Chronik Thailands



Alois Payer

Chronik 2002 / B. E. 2545


2. Januar bis Juni

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Chronik Thailands = กาลานุกรมสยามประเทศไทย. -- Chronik 2002 / B. E. 2545. -- 2. Januar bis Juni. -- Fassung vom 2017-03-20. -- URL:

Erstmals publiziert: 2012-10-30

Überarbeitungen: 2017-03-20 [Ergänzungen]; 2016-11-09 [Ergänzungen]; 2016-08-16 [Ergänzungen]; 2016-02-02 [Ergänzungen]; 2014-11-22 [Ergänzungen]; 2014-11-01 [Ergänzungen]; 2014-10-26 [Ergänzungen]; 2014-10-15 [Ergänzungen]; 2014-08-22 [Ergänzungen]; 2014-04-12 [Ergänzungen]; 2013-04-25 [Teilung des Jahrgangs]; 2013-04-20 [Ergänzungen]; 2013-04-08 [Ergänzungen]; 2013-03-28 [Ergänzungen]; 2013-03-20 [Ergänzungen]; 2013-01-26 [Ergänzungen]; 2013-01-13 [Ergänzungen]; 2012-11-13 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Herausgebers.

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Thailand von Tüpfli's Global Village Library




Gewidmet meiner lieben Frau

Margarete Payer

die seit unserem ersten Besuch in Thailand 1974 mit mir die Liebe zu den und die Sorge um die Bewohner Thailands teilt.


Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen!

Bei thailändischen Statistiken muss man mit allen Fehlerquellen rechnen, die in folgendem Werk beschrieben sind:

Morgenstern, Oskar <1902 - 1977>: On the accuracy of economic observations. -- 2. ed. -- Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. -- 322 S. ; 20 cm.

Die Statistikdiagramme geben also meistens eher qualitative als korrekte quantitative Beziehungen wieder.


2545 / 2002 Januar bis Juni


Premiere des Films 15 Kum Duen 11 (15 ค่ำเดือน 11, Mekong Full Moon Party) von Jira Maligool (จิระ มะลิกุล, 1961 - ). Sprache: Isan-Laotisch (ภาษาอีสาน / ພາສາລາວ).

Abb.: Plakat
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

"Mekhong Full Moon Party (Thai: 15 ค่ำ เดือน 11 or Sibha kham doan sib ed, literally "15th day, 11th month") is a 2002 Thai comedy-drama about the Naga fireballs (บั้งไฟพญานาค) that arise from the Mekong (ແມ່ນ້ຳຂອງ) at Nong Khai (หนองคาย)  on the full moon in October. Written by Jira Maligool (จิระ มะลิกุล), the film was also Jira's directorial debut.

The film takes a semi-documentary approach to its subject, examining the phenonmenon and its accompanying festival, which draws thousands of people to Nong Khai each year, as well as providing a glimpse at Isan (อีสาน) culture, Thai folklore and such practices as eating insects.


Khan, a Nong Khai native now attending university in Bangkok comes home for the annual Naga fireballs festival, just as a debate is raging over the cause of the fireballs. A local physician, Dr. Nortai, believes there is a scientific explanation for the phenomenon. A university professor, Dr. Suraphol, thinks the fireballs are manmade and are a hoax.

Khan knows the truth: Having grown up as a dek wat (เด็กวัด) at a Buddhist temple across the river in Laos, he helped the temple's abbot and the monks there to create fireballs and plant them on the bed on the Mekong. It is how he grew up to become such a strong swimmer and obtain an athletic scholarship.

The temple's abbot, Luang Poh Loh, seeks Khan out and begs him to once again help with the planting of the fireballs. But Khan, weary of perpetuating a myth and of the crowds that accompany it, refuses.

This sets up a conflict between science and religion that threatens to change the annual celebration.

For his part, Luang Poh Loh is philosophical, advising "Do what you believe, believe in what you do."

  • Anuchyd Sapanphong (อนุชิต สพันธุ์พงษ์) as Khan
  • Noppadol Duangporn (นพดล ดวงพร) as Luang Por Loh
  • Boonchai Limathibul (บุญชัย ลิ่มอติบูลย์) as Dr. Norati
  • Somlek Sakdikul (สมเล็ก ศักดิกุล) as Dr. Surapol
  • Thidarat Chareonchaichana (ธิดารัตน์ เจริญชัยชนะ) as Teacher Alice
  • Boonsri Yindee as Aunt Oong
  • Surasee Patham (สุรสีห์ ผาธรรม) as Headmaster
 Festivals and awards

The film won nine awards at the Thailand National Film Awards, including honors for best picture, best director and best screenplay for Jira Maligool and best actor to Noppadol Duangporn.

It won the FIPRESCI award at the Hong Kong International Film Festival and was in the ASEAN competition at the 2003 Bangkok International Film Festival.

The film had its world premiere at the Vancouver International Film Festival and was screened at many other festivals including the Seattle International Film Festival and the Stockholm International Film Festival."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29]


Gründung der MIFA Sinfonietta (heute: Siam Philharmonic Orchestra) in Bangkok.

Die Gruppe auf Spotify:
URI: spotify:artist:2ONOBTjec8F3pTYckMp0lW

Abb.: Siam Philharmonic Orchestra , 2007
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"The Siam Philharmonic Orchestra was founded in 2002 in Bangkok, Thailand, under the name "Mifa Sinfonietta". At that time it was a small chamber ensemble devoted to bringing the discipline of the classical style to Thailand's classical musicians. It performed mostly the works of Mozart and Haydn. In 2003, the orchestra gained its autonomy from MIFA, the music academy where it was born, and was renamed the Bangkok Sinfonietta. However, later, in 2004, it became clear that the orchestra was no longer a sinfonietta since it was now performing large-scale orchestral works by Brahms and Mahler; to reflect this expansion in repertoire, it assumed the name Siam Philharmonic Orchestra.

The Siam Philharmonic Orchestra is the resident orchestra of the Bangkok Opera, formerly under the royal patronage of HRH Princess Galyani Vadhana (สมเด็จพระเจ้าพี่นางเธอ เจ้าฟ้ากัลยาณิวัฒนา กรมหลวงนราธิวาสราชนครินทร์;, 1923 - 2008). The current artistic director is S.P. Somtow (สมเถา สุจริตกุล, 1952 - ), guest conductors have included Leo Phillips and Linda Cummings. The current resident conductor is Trisdee na Patalung (ทฤษฎี ณ พัทลุง, 1968 - ). The orchestra regularly performs at the Thailand Cultural Centre (ศูนย์วัฒนธรรมแห่งประเทศไทย).

The Siam Philharmonic Orchestra's recording of Richard Strauss's Four Last Songs, with soprano Nancy Yuen appears under the Orchid label. It received second place in the independent JPF Awards in the opera category in 2006."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2012-04-04]


Einführung des Euro in

Abb.: Entwicklung der Eurozone (blau und hellblau; braun: EU-Länder ohne Euro)


Der Staatshaushalt für 2002/03 beträgt 999,9 Milliarden Baht. Diese Zahl, da die 9er-Reihe als glückbringend gilt.


Far Estern Review:

"A Right Royal Headache

It promises to be a messy new year for Thailand politically, if the messages from some senior officials are to be believed. Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra is becoming an increasing source of irritation to King Bhumibol Adulyadej because of Thaksin's perceived arrogance and his alleged attempts to meddle in royal family affairs. Thailand's constitutional monarch has no formal role in day-to-day politics, but in a speech in early December marking his birthday he lambasted the premier in public. Thaksin is known to have business links with the king's son, Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn [พลเอก พลเรือเอก พลอากาศเอก สมเด็จพระบรมโอรสาธิราช เจ้าฟ้ามหาวชิราลงกรณ บดินทรเทพวรางกูร สิริกิติยสมบูรณสวางควัฒน์ วรขัตติยราชสันตติวงศ์ มหิดลพงศอดุลยเดช จักรีนเรศยุพราชวิสุทธ สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร, 1952 - ]. According to a senior official close to the palace, all this is frowned upon by the king, prompting speculation of a possible confrontation between the Prime Minister's Office and the palace. The same source worries that Thaksin, who gained a massive majority in last year's January 6 general election, may use his status as Thailand's wealthiest businessman, with solid backing in parliament, to fend off the royal palace. That would have serious and worrying implications for the future stability of Thailand."

[Fair use]


An allen Schulen und Universitäten sind Urintests der Schüler und Studierenden vorgeschrieben, um Drogenbenutzer identifizieren zu können. Besonders Amphetamine (ยาบ้า, ya ba - närrische Drogen) sind bei Jugendlichen weit verbreitet. Die Drogentests sind Teil der "social order campaign" (จัดการระเบียบสังคม) des Innenministers Purachai Piumsombun (ปุระชัย เปี่ยมสมบูรณ์, 1950 - ).

Abb.: Yaba (ยาบ้า)
[Bildquelle: DEA. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Purachai Piumsombun (ปุระชัย เปี่ยมสมบูรณ์)
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Auf seiner Besuchstour zu ASEAN-Staaten besucht der japanische Ministerpräsidenten, Junichiro Koizumi (小泉 純一郎, 1942 - ), Thailand

2002-01-13 - 2002-01-20

Beachsoccer-Weltmeisterschaft (Männer) in Brasilien. Erstmals nimmt ein Thai-Team Teil. Es erreicht den vierten Platz.


10-Baht-Münzen gleichen den neuen 2-Euro-Münzen so sehr, dass man damit in Europa an Automaten zahlen kann. Das Geschäft ist gut: 10 Baht entsprechen 25 Cent. Viele Touristen horten darum 10-Baht-Münzen. Die 10-Baht-Münzen haben einen Durchmesser von 26 mm, die 2-Euro-Münzen von 25,75 mm. Beide wiegen 8,5 g.

Abb.: 10-Baht-Münze
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]
Abb.: 2-Euro-Münze
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]


Die Regierung verbietet die Auslieferung eines Schulbuchs zur Sexualaufklärung. Das Buch behandelt auch Masturbation, Menstruation, AIDS,  vorehelichen Sex, Empfängnisverhütung. Dabei werden z.B. für Masturbation auch populäre ("vulgäre") Ausdrücke verwendet. Das Buch war auf Anordnung des Büros des Ministerpräsidenten verfasst und in 100.000 Exemplaren gedruckt worden. Regierungsbeamte finden aber, dass Teile des Buchs "sexuell aufreizend" wirken könnten.


Ministerpräsident Thaksin macht einen offiziellen Besuch für 8 Stunden in Indien in geheimer Mission. Er dementiert, dass der Besuch im Zusammenhang mit Aufträgen für die Shin Satellite Company seiner Familie steht, nennt aber keinen Grund seiner Reise.

Abb.: Indien
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]


Ein ehemaliger Dorfbürgermeister (ผู้ใหญ่บ้าน) von Tambon Don Tan (ดอนตาล), Amphoe Mueang Suphan Buri (อำเภอเมืองสุพรรณบุรี) über die den Bau einer Straße in Eigenregie der Bauern im Jahr 1974

Abb.: Lage von Tambon Don Tan (ดอนตาล)
Series L509 , U.S. Army Map Service, 1954- , Map ND 47-7, 1951. -- Public domain]

"At the time, there was no road at all around here. So, the villagers had lots of trouble even just going to the market to buy and sell things. So they asked me again and again to do something about it. I contacted the District Office several times to ask for money [to build a road]. Each time, I was told, "The budget isn't sufficient." I said, "Not sufficient budget? I heard that the province received several million baht for local development. Why not give our village some of it?" Their answer was, "We decide how the money is used." So, in the end I gave up, and I went around the village, asking people: "If they aren't going to build a road for us, why not do it on our own?" Most people agreed because a road was so important to us. So, people around here [mostly farmers] took turns to help build a road together. It was very tiring."

[Quelle: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 45]


Ein Hochschüler aus Suphan Buri (สุพรรณบุรี)  über den Unterschied zwischen Banharn Silpa-archa (บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา, 1932 - ) und Chuan Leekpai (ชวน หลีกภัย, 1938 - ):

"Can you name any one thing that Chuan has built in Trang {ตรัง} [a southern province where Chuan is from] with his own money? Nothing! He is stingy and greedy. He never thinks about using his own money for his birthplace, not like Banharn."

[Quelle: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 175]

Abb.: Lage der Provinz Trang (ตรัง)
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]

2002-02-08 - 2002-02-24

XIX. Olympische Winterspiele in Salt Lake City (USA). Erstmals nimmt Thailand an olympischen Winterspielen teil: Prawat Nagvajara (ประวัติ นาควัชระ, 1958 - ), Professor an der Drexel University, nimmt am 30km Ski-Marathon teil. Er schafft die 30 km nicht. Prawat hat in seinem Leben mit 18 Jahren das erste Mal Schnee gesehen.

Abb.: Lage von Salt Lake City (USA)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Prawat Nagvajara (ประวัติ นาควัชระ)
[Bildquelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29. -- Fair use]

"Prawat Nagvajara (Thai: ประวัติ นาควัชระ, born December 1, 1958[1]) is a Thai academic and cross-country skier. He is the only person ever to have represented Thailand at the Winter Olympic Games, having taken part in the 2002 and 2006 Winter Olympics. Unsurprisingly, he was therefore his country's flagbearer at the Games' Opening Ceremonies on both occasions.

Nagvajara grew up in Bangkok, and was a member of a teenage rock band. He is currently a professor of electrical engineering at Drexel University in Pennsylvania, United States. Nagvajara has stated that Philip Boit was his inspiration to participate in the Olympics.

At the 2002 Games, Nagvajara took part in the 30km race, but was eliminated after being lapped. He then competed in the 1.5km sprint, and finished 68th out of 71 with a time of 4:14.55 - behind Cameroon's Isaac Menyoli, and ahead of Costa Rica's Arturo Kinch.

At the 2006 Games, he competed in the 15km classical race. He finished 97th, with a time of 1:07:15.9."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29]


Valentinstag. Sozialkritiker warnen, dass viele Teenager am Valentinstag Sex dem Schenken von Blumen und Schokolade vorziehen. Eine 15jährige: "Meine Freundinnen und ich wollen unsere Freunde an diesem Tag besonders glücklich machen. Wenn wir zu abweisend sind, werden es unsere Freunde leid und verlassen uns anderer Mädchen wegen." Um die Jungfräulichkeit der Mädchen zu schützen, gilt in Bangkok inzwischen für unter 18jährige eine Ausgangssperre ab 22.00.

Abb.: Lieber Sex als das. Valentinstag in Bangkok, 2009
[Bildquelle: Jzee. -- --Zugriff am 2011-12-29. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

2002-02-14 - 2002-03-31

Museum Küppersmühle Sammlung Grothe, Duisburg: Ausstellung: "36 Ideen aus Asien". Thailand vertreten Jakapan Vilasineekul (จักรพันธ์ วิลาสินีกุล, 1964 - ) und Pinaree Sanpitak (พินรี สัณฑ์พิทักษษ์, 1961 - ). Die Ausstellung geht anschließend weiter nach Keszthely (Ungarn), Salzburg (Österreich) und L'Aquila (Itaklien)


Tausende stehen Schlange, um ihre neuen Familiennamen vom Sangharaja (พระสังฆราช), Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara (สมเด็จพระญาณสังวร, 1913 -  ),  segnen zu lassen. Die neuen Namen haben Mönche in verschiedenen Bangkoker Tempeln gebildet. Gründe für die Annahme neuer Familiennamen sind:

Abb.: Behält seinen Namen: Seine Majestät der König mit Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara (สมเด็จพระญาณสังวร)
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Fair use]


Die Regierung schlägt ein Ermächtigungsgesetz (Civil Service Administrative Reform Bill) vor, das es der Regierung ermöglichen würde, Gesetze ohne Beteiligung des Parlaments zu "verbessern". Gegen ein solches Ermächtigungsgesetz gibt es große Vorbehalte, vor allem von Seiten von Juristen.


Zwei Korrespondenten der Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) wird ihr Visum entzogen, ihre Kollegen in Hong Kong sollen auf die schwarze Liste des Innenministeriums kommen. Ihr Verbrechen: ein Bericht in der FEER über Spannungen zwischen dem König und Ministerpräsident Thaksin sowie über Geschäftbeziehungen des Kronprinzen mit Thaksin. Nach langwierigen und teuren Rechtsverfahren dürfen die beiden inkriminierten Journalisten, Shawn Crispin und Rodney Tasker, im Land bleiben. Die beiden Journalisten entschuldigen sich in der FEER: "We are well aware of sensitive issues, and Thai traditions and customs, particulary in respect to the monarchy."

Abb.: ®Logo

Die FEER hatte am 2002-01-01 folgenden Bericht:

"It promises to be a messy new year for Thailand politically, if the messages from some senior officials are to be believed. Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra is becoming an increasing source of irritation to King Bhumibol Adulyadej because of Thaksin’s perceived arrogance and his alleged attempts to meddle in royal family affairs. Thailand’s constitutional monarch has no formal role in day-to-day politics, but in a speech in early December marking his birthday he lambasted the premier in public. Thaksin is known to have business links with the king’s son, Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn. According to a senior official close to the palace, all this is frowned upon by the king, prompting speculation of a possible confrontation between the Prime Minister’s Office and the palace. The same source worries that Thaksin, who gained a massive majority in last year’s January 6 general election, may use his status as Thailand’s wealthiest businessman, with solid backing in parliament, to fend off the royal palace. That would have serious and worrying implications for the future stability of Thailand."

[Zitiert in: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29]


Zu National Artists (ศิลปินแห่งชาติ) werden ernannt:

Abb.: Einbandtitel eines Buchs von Sujitt Wongthes (นายสุจิตต์ วงษ์เทศ)
[Fair use]

Abb.: Gedenkschrift zum 100. Geburtstag von Prakit Buabusaya  (ศ. (พิเศษ) ประกิต บัวบุศย์, 1911 - 2010)
[Fair use]

Abb.: Einbandtitel eines Buchs von Nithi Sathapitanon (นายนิธิ สถาปิตานนท์)
[Fair use]


Kabinett Thaksin 2. Der neuen Regierung gehören folgende Oktobristen (คนเดือนตุลา) an:

Pinij Jarusombat (พินิจ จารุสมบัติ, 1951 - ) ist stellvertetender Vorsitzender der Thai Rak Thai Partei (พรรคไทยรักไทย)


Ein Staatsbeamter aus Suphan Buri (สุพรรณบุรี) über korrupte Politiker:

"A politician with unclean hands who does much to develop our hometown is better than a politician with clean hands who does little to develop. It's a matter of which you see as more important: development or honesty. Of course, if there were an honest developer, I would vote for him, but realistically, can you find any MP [Member o9f Parliament] like that in Thailand?"

[Quelle: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 187]


Eröffnung des futuristischen Nachtklubs "Bed Supperclub" [sic!] in Bangkok. Architektur und Design: Orbit Design Studio.

Abb.: Lage des Bed Supperclub
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Bed Supperclub, 2009
[Bildquelle: Chavelli. -- -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

Abb.: Bed Supperclub, 2007
[Bildquelle: mako. -- -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29. --  Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Die Nation Multimedia Group (บริษัท เนชั่น มัลติมีเดีย กรุ๊ป จำกัด) protestiert gegen Einmischung der Regierung in ihre Nachrichten, indem sie sich weigert, politische Programme in ihren TV- und Radio-Kanälen zu senden. Die Polizei hatte zuvor angeordnet, dass die Anti-Geldwäsche-Behörde das Vermögen mancher einflussreicher Journalisten untersucht. Nation Multimedia Group betreibt Bezahl-Fernsehsender UBC 8 und UKW Radio 90,5 MHz (Eigentümer: Verteidigungsministerium).

Abb.: ®Logo
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia]


McDonald's passt sich dem Thai-Geschmack an und nimmt seine Version Som Tam (ส้มตำ) unter dem Namen "McSomtam" in sein Sortiment auf.

"Som Tam (in Thai: ส้มตำ) ist ein scharfes Papaya-Salatgericht, das hauptsächlich aus gestoßenem Gemüse besteht. Es ist eine ursprünglich laotische Speise, die im Isan (อีสาน) üblich ist.

Som (ส้ม) heißt sauer und tam (ตำ) meint stampfen, zerstoßen.

Andere Schreibweisen sind som tum, som dtam, som dtum oder papaya pok pok (Lautmalerei für das Geräusch des Stößels), tam som oder in Lao und im Isan tam mak hung (Thai: ตำหมากหุ่ง, Lao: ຕຳໝາກຮຸ່ງ), dabei bedeutet mak hung das laotische Wort für Papaya.

Der Hauptbestandteil sind unreife Papayafrüchte, Chillis, Knoblauch, Limonen, die mit einem Stößel zerstampft werden. Anschließend wird Fischsoße oder Pla Raa (ปลาร้า) beigemengt. Teilweise werden auch Lang-Bohnen (ถั่วฝักยาว), Tomaten und geröstete Erdnüsse hinzugefügt. Manchmal wird es auch mit gebratenem Schweinespeck, rohem Spinat, rohen Goabohnen oder rohem Kohl zubereitet. Sehr oft wird es auch gemeinsam mit ping kai (in Thai: Gai yang, