. McDonald. -- 1237 [= 1876]. -- Originaltitel: Elements of Astronomy : designed as a text-book for academies, seminaries, and families. -- Philadelphia, 1868

Abb.: Titelblatt


Beginn der katholischen Mission in Laos (formeller Beginn 1883).


Höhepunkt der Revolution von Si Votha (សិរីវត្ថា) gegen seinen Halbbruder, König Norodom I ( ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម) (1834 – 1904) von Kambodscha. Si Votha dringt von Bangkok aus nach Battambang (ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង) vor, von dort nach Kampong Thom (ក្រុងកំពង់ធំ) und bis Kampong Svai (ស្រុកកំពង់ស្វាយ). Norodoms Truppen können ihn nicht stoppen.

Siam stationiert in Battambang einen Kommissar.

Abb.: Lage von Battambang (ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង), Kampong Thom (ក្រុងកំពង់ធំ) und Kampong Svai (ស្រុកកំពង់ស្វាយ)
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]

"Si Votha (also spelled Si Vattha) (សិរីវត្ថា) (c. 1841 - 31 December 1891) was a Cambodian prince who was briefly a contender for the throne. He spent his entire life fighting his half brother King Norodom  (ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម, 1834 – 1904for the throne.

Si Votha was a grandson of King Ang Eng (1772–1796) and a son of King Ang Duong (ព្រះបាទ អង្គ ឌួង, 1796 – 1860). His biographical notes only record that he had a daughter named Neak Ang Mechas (Princess) Ang Duong Rath Votha. Si Votha[1] had two half-brothers, Norodom and Sisowath of Cambodia (ព្រះបាទស៊ីសុវតិ្ថ; 1840 –1927), with Norodom being the king's chosen heir.[2] Upon King Ang Duong's death, a succession struggle ensued, with Si Votha attempting to take power while his half brother Norodom was occupied with a rebellion, eventually Norodom gained the upper hand when he gained the backing of Sisowath.


When Norodom was officially crowned king in 1864 in a joint coronation ceremony supervised by the French and Siamese officials, Si Votha once again made no secret of his intention to lay claim to the Cambodian throne. Norodom's throne would have been extremely precarious without French support. Sisowath would likely have adopted the same attitude as Si Votha if the Siamese king had allowed him to leave Bangkok. Si Votha's long history of opposition to Norodom, which led him to lead a life of discomfort in the most isolated regions of the kingdom, suggests some deep personal antagonism between the two princes.

During the 1870s, taking advantage of a new uprising against Norodom's authority, Si Votha swiflty returned to Cambodia from Thailand. Begging the pardon of the king of Siam for his unauthorized departure, Si Votha left Bangkok, swiftly passed through Battambang (ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង), and travelled onward to the higher region of the Mekong. He had little difficulty in quickly raising a large band of supporters and began to harry the officials loyal to King Norodom. He besieged the provincial capital at Kampong Thom (ក្រុងកំពង់ធំ)[3] and went through the turbulent province of Kampong Svai (ស្រុកកំពង់ស្វាយ). Forces dispatched under Norodom's orders failed to apprehend him. As late as 1876, Si Votha remained in revolt, striking at an outpost of Norodom's government, and slipping back to his sanctuary among the Stiengs (Xtiêng), one of the tribal groups on the fringes of Cambodian society.

The French refused to help King Norodom put down Si Votha's revolt until the king concluded a treaty which advocated several reforms. By January 1877, the treaty was concluded and on 15 January, King Norodom proclaimed a series of reforms under the new treaty. In return, the French now bent their efforts to defeating Si Votha's uprising. Si Votha's uprising lasted until 1885-1886. It was Norodom's prestige that ultimately brought Si Votha's resistance to an end. Si Votha, lurking on the northeastern boundaries of the kingdom, was a nuisance but nothing more.

After a lifetime of dissidence, Prince Si Votha died in December 1891. After the failure of his efforts in 1885-1886, his followers became fewer, dwindling to a few companions by the time he died. In the closing years of his life, Si Votha entered into hesitant and inconclusive negotiations with the French. Having grown tired of living amongst the less civilized hilltribe people in the jungle of northeastern Cambodia, Si Votha eventually submitted to the French. However, he strongly emphasized his refusal to submit to his half-brother, King Norodom.

