Chronik Thailands



Alois Payer

Chronik 1885 (Rama V.)

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 1885 (Rama V.). -- Fassung vom 2016-10-27. -- URL:    

Erstmals publiziert: 2013-09-23

Überarbeitungen: 2016-10-24 [Ergänzungen] ;  2016-08-23 [Ergänzungen] ;  2016-01-05 [Ergänzungen] ;  2015-09-30 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-09-16 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-09-04 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-08-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-07-03 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-05-27 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-04-22 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-04-15 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-03-13 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-02-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-25 [Ergänzungen] ; 2015-01-12 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-12-20 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-26 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-11-10 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-10-24 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-10-18 [Ergänzungen] ; 22014-12-10 [Ergänzungen] ; 014-08-12 [Ergänzungen] ; 2014-03-07 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-23 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-11-05 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-10-28 [Ergänzungen] ; 2013-09-28 [Ergänzungen]

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Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library




Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.


Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen!

Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:

Morgenstern, Oskar <1902 - 1977>: On the accuracy of economic observations. -- 2. ed. -- Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. -- 322 S. ; 20 cm.

Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.


1885 undatiert


Abb.: Seidenspinnerin, 1885

1782 - 1885

Im Isaan (อีสาน, Nordostthailand) wurden 113 neue Städte gegründet und zwangsweise mit Laoten besiedelt. Diese Besiedlungspolitik hört nun auf.

Abb.: Karte des Isaan (อีสาน)
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]


Dank importierter Landminen gelingt es Siam, Unruhen im Isaan (อีสาน) niederzuschlagen.


Rama V. rückblickend über die Bildung einer Legislative:

"Nobody wanted the ’legislative'. Therefore, We snapped it up and succored it until there was a regular council to frame laws... The ministers were the government. "

[Übersetzung: Battye, Noel Alfred <1935 - >: The military, government, and society in Siam, 1868-1910 : politics and military reform during the reign of King Chulalongkorn. -- 1974. -- 575 S. -- Diss., Cornell Univ. -- S. 152]


Chaturonrasmi, Prinz von Chakkrabatradipongse (สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้าจาตุรนต์รัศมี กรมพระจักรพรรดิพงศ์, 1856 - 1900) wird Finanzminister.

Abb.: Chaturonrasmi, Prinz von Chakkrabatradipongse (สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้าจาตุรนต์รัศมี กรมพระจักรพรรดิพงศ์), 2006
[Bildquelel: th.Wikipedia. -- Fair use]


Eröffnung der neuen Militärkaserne (heute: Sitz des Verteidigungsministeriums) in Bangkok. Baubeginn 1882. Architekt: Gioachino Grassi (1850 - 1890). Baukosten 400.000 Baht.

Abb.: Kaserne
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Sitz des Verteidigungsministerium: ehemalige Kaserne, 2008
[Bildquelle: Sodacan / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Lage der Kaserne
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Im Erziehungsministerium werden Schulinspektoren für die Distrikte Bangkoks angestellt.


Königlicher Erlass über allgemeine Schulbildung:

"By Royal Command, His Majesty hereby wishes it to be known by the public that

Whereas His Majesty has seen that education is the source of all knowledge, that there are many people ripe in years who are not literate, and many literates who cannot spell correctly.

It is the wish of His Majesty to extend education facilities to all his subjects. For this purpose many schools have been set up, and much money spent not only for the schools but for the salaries of the teachers. His Majesty wishes many more schools to be set up in all temples, so that his people may send their children to be educated free of charge.

Why has this been done? It is because His Majesty is all merciful to his people, and wishes to see the progress of his country. It has now come to the knowledge of His Majesty that rumours are being circulated among the people that in establishing such schools His Majesty is enrolling future soldiers for his army. His Majesty wishes it to be made known to the people that this rumour is without foundation. Military service has nothing to do with the schools. Moreover, are not the people his dutiful subjects, and cannot His Majesty, by right, conscript them for military service at any time? Why should His Majesty set up schools, if not for the welfare of his subjects?

Therefore His Majesty appeals to his subjects to send their children to school and to give them the benefit of free education to enable them to become better citizens.

Issued on Friday, being the third day of the waxing moon of the Sixth Lunar Month, in the year 1247 (A.D. 1885), the eighteenth year or the 6016th day of the present reign."

[Übersetzt in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: Compulsory education in Thailand. -- Paris : UNESCO, 1951. -- 110 S. ; 22 cm. -- (Studies in compulsory education ; VIII). -- S. 21. -- Fair use]


Abb.: Lage Phuket] (ภูเก็ต)
Scottish Geographical Magazine, 1886. -- Public domain]

Nach einer britischen Schätzung leben auf der Insel Phuket ca. 45.000 Chinesen und 1.000 Thai.


Der König an den siamesischen Botschafter in Großbritannien, Prinz Naresworarit (พระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมพระนเรศรวรฤทธิ์, 1855 - 1925):

"About the political affairs in England, those who go near them and listen to them a lot usually take sides with the idea of one group or another. Even though they can’t do anything in England, they will often use that idea in their homeland, where the official tradition of government is very different from the one in England. This will cause an even more serious trouble, leading to all kinds of whimsies. As far as I have heard, if they get the so-called radical thought, they will become big hindrances to Thailand. Especially in the case of royalty, it will amount to cutting off one's own fortune."

[Übersetzt in: Kasian Tejapira [เกษียร เตชะพีระ] <1957 - >: Commodifying Marxism : the formation of modern Thai radical culture, 1927-1958. -- Kyoto : Kyoto Univ. Pr., 2001. -- 390 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm.  -- (Kyoto area studies on Asia ; 3). -- ISBN 1876843985. -- Revision of the author's thesis (doctoral) -- Cornell University, 1992. -- S. 8f]

Abb.: Prinz Naresworarit (พระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมพระนเรศรวรฤทธิ์)
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Naresr Varariddhi seu Nares (นเรศร์; nomine primordiali Krida; natus die 7 Maii 1855; mortuus die 10 Augusti 1925) fuit princeps Siamensis, filius regis Mongkut uxorisque minoris chao chom Klin. Naresr fuit legatus regni Siamensis apud Civitates Foederatas Americae et apud Regnum Britanniarum.

Naresr fuit proavus familiae Kritakara seu Kridakorn, nomine gentilicio die 16 Aprilis 1915 a rege Vajiravudh dato, agnomine na Ayudhya die 24 Martii 1926 a rege Prajadhipok adiecto. Naresr e tribus uxoribus quattuordecim liberos genuit, scilicet:

  • e mom Subhab สุภาพ (nata circiter 1858; mortua die 5 Octobris 1917):
    • Charunsakdi, filium maximum natu anno 1875 natum, communiter "princeps Charun" nuncupatum, qui et ipse fuit legatus patriae
    • Bavoradej, anno 1877 natum, minister bellorum Siamensis
    • Sresthasiri, anno 1881 natum
    • Sithiporn, anno 1883 natum, qui agriculturam Siamensem admelioravit
    • Amoradat, anno 1886 natum, regis adiutor castrensis, legatus patriae
    • Khechorn Charasriddhi, anno 1887 natum, iudex
    • Iddhidebsarn, anno 1890 natum, architectus
  • e mom Jaem แช่ม (nata 1870, mortua 1947):
    • Varna Vilaya งวรรณวิลัย, die 1 Augusti 1888 natam, anno 1924 mortuam
    • Samai Chaloem สมัยเฉลิม, anno 1895 natum, anno 1967 mortuum
    • Lilashongse ลีลาศหงษ์, anno 1899 natam, anno 1930 mortuam
    • Jidjanok ชิดชนก, anno 1903 natum, anno 1993 mortuum
  • e mom Cheum เจิม (nata 1881; mortua 1948):
    • Phachong Rachitra ผจงรจิตร์, anno 1884 natam, anno 1981 mortuam, quam frater Bavoradej inter uxores accepit
    • Sermsvasti สริมสวาสดิ์, anno 1898 natum, anno 1940 mortuum
    • Dilokriddhi ดิลกฤทธิ์, anno 1908 natum, anno 1957 mortuum"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2015-01-24]


Abb.: Nong Khai (หนองคาย), 1885

Abb.: Lage von Nong Khai (หนองคาย)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


In Siam leben ca. 80.000 Lawa (ละว้า / ລະວ້າ). Ihre Vorfahren sind vor über 2000 Jahren eingewandert. In den nächsten hundert Jahren werden sie stark an die Thais assimilieren.

Abb.: Lebensräume der Lawa (ละว้า / ລະວ້າ) in Thailand 1970
[Bildquelel: Minority groups in Thailand / Joann L. Schrock [u. a.]. -- Washington:  Headquarters, Dept. of the Army, 1970. -- 1135 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- (Ethnographic study series) (Department of the Army pamphlet ; no. 550-107). -- S. 936]


Abb.: Bangkok um 1885
[Bildquelle: Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885/90]


Abb.: Steuereintreiber mit Gehilfen, Bangkok, 1885


Abb.: Fahne der siamesischen Armee 1885
[Bildquelle: Xiengyod / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Siamesisches Militär, Bangkok, 1885


Das Periodikum วชิรญาณพิเศษ (Wachirayan Wiset) veröffentlicht den ersten Teil von

กรมหลวงพิชิตปรีชากร [Krom Luang Phichit Prichakon] <1855-1909>: สนุกนิ์นึก [Fröhliche Gedanken]

Es ist eine imaginäre Unterhaltung von vier Mönchen im Thammayut (ธรรมยุติกนิกาย) Wat Bowonniwet Viharat (วัดบวรนิเวศวิหาร) über ihre Zukunft. Der Abt des Klosters bewirkt, dass Rama V. die Veröffentlichung weiterer Folgen verbietet.

Ampha Otrakul (อําภา โอตระกูล, 1934 - ) schreibt darüber:

"Die erste thailändische Kurzgeschichte “Rüang Sanuk Nük” [เรื่องสนุกนิ์นึก] war ein Fragment. Sie erschien im Jahr 1885 im ersten Heft der Kulturzeitschrift Wachirayan [วชิรญาณ]. Sie brachte dem Autor, Prinz Phichit-Prichakorn [กรมหลวงพิชิตปรีชากร], große Schwierigkeiten, da dem Publikum die realistische Erzählweise noch nicht vertraut war. Diese Geschichte beinhaltet ein Gespräch und Überlegungen von vier Mönchen des vornehmen Klosters Boworaniwet [วัดบวรนิเวศวิหาร], die kurz vor dem Austritt aus dem Mönchsorden stehen, nachdem sie traditionsgemäß eine Zeitlang das entsagungsvolle Mönchsleben geführt haben. Diese diskutieren über ihre Zukunftspläne und die Heiratsmöglichkeit eines von ihnen.

Die Leser und auch der Abt des Klosters sahen die Geschichte als wahre Begebenheit an und waren empört. Sie glaubten, es sei die Absicht des Autors, die Mönche jenes Klosters bloßzustellen und zu demoralisieren. Denn es entsprach in keiner Weise der traditionellen Vorstellung und den Erwartungen des Volkes bezüglich des Mönchslebens, dass diese sich über solche weltliche Themen unterhielten. Der Abt stellte sogar einen Strafantrag gegen Prinz Phichit Prichakorn beim König und nur infolge des literarischen Verständnisses des Königs, der mit der europäischen Erzählkunst vertraut war, wurde der junge Autor nicht bestraft."

[Quelle: Kurzgeschichten aus Thailand / ausgewählt und übersetzt von Ampha Otrakul [อําภา โอตระกูล, 1934 - ]. -- Bangkok : Chalermit, [1982]. -- 312 S. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN 974-7390-08-6. -- S. 2f.]


Gründung der protestantischen Missionsstation in Lampang (ลำปาง): die einzigen Christen sind: Chao Phya Sihanot, seine Frau und ein Diener.

Abb.: Lage von Lampang ลำปาง)
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]


Fertigstellung der Telegrafenlinie nach Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่)


Der britische Geschäftsträger in Bangkok, E. H. French über die von Franzosen gebaute Telegrafenlinie zwischen Bangok und Saigon:

'The line connecting Bangkok with Saigon has been out of order and useless, as the insurgents in Cambodia pull down the wires and cut them up for bullets.'

[Zitiert in: Tuck, Patrick J. N.: The French wolf and the Siamese lamb : the French threat to Siamese independence, 1858-1907. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 434 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-28-7. -- S. 347, Anm. 66]


Kedah (قدح) : Chief Minister (منتري بسر) Wan Mat Saman lässt einen 35 km langen Kanal von Alor Setar (الور ستار) zum Fuß des Kedah  Peak (heute: Gunung Jerai) bauen. Der Kanal ist 7 m breit und 1,5 m tief. Beim Bau fehlt entsprechendes technisches Know How. Wan Mat Saman erhält vom Sultan das Recht, auf beiden Seiten des Kanals privat Land zu verkaufen. Der Kanalbau ist ein sehr gutes Geschäft füpr Wan Mat Saman und lockt weitere Kanalbauer nach Kedah.

Abb.: Wan Mat Saman

Abb.: Lage von Alor Setar und Kedah  Peak (heute: Gunung Jerai)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Lage von Kedah (‏قدح‎)
[Bildquelle: Constables Hand Atlas of India, 1893. -- Pl. 59]

"Wan Man Saman Aqueduct or Terusan Wan Man Saman is the longest aqueduct in Malaysia. The total length is 36 km, connecting Sungai Kedah at Alor Star (الور ستار) to Gurun in the south of Kedah. It was built between 1885 and 1896 at the order of Menteri Besar (منتري بسر) of Kedah at the time, Wan Mat Saman (Dato' Wan Muhammad Saman Wan Ismail). The structure enables Kedah to boost its rice production and through it, enables Kedah to earn the nickname "Malaysia's rice bowl".

The canal was a renaissance to the agriculture of the state. It symbolised the transition from the conventional way of life to the modern system. The construction of the structure used only the simplest tools. To ensure that the canal ran straight, the initial diggings were done at nighttime, in which rows of jamung or traditional torches were lit in a straight line.

Today the canal remains part of the state's landscape, running along the Route 1 of the Federal Road, which is sandwiched by a smaller canal built later. Traditional Malay & Chinese houses, as well as new schools, shops, mosques, and cemeteries dotted the canal but the remaining part in Tandop, in the outskirts of Alor Setar have been covered by the municipal council in the road-widening project. Sometimes road users can spot traditional nets hanging from a bamboo poles (tangkui), ducks swimming around, schools of freshwater fish and even small rafts built by kids. In recent years however, the canal has fallen into disrepair & neglect. The canal is not a registered heritage site and the management of the canal is overlapped between various state & federal government agencies.

A few artifacts have been discovered along the aqueduct including keris daggers. The artifacts are now displayed in the State Museum in Alor Setar. "

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2015-03-04]


Der Sultan von Johor (جوهور)  schließt einen "Freundschaftsvertrag" mit Großbritannien.

Abb.: Lage von Johor (جوهور)
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Asia. -- London, o. J.]


Es erscheint:

Verney, Frederick W. (Frederick William) <1846 - 1913>: Notes on Siamese musical instruments. -- London : W. Clowes, 1885. -- 26 p. : Ill. ; 22 cm
"Although in Siam there are musical circles, or guilds professing to train musicians for public and other performances, these guilds seldom prosper, for the simple reason that the aristocratic and wealthier classes keep their own musicians, who are so highly trained, and by nature so exclusive as to shrink from cooperation with outsiders whose performances are, presumably, inferior to their own standard of excellence. It is easy to understand that, in a country where music is generally popular, there should be plenty of emulation among those who can afford the luxury of a band. There are indeed few houses of any size without their Ranats [ระนาด], and all the other instruments are also employed where the householder can afford to purchase them."

[Zitiert in: Morton, David <1920 - 2004>: The traditional Music of Thailand. -- Berkeley : University of California Press, 1976. -- 258 S. : Ill. ; 29 cm. -- ISBN 0-520-01876-1. -- S. 16]


Es erscheint:

Uhle, Max <1856 - 1944>: Sur quelques tam-tams siamois. -- In: Mémoires de la Société des études japonaises. -- 4 (1885). -- S. 153 - 156


Es erscheint:

Néis, Paul Marie <1852 - 1907>: Voyage dans le haut Laos. -- In: Le tour du monde. -- Vol. 50 (1885). -- S. 1-80.

Darin beschreibt der Arzt Neis er u.a. die Region um Chiang Rai (เชียงราย) und Chiang Saen (เชียงแสน).

Abb.: Lage von Chiang Rai (เชียงราย) und Chiang Saen (เชียงแสน)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Es erscheint:

Mager, Henri <1859 - >: Atlas colonial / par Henri Mager ; avec notices historiques et géographiques par Messieurs Amiral Aube [u.a]. -- Paris : Bayle, 1885. -- Getrennte Seitenzählung : Ill.

Abb.: Carte générale de L'Indo-Chine

Abb.: Voies de pénétration en Chine


Es erscheint:

Colquhoun, Archibald Ross <1848 - 1914>: Amongs the Shans / Archibald Ross Colquhoun. An historical scetch of the Shans / by Holt S. Hallett. Introduction on the cradle of the Shan Race / by [Albert Étienne Jean Baptiste] Terrien de Lacouperie <gest. 1894>. -- New York : Scribner, 1885. -- 392 S. : Ill.

Abb.: Titelblatt

Abb.: Karen-Mann (กะเหรี่ยง)
[a.a.O., S. 34]

Abb.: Karen-Mädchen (กะเหรี่ยง)
[a.a.O., S. 37]

Abb.: Marktfrauen
[a.a.O., S. 126]

Abb.: Shan-Mädchen (တႆး / ไทใหญ่)
[a.a.O., S. 134]

Abb.: Lao- (ລາວ) oder Shan-Frau (တႆး / ไทใหญ่)
[a.a.O., S. 176]

Abb.: Kambodschaner
[a.a.O., S. 209]

Abb.: Chinesischer Bauer
[a.a.O., S. 170]

Abb.: Shan-Dorf
[a.a.O., S. 46]

Abb.: Shan-Haus
[a.a.O., S. 266]

Abb.: Landwirtschaftliche Geräte
[a.a.O., S. 280]

Abb.: Haushaltsgeräte
[a.a.O., S. 188]

Abb.: Geräte zur Seiden- und Baumwollverarbeitung
[a.a.O., S. 235]

Abb.: Shan-Boot auf dem Mekong (ແມ່ນ້ຳຂອງ / แม่น้ำโขง)
[a.a.O., S. 16]

Abb.: Flussüberquerung
[a.a.O., S. 283]

Abb.: Fischerei-Geräte
[a.a.O., S. 111]

Abb.: Fischerei-Geräte
[a.a.O., S. 115]

Abb.: Waffen, Äxte und Schneidegeräte
[a.a.O., S. 298]

Abb.: Shan-Waffen
[a.a.O., S. 270]

Abb.: Toddy-Gewinnung (น้ำตาลเมา)
[a.a.O., S. 294]

Abb.: Geld
[a.a.O., S. 314]

Abb.: Querschnitt durch einen Tempel (วัด)
[a.a.O., S. 139]

Abb.: Klosterbibliothek
[a.a.O., S. 218]

Abb.: Trommel und Gongs
[a.a.O., S. 197]


Bau des Home Insurance Building in Chicago (USA). Es ist mit 42 m Höhe und 10 Stockwerken das erste moderne Hochhaus der Welt (in Stahlbauweise). 1890 wird es um zwei Stockwerke auf 55 m Höhe aufgestockt.

Abb.: Home Insurance Building mit 12 Stockwerken
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Hochhäuser, Bangkok 2008
[Bildquelle: Tuomas Lehtinen. -- -- Zugriff am 2013-08-25. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

1885 datiert

1885-01-08 - 1886

160 Chinesen und Khmer beginnen in Sambor (សំបូរ) einen Aufstand gegen Frankreich. Es folgen schwere Aufstände gegen Frankreich im ganzen französischen Protektorat Kambodscha. Die Aufständischen verwenden die Taktiken eines Guerilla-Kriegs. Die Franzosen sind lange machtlos. Frankreich braucht über 4000 Soldaten, um das Land Ende 1866 zu befrieden.

Aus der Gegend um Pursat (ខេត្តពោធិ៍សាត់) fliehen schätzungsweise über 40.000 Personen in die siamesische Provinz Battambang (ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង). Siam unterstützt diese Einwanderung.

In einigen Gegenden Kambodschas kommt es zu Hungersnöten. Vermutlich sterben über 10.000 Personen, meist wegen der Hungersnöte.

Abb.: Lage von Pursat (ខេត្តពោធិ៍សាត់) und Battambang (
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Ein Leserbrief an Le Saigonnais vom 1885-01-15 beschreibt die esrsten Reaktion der Franzosen in Phnom Penh (ភ្នំពេញ):

"Initially, the emotions ran high in Phnom Penh where nothing, up to this day, had presaged such a grave event; rumors of the most contradictory kind circulated everywhere: "It’s an insurrection that will quickly expand," said the pessimists; "Sivotha’s partisans who usually reside near the frontier with the Siamese Lao [region] and the province of Kompong Svai, have been reinforced by numerous Chinese; . . . the Cambodians . .. will follow this impulse." ... "An insurrection! You must be joking, replied those for whom the horizon is always bluer than blue; thank God, we know Cambodia because we have traveled and surveyed it far and wide, and we have always admired the imperturbable serenity of its inhabitants [who are] so simple, so gentle, so hospitable. Plainly, we are confronted with [nothing but] a band of pirates.""

[Übersetzung: Muller, Gregor [= Müller, Gregor] <1968 - >: Colonial Cambodia's 'bad Frenchmen' : the rise of French rule and the life of Thomas Caraman, 1840-87. --  London : Routledge, 2006. -- 294 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- (Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia ; 37). -- ISBN 978-0-415-54553-2 . -- S. 194]

Über Gräueltaten von Franzosen:

"Despite months of bloody confrontation, the spirit of resistance seemed largely unbroken, while the inner organization and command structure of the insurgency remained a mystery to the French. In Takeo [តាកែវ], Captain Jarnowski went so far as to imagine that all the traditional leaders of the province, as well as the Khmer soldiers of his own militia, were rebels at heart. This might explain in part the increasingly indiscriminate pacification campaign that he undertook in his sector. The villagers around Takeo suffered the brunt of his fury, and many fled to the forests. Those who stayed became witnesses to Jarnowski’s growing appreciation of the esthetic quality of killing.

Since decapitating a prisoner near Kompong Cham [កំពង់ចាម] some months earlier, Jarnowski had apparently grown to accept what he might have assumed to be established local practices of punishment. As a private of the colonial army who had participated in the repression of the revolt put it:

I have to say that this execution [beheading] is the rule: every Cambodian apprehended with a weapon in hand has his head cut off; this is a procedure that is [commonly] employed in this country, which we use only with regret, but of which we must make use; and as our nature feels repugnance about this job, we let it be carried out by the natives on our payroll.

Beheadings in regions under Jarnowski’s control were far more frequent than in other regions of Cambodia where this type of death was reserved for leaders of the revolt. In Takeo, the chopping off of heads followed Jarnowski’s own erratic judgment:

Around Takeo, the severed heads pegged on pickets, and unfortunately renewed, showed from afar the effects of the terrible justice of the sous- résident [Jarnowski], Nearly everywhere, people arrested without arms, by virtue of the denunciation of some native, of their embarrassed answers, of their bad appearance, sometimes because of phrases wrongly translated by an interpreter, were sent to their death after an interrogation of five minutes.

Jarnowski also acquired a reputation for abducting and raping women, and it appears that at least two reports on his crimes were sent to his superiors in Phnom Penh, one of which was mysteriously lost. Whatever happened to these reports at headquarters, they seem to have remained without immediate consequence. No charges were ever brought against Jarnowski, who was replaced in Takeo two months later not because of his past misdeeds but in order to allow him to enjoy a well-deserved vacation in France. The fifteen months spent in Takeo, during which Jarnowski and his men had burnt Cambodian villages, massacred local farmers, raped their women, and decorated the local landscape with severed heads on bamboo poles, were recorded in Jarnowski’s personnel file with a laudatory entry about his "determination and initiative" and his "fine comportment." A few months later, Jarnowski was nominated to France’s most prestigious honorary order, the Légion d’honneur."

[Quelle: Muller, Gregor [= Müller, Gregor] <1968 - >: Colonial Cambodia's 'bad Frenchmen' : the rise of French rule and the life of Thomas Caraman, 1840-87. --  London : Routledge, 2006. -- 294 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- (Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia ; 37). -- ISBN 978-0-415-54553-2. -- Fair use]


1884 hatte der König westlich erzogene Prinzen in London gebeten, Vorschläge zu machen, wie Siam einer Annexion durch Großbritannien oder Frankreich entgehen kann.

Die Prinzen sind:

Sowie sieben weitere Mitglieder der Gesandtschaft in London.

Die Prinzen legen jetzt ihr Memorandum vor.

Zusammenfassung des Memorandums:

1. Diplomatic activities in Europe may not in the long run be able to save the country entirely from being colonized. Military solution was out of question, for it was beyond the means of the country. The idea of Siam as a buffer state could not be relied upon (in fact at the turn of the century, England and France had reached an agreement whereby the country was to be divided in the middle along the Chao Phya River). The same could be said of treaties which were equally unreliable, while International Law only applied to the closed club of the wealthy, i. e., of the Western nations. As for the bend with the wind approach, it would merely delay colonization.

2. Western Powers were bent on colonization under the evangelical banner of the need to salvage decayed and disorganized societies so that people may achieve justice and better living conditions, and that the resources of the world may be fully utilized to the betterment of everyone.

3. It was therefore mandatory that Siam should improve herself not so much externally through international diplomacy as internally through completely reorganizing her system of government. Internally, those reforms that had been instituted, the abolition of slavery new palace manners, certain European life styles, etc, were either insufficient or superficial to the basic political, social and economic problems of the country.

In respect to the above, the country should have a Constitution and the system of government should change from Absolute to Constitutional Monarchy complete with a Cabinet of Ministers responsible for the administration of the country. At the same time, the Law of Succession should be clearly defined so that any change in the reign would be predictable and without any upheaval.

Other administrative and social reforms were listed:

  • eradication of corruption in official circles,
  • freedom of opinion including freedom of the press,
  • establishing the law of equality,
  • guaranteeing equal justice to all,
  • and instituting a fair system of taxation.

Hence the emphasis was put on a system of government that would promote the sense of equality and pride in all Thai citizens, and the feeling that the country belonged to all so that in time of crisis everyone would be united and fend the enemies for the nation.

4. Numerous suggestions were made as to how the above changes in the system of government could come about: a gradual phasing-in of universal suffrage, an administrative system based on incentives, that is, on merit instead of birth right, close consultations between the King and the realm's hierarchy, and Royal persuasions that must be backed by an efficient army ready to quell any revolt on the part of the noblemen who stood to lose in the new order. But the success of the scheme was put entirely upon the person of the King whose goal must be clearly set in mind and whose perseverance in the direction once established must be unrelenting.

The above recommendations, undoubtedly the most daring of all times, were signed on 9 th January 1885 by the four princes and seven senior Legation officials, and duly sent to His Majesty."

[Quelle: Sumet Jumsai [สุเมธ ชุมสาย ณ อยุธยา] <1939 - >. -- In: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: Prince Prisdang's files on his diplomatic activities in Europe, 1880-1886. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 1977. -- 267 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 254 - 257

Der König lehnt es ab, eine konstitutionelle Monarchie zu schaffen.

Zusammenfassung seiner Begründung:

"He was not the same oppressive absolute monarch as those in European history and was not so short-sighted as a frog inside a coconut shell. Therefore, he was not an obstacle to the prosperity and security of the country... Any limitation or distribution of his power would not contribute to [his] reforms. On the contrary, there could only be a bad effect on them. Hence a parliament was no use in Siam because not only were there no suitable and able people to participate in it, but a parliament itself would hamper and corrupt the reforms."

[Quelle: Eiji Murashima [村嶋 英治] <1951 - > (1988). -- Zitiert in: Marshall, Andrew MacGregor <1971 - >: A Kingdom in crisis : Thailand's struggle for democracy in the twenty-first century. -- London : Zed, 2014. -- 238 S. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 978-1-78360-057-1. -- S. 67.]

Der König beordert verärgert alle vier am Memorandum beteiligten Prinzen aus Europa zurück nach Siam.

1885-02-04 - 1885-03-21

Lissabon (Portugal): 3. Weltpostkongress. Siam ist durch Prinz Prisdang Jumsai (พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932) vertreten.

Abb.: Lage von Lissabon und Madrid
[Bildquelle: Bartholomew, J. G. <1860 - 1920>: A literary & historical atlas of Europe. -- London, 1910]

Der Prinz wird empfangen vom portugiesischen König, Dom Luís I. Filipe Maria Fernando Pedro de Alcântara António Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis João Augusto Júlio Valfando de Saxe-Coburgo-Gotha e Bragança (1838 - 1889) und seiner Gattin Maria Pia di Savoia (1847 - 1911)

Auf der Rückreise vom Kongress nach Paris, macht Prinz Prisdang Jumsai (พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932) einen Zwischenhalt in Madrid (Spanien). Dort wird er empfangen von König Alfonso XII. Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo de Borbón y Borbón (1857 - 1885) und Königin Maria Christina Désirée Henriette Felicitas Rainiera von Habsburg-Lothringen (1858 - 1929).

Abb.: König Alfonso XII. Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo de Borbón y Borbón und Königin Maria Christina Désirée Henriette Felicitas Rainiera von Habsburg-Lothringen, 1885
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Außerdem macht Prinz Prisdang seine Aufwartung

Abb.: Doña María Isabel Francisca de Asís Cristina Francisca de Paula Fernanda Luisa Josefa Trinidad Joaquina Ana Melchora Gaspara Baltasara María del Olvido Dolores Pilar Concepción Carmen Desamparados Filomena Micaela Rafaela Gabriela Dominga de la Cogolla Tomasa Teresa Rita Lucía Águeda Bárbara Bibiana María de la Cabeza Isidra Rosalía Polonia Lugarda Ramona de Cosme Damiana Antonia de San Antón Juana Bautista Vicenta de Ferrer Genara Francisca de Borja Blasa Jacoba de Roque Caralampia y de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón, Infanta de España, 1866
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: María Eulalia Francisca de Asís Margarita Roberta Isabel Francisca de Paula Cristina María de la Piedad  de Borbón, Infanta de España, 1898
[Bildquelle: Giovanni Boldini (1842  – 1931) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Der französische Missionar Emile August Colombet gründet das Collège de l’ Assomption (heute: Assumption College - โรงเรียนอัสสัมชัญ) in Bangkok

Abb.: ®Logo

Abb.: Lage des Assumption College - โรงเรียนอัสสัมชัญ, Bangkok
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Emile August Colombet
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-09-02]

"Assumption College traces its history to 1885. when Father Emile August Colombet, a French missionary priest, opened his school in Bangkok. In those days before free public schools, Colombet realised many Thai children went without an education. (Buddhist monks taught reading and writing in their temples, but attendance was not compulsory.) Father Colombet decided to open his own primary school to help fill the need. The Church school named Thai-French School, where French and Thai were taught.

Father Colombet's school was conducted in an ordinary wooden house. Classes at the beginning were small; his first student was a Chinese-Thai, Mr. Siew Meng Tek. The number of students steadily increased, and today more than 51,000 boys have been educated at Assumption College.

On 16th February 1885, the school was formally established under the name of Collège de l’ Assomption. On the first day of school, there were 33 students. After that the school gradually became recognized and the demand for a new study hall was needed. The Father sent a letter to His Majesty the King Chulalongkorn and Her Majesty the Queen and solicited contributions and donations from high-level noblemen, as well as Thai and foreign merchants in Bangkok. The school became well endowed.

On 15th August 1887, His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajirunhis (มหาวชิรุณหิศ, 1878 - 1895) represented His Majesty the King Chulalongkorn in laying down the cornerstone for the construction of the first study hall, that later was named the “Old Building” (Or in Thai called "Tuek Gao" - ตึกเก่า).

In 1900, Father Colombet returned to France. He asked the St. Gabriel Foundation (Frères de l'instruction chrétienne de Saint Gabriel) to take over management of Assumption College.

On 20th October 1901, the Superior General of the Brothers of St. Gabriel sent 5 Reverend Brothers to Thailand in order to continue the initiative of Father Colombet. Subsequently, Assumption College was the first boy’s school of the St. Gabriel Foundation in Thailand.

In 1910, the school changed its name from Collège de l’ Assomption to Assumption College or AC. Its meaning remains being preserved from all sins and house of knowledge.

When the number of students sharply increased, the existing study hall could not respond to this increasing demand from the parents and alumni. At that time, the Brothers of Saint Gabriel established Assumption College Primary Section in 1965 in Sathon (สาทร), Bangkok, on the area of 6 rais.

The primary section was approved and opened on 22nd May 1966. The first date of teaching was on 23rd May 1966. The school was officially opened and blessed on 6th May 1967 by Bishop Joseph Khiamsun Nittayo (ยอแซฟ เคียมสูน นิตโย, 1908 - 1998) and Mom Luang Pin Malakul (หม่อมหลวงปิ่น มาลากุล, 1903 –1995), the Minister from the Ministry of Education presided at the ceremony.

In 2002 during Brother Surasit Sukchai’s term of governance, the “English Program (EP)” was introduced to serve the students who want to prepare themselves for international study.

Assumption College’s distinction of providing education is proved by the development over the past 126 years by the Brothers of St. Gabriel in which quality individuals have been produced from generation to generation.


Assumption College has several branches in Thailand, including:

  • Assumption College "Primary Section", Bangkok
  • Assumption College "Secondary Section", Bangkok
  • Assumption College "Rama II Campus", Samutsakhon
Other Assumption College campus in Thailand
  • Assumption Commercial College
  • Assumption College Thonburi (ธนบุรี)
  • Assumption College Sri Racha (ศรีราชา)
  • Assumption College Samut Prakan (สมุทรปราการ)
  • Assumption College Rayong (ระยอง)
  • Assumption College Ubon Ratchathani (อุบลราชธานี)
  • Assumption College Nakhon Ratchasima (นครราชสีมา)

  • Assumption College Lampang (ลำปาง)"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-09-02]


Die Berliner Kongokonferenz (1884-11-15 - 1885-02-26) legt mit dem Abschlussdokument ("Kongoakte") die Grundlage für die Aufteilung Afrikas unter den Kolonialmächten.

Abb.: Aufteilung Afrikas unter den Kolonialmächten um 1914
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1885-03-04 - 1889-03-04

Grover Cleveland (1837 - 1908) ist Präsident der USA.

Abb.: Grover Cleveland 1888

"Political cartoon showing Thomas Brackett Reed as a boy, crying to Uncle Sam, with another boy pulling small wagon "pig iron, Kelley," while President Grover Cleveland trims "tariff, the protection hedge" to reduce the "surplus"."

[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1885-03-15 - 1885-03-25

In Bangkok ankert das österreichische Kanonenboot S.M.S. Nautilus. Es kommt von Sarawak ( ‏سراوق‎, Borneo) und fährt weiter nach Koh Tang (កោះតាង, Kambodscha). Reisezweck: Stationsschiff in Ostasien.


Ratifizierung des Abkommens über den Import und die Besteuerung von Alkohol mit Österreich-Ungarn.

Der Wortlaut des Abkommens:

"His Majesty the King of Siam on the one part and His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc, and Apostolic King of Hungary on the other part, having recognized the expediency of regulating in a more satisfactory manner the traffic in spirituous liquors in Siam and of modifying with this view by a Supplementary Agreement the existing Treaty engagements between Siam and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the Undersigned, duly authorized
to that effect, have agreed upon the following articles:

Art. I Austrians and Hungarians may import spirits, beer and wines into the Kingdom of Siam from
any country and under any flag.

Spirits not exceeding in alcoholic strength those permitted to be manufactured by the Siamese Government in Siam may be imported and sold by Austrians and Hungarians on payment of duty equal in amount to the duty levied by the Siamese Excise Laws upon spirits of the same alcoholic strength manufactured in Siam. Spirits exceeding in alcoholic strength spirits manufactured in Siam may be imported and sold upon payment of an import duty proportionate to the excess of alcoholic strength, above the Siamese Government standard,

The scale on which, from the date of the enforcement of this Agreement, excise duties upon spirits manufactured in Siam, as well as imported duties from spirits imported by Austrians and Hungarians from abroad are to be levied, shall be inserted in the Regulations which shall be drawn up for the purpose of carrying out this Agreement and which shall as far as the levying of import duties is concerned, be agreed upon between the contracting parties before the present Agreement is to come into operation. No change of such as regards the amount of import duty shall affect Austrians and Hungarians without the consent of their Government and not until after the expiration of six months from the date at which such intended change shall have been communicated by the Siamese Government to the Representative of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at Bangkok.

Beer and wines imported by Austrians and Hungarians into the Kingdom of Siam may likewise be subjected at their entrance to a higher duty than that leviable under the existing Treaty engagements, but such duty shall in no case exceed ten percent ad valorem.

The duties levied as aforesaid from imported spirits, beer and wines, shall be in substitution of, and not in addition to the import duty of three percent ad valorem, leviable under the existing Treaties. No further duty, tax or imposition whatever shall be imposed upon imported spirits, beer and wines.

Art. II The testing of spirits, beer or wines imported into the Kingdom of Siam by Austrians and Hungarians shall be carried out by European officials nominated by the Siamese authorities, and by an agreed number of experts nominated by the Austro-Hungarian Consul. In case of difference the parties shall nominate a third person, who shall act as umpire.

The mode of testing shall be agreed upon by the aforesaid officials and experts in accordance with
the regulations mentioned in Article I of this Agreement.

The process of testing shall not he performed on board ship.

Art. III The Siamese Government may stop the importation by Austrians and Hungarians into Siam of any spirits, beer or wines, which by an examination carried out in the manner provided in Article II shall be proved to be deletorious to the public health. In such cases the Siamese Government shall give notice to the importers, consignees or holders thereof to export the same within three months from the date of such notice. If this is not done the Siamese Government may seize and destroy the same, provided always that in all such cases the said Government shall be bound to refund any duty which may have been already paid thereon.

The Siamese Government engage to take all necessary measures to prohibit and prevent the sale of all spirits, beer or wines manufactured in Siam which will be deletorious to the public health.

Art. IV Austrians and Hungarians who desire to retail spirits, beer or wines in Siam must take out a special licence for that purpose which is to be delivered from the Siamese Government, and which shall not be refused without just and reasonable cause. On demand made by the Austro-Hungarian Consul in writing, a statement of the facts on which a licence applied for by an Austrian or Hungarian has been refused shall be at once communicated to him.

The principles upon which licenses for retailing spirits, beer or wines may be either granted or refused shall be clearly stated in the Regulations referred to in Article I of the Agreement and may be altered from time to time by mutual consent. The regulations shall also define exactly the meaning of the expression retail for the purposes of this Agreement.

It is clearly understood that Siamese or other retail dealers who sell spirits, beer or wines imported from abroad shall not be subjected to any other or further duties or conditions whatever than those who sell spirits, beer or wines manufactured in Siam.

The Siamese Government engage not to hinder in any way the retail sale of spirits, beer or wines imported from abroad which shall not be recognized as deletorious to the public health.

Art. V Austrians and Hungarians shall at all times, in regard to the importation and sale of spirits, beer or wines, also in regard to the licenses granted by the Siamese Government for the retail in such articles in Siam, enjoy the same rights and privileges as Siamese subjects, or, at their option, the subjects or citizens of the most favoured nation. It is clearly understood that Austrians and Hungarians will not be bound to conform to the provisions of this Agreement to any further extent than the subjects or citizens of any other nation including Siamese subjects.

Art. VI Subject to the provisions of Article V the present Agreement shall come into operation as soon as possible after the Regulation to be drawn up for the purpose of carrying out the same shall have been promulgated, and shall remain in force until the expiration of six months notice given by either Party to terminate the same.

The existing Treaty engagements between Siam and the Austro - Hungarian Monarchy shall continue in full force until the present Agreement comes into operation, and after that date, except in so far as they are expressly modified by this Agreement.

Should the present Agreement be terminated the Treaty engagements between Siam and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall revive in all respects and remain in force as they existed previously to the signature of this Agreement.

Art. VII In this Agreement the words Austrians and Hungarians shall comprise all persons, to whom the protection of the Austro-Hungarian Consul may be granted under such laws of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, as regulate the exercise of the right of protection granted to Austro-Hungarian Consuls in other countries, and the words Austro-Hungarian Consul shall comprise any Consular Officer of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in Siam.

Art. VIII The present Agreement shall be ratified, and its ratifications shall be exchanged as soon as possible.

This Agreement is drawn up in the English, German and Hungarian languages, with the understanding that should any of the foregoing articles be differently interpreted, the English text shall determine the sense.

Signed and sealed in duplicate originals at Berlin this seventeenth day of January 1885 corresponding to the Siamese 2nd day of the Waxing Moon of the Month Magamath of the Year Goat Sixth Decade, 1246, of the Siamese Astronomical Era.

Prisdang [Jumsai - พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932]

Széchény [Graf Imre Széchenyi de Sárvár-felsővidék, 1825-98, Botschafter Österreich-Ungarns in Berlin]. ”

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: Prince Prisdang's files on his diplomatic activities in Europe, 1880-1886. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 1977. -- 267 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 187 - 194]

Abb.: Graf Imre Széchenyi de Sárvár-felsővidék


Paris: Unruhen und Proteste gegen die Ausgaben für den Chinesisch-Französischen Krieg (中法戰争 - Guerre franco-chinoise - Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh, 1884-08 - 1885-04) wegen Tonkin (Nord-Vietnam). Der Krieg kostet Frankreich 270 Mio. Francs. Das Parlament stürzt daher die Regierung von Ministerpräsident Jules François Ferry (1832 - 1893),

Abb.: Jules François Ferry
[Bildquelle: André Gill (1840 - 1885)


Otto Pankow / Panckow, Postinspektor in Hamburg, trifft in Bangkok ein, um das Postwesen Siams aufzubauen. Er hat einen Vertrag über 1½ Jahre. Seine Berufung erfolgte auf Empfehlung des  Generalpostdirektors des Deutschen Reichs, Heinrich von Stephan (1831 - 1897).


Eröffnung einer öffentlichen Schule in einem neuen Gebäude in Wat Rakhang (วัด ระฆังโฆสิตาราม วรมหาวิหาร)

Abb.: Lage von Wat Rakhang (วัด ระฆังโฆสิตาราม วรมหาวิหาร)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

1885-05-02 - 1885-11-02

Antwerpen (Belgien): Weltausstellung Exposition Internationale d'Anvers / Wereldtentoonstelling van Antwerpen. Siam nimmt teil.

Abb.: Plakat
[Bildquelle: fr.wikipedia. -- Public domain]


International Inventions Exhibition London. Siam sendet u.a. ein königliches Orchester mit siamesischen Instrumenten. Die Ausstellung dauert sechs Monate. Das siamesische Orchester tritt während drei Monaten wöchentlich drei bis vier mal auf.

Abb.: Siam zählt zu den 5 foreign commissions
[Quelle: International Inventions Exhibition, 1885 : official catalogue. -- London : William Clowes and Sons 1885. -- S. XL.]


Friedensvertrag zum Chinesisch-Französischen Krieg (中法戰争 - Guerre franco-chinoise - Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh, 1884-08 - 1885-04): Frankreich erhält das uneingeschränkte Protektorat über Tonkin (Nord-Vietnam). In Annam und Tonkin kommt es zu Revolten gegen Frankreich, die Niederschlagung dauert bis 1897.

Abb.: Lage von Tonkin und Annam
[Bildquelle: ro.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: "Ehre der französischen Armee und Marine. Apotheose der Eroberung Tonkins", ca. 1885
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain][

"Der Friedensvertrag vom Juni 1885 gab den Franzosen das Objekt, für welches sie den Krieg geführt hatten, das uneingeschränkte Protektorat über Tonkin. Die Besetzung von Keelung und der Pescadoren wurde zunächst aufrecht erhalten, vor allem auf die Intervention Admiral Courbets, welcher in den Pescadoren ein Gegengewicht zur britischen Kronkolonie Hongkong sah. Nach dessen Tod verlor eine solche, dem Friedensvertrag widersprechende Besetzung jedoch in Frankreich an Unterstützung und schließlich zogen sich die Franzosen zurück. In den folgenden Jahren zerschlugen französische Truppen die letzten vietnamesischen Widerstandsbewegungen und festigten ihre Position in Annam und Tonkin. 1887 wurden Annam, Cochinchina, Kambodscha und Tonkin in dem Verwaltungsgebiet Französisch-Indochina zusammengefasst. 1893 wurde diesem nach dem Französisch-Siamesischen Krieg auch noch das an Frankreich abgetretene Gebiet Laos zugeschlagen.

Innenpolitisch dämpfte das unbefriedigende Ende des Chinesisch-Französischen Krieges die koloniale Euphorie. Der Krieg hatte die Karriere von Jules Ferry ruiniert und schlussendlich kostete die Tonkin-Debatte auch seinen Nachfolger Henri Brisson das Amt, nachdem Georges Clemenceau und andere Gegner der Kolonialpolitik beinahe den Rückzug Frankreichs aus Indochina erreicht hatten. Die Abstimmung über die weitere Unterstützung des Expeditionskorps Tonkin wurde nur mit 274 zu 270 Stimmen in der Abgeordnetenkammer entschieden.[56] Autoren wie Auguste Thomazi stellten aufgrund dieser Abstimmung später teils ironisch fest, dass Frankreich Indochina teils entgegen seiner eigenen Wünsche erobert hätte. Die Wellen der Tonkin-Affäre beschädigten das Ansehen der kolonialen Expansion in Frankreich nachhaltig und verzögerten andere Projekte wie die Eroberung von Madagascar. Erst im Verlauf des Jahres 1890 war eine erneute, langsame Wende der öffentlichen Meinung zu spüren. In China verstärkte der Krieg die Bildung nationalistischer Strömungen und Bewegungen und war ein weiterer Schritt hin zum Sturz der Qing-Dynastie. Besonders der Verlust der Fujian-Flotte am 23. August wurde als schmerzhaft empfunden. Viele beklagten sich darüber, dass die nördlichen Armeen und die nördliche Beiyang-Flotte nicht in die Kämpfe eingegriffen hatten, während sich deren Führer mit der Bedrohung durch Japan und Russland entschuldigten und darauf hinwiesen, dass Korea womöglich verloren gegangen sei, wenn keine Truppen im Norden zum Eingreifen bereit gestanden hätten. Die Kaiserinwitwe Cixi ordnete umfassende Flottenreformen infolge des Krieges an, welche jedoch kaum umgesetzt wurden und die chinesische Seemacht auch im Ersten Chinesisch-Japanischen Krieg schlecht abschneiden ließen, welcher Chinas maritime Ambitionen auf Jahrzehnte quasi erlöschen ließ."

[Quelle:ösischer_Krieg. -- Zugriff am 2011-10-20]


Es erscheint

Dabin,  Georges <1849 - 1927>: A missionary' journey through Laos from Bangkok to Ubon. -- In: Journal of the Straits branch of the Royal Asiatic Society <Singapore>. -- 15 (1885-06). -- S. 103 - 117


Der König ernennt Prinz Devawongse Varopakar (สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมพระยาเทวะวงศ์วโรปการ, 1858 - 1923) zum Außenminister. Devavongse behält dieses Amt bis zu seinem Tod 1923.

Abb.: Prinz Devawongse Varopakar (สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมพระยาเทวะวงศ์วโรปการ)
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Prinz Devawongse Varopakar (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมพระยาเทวะวงศ์วโรปการ, RTGS: Somdet Phrachao Borommawongthoe Krom Phraya Thewawong Waropakan, Aussprache: [tʰewáʔwoŋ wáʔroːpàʔkaːn]; * 27. Juni 1858 in Bangkok, Siam (heute: Thailand); † 27. Juni 1923 ebenda) war ein Mitglied des siamesischen Königshauses und von 1885 bis 1923 Außenminister unter den Königen Chulalongkorn und Vajiravudh.


Prinz Devawongse wurde als 42. Kind von König Rama IV. (Mongkut) geboren und erhielt zusammen mit seinem Halbbruder und späteren König Chulalongkorn und den weiteren Geschwistern durch ihre Gouvernante Anna Leonowens eine Erziehung in englischer Sprache. Nach einer weiteren Ausbildung Anfang der 1870er Jahre wurde er von seinem Halbbruder König Chulalongkorn zum Mitarbeiter in dessen persönlichem Sekretariat berufen.

Am 12. Juni 1885 ernannte ihn König Chulalongkorn schließlich zum Außenminister und er behielt dieses Amt auch unter dessen Nachfolger Vajiravudh bis zu seinem Tod. Er modernisierte das Ministerium nach westlichem Vorbild.

Als Außenminister trug er maßgeblich zur Neugestaltung der Außenpolitik Chulalangkorns bei, die eine Öffnung zum Westen beinhaltete, zu längeren Auslandsreisen des Königs nach Europa führte und damit letztlich zu einer Modernisierung des Landes. Dabei arbeitete er neben König Chulalongkorn eng mit dem belgischen Juristen, Politiker und Diplomaten Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns (1835 - 1902) ab 1892 zusammen.[1]

Eine seiner ersten Auslandsreisen unternahm er 1887 in die USA.[2][3]

Auch unter Vajirawudh näherte sich Siam Europa weiter an. Im Ersten Weltkrieg unterstützte Siam die Triple Entente zwischen dem Vereinigten Königreich, Frankreich und Russland mit 2.000 Elitesoldaten.[4] Dafür erhielt das Land einen Sitz im Völkerbund."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-07-06]


Unterzeichnung des Vertrags mit der britischen Firma De La Rue plc über den Druck von Briefmarken für Siam. Es kommt zum Fehldruck bei den 10 Satang-Marken, die statt 10 nur 0 (Null) aufgedruckt haben.

1885-06-23 - 1886-01-28

 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830 - 1903) ist Prime Minister Großbritanniens.

Abb.: Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury / von Leslie Ward (1851 - 1921]
[Bildquelle: Vanity fair. -- 1900-12-20 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Frankreich schafft ein Vize-Konsulat in Luang Prabang (ຫຼວງພະບາງ) mit dem Auftrag, rechtzeitig zu warnen, wenn Großbritannien Richtung Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่) zieht.

Abb.: Lage von Luang Prabang (ຫຼວງພະບາງ) und Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่)
Scottish Geographical Magazine. -- 1886. -- Public domain]


Der britische Außenminister, Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill (1849 - 1895), unterstützt die Meinung von Ernest Satow (1843 - 1929), britischer Minister Resident and Consul-General, der in einem Memorandum schreibt:

Abb.: Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill
[Bildquelle: Liborio Prosperi (1854 - 1928). -- In: Vanity Fair. -- 1889-01-05 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

"The Siamese should not, in my opinion, be led to expect from us more than a merely moral support in their relations with other powers. The king should learn that 'every herring must hang by his own head'."

[Zitiert in: Tuck, Patrick J. N.: The French wolf and the Siamese lamb : the French threat to Siamese independence, 1858-1907. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 434 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-28-7. -- S. 241f.]

Abb.: "every herring must hang by his own head" (De haring hangt aan zijn eigen kieuwen)
[Bildquelle: Pieter Bruegel der Ältere (1525/30 - 1569): Die niederländischen Sprichwörter, 1559 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Der Norddeutsche Lloyd erhält den Vertrag über den vom Reich finanzierten Postdampferdienst nach Ostasien und Australien (Reichspostdampfer).

Abb.: Reichspostdampfer "Sachsen" des Norddeutschen Lloyd, 1887 in Betrieb genommen


Siam tritt der "Union postale universelle" (UPU) bei und damit dem internationalen Postdienst.


Der französische Mikrobiologe Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895) impft erstmals einen Menschen, der von einem tollwütigen Hund gebissen wurde, gegen Tollwut. Er rettet sein Leben.

Abb.: Joseph Meister (1876 - 1940) bekommt von Louis Pasteur als erster Mensch eine Impfung gegen Tollwut
[Bildquelle: Harper's Weekly. -- 1885-12-19 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Plakat, Koh Samet (
เกาะเสม็ด), 2004
[Bildquelle: Craig Nagy. -- -- Zugriff am 2013-09-28. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Vietnam: Cần Vương (勤王) Edikt des von den Franzosen abgesetzten Kaisers Hàm Nghi (1872 - 1943). Das Edikt führt zur Widerstandsbewegung Cần Vương movement (Phong trào Cần Vương) (1885 - 1896).

Abb.: Cần Vương (勤王) Edikt
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


"From time immemorial there have been only three strategies for opposing the enemy: attack, defense, negotiation. Opportunities for attack were lacking. It was difficult to gather required strength for defense. And in negotiations the enemy demanded everything. In this situation of infinite trouble we have unwillingly been forced to resort to expedients. Was this not the example set by King T’ai in leaving for the mountains of Ch’I and by Hsuan-tsung when fleeing to Shu?

Our country recently has faced many critical events. We came to the throne very young, but have been greatly concerned with self-strengthening and sovereign government. Nevertheless, with every passing day the Western envoys got more and more overbearing. Recently they brought in troops and naval reinforcements, trying to force on Us conditions We could never accept. We received them with normal ceremony, but they refused to accept a single thing. People in the capital became very afraid that trouble was approaching.

The high ministers sought ways to retain peace in the country and protect the court. It was decided, rather than bow heads in obedience, sitting around and losing chances, better to appreciate what the enemy was up to and move first. If this did not succeed, then we could still follow the present course to make better plans, acting according to the situation. Surely all those who share care and worry for events in our country already understand, having also gnashed their teeth, made their hair stand on end, swearing to wipe out every last bandit. Is there anyone not moved by such feelings? Are there not plenty of people who will use lance as pillow, thump their oars against the side, grab the enemy’s spears, or heave around water jugs?

Court figures had best follow the righteous path, seeking to live and die for righteousness. Were not Ku Yuan and Chao Tsui of Chin, Kuo Tzu-I and Li Kuang-pi of T’ang men who lived by it in antiquity?

Our virtue being insufficient, amidst these events We did not have the strength to hold out and allowed the royal capital to fall, forcing the Empresses to flee for their lives. The fault is Ours entirely, a matter of great shame. But traditional loyalties are strong. Hundreds of mandarins and commanders of all levels, perhaps not having the heart to abandon Me, unite as never before, those with intellect helping to plan, those with strength willing to fight, those with riches contributing for supplies – all of one mind and body in seeking a way out of danger, a solution to all difficulties. With luck, Heaven will also treat man with kindness, turning chaos into order, danger into peace, and helping thus to restore our land and our frontiers. Is not this opportunity fortunate for our country, meaning fortunate for the people, since all who worry and work together will certainly reach peace and happiness together?

On the other hand, those who fear death more than they love their king, who put concerns of household above concerns of country, mandarins who find excuses to be far away, soldiers who desert, citizens who do not fulfill public duties eagerly for a righteous cause, officers who take the easy way and leave brightness for darkness – all may continue to live in this world, but they will be like animals disguised in clothes and hats. Who can accept such behavior? With rewards generous, punishments will also be severe. The court retains normal usages, so that repentance should not be postponed. All should follow this Edict strictly.

By Imperial Order Second day, sixth month, first year of Ham-Nghi"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2016-08-23]


Antony Wladislas Klobukowski (1855- 1934), französischer chargé de mission in Kambodscha, schreibt eine über 200seitige Enquête sur les événements du Cambodge über die Aufstände gegen Frankreich in ganz Kambodscha:

"The broad bent of his conclusions was that Norodom [König Norodom I ( ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម) (1834 – 1904) von Kambodscha] was "legally the responsible originator of this agitation." Klobukowski’s explanation of the way in which the revolt was plotted, however, was less simple. It warrants repetition, not because it is sufficiently supported by other evidence to be uncritically accepted, but because it may reflect some of the developments in the Cambodian court after Thomson’s [Charles Thomson (1845 - ), französischer Commandant en chef von Indochina] humiliation of Norodom in 1884. According to Klobukowski, Norodom had been forced into revolt by the various court figures who believed that their position was threatened. These included a Frenchwoman, the widow Marrot [Marie Antoinette Marrot], and her son; a creole, Ternisien, who had once been a magistrate in Cochinchina; the old colon, Caraman [Jean Frédéric Thomas-Caraman (1840 - 1887)]; the deputy for Cochinchina in the French Parliament, Blanscube [Jules Blencsubé (1834 - 1888)]; and the latter’s secretary, Chabrier. On the Cambodian side, Klobukowski denounced the king’s secretary, Col de Monteiro, a brother of Norodom, Nupparat, and a son, Duong Chacr [1861 - 1897].

Although Klobukowski’s allegations must be treated with considerable reserve, his view of developments cannot be completely dismissed. There seems little doubt that Madame Marrot, to whom Norodom owed substantial amounts of money, and Caraman, who had long conducted business with the palace, were concerned about their future role once there was stricter French control over Cambodia. There is a strong possibility that their concern resulted in recommendations to Norodom to resist the convention that Thomson had imposed. "

[Quelle: Osborne, Milton E.: The French presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia : rule and response (1859-1905). -- Bangkok : white Lotus, 1997. -- 379 S. : Ill. ; 20 cm. -- ISBN 974-8434-00-1. -- "First published by Cornell Univ. in 1969". -- S. 218f.]

"Based on which orders coming from Pnom-Penh do our columns operate? I don’t know, but the truth is that we pillage and set fire to the villages and pagodas, as such plunging women and children into misery, ruining almost completely a country we must administer, and alienating the monks who, throughout Cambodia, have observed an exceedingly correct neutrality... Since then, the entire population has turned against us, and one can rightfully say... that we had to combat a national insurrection."

[Übersetzung: Muller, Gregor [= Müller, Gregor] <1968 - >: Colonial Cambodia's 'bad Frenchmen' : the rise of French rule and the life of Thomas Caraman, 1840-87. --  London : Routledge, 2006. -- 294 S. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- (Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia ; 37). -- ISBN 978-0-415-54553-2. -- S. 208]


Prinz Prisdang Jumsai (พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932) wird vom König Italiens, Umberto I. Rainerio Carlo Emanuele Giovanni Maria Ferdinando Eugenio di Savoia (1844 - 1900) als Gesandter akkreditiert.

Abb.: Umberto I. Rainerio Carlo Emanuele Giovanni Maria Ferdinando Eugenio di Savoia, 1898
[Bildquelle: Eugène Cadel (1865 - 1940). -- Public domain]


Der ehemalige französische Ministerpräsident Jules Ferry (1832 - 1893): Les fondements de la politique coloniale. -- Rede vor der französischen Abgeordnetenkammer.

Abb.: Jules Ferry / von Charles Gilbert-Martin (1839-1905). -- In: Le Don Quichotte. -- No 668. -- 1887-04-09


"Je disais, pour appuyer cette proposition, à savoir qu'en fait, comme on le dit, la politique d'expansion coloniale est un système politique et économique, je disais qu'on pouvait rattacher ce système à trois ordres d'idées ; à des idées économiques, à des idées de civilisation de la plus haute portée et à des idées d'ordre politique et patriotique.


Messieurs, il y a un second point, un second ordre d'idées que je dois également aborder, le plus rapidement possible, croyez-le bien : c'est le côté humanitaire et civilisateur de la question.

Sur ce point, l'honorable M. Camille Pelletan raille beaucoup, avec l'esprit et la finesse qui lui sont propres ; il raille, il condamne, et il dit : Qu'est ce que c'est que cette civilisation qu'on impose à coups de canon ? Qu'est-ce sinon une autre forme de la barbarie ? Est-ce que ces populations de race inférieure n'ont pas autant de droits que vous ? Est-ce qu'elles ne sont pas maîtresses chez elles ? Est-ce qu'elles vous appellent ? Vous allez chez elles contre leur gré ; vous les violentez, mais vous ne les civilisez pas.

Voilà, messieurs, la thèse ; je n'hésite pas à dire que ce n'est pas de la politique, cela, ni de l'histoire : c'est de la métaphysique politique... (Ah ! ah ! à l'extrême gauche.)

Voix à gauche. Parfaitement !

M. Jules Ferry.... et je vous défie - permettez-moi de vous porter ce défi, mon honorable collègue, monsieur Pelletan -, de soutenir jusqu'au bout votre thèse, qui repose sur l'égalité, la liberté, l'indépendance des races inférieures. Vous ne la soutiendrez pas jusqu'au bout, car vous êtes, comme votre honorable collègue et ami M. Georges Perin, le partisan de l'expansion coloniale qui se fait par voie de trafic et de commerce.


Messieurs, il faut parler plus haut et plus vrai ! il faut dire ouvertement qu'en effet les races supérieures ont un droit vis-à-vis des races inférieures... (Rumeurs sur plusieurs bancs à l'extrême gauche.)

M. Jules Maigne (1816 - 1893). Oh ! vous osez dire cela dans le pays où ont été proclamés les droits de l'homme !

M. de Guilloutet (1819 - 1902). C'est la justification de l'esclavage et de la traite des nègres !

M. Jules Ferry. Si l'honorable M. Maigne a raison, si la déclaration des droits de l'homme a été écrite pour les noirs de l'Afrique équatoriale, alors de quel droit allez-vous leur imposer les échanges, les trafics ? Ils ne vous appellent pas ! (Interruptions à l'extrême gauche et à droite. - Très bien ! très bien ! sur divers bancs à gauche.)

M. Raoul Duval (1832 - 1887). Nous ne voulons pas les leur imposer ! C'est vous qui les leur imposez !

M. Jules Maigne. Proposer et imposer sont choses fort différentes !

M. Georges Périn (1838 - 1903). Vous ne pouvez pas cependant faire des échanges forcés !

M. Jules Ferry. Je répète qu'il y a pour les races supérieures un droit, parce qu'il y a un devoir pour elles. Elles ont le devoir de civiliser les races inférieures... (Marques d'approbation sur les mêmes bancs à gauche - Nouvelles interruptions à l'extrême gauche et à droite.)

M. Joseph Fabre (1842 - 1916). C'est excessif ! Vous aboutissez ainsi à l'abdication des principes de 1789 et de 1848... (Bruit), à la consécration de la loi de grâce remplaçant la loi de justice.

M. Vernhes (1820 - 1890). Alors les missionnaires ont aussi leur droit ! Ne leur reprochez donc pas d'en user ! (Bruit.)

M. le président. N'interrompez pas, monsieur Vernhes !

M. Jules Ferry. Je dis que les races supérieures...

M. Vernhes. Protégez les missionnaires, alors ! (Très bien ! à droite.)

Voix à gauche. N'interrompez donc pas !

M. Jules Ferry. Je dis que les races supérieures ont des devoirs...

M. Vernhes. Allons donc !

M. Jules Ferry. Ces devoirs, messieurs, ont été souvent méconnus dans l'histoire des siècles précédents, et certainement, quand les soldats et les explorateurs espagnols introduisaient l'esclavage dans l'Amérique centrale, ils n'accomplissaient pas leur devoir d'hommes de race supérieure. (Très bien ! très bien !) Mais, de nos jours, je soutiens que les nations européennes s'acquittent avec largeur, avec grandeur et honnêteté, de ce devoir supérieur de civilisation.

M. Paul Bert (1833 - 1886). La France l'a toujours fait !

M. Jules Ferry. Est-ce que vous pouvez nier, est-ce que quelqu'un peut nier qu'il y a plus de justice, plus d'ordre matériel et moral, plus d'équité, plus de vertus sociales dans l'Afrique du Nord depuis que la France a fait sa conquête ? Quand nous sommes allés à Alger pour détruire la piraterie, et assurer la liberté du commerce dans la Méditerranée, est-ce que nous faisions œuvre de forbans, de conquérants, de dévastateurs ? Est-il possible de nier que, dans l'Inde, et malgré les épisodes douloureux qui se rencontrent dans l'histoire de cette conquête, il y a aujourd'hui infiniment plus de justice, plus de lumière, d'ordre, de vertus publiques et privées depuis la conquête anglaise qu'auparavant ?

M. Clemenceau (1841 - 1929). C'est très douteux !

M. Georges Périn. Rappelez-vous donc le discours de Burke !

M. Jules Ferry. Est-ce qu'il est possible de nier que ce soit une bonne fortune pour ces malheureuses populations de l'Afrique équatoriale de tomber sous le protectorat de la nation française ou de la nation anglaise ? Est-ce que notre premier devoir, la première règle que la France s'est imposée, que l'Angleterre a fait pénétrer dans le droit coutumier des nations européennes et que la conférence de Berlin vient de traduire le droit positif, en obligation sanctionnée par la signature de tous les gouvernements, n'est pas de combattre la traite des nègres, cet horrible trafic, et l'esclavage, cette infamie. (Vives marques d'approbation sur divers bancs.)


M. Jules Ferry. Voilà ce que j'ai à répondre à l'honorable M. Pelletan sur le second point qu'il a touché. "

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-11-05]


In Bangkok gibt es 12 oder 18 öffentliche Schulen in Klöstern.


Berlin (Deutsches Reich): Prinz Prisdang Jumsai (พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932) nimmt am 6. Internationalen Telegrafenkongress teil. Dort trifft er den Generalpostdirektor des Deutschen Reichs, Heinrich von Stephan (1831 - 1897), dem er einen siamesischen Orden überreicht für seine Hilfe bei der Einrichtung des Postwesens Siams und für die Entsendung von Otto Pankow / Panckow, Postinspektor in Hamburg, nach Siam.

Auf dem Kongress trifft Prinz Prisdang auch Nikolaus Heinrich Ferdinand Herbert Fürst von Bismarck (1849 - 1904), Unterstaatssekretär im Außenministerium und Sohn des Reichskanzlers Otto Fürst von Bismarck (1815 - 1898).

Abb.: Heinrich von Stephan, 1897
[Bildquelle: Georg Barlösius (1864–1908) / Wikimedia]

Abb.: Nikolaus Heinrich Ferdinand Herbert Fürst von Bismarck, 1892
[Bildquelle: Christian Wilhelm Allers (1857 – 1915) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Frankreich ratifiziert das Abkommen über den Import und die Besteuerung von Alkohol.


Tod von Krom Phra Rajawang Bovorn Vichaichan (กรมพระราชวังบวรวิไชยชาญ) (1838 - 1885), Front Palace (กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล).

Abb.: Phra Ong Chao Yodyingyot (or Yingyot) (พระองค์เจ้ายอดยิ่งยศ)
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.:  Krom Phra Rajawang Bovorn Vichaichan (กรมพระราชวังบวรวิไชยชาญ)
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

"Krom Phra Ratchawang Bowon Wichaichan (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรวิไชยชาญ) or Phra Ong Chao Yodyingyot (or Yingyot) (พระองค์เจ้ายอดยิ่งยศ) (6 April 1838 – 28 August 1885) was a Siamese Prince and member of the Chakri Dynasty. He was the eldest son of King Pinklao [พระบาทสมเด็จพระปิ่นเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว, 1808 – 1866)] and Princess Aim [เจ้าคุณจอมมารดาเอม, ], and thus nephew to King Mongkut (Rama IV). Wichaichan succeeded his father by being appointed the Front Palace [วังหน้า] and Vice King of Siam in 1868, during the reign of his cousin King Chulalongkorn (Rama V).[1] During his tenure the office of Front Palace was extremely powerful and rivalled that of the monarch's own. Inevitably the two forces clashed in the Front Palace crisis (วิกฤตการณ์วังหน้า). Wichaichan was defeated and the power of the Front Palace was greatly diminished. After his death in 1885, the last vestiges of the title were abolished in favour of a Crown Prince (สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร).[3]

Early life

Phra Ong Chao Yodying Prayurayot Bovorn Rachorod Rattana Rachakumarn (พระองค์เจ้ายอดยิ่งประยุรยศบวรราโชรสรัตนราชกุมาร) was born on the 6 April 1838, the eldest son of Prince Chutamani and Princess Aim. It was said that his father gave him an English name in honour of his personal hero, the first President of the United States, George Washington (1732 - 1799).[4] Therefore he is sometimes referred to as Prince George Washington or Prince George.[1][2][5][6] In May 1851 Prince Yodyingyot's father was elevated as Second King Pinklao or the Front Palace by his older brother King Mongkut (Rama IV). Pinklao also received from his brother all the styles, titles and honour of a monarch, despite never having been crowned himself.[5] During his childhood the Prince received a modern education, including the English language and modern sciences. It was said that he became an extremely skillful engineer.[2][7]

After King Pinklao's death in 1866, King Mongkut decided not to appoint another Front Palace due to the fact that his own son Prince Chulalongkorn was only 12 years old. This meant that the position which was also that of the heir presumptive was left unoccupied (Siam had no law of succession at the time, but the Vice King was seen as the strongest claimant).[8] Fearing instability, Chao Phraya Si Suriyawongse (สมเด็จเจ้าพระยาบรมมหาศรีสุริยวงศ์, 1808 - 1883) (Chuang Bunnag) (ช่วง บุนนาค) the Kalahom (กลาโหม) (one of the Prime Ministers of Siam)[9] tried to persuade the King to appoint Prince Yodyingyot to succeed King Pinklao. Si Suriyawongse was a member of the powerful Bunnag family (บุนนาค), which had dominated the running of the Siamese government since the reign of King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II). The King refused to appoint Yodyingyot, instead he elevated the Prince to Krom Muen Bowon Wichaichan or Prince Bowon Wichaichan in 1867. This meant Wichaichan was only made a Prince of the Front Palace but not the actual title of Front Palace.[7] Since 1865 the Prince was also the commander of the Front Palace's naval forces.

Wichaichan was a great friend of the British Consul-General to Siam: Thomas George Knox (1824 - 1887), he was originally recruited by Pinklao to modernize the Front Palace's armed forces. Knox greatly preferred the mature and experienced Wichaichan — who was also the son of one of the most westernized member of the elite to ascend the throne — over the young Chulalongkorn.[10]


In August 1868 King Mongkut contracted malaria whilst on an expedition to see a solar eclipse in Prachuap Khiri Khan province (ประจวบคีรีขันธ์), six weeks later he died on 1 October. The young Chulalongkorn (who was only 15 years old at the time) was unanimously declared King by a council of high-ranking nobility, princes of the Chakri Dynasty and monks.[1] The council was presided by Si Suriyawongse who was also appointed Regent for the young King.[11]

During the meeting when one of the Princes nominated Wichaichan as the next Front Palace, many in the council objected. The most notable objection of this nomination came from Prince Vorachak Tharanubhab.[11] The Prince argued that the appointment of such an important position was the sole prerogative of the King and not of the council. Furthermore the position was not hereditary and the appointment of the son of the former could set a dangerous precedent.[8] The nomination of Wichaichan however was supported by Si Suriyawongse who wanted to secure a line of succession by appointing an able and experienced Front Palace (as the second-in-line to the throne). Si Suriyawongse was determined, he retorted by accusing the Prince of wanting to be appointed himself ("ที่ไม่ยอมนั้น อยากจะเป็นเองหรือ"). The Prince replied wearily "If you have ask me to permit it [the appointment], then I will have to permit it" ("ถ้าจะให้ยอมก็ต้องยอม").[7] As a result Prince Wichaichan was appointed Front Palace (Krom Phra Rajawang Bovorn Sathan Mongkol) and Vice King (อุปราช) without the full consent of the incoming Monarch.[11] The relationship between Chulalongkorn and the Wichaichan would remain difficult for the rest of the latter's life, based on this fact.[12] On 11 November 1868 Wichaichan's cousin Chulalongkorn was crowned Supreme King of Siam at the Grand Palace.

Since the elevation of King Pinklao twenty years earlier the office of Front Palace had gained considerable amount of power and prestige. The Vice-King had his own army of over 2,000 men, western trained and western armed.[13] He also controlled a naval forces of several steam powered gunboats. The Prince also had a large share of state revenues over one-third of which is given directly to him for the maintenance of his officials, retinue, court, concubines and advisors.[2][8][14]

Front Palace crisis
Main article: Front Palace crisis (วิกฤตการณ์วังหน้า)

When Chulalongkorn came of age in 1873 he and his western educated brothers were intent on creating a modern absolutist state. Siamese government during previous reigns were dominated by the aristocracy with many elements of feudalism still in existence. In order to modernize and centralize the state Chulalongkorn must consolidate the Royal government's control over finances and the bureaucracy. First he created the Auditing Office and then a year later the Privy Council of Siam. These two reforms quickly drew the ire of the aristocracy and Wichaichan, whose powers were slowly being eroded.[15]

The conflict between Chulalongkorn and Wichaichan over these reforms erupted in open confrontation, after Wichaichan received an anonymous letter threatening his life. On the 28 December 1874 a fire erupted in the Grand Palace (พระบรมมหาราชวัง), Wichaichan's reluctance to help quell the flames gave Chulalongkorn the excuse he needed to lay siege to the Front Palace.[16][17] As a result on the night of 2 January 1875, Wichaichan fled to the British Consulate to the south of Bangkok to seek refuge from the King.[18] Negotiations between the two cousins began, however no clear conclusions were reached, with Wichaichan under the impression that his life was in danger, he refused all reconciliation.[18][19]

By February the crisis has reached stalemate. Si Suriyawongse decided to advise the British acting-Consul to invite an influential person to intervene and end the crisis. Invitations were made to Sir Andrew Clarke (1824 - 1902) the Governor of the Straits Settlements.[18][20] Clarke arrived in Bangkok on 18 February, after some deliberations with various factions he decided to supported the young King over Wichaichan.[21][22] On the evening of 24 February Clarke forced the humiliated Wichaichan to accept Chulalongkorn's terms in full.[12][23]

The terms of the settlement stripped Wichaichan of all of his powers, he was able to keep only 200 guards of small weaponry, he was also forced to abdicate his title of Vice King.[23] Despite this he was able to remain Front Palace and keep his residence. Chulalongkorn also promised to take responsibility for his finances and safety. He lived the rest of his life quietly as an educated gentleman, being consigned to his palace. The role and influence of the Front Palace and the nobility was greatly diminished and Chulalongkorn was able to continue his reforms in peace without opposition.[24] In 1881 Wichaichan met King Kalākaua (1826 - 1891) of the Hawaiian Islands, who made a stop in Siam on his world tour. The King noted that Wichaichan was well educated and spoke English fluently.[25]


Wichaichan died on 28 August 1885 at the age of 47.[23] Prince Bovorn Wichaichan was cremated with great ceremony on the field of Sanam Luang on 14 June 1886.[7] The Front Palace compound itself was partly demolished, parts that remain were given to Wichaichan's consorts, daughters and sisters as residences (sons were excluded).

After his death the office of Front Palace was left vacant until On 14 January 1886, when Chulalongkorn's son with Princess Consort Savang Vadhana (สว่างวัฒนา, 1862 - 1955) was made Crown Prince Maha Vajirunhis (มหาวชิรุณหิศ, 1878 - 1895) or Somdet Phra Boromma-orasathirat Sayam Makutrajakuman. The title of Front Palace, which was first created in 1688 by King Petracha (สมเด็จพระเพทราชา, 1632–1703) of Ayutthaya was thus abolished and replaced with an heir apparent, whose succession is to be based on the principle of male primogeniture.[3][25] The new invented title brought Siamese succession in line with the European tradition.


During his lifetime Wichaichan fathered 28 children with various consorts and concubines. With Chao Chom Manda (Princess Consort) Prik Lek he fathered: Prince Karnchananophas Rasmi, the Prince Chanchai Bovornyod (พระองค์เจ้ากาญจโนภาสรัศมี กรมหมื่นชาญไชยบวรยศ), whose descendants use the surname: Kanchanawichai (กาญจนะวิชัย). And with Consort Leam: Prince Rajani Chamcharas, the Prince Bidyalongkorn (พระองค์เจ้ารัชนีแจ่มจรัส กรมหมื่นพิทยาลงกรณ์), whose descendants use the surname: Rajani (รัชนี). One of Prince Rajani Chamcharas' descendants is Mom Chao Bhisadej Rajani (ภีศเดช รัชนี, 1920 - ), the President of the Royal Projects of King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), a grandson of King Chulalongkorn.

Royal Titles and Decorations


  • 1838: His Serene Highness Prince George Washington
  • 1838 - 1867: His Royal Highness Prince Yodying Prayurayot
  • 1867 - 1868: His Royal Highness Prince Yodying Prayurayot, the Prince Bowon Wichaichan
  • 1868 - 1885: His Royal Highness Prince Yodying Prayurayot, the Palace Prince Bowon Wichaichan"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2015-04-22]


Der Reitwagen von Gottlieb Daimler (1834 - 1900) und Wilhelm Maybach (1846 - 1929) wird in Deutschland patentiert. Es ist der erste Vorläufer des Motorrads. Der Daimler-Motor soll nach dem Willen des Erfinders alles bewegen, was zu Land, zu Wasser und in der Luft sich bewegen soll. Die erste öffentliche Ausfahrt des Reitwagens ist am 1885-11-10.

Abb.: Aus der Patentschrift 1885

Abb.: Motorräder, Bangkok, 2011
[Bildquelle: ルーク.チャン.チャン . -- -- Zugriff am 2013-09-19. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Berlin (Deutsches Reich): Unterzeichnung des Abkommens über den Import und die Besteuerung von Alkohol.


Ernest Satow (1843 - 1929), britischer Minister Resident and Consul-General, an Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830 - 1903):

'If the Siamese, Laos and Burmese Shans were ultimately to be united under one sceptre, they would constitute a populous and homogeneous state extending from the Gulf of Siam right up to the Chinese frontier, and spreading over the centre of the Indochinese peninsula. Such a state might perhaps become strong enough to maintain its independence without extraneous aid.'

[Zitiert in: Tuck, Patrick J. N.: The French wolf and the Siamese lamb : the French threat to Siamese independence, 1858-1907. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 434 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-28-7. -- S. 240]


Note des französischen Außenministeriums an Außenminister Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (1828 - 1923). Von Freycinet gebilligt.

 'Notre politique à l'égard du Siam, d'après l'avis de ceux mêmes de nos agents qui auraient apporté à Bangkok des idées toutes différentes, doit être moins à viser pour nous- mêmes un protectorat que l'hostilité des anglais rendrait à bref délai impraticable que nous prémunir contre toute tentative de ce genre de la part de nos rivaux mieux en situation que nous de mener à bien une pareille entreprise. En un mot nous pourrions nous tenir pour satisfaits le jour où l'indépendance du Siam se trouverait garantie par un accord international...'

[Zitiert in: Tuck, Patrick J. N.: The French wolf and the Siamese lamb : the French threat to Siamese independence, 1858-1907. -- Bangkok : White Lotus, 1995. -- 434 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 974-8496-28-7. -- S. 355, Anm. 32]


Aufmarsch gegen die Ho [ฮ่อ / خُوِذُو]

"In November 1885, the army went north under a new flag, the arms of the kingdom emblazoned in gold and silver on a red ground edged with disci. Attached to the top of the flag was a lock of the king's hair. The king honored the army with the flag, presented as his substitute body, and enjoined them to die for the flag as they would for him in battle--to act like Westerners who reverenced their flags above life itself and defended them to the death. This new martial symbol and code of battle conduct, by which old loyalties to the king's person were transferred to a Western symbol of state, magically charged with the mana of the royal head, were intended to rally the morale of an army that was the first recognizeably Western one Bangkok had ever sent into the field.

Abb.: Armeeflagge (ธงจุฑาธุชธิปไตย)
[Bildquelle: Xiengyod / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

The force of some six hundred troops was organized into a headquarters, infantry, artillery, engineers, Gatling gun crew and ammunition guard. Except for the artillery, who were drawn from hereditary bands attached to the Front Palace, and for the gun crews, who were seconded from Prince Sai Snidvong's Royal Yacht command, the troops came from the First Foot.

Abb.: Gatling Gun (
Gatling-Repetiergeschütz) Modell 1876
Matthew Trump / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Supply and transport were in the hands of provincial levies, some of whom reinforced the army in the field. The troops, who wore uniforms and sun helmets (although they were still bare-footed), carried their equipment in back-packs rather than on shoulder-poles. The infantry officers were armed with sword and pistol, like European ensigns; the rank and file were arced with Sniders and bayonets.

Snider-Enfield Rifle (Hinterlader)
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

The artillery was equipped with two copper mortars, two howitzers (field pieces ordered years before by Sisuryawong [สมเด็จเจ้าพระยาบรมมหาศรีสุริยวงศ์, 1808–1882]) and two muzzle-loading Armstrong mountain pieces that had lain unsold for years in the store of Ramsay, Wakefield and Co.

Abb.: Armstrong RML 9, 1880

The gun crew carried two Gatling guns. There was an abundance of ammunition, the cannon shells in bewildering variety. The infantry and the gun crews were trained troops who drilled daily while bivouacked at Phichai [พิชัย] before starting east rather than wandering idly in search of fun like the levies in the northern army of 1875.

Abb.: Lage von
Phichai [พิชัย]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

The artillery, however, was green. Neither the artillery master nor his bombardiers had ever fired the howitzers, for which there was no manual, nor the Armstrong mountain pieces. It was many a long day since the men of the Front Palace [วังหน้า] artillery had had any real claim to recognition as artillerists. Their commander had to begin training them en route to the battle field because the Italian instructor who had volunteered for this task, Charles Pinson, had to be sent back to Bangkok for quarrelling with Siamese officers.

This army of plainsmen sent to campaign in unhealthy highlands was accompanied by a European physician, Doctor Tierney, whose supply of Western medicines, notably quinine, was regarded as a new Siamese "source of military strength". Tierney's hygienic regimen against cholera may well have saved the army from a recurrence of the decimating epidemic that had cut down Chaophraya Phuttharaphai's [
พระยาภูธราภัย = Nut Bunyarattaphan - นุช บุณยรัตพันธุ์] army of 1875. So that Phra Nai Wai's army would not descend upon the subject Lao as a plague of locusts, the Siamese Crown took full responsibility for commissariat and made pilfering from the peasantry a matter for severe discipline. Unprecedented attention was given to the logistics of supply by lines of coolies, pack elephants and oxen over mountains and ravines in country where the rains lengthened a day's travel three or four times. These natural obstacles to supply were more easily overcome than corruption at the main provincial staging center which very nearly failed the best-trained, best-armed, best-organized Siamese force ever to set foot in the Lao world. Phra Nai Wai's army had more in common with the columns of the British Indian Any that would soon pacify the Burmese Shan states and with the French military expeditions pushing into the Black Thai [ไทยดำ] country than with the army Chaophraya Phuttharaphai had led north in 1875.

"With an army like this, what need is there to fear the Ho [ฮ่อ / خُوِذُو]? " asked the Lord of Nan [น่าน], who was quickly convinced by a snappy jump to the bugle that Phra Nai Wai's army was not another "Keng Tung" [ၵဵင်းတုင်].

Abb.: Lage von Nan
[Bildquelle: Scottish Geographical Magazine, 1886]

Up to a point, he was right. The northern army quickly gave a good account of itself against small stockades of undisciplined Ho. The heavy artillery and the Gatling guns, which were cumbersome in the hills where mobility was more important than slow bombard, were left in the rear. The breech-loading Sniders of the Siamese outfired the Ho flintlocks and the clutter of Winchesters, Martinis, Enfields and Remingtons—some of them flotsam and jetsam of the Franco-Viet wars--that were charged with home-made bullets and powder. The opening skirmishes of the campaign, like European colonial wars, were sub-lieutenants' paradises in which Siamese élan and technological advantage carried the day.

Winchester 1866 Karabiner
[Bildquelle: Hmaag / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

Abb.: Martini-Henri Gewehr Modell 1871
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Remington
Remington New Model Army, 1863
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

And then the rains came. It was only ingenuity with Western technology that saved the northern army from annihilation. In their encampments, almost to a man, the Bangkok troops were laid low with malaria. Their quinine supply failed. The Ho surrounded them. Only "land torpedoes" (mines), cleverly improvised by Phra Nai Wai from artillery shells, prevented the Ho from carrying the Siamese encampments. These "land torpedoes", which would later be manufactured by the War Office as standard equipment for the army, were said to enable one man to take on twenty. Hidden mines triggered by trip-wires put more terror into the Ho than the sight of a chief's head impaled on a bloody stake before the Siamese main-camp. The Lao and the Ho were awe-struck by the "miraculous power" of the mine explosions. Hot even the artillery, which was put to good use, was as terrifying as the bolts from underfoot. Siamese technical knowledge, which was big magic to their enemies, who were mystified by the unencountered and the unknown, saved the northern army in its extremity.

When the rains passed and the Siamese could return to the offensive, the Ho were attacked where they were weakest. Systematically their stores were taken and their leaders hunted. By offering rewards for information, captives and heads, Phra Nai Wai sought to make the Lao world uncooperative and hostile towards the Ho who could only be aided under pain of Siamese punishment. The Siamese set dog against dog. And they also offered a place in the sun to flag gangs who would bow to Bangkok. Even before the northern army left Bangkok, King Chulalongkorn had given Phra Nai Wai to understand that a punitive military expedition from Bangkok could at best scatter the flag gangs which would survive to pillage the peasantry of the tributaries--unless, perhaps, they were given the chance of choosing a settled life to vagrancy. It was Siamese policy to accept submission wherever it was offered and even to seek it out rather than carrying war and retaliation up to all the bands, some of whom were peaceable enough. So, the northern army of pacification gathered allegiance, sanctioned by cock's blood oaths. The place of intruders in the nether reaches of the realm was recognized if they would recognize Siamese suzerainty.

Suppression of renegades was not complete nor were the ties between the Siamese king and his new subjects more substantial than a cock's blood oath and a certain respect for military power when the northern army returned to Bangkok. The army had done about as much as could be expected of it. Having organized a military police in Luang Prabang [ຫຼວງພະບາງ] and stationed Lao militia at strategic points east of the Mekong, Phra Nai Wai returned with his little army to Bangkok, accompanied by ninety Lao officials, brought to the capital to be impressed by its power, and three sons of the Ho ruler of Lai, the most influential ruler of all the flag chiefs, who were held hostage.

Abb.: Lage von Luang Prabang
[Bildquelle: Scottish Geographical Magazine, 1886]

The army, which was granted a triumphal entry into the capital, had vindicated itself as a rod of state and shown that the new military could do more than the old. The punitive expedition had opened the way for the reorganization of the administration of the Lao tributaries by means of which the Siamese hoped to forestall French claims there. In his Birthday Speech of 1886, which was intended for foreign ears as much as Siamese, King Chulalongkorn began to speak of the Lao "provinces"."

[Quelle: Battye, Noel Alfred <1935 - >: The military, government, and society in Siam, 1868-1910 : politics and military reform during the reign of King Chulalongkorn. -- 1974. -- 575 S. -- Diss., Cornell Univ. -- S. 252 - 258. -- Fair use]


Gründung der École cambodgienne in Paris, 1889 umbenannt in École nationale de la France d'outre-mer.

"Im November 1885 wurde eine Kolonialschule nach dem Vorbild der Hochschulen ins Leben gerufen und 1896 in der Avenue de l'Observatoire in einem Haus im maurischen Stil untergebracht. Ihre Absolventen stellten damals übrigens erst eine geringe Minderheit innerhalb des kolonialen Beamtentums. Die Zeit wurde noch von der Figur des Kolonialoffiziers vom Typ Hubert Lyautey beherrscht, eines ehemaligen Adjutanten Gallienis in Indochina und Madagaskar. Im Jahr 1900 veröffentlichte er in der »Revue des Deux Mondes« seine »Briefe aus Tongking und Madagaskar«; sie zeichneten das Bild eines friedensstiftenden Offiziers, das man seit der Gründung Algeriens und anderer Kolonien in Saharanähe kannte. Der französische Kolonialoffizier sah sich als Verwalter, Lehrer, Erzieher und Erneuerer der »Eingeborenen«, die ihn liebten und respektierten. Als er den Arbeitstag eines dieser Beamten in Madagaskar beschrieb, notierte er: »Er ist der einzige Krieg, den ich mag und verstehe, denn er bringt schnell mehr Reichtum, mehr Kultur und mehr Sicherheit.« Sobald die Unterwerfung der Einheimischen erfolgreich abgeschlossen war - so sein Lehrmeister Gallieni-, bestand die erste Pflicht eines Kolonialoffiziers darin, »das Dorf wieder aufzubauen und einen Markt sowie eine Schule einzurichten.«

Die Kolonialideologie baute nicht bloß auf wirtschaftlichen Argumenten auf. Eugene Etienne versicherte 1897 vergeblich, das einzige Kriterium bei einer kolonialen Unternehmung sei »sein Grad an Nützlichkeit«; die Gegner des Kolonialsystems konnten mühelos beweisen, dass die Kolonien viel Geld kosteten - der Kolonialhaushalt wuchs zwischen 1885 und 1902 von 42,6 auf 116 Millionen Francs - und nicht viel einbrachten. Zwischen 1896 und 1900 betrug der Anteil der Exporte in die französischen Kolonien lediglich 9,8 Prozent des Gesamtexports, die Importe aus den Kolonien nur 7,8 Prozent der Gesamteinfuhr. Der Kolonialismus war eigentlich eine Form des Nationalismus: Nicht nur, dass er Frankreich wieder zu Ruhm und Ehre brachte, er erlaubte ihm auch, seinen zivilisatorischen Auftrag in der Welt zu erfüllen. Frankreich brachte nicht nur »Märkte und Schulen«, sondern auch die Befreiung von Unterdrückern und Sklavenhaltern."

[Quelle: Caron, François <1931 - >: Frankreich im Zeitalter des Imperialismus 1851 - 1918. -- Stuttgart : DVA, 1991. -- (Geschichte Frankreichs ; Bd. 5). -- ISBN 3-421-06455-5. -- Originaltitel: La France des patriotes de 1851 à 1918 (1985). -- S. 459f.]

"Die École nationale de la France d’Outre-Mer (ENFOM) war eine französische Hochschule, deren Aufgabe die Ausbildung von Führungspersonal für den französischen Kolonialdienst war.

Die École nationale de la France d’Outre-Mer geht auf die 1885 in Paris gegründete Mission Cambodgienne zurück. Die Mission wurde von Auguste Pavie (1847 - 1925), einem französischen Entdecker und Diplomaten, der große Kenntnisse über die Sitten und Gebräuche Kambodschas erworben hatte, initiiert. Er hatte den schlechten Ausbildungsstand besonders der indigenen Kolonialbeamten moniert, und so erhielten die ersten dreizehn kambodschanischen Studenten ihre Ausbildung.

1887 wurde die Einrichtung offiziell anerkannt und 1888 in École coloniale umbenannt. Die École Coloniale stand allen Bewohnern der französischen Kolonien offen und bildete Verwaltungsbeamte für das französische Kolonialreich aus. Unter Georges Hardy, der von 1926 bis 1933 Direktor der Anstalt war, wurden vorbereitende Klassen an den Eliteschulen Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri IV und Lycée Chaptal in Paris eingeführt und Studiengebühren abgeschafft. Die Dauer der Ausbildung betrug nun drei Jahre.

1934 wurde die École coloniale in École nationale de la France d’Outre-Mer umbenannt und unter Führung von Robert Delavignette zahlreiche Reformen durchgeführt und das Studienangebot erweitert. Kurse befassten sich unter anderem mit Volkswirtschaft, Recht, Enthnologie, Sprachen, Tropenmedizin und Kultur der Kolonialvölker.

Die Gründung der École nationale d’administration (ENA) im Jahre 1945 und die Dekolonialisierung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg läutete das Ende der Einrichtung ein. Die École wurde 1959 durch das Institut des hautes études d’Outre-Mer, aus dem 1966 das Institut international d’administration publique hervorging, dessen Aufgabe es nun war, Verwaltungskräfte für die unabhängig gewordenen ehemaligen Kolonien auszubilden. 2002 wurde das Institut international d’administration publique in die ENA eingegliedert."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2013-09-14]

1885-11-07 - 1885-11-29

Third Anglo-Burmese War. Großbritannien erobert den Rest von Burma (Upper Burma - အထက်မြန်မာပြည်)

Abb.: Lage von Upper Burma (
အထက်မြန်မာပြည်) (rot: British-India)
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Die britische Expansion Richtung Burma
[Bildquelle: Joppen, Charles <1878 - >: Historical atlas of India for the use of high schools, colleges, and private students. -- London : Longmans, 1907.]

Burma schickt eine Delegation nach Paris, um Frankreich um Unterstützung gegen Großbritannien zu bitten. Der birmanische Gesandtschaftsleiter trifft sich auch mit dem Gesandten Siams, Prinz Prisdang Jumsai (พระอง์คเจ้า ปฤษฎาง์ค ชุมสาย, 1851 - 1932):

The Burmese ambassador s talk with Prince Prisdang was recorded as follows:
  1. The ambassador had given up all hope of safeguarding the country s independence. It was too late and no measure of any kind would help to reverse the situation. News from home had not arrived and the embassy was short of money. The ambassador had to ask for help from the French Government, and had to see the British Minister before returning home.
  2. Concerning the conflict between the Burmese Government and an English Company that led to the British ultimatum, the ambassador wrote letters to ask for the assistance of Italy, Germany and France, asserting that should Burma be lost to England, other nations would also stand to lose. But none came to the rescue. Without any more alternative, the ambassador wrote to the British Minister to request that England refrain from going to war with Burma, and to say that he would ask his Government to comply with the obligations that were at issue. In reply, the Colonial Office wrote to thank the ambassador saying that England had wished otherwise in this case, whereupon the embassy sent words to the Burmese Government requesting the latter to comply with the said obligations. The Government merely replied to say that the embassy should wait for another letter which in effect never arrived. The ambassador felt deeply sorry that his country should be lost because the Government refused to accept his advice.
  3. This embassy had previously been to Europe and was of the opinion then that Burma should have come to terms with England, but the King's Ministers disagreed and the Court's flatterers were simply bent on pushing the King to resist the British. The King, according to the ambassador, did not even know his people or country, and was certainly not informed of the events around him since he stayed inside the Palace all the time except for his only once a year appearance outside the palace walls.
  4. The ambassador confirmed that all the princes were arrested at the change of the reign and some officials had suggested that a large luxurious prison be built to keep them. However, the King s inner circle and flatterers pressed for their execution in order to be rid of the problem once and for all, which actual event was of course well-known. The King who was the youngest of the family saw a revolt staged earlier by his eldest brother who, having failed, fled to India, and was therefore one of the few who escaped the massacre of the princes. Thirty princes were put to death when the present King came to the throne.
  5. The ambassador complained that no country understood or sympathized with the reasons put forward by the Burmese Government who had no representative abroad. He admitted that his Government had broken certain promises made to England but asserted that the latter was the first to have violated the treaty. The crux of the matter was that the Burmese had been promised with a delivery of firearms but when the time came the British side turned renegade and went out of its way to prevent the Burmese from buying arms from anywhere. True, he said, as a smaller country, Burma should never have broken her own promises. Nevertheless, the case as he saw it was one-sided.
  6. That the country should fall so easily to the British must be attributed to the fact that the Burmese people would no longer offer any resistance. Having suffered for a long time, they did not mind living under a foreign power if it meant a better government.
  7. The Burmese ambassador naturally grieved over the loss of his country, but thought that the British Government would be more progressive and
    bring prosperity As such, the loss of independence was in a way beneficial to the people.
  8. He said that the tragic event was brought about by the fact that the King was too young in matters of foreign affairs and only listened to court jesters. He concluded that it was a sad destiny that the country could not keep its independence.

The ambassador then asked the Thai Minister whether it would not now be the turn of Siam to succumb to the same fate. The Prince reiterated that King Chulalongkorn was an enlightened monarch who had been abroad to see the affairs of other nations and who had made changes that led to a more modern administration in the country.

Lamenting the fact that his country could not see things ahead and be in the same position as Siam, the ambassador went on to say that Burma was full of resources and riches, and could have become great had she retained her independence. Finally he wanted to know whether in Prince Prisdang's view, England would allow Burma to have a king. The Thai Minister replied that if the Conservatives came to power, Burma would be completely taken over; however, if the Liberals won, the country would perhaps be a protectorate. But then, the Prince enquired, where was Burma to find a king if all the princes had been massacred. The Burmese ambassador told the Prince that the King had an elder brother who lived in Pondicherry [புதுச்சேரி] and that he, the ambassador, had already sent a telegram to the British Government to say that he was ready to bring the Burmese prince home. Prince Prisdang cautioned the ambassador saying that England was unlikely to agree to the proposal for fear that the said prince, having lived in the French Territory, would take side with France.

The above formed part of a report which Prince Prisdang forwarded to King Chulalongkorn together with a letter."

[Zitiert in: Manich Jumsai [มานิจ ชุมสาย] <1908 - 2009>: Prince Prisdang's files on his diplomatic activities in Europe, 1880-1886. -- Bangkok : Chalermnit, 1977. -- 267 S. : Ill. ; 19 cm. -- S. 247 - 252]


Thibaw Min (သီပေါ‌မင်း, 1859 - 1916), der letzte König Burmas, muss zurücktreten. Er wird nach Ratnagiri (रत्‍नागिरी) in Indien exiliert.

Abb.: Der Rücktritt von König Thibaw Min (
[Bildquelle: Saya Chone / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

1885-12-01 - 1886-03-11

Der britische Gesandte, Ernest Mason Satow (1843 - 1929), reist von Bangkok nach Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่), um das dortige Gericht für britische Untertane zu inspizieren.

Teile seines Reisetagebuchs werden 1892 veröffentlicht. Vollständig erscheint das Reisetagebuch als

Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6.

Abb.: Ernest Mason Satow
[Bildquelle: Leslie Ward (1851 - 1922). -- In: Vanity Fair. -- 1903-04-23. -- Public domain]


"This seems a suitable place for explaining the system of provincial organization. With the exception of Bangkok, the whole of the country is divided between three Ministers, who reside at the capital. One has the western provinces, including the Siamese part of the Malay peninsula, a second has the southern and southeastern provinces, while the third has jurisdiction over all the provinces of the north, which are more extensive perhaps than the other two portions added together. The number of provinces, which means those districts whose governors report direct to Bangkok, is variously stated, but seems to be about forty, and many of these are divided into sub-provinces. It differs from time to time, because a subordinate province every now and then is allowed to have direct relations with the minister. The local administration of a province is composed of a Governor, vice-governor and a judge, with a censor whose duty is supposed to be that of reporting any irregularities of which the others may be guilty. An admirable arrangement, no doubt, if it worked properly, but in practice the censor is an accomplice of the other three in plundering the people and embezzling the revenue. Only a portion of the latter comes to Bangkok. The officials have either no fixed salaries, or such as are merely nominal. On the other hand they are allowed to pocket all fees, without rendering an account. They generally obtain their appointments by bribing the minister or some other high official, and as they pay large sums for their places, it often requires years of extortion before they can recoup themselves. I have heard of a governor of a sub-province who had given a note of hand for a large amount to the official who negotiated his appointment, and who was threatened with imprisonment for debt because he had not contrived to redeem it within the stipulated time."

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 28f.]


"After lunch we landed at Banköh [zwischen Phayuha Khiri - พยุหะคีรี - und Nakhon Sawan - นครสวรรค์], and visited the village, which lies five minutes’ walk from the bank and is picturesquely situated on the border of the forest, in the vicinity of banana plantations and fields of sweet potatoes. For the first time, I noticed that the houses were thatched with grass instead of the leaves of the Nipa palm [Nypa fruticans], which is used at Bangkok and in its vicinity. Probably the change from the palm frond to grass begins much lower down the river. But this thatch is quite different in appearance from ours. The grass is doubled over a slender strip of bamboo about three feet long and threaded together with some undressed fibrous plant exactly in the same manner as the ataps [Imperata Cylindrica sp.]familiar to travellers in the Malay countries, so as to form a sort of mat, which is laid on like tiles, and the whole thickness of roofing thus obtained cannot be more than a couple of inches even where these "tiles" overlap. Compare that with the deep thatch of an English cottage of the olden style. Yet it seems to form a perfectly water-tight covering, and this is all the more remarkable because of the heavy fall of rain, sometimes three inches in six hours, which you get in these countries.

Two men were playing at a sort of backgammon. Each player in turn takes five cowries which he slides into the bamboo tube that serves for a dice box, and pours them out through a drum (marked A) furnished with three sets of cross sticks, which entirely prevent the player from controlling the manner in which the cowries shall fall - whether on their backs or faces - and the coins on the board are moved in accordance with the number which fall on their faces. What brings the game to an end I was not able to leam, owing to my ignorance of the language."

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 36f.]


"We stopped for a while at the village of Nong Khem, on the right bank. There are extensive plantations of sugar-cane close by, besides groups of sugar-palms and rice-fields stretching away for several miles in the direction of the jungle, which as retired far from the river. To the west lies a range of low hills.

There is an iron industry here, which supplies the neighbourhood with knives and hatchets, the metal being brought up from Bangkok by Chinese traders, who retail it at a little over 2d. a pound, or £21 a ton. The blacksmiths use a double air-pump, consisting of two upright bamboo tubes, having at their base slender pipes converging towards each other and working alternately so as to keep up a continual blast. The charcoal which they use is made from the mai yang, or dammar oil- tree. It is a primitive-looking arrangement, but the principle seems to be adopted all over the East, bellows being entirely unknown. They have the air-pump in Japan, but it is differently arranged there, being a wooden box in which the piston is worked horizontally by a boy sitting on the ground."

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 50]


Über Phichai (พิชัย)

Abb.: Lage von Phichai (พิชัย)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"In these distant provinces, the Governors are almost as independent as the Viceroys in China were said to be before the introduction of the electric telegraph; and, as long as they pay a certain portion of the taxes into the King’s treasury, no questions are asked. Phya Phichai [พระยาพิชัย], however, possesses the reputation of being a righteous man, and will be much regretted. (I heard of his death on arriving at Chiengmai.) His house is built of brick, with windows, in European style - an imposing edifice for a spot so remote from European influences."

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 51]


"At 8.30 we passed Ban Tha Kasen, and half an hour later stuck on a sandbank. Some minutes were spent in crossing from side to side of the river in search of a channel, and when it was found the men abandoned their sculls for poles, for the current had suddenly become swifter. The official who accompanied us today was very communicative. He said that last year 500 men were impressed in Sukhothai [สุโขทัย] for military service against the Chinese on the northeast frontier, of whom 200 deserted and returned to their homes. They were recaptured and sent up again this year in company with 300 more, of whom sixty-five have already found their way back. He added that buffalo theft was very common. Some time ago the Governor issued very stringent proclamations, in consequence of which several of the thieves were arrested, and confined in prison, but after six or seven months detention they were released upon the payment of heavy fines, i.e. bribes to the governor. We are given to understand that this official grievously oppresses the people, but his province lies out of the ordinary trade routes, and his misdeeds are seldom reported to the king.


We made the acquaintance of the spirit-farmer, who speaks very bad Siamese, though he has lived thirty years in the country and has a houseful of Siamese wives. He is the head of some 300 Chinamen who reside in the province. Amongst these are only four who claim the privileges of British subjects. Parties of Burmese, or more probably Toungthoos [Pa'O - ပဢူဝ်း], sometimes come here to trade. "

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 66]


Das japanische Kaiserreich erhält ein Parlament nach europäischem Muster. Erster Ministerpräsident wird Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文, 1841 - 1909)

Abb.: Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文)
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Lage von Tha-it [ท่าอิฐ] und Tali-fu
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"Having heard that a caravan of Chinese had arrived at Tha-it [ท่าอิฐ], we procured ponies and rode thither, but found only two of the head men, the rest of the men being encamped further up the river. One of them spoke Pekingese: and I had some trouble to recall my small knowledge of that dialect, in order to converse with him. He said they had brought down opium for sale, but could not come to an agreement with the man who exercises the local monopoly of the drug. This man was a great traveler, and had been as far as Rangoon. He wanted a letter from me to the Bangkok authorities, and expressed his readiness to become a British subject in order to obtain it. But that of course was out of the question. These Chinese had come from Tali-fu in western Yunnan [雲南] by way of Pu-erh [Pu'er - 普洱], Szu-mao [Simao - 思茅], Chienghung [เชียงหุ่ง / เชียงรุ่ง / Chiang Rung]  (where they cross to the right bank of the Me-Khong), Mu’ang Lim, Chiengsen [เชียงแสน] (where they enter the Siamese Lao provinces), Chienghai [เจียงฮาย = Chiang Rai], Prayao [Phayao - พะเยา], and Phre [Phrae - แป้ - แพร่], and had been three months on the way. They were mussulmen, and wore turbans."

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 80]


"I must tell you that I had at this time a weak habit of believing almost everything that was told me, unless it was a patent untruth; but experience has since taught me that in the case of a Siamese, with but few exceptions, the rule should be quite the other way. You must always suppose him to be lying, unless you know the facts to be in accordance with what he says. "

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 84]


Phrae [แป้/แพร่]

Abb.: Lage von Phrae [แป้/แพร่]
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

"It is a remarkable fact that the rupee has quite superseded the native silver coin among the Laos, as far as commercial purposes are concerned, and that the Siamese tical is not, and apparently never has been, current in the dependent states. The native coin which is still used in paying fines is a round "blob" of metal, flat on one side, and raised on the other, and hollow, like a flattened bubble. I frequently inquired how it was made, and though the accounts differed somewhat, came to the conclusion that the molten metal having been poured from a ladle on to a flat surface (probably a stone or a brick), the end of a slender bamboo tube is inserted into the silver before it has time to harden, and the surface raised by blowing through the tube. Finally a small stamp is impressed near the edge of the blackened and corrugated surface. The skin of the bubble is so thin that it easily yields to pressure. On the lower surface, which is much thicker, irregular, a hole is usually broken inwards. There is another silver coin made out of a small bar of silver, which is split up for the greater part of its length, the two ends being then bent round into a circular form. These are rough attempts to represent the two coins. In the Eastern Lao States there is another ancient silver coin, in the shape of a rough spindle or pencil sharpened at both ends, which is sometimes procurable in Chiengmai [เชียงใหม่].

I had made inquiries of the chief about the method of tattooing used by the Laos, and in the afternoon he came to call accompanied by his own man, who brought his tools with him. It is a simple process. The tattooing instrument I saw was seventeen inches in length, consisting of three parts. At one end were three thick strips of brass, each having six points, held together by a ring. This bundle is fixed into a brass tube, and the other end is weighted with lead. The colouring matter is said to be the gall of the wild bull or of the bear. The pattern is pricked out according to fancy, and the gall rubbed over the places, which is left to heal as best it may. The tattooing in most cases extends from the waist to below the knees, but is apparently seldom completed as on one occasion I saw a large proportion of the young fellows going about their work incompletely decorated."

"A little before sunset I went out for a walk, and on returning through the town met a number of women coming back from their labour in the fields. As the men are obliged to work for the chief, they are in a great measure prevented from looking after their crops, and the proportion of men to women as agricultural labourers is as one to two, according to what Phya Chai Raccha told us.

The tax on rice is two and a half per cent of the crop, which is certainly not heavy, and the royalty on teak is four rupees a log. The officials said there were no other taxes, and if they told the truth the people of Phre [แป้/แพร่] must be living under a most mild despotism. But from other sources I heard that they are sorely oppressed, and that the second chief in particular is a great brute. The gambling farm is leased to a Chinaman for 5,000 rupees a year, but the production of spirits is untaxed."

"Last of all a rather sour-visaged middle-aged woman chanted without accompaniment what was interpreted to us as a lament over the hard treatment which the Laos of Phre received from the Siamese, how every advantage was taken of the state being smaller than the other four to impose upon it excessive burdens, and how their hands and feet were shortened so that they were helpless against the oppressor. Luang Thoranen, who understands the Lao dialect, hung his head and looked very uncomfortable."

[Quelle: Satow, Ernest Mason <1843 - 1929>: A diplomat in Siam : H.B.M. Minister-Resident, Bangkok, 1885-88 / introduced and ed. by Nigel Brailey [1942 - 2008]. -- Rev ed. -- Bangkok : Orchid, 2000. -- 208 S. : Ill. ; 21 cm. -- (Itineraria Asiatica., Thailand ; 8). -- ISBN 974-8304-73-6. -- S. 97, 99, 100]


Auf Anregung des britischen Civil Servant und Vogelkundlers Allan Octavian Hume (1829 - 1912) gründen 72 indische Delegierte in Bombay (Indien) den Indian National Congress. Hume über den Zweck (1883):

"Every nation secures precisely as good a Government as it merits. If you the picked men, the most highly educated of the nation, cannot, scorning personal ease and selfish objects, make a resolute struggle to secure greater freedom for yourselves and your country, a more impartial administration, a larger share in the management of your own affairs, then we, your friends, are wrong and our adversaries right, then are Lord Ripon's noble aspirations for your good fruitless and visionary, then, at present at any rate all hopes of progress are at an end and India truly neither desires nor deserves any better Government than she enjoys."

Erster Generalsekretär ist Hume, erster Präsident Womesh Chaunder Bonnerjee (1844 - 1906). Der National Congress wird später entscheidend in der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung.

Abb.: The first Indian National Congress 1885

Abb.: Titelblatt des Hauptwerks von Allan Octavian Hume


Phrae [แป้/แพร่]

"The Phre [แป้/แพร่] people seemed to have completely thawed towards us, and I had willingly accepted their invitation to stop another day. In the evening the two chiefs and their ‘ministers’ came to perform a ceremony called rie kwan [ขวัญ] the object of which was to preserve us from harm whilst traversing the jungle on our way to Lakhon [ละคอน = Lampang - ลำปาง]. Before each of us was placed a pyramidal arrangement of silver vases and small circular tables such as the Lao people eat off, decorated with banana leaves, purple immortelles, pink oleander flowers and yellow chrysanthemums. The topmost bowl contained cakes, bananas, betel, hard-boiled eggs, rice and a wax candle and from each hung a couple of skeins of white cotton yarn. On the floor again in front of each pyramid was another bowl containing amaranths and wax tapers. When everyone had taken his place in solemn silence, the ‘doctor’ or exorcist as he ought more properly to be called, repeated a short prefatory prayer, and then lighting the tapers, fixed them on the side of the bowl. Next he peeled the bananas, broke the eggs and crumbled the rice, probably by way of propitiatory offering to the ‘spirits’. To each of us was given a skein of yarn to hold.

His preparations being now completed, he began to chant long litanies, composed in great part of Pali phrases, interspersed with mutterings in a low voice, all with great rapidity of utterance. These over, he broke off a small piece of yam, with which he stroked my hands in turn, repeating exorcisms all the while, and finally tied a bit of yarn round each of my wrists. Then the chief took his place, and tied pieces of yarn in the same manner, blowing upon the knot while fastening it. He was followed by the second chief and Phya Chai Raccha. The same ceremony was gone through with Archer. We were told that the yarn must be worn until it broke of its own accord. The custom of giving a money fee to the ‘Doctor’ was duly observed in conclusion.


The only books we saw were some bundles of palm leaves at the second chief’s, which he says were used for fortune-telling: what laws they have probably reside in the chief’s breast. The references in the recitation of last evening, which had been at first interpreted to be directed against Siamese tyranny were now re-explained, to refer to the bullying which the little state of Phre undergoes at the hands of its more powerful neighbour of Nan [น่าน], but it is likely that Luang Thoranen advised them to give this assurance, lest worse trouble should come upon them."

[Zitiert in: Mayoury Ngaosyvathn [ມະຍຸຣີ ເຫງົ້າສຼີວັດທະນາ] ; Pheuiphanh Ngaosyvathn [ເຜີຍພັນ ເຫງົ້າສຼີວັດທະນາ] <1946 - >: Paths to conflagration : fifty years of diplomacy and warfare in Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, 1778-1828. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell Univ., 1998. -- 270 S. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 24). -- ISBN 0-87727-723-0. -- S. 101f.]

Verwendete Ressourcen


Phongpaichit, Pasuk <ผาสุก พงษ์ไพจิตร, 1946 - > ; Baker, Chris <1948 - >: Thailand : economy and politics. -- Selangor : Oxford Univ. Pr., 1995. -- 449 S. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN 983-56-0024-4. -- Beste Geschichte des modernen Thailand.

Ingram, James C.: Economic change in Thailand 1850 - 1870. -- Stanford : Stanford Univ. Pr., 1971. -- 352 S. ; 23 cm. -- "A new edition of Economic change in Thailand since 1850 with two new chapters on developments since 1950". --  Grundlegend.

Akira, Suehiro [末廣昭] <1951 - >: Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855 - 1985. -- Tokyo : Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, ©1989. -- 427 S. ; 23 cm.  -- ISBN 4896561058. -- Grundlegend.

Skinner, William <1925 - 2008>: Chinese society in Thailand : an analytical history. -- Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press, 1957. -- 459 S. ; 24 cm. -- Grundlegend.

Mitchell, B. R. (Brian R.): International historical statistics : Africa and Asia. -- London : Macmillan, 1982.  -- 761 S. ; 28 cm.  -- ISBN 0-333-3163-0

Smyth, H. Warington (Herbert Warington) <1867-1943>: Five years in Siam : from 1891 to 1896. -- London : Murray, 1898. -- 2 Bde. : Ill ; cm.

ศกดา ศิริพันธุ์ = Sakda Siripant: พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว พระบิดาแห่งการถ่ายภาพไทย = H.M. King Chulalongkorn : the father of Thai photography. --  กรุงเทพๆ : ด่านสุทธา, 2555 = 2012. -- 354 S. : Ill. ; 30 cm. -- ISBN 978-616-305-569-9

Donko, Wilhelm M.  <1960 - >: Auf den Spuren von Österreichs Marine in Siam (Thailand). -- Berlin : epubli, 2012. -- 540 S. : Ill. ; 22 cm. -- ISBN 978-3-8442-2504-4

Zu Chronik 1886 (Rama V.)