Almost totally abandoned by his followers and virtually without resources, he died on the last day of 1891. Failure

The French, who were attempting to expand their influence in Cambodia at the time, were pleased by Si Votha's defeat, as he had been an outspoken critic of European colonialism in the area. Si Votha became something of a figurehead for resistance against the French. Si Votha's rebellion was largely unsuccessful, however, and in 1887, Cambodia was incorporated in the French-controlled Indochinese Union.

Si Votha came to symbolise the first fight against the French colonial rule in Cambodia. But his rebellion was largely born out of jealousy and animosity toward his half brother King Norodom, rather than a desire for the independence of his country from France. During his time he was never considered an independence fighter but rather a rebellious usurper of the Cambodian throne."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-12-04]

1876 - 1892

Emile Lorgeon ist chancelier und Dolmetscher am französischen Konsulat. Lorgeon beherrscht Thai in allen Finessen der Ausdrucksweise.


Um die Handelsschifffahrt möglichst rentabel zu machen, werden Schiffe hemmungslos überladen. Alte Schiffe, sog. "schwimmende Särge", werden absichtlich so überladen, dass sie untergehen. Deshalb wird im United Kingdom Merchant Shipping Act die Plimsoll Line (Freibordmarke) für Schiffe vorgeschrieben. Auch andere Sicherheitsvorkehrungen (z.B. über das Stauen von Decksladungen) werden vorgeschrieben.

Abb.: Freibordmarken, 2001
[Bildquelle: Wualex / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Der Brite Henry Alexander Wickham (1846 - 1928) stiehlt in Brasilien 70.000 Samen des Kautschuckbaums und schmugelt sie als Orchideensamen deklariert nach London. Damit wird das brasilianische Kautschukmonopol gebrochen und die Grundlage für die Kautschukplantagen in Südthailand und Malaya gelegt.

Abb.: Alexander Wickham

Abb.: Kautschukbaum (Hevea brasiliensis Müll.Arg.), Südthailand, 2004
[Bilkdquelle: Blue Plover / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Sir Henry Alexander Wickham (* 29. Mai 1846 in Hampstead; † 27. September 1928) war ein englischer Naturforscher und Ökonom.

Mit 20 Jahren war Wickham Vogeljäger und Federnsammler in Nicaragua, dann erhielt er eine Anstellung als Forstbeamter in Britisch Honduras. Von da aus zog er in den brasilianischen Urwald, und versuchte sich als Pflanzer in Santarém am Rio Tapajós. Seine Reiseberichte bewegten Joseph Hookers, den Direktor der Kew Gardens, zu einem Auftrag an Wickham, Samen des Kautschukbaumes nach England zu bringen. Im Jahr 1876 sammelte Wickham 70.000 Kautschuksamen (Hevea brasiliensis) in Brasilien, die er als Orchideensamen nach London exportierte.[1][2]

In London wuchsen in den Gewächshäusern von Kew Gardens 2000 Kautschuksetzlinge heran, die nach Malaysia verschifft wurden. Nur acht dieser Kautschukpflanzen erreichten ihr Ziel, gediehen dort jedoch gut. Nur 20 Jahre später deckten die malaysischen Exporte 90 Prozent des Kautschukbedarfs der Welt. Die neuen Anbauflächen stürzten die Kautschukbarone im Amazonasgebiet in wirtschaftliche Krisen und beendeten dort den Kautschukboom. Die artfremden Bäume besaßen in Südostasien keine natürlichen Feinde wie Pilze und Insekten und lieferten höhere Erträge als die Gummibäume im Amazonasgebiet.

1920 wurde Wickham für seine Verdienste um die Kautschukkultur geadelt. Er hatte zahlreiche Länder bereist und immer wieder Kautschukplantagen gegründet sowie Pflanzer beraten. In Brasilien gilt Wickham als Biopirat, da er mit seinem Export von Kautschuksamen das brasilianische Kautschukmonopol durchbrach."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2014-02-24]


Der in Frankreich lebende US-Ingenieur Benjamin Berkeley Hotchkiss  (1826 - 1885) erhält das Patent auf das von ihm erfundene Patronen-Magazin.

Abb.: Hotchkiss-Magazin, 1879
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

1876 datiert


Phichit (พิจิตร): drei Tongsoo-Händler (aus British Burma) werden ermordet und ausgeraubt. Die Täter werden mit Ausnahme gefasst und verurteilt:

Abb.: Lage von Phichit (พิจิตร)


Die New York Times über die geplante Teilnahme Siams an der Centennial International Exposition in Philadelphia (USA) (s. unten 1876-05-10):


It is a great comfort to know that Siam is to be represented at the Centennial Exhibition. We can endure the absence of certain effete European monarchies, which have coldly declined to take part in celebrating the birthday of the Republic, but we should have felt seriously hurt if Siam had followed their example. Between our people and the Siamese there are many close and tender ties. The son of the Second King of Siam is named George Washington, and he leads the royal brass band with as much vigor as though his baton were a hatchet, and the waltzes of Strauss and Lanner were so many cherry-trees which must be cut down in the shortest possible time. Then, too, the first pair of twins ever exported from Siam lived and died, and were cut up and preserved in alcohol, in America. Friendship like this cannot be ruptured without pain, and it is pleasant to know that the Centennial will not he made mournful by any failure on the part of Siam to show her friendly feelings toward us.

While we can thus heartily rejoice that Siam intends to display her productions and manufactures at Philadelphia next Summer, we cannot help wondering what sort of articles will he exhibited in the Siamese department. It is generally understood that the chief productions of the kingdom are rice, Kings, white elephants, and twins. Now, rice, whether in its crude condition or in the shape of pudding, is so familiar to us that an exhibition of Siamese rice would be extremely uninteresting. A Siamese King would doubtless possess some interest for people who have contracted a taste for Kings, but the recent visit of King Kalakaua has given us fair warning that Kings, especially those of the colored variety, are very expensive curiosities. The hotel bills of the Kanaka Monarch show that he consumed about two dozen bottles of champagne and four hundred cigars per day, besides sleeping in eight bed-rooms and occupying three parlors. But Siam is much larger than the Hawaiian Kingdom, and a Siamese King would probably be proportionately more expensive than a Kanaka King. However, in all probability, Siam will not feel able to spare a King, even for Centennial purposes. It is true that she has two Kings constantly on hand, one of whom is the actual ruler, while the duties of the other no foreigner has ever been able to ascertain. Probably, this extra King was created in order that neither should venture to leave the kingdom for fear that the other would plot against him during his absence. Of course, Siam could not spare both Kings at once, and hence we may be reasonably sure that no Siamese King will he placed on exhibition at Philadelphia.

There remain those two pleasing and ingenious Siamese productions—white elephants and twins. But the latter have wholly lost the charm of novelty. Chang and Eng resided hero some thirty or more years, and the universal verdict was that however ingenious the Siamese style of twins might be, it was not to be compared in point of general utility with the ordinary and simpler American pattern. No one denies that in their own country, Siamese twins may have their uses, but it is quite clear that no American Committee on Twins would award a medal to an exhibitor of Siamese twins, and that the visitors to the exhibition would not take the slightest interest in them. On the other hand, a few white elephants would prove an attractive feature in any exhibition. The difficulty is, however, that the Siamese never keep more than one animal of the sort on hand, and that they regard him with religious veneration. Nothing could induce them to take their sacred white elephant out of his temple, and send him across the sea to be stared at by an irreverent public, which would insult an irreverent public, which would insult him with presents and poke him with walking-sticks and umbrellas.

It really looks as if Siam will either have to permit the space allotted to her at Philadelphia to remain vacant, or else to fill it up with twins and rice. As has been remarked, we are bound closely to Siam by the tenderest ties, and we ought to be delighted that she is to be represented at the Centennial. Still, an exhibition consisting of a gross of twins, and say, a hundred bushels of rice, would not awaken much enthusiasm, and we had therefore better keep our expectations as to the attractiveness of the Siamese contributions within extremely modest limits."


9:30 Uhr: Anwälte von Elisha Gray (1835 - 1901) bringen zum Patent Office in Washington D. C. sein Caveat über die Erfindung des Telefons. Dadurch gibt er seine Absicht bekannt, das Patent formell anzumelden.

Abb.: Elisha Grays Patent Caveat 1876-02-14
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]s

11:30 Uhr: Anwälte von Alexander Graham Bell (1847 - 1922) lassen dessen Patent auf das Telefon sofort registrieren.

13:30 Uhr: das Caveat Grays wird registriert

Am 1876-03-07 bekommt Bell das Patent.

Abb.: Alexander Bells Patent 1876-03-07
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Bell kann nun aus seiner Erfindung Kapital schlagen.


Der Royal Titles Act ernennt Königin Victoria (1819 - 1901) zur Empress of India (Kaiserin von Indien).

Abb.: "New crowns for old ones": Ministerpräsident Benjamin Disraeli (1804 - 1881) macht Königin Victoria zur Kaiserin von Indien / von John Tenniel (1820 - 1914)
[Bildquelle: Punch 1876-04-15 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Japanisch-Koreanischer Freundschaftsvertrag (日朝修好条規 - 조일수호조약): Japan anerkennt die Unabhängigkeit Koreas an, erhält aber Extraterritorialität für japanische Bürger in Korea und die Häfen Busan (부산), Chemulpo und Wönsan (원산) als Vertragshäfen.

Abb.: Japanisch-Koreanischer Freundschaftsvertrag (日朝修好条規 - 조일수호조약) 1876
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


"According to the king’s spies in the Front Palace [วังหน้า], Mrs. Knox [ปราง เย็น น็อกซ์], with her husband’s [Thomas George Knox, 1824 - 1887] and Suriyawong’s [สมเด็จเจ้าพระยาบรมมหาศรีสุริยวงศ์, 1808 - 1883] blessings, was trying to marry her daughter Caroline [1857 - 1893] to the "second king," assuming that Chulalongkorn’s health would fail, bringing the prince to the throne and her daughter to great power as his chief queen. She and her husband reportedly told others that in this manner their daughter would become queen and their grandson king. Chulalongkorn took these reports very seriously in 1876. Chulalongkorn to Prince Pawaret [สมเด็จพระมหาสมณเจ้า กรมพระยาปวเรศวริยาลงกรณ์, 1809 - 1892], 7 Mar. 1876 [...] The American consul was just as convinced of Knox’s and his staff’s complicity in the "second king’s" political ambitions."

[Quelle: Wyatt, David K. <1937 - 2006>: The politics of reform in Thailand : education in the reign of King Chulalongkorn. -- New Haven : Yale UP, 1969. -- 425 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- (Yale Southeast Asia studies ; 4). -- SBN 300-01156-3. -- S. 59, Anm. 52]

1876-04-12 - 1880-07-08

Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton (1831 - 1891) ist Governor-General and Viceroy of India

Abb.: The Vice-Emperor: Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton / von Leslie Ward (1851 - 1922)
[Bildquelle: Vanity Fair. -- 1876-03-18 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Dem deutschen Erfinder Nicolaus August Otto (1832 - 1891) gelingt es erstmals, den von ihm mit Wilhelm Maybach (1846 - 1929) entwickelten Viertaktmotor in Gang zu bringen.

Abb.: Ottomotor-Denkmal, Köln, 2008
Bildquelle: Tohma / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Abb.: Aus der Patentschrift 1876-05-17

Abb.: Inserat 1876

Abb.: Eine der Folgen der Erfindung: Bangkok 2009
[Bildquelle: Patrik Ragnarsson. -- -- Zugriff am 2016-01-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielel Nutzung)] 

1876-05-10 - 1876-11-10

Philadelphia (USA): Centennial International Exhibition. Siam schickt 728 Objekte im Gesamtwert von $96.000. Durch Machenschaften des US-Konsuls Frederick W. Partridge (1824 - 1899) und seines Sohns Frederick P. Partridge kommen die Objekte erst im Oktober in Philadelphia an und werden ausgestellt.

Abb.: Titelblatt von Leslie, Frank <1821 - 1880>: Frank Leslie's illustrated historical register of the Centennial Exposition, 1876. -- New York : Frank Leslie, [1876?]. -- 320 S. : Ill. ; 41 cm

Abb.: Ein Teil einer Stereoaufnahme: Siamese Presents to U.S. Government, Philadelphia, 1876

Abb.: Siamese Presents to U.S. Government, Philadelphia, 1876

Abb.: Siamese Presents to U.S. Government, Philadelphia, 1876
[Bildquelle: Leslie, a.a.O., S. 201]

Abb.: Centennial Exhibition
[Bildquelle: Leslie, a.a.O., S.1]


Sent a large and valuable collection of Siamese goods, which was originally intended as an exhibit, but on account of the long delay in their shipment, finally forwarded as a present by the King of Siam to the United States government, and only arrived in Philadelphia on the 9th of October. They were unpacked, and exhibited in the Navy Department in the United States Government Building. The work of collecting these goods was begun several years ago by Mr. J. H. Chandler [John Hassett Chandler, 1813 - 1891], an American, who, having lived for twenty- seven years in Siam, was appointed private secretary to the second King, and then selected as the Commissioner.

The entire display numbered two hundred and eighteen cases, and consisted of curiously carved models of dwelling-houses, palaces, and temples, farming utensils of all kinds, including the native plows made of forked limbs, heavy carts, fan-mills, etc., strange-looking masks used in theatrical entertainments, barbarous musical instruments, matting, and native woods of all kinds, tiger skins, nuts, rice, and other products of the soil, besides many models of canoes and ships, costumed lay-figures, and numberless other classes of interesting goods, intended for use or ornament."

[Quelle: Ingram, J. S.: The Centennial Exposition described and illustrated : being a concise and graphic description of this grand enterprise, commemorative of the first centennary of American independence, including history of the Centennial from inception to final closing ceremonies, description of the principal buildings, foreign pavilions, booths and state buildings, with their interesting displays, exhibits of resources and products of the nations of the world : the most ingenious devices in Machinery Hall, Woman's Work in Woman's Pavilion, mineralogical, archaeological and geological collections from all States of the Union, the wonders of the Swiss Watch Department, the Centennial Live Stock Exhibition, memorial parades and anniversaries of various orders, great state days, awards to exhibitors foreign and American, and numerous other subjects showing the magnitude and character of the New World's Fair, and illustrating the best achievements of human genius, industry and skill from all lands and all peoples. -- Philadelphia : Hubbard, 1876. -- 770 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- S. 599]


Grundsteinlegung für den Chakri Maha Prasat (จักรีมหาปราสาท). Architekt: John Clunich und Henry C. Rose. Beide hat Rama V. aus Singapur mitgebracht.

Abb.: Lage des Chakri Maha Prasat (จักรีมหาปราสาท) (Nr. 17)
Sodacan / Wikipedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Chakri Maha Prasat - จักรีมหาปราสาท, Bangkok
Gisling / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"In 1876 the foundations of the Royal Grand Palace (Chakri Main Prasad) were laid. This splendid structure was four years in building, and before being occupied was sumptuously furnished in the Western style by English firms."

[Quelle: Arnold Wright in: Twentieth century impressions of Siam : its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources / ed. in chief: Arnold Wright. -- London [etc.] : Lloyds, 1908. -- S. 68]


Eröffnung der neuen königlich-siamesischen Münzanstalt (โรงกระสาปน์สิทธิการ / สำนักกษาปณ์).


The Times <London> über den Red Letter Day am King's College der University of London:

Abb.: Prinz Prisdang Jumsai (พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย), 1876

Abb.: William Ewart Gladstone
[Bildquelle: Carlo Pellegrini (1839 - 1889). -- Vanity Fair. -- 1869-02-06. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Dr. Alfred Barry als Bischof von Sidney (Australien), 189x
[Bildquelle: Elliot & Fry / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

"King's College Red Letter Day. Mr. Gladstone [William Ewart Gladstone, 1809 - 1898, Prime Minister]  at King's College.

Mr. Gladstone distributed the prizes yesterday to the students. Chomsai Prisdang [Prinz Prisdang Jumsai - พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932], a native of Siam, took

  • the Freake prize for practical work in engineering,
  • the silver medal given by the Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts, & c.,
  • a Special Certificate of Honour,
  • the first prizes in the arts of construction, manufacturing art, land surveying and levelling, drawing, and
  • a certificate for mathematics and
  • a certificate for geometrical drawing.

The prizemen were then presented by Canon Barry [Alfred Barry, 1826 - 1910, Principal of King s College], Professor Drew, and Professor Shelley, in the Department of General Literature and Science etc.

After the distribution, for the length of which Canon Barry apologized [... Mr. Gladstone said:] "He never witnessed a more remarkable exhibition of that feeling than when Dr. Barry announced to them that day the first arrival upon the platform of a young gentleman who had come to obtain the benefit of education in this country from one of at least the most distant countries in the world. Nor could he perceive that the lively satisfaction with which the gentleman s fellow students witnessed his success was rendered slack by the formidable and the monopolizing character of the proceedings of that young gentleman to whom he had so often to hand across the table the proof and commemoration of his exertions."

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: Prince Prisdang's files on his diplomatic activities in Europe, 1880-1886. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 1977. -- 267 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 5 - 7]


Stapellauf des französischen Kriegsschiffs Le Redoutable, der ersten Kriegsschiffs der Welt, das vorwiegend aus Stahl gebaut ist.

Abb.: Le Redoutable, 1890
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Stapellauf von HMS Boadicea. Sie wird Flaggschiff der East India Station in Calcutta (Kolkata, Indien) sein.

Abb.: HMS Boadicea / von Henry J. Morgan, 1892/1894
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Die Chicago Daily Tribune unter dem Titel "A nice consul : how the United States was represented in Siam" über den US-Konsul Frederick W. Partridge (1824 - 1899) u.a.:

Abb.: Titelbalken

Abb.: Lage von Chicago
[Karte von 1870. -- Public domain]

"Concerning the whiskey business, the facts are briefly these: The Consul sells in Siamese, Chinese, or whosoever will buy, licenses  giving them the right to sell liquors, and while in this nefarious business they are under the protection of the American Government. The United States thus becomes the guardian of liquor-sellers in Siam. The American, however degraded he might be, could not but fool some sense of shame to see the flag of his country floating over many whisky-boats and rum-shops in Siam. The money was pocketed by the Colonel. He took advantage of a flaw in the treaty to enrich himself, rob the Siamese of their revenue, and the king of his subjects. Right and decency were tramped underfoot: dollars, -- dollars were his thoughts by day and his dream by night."

Partridge kassierte 14 Bahr pro Lizenz + US-Fahne. Diesen Betrag muss er mit seinen chinesischen Agenten teilen, die ihm die Klienten zuführen.

Verwendete Ressourcen


Phongpaichit, Pasuk <ผาสุก พงษ์ไพจิตร, 1946 - > ; Baker, Chris <1948 - >: Thailand : economy and politics. -- Selangor : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1995. -- 449 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 983-56-0024-4. -- Beste Geschichte des modernen Thailand.

Ingram, James C.: Economic change in Thailand 1850 - 1870. -- Stanford : Stanford Univ. Pr., 1971. -- 352 S. ; 23 cm. -- "A new edition of Economic change in Thailand since 1850 with two new chapters on developments since 1950". --  Grundlegend.

Akira, Suehiro [末廣昭] <1951 - >: Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855 - 1985. -- Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, ©1989. -- 427 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN 4896561058. -- Grundlegend.

Skinner, William <1925 - 2008>: Chinese society in Thailand : an analytical history. -- Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press, 1957. -- 459 S. ; 24 cm. -- Grundlegend.

Mitchell, B. R. (Brian R.): International historical statistics : Africa and Asia. -- London : Macmillan, 1982.  -- 761 S. ; 28 cm.  -- ISBN 0-333-3163-0

Smyth, H. Warington (Herbert Warington) <1867-1943>: Five years in Siam : from 1891 to 1896. -- London : Murray, 1898. -- 2 Bde. : Ill ; cm.

ศกดา ศิริพันธุ์ = Sakda Siripant: พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว พระบิดาแห่งการถ่ายภาพไทย = H.M. King Chulalongkorn : the father of Thai photography. --  กรุงเทพๆ : ด่านสุทธา, 2555 = 2012. -- 354 S. : Ill. ; 30 cm. -- ISBN 978-616-305-569-9

Zu Chronik 1877 (Rama V.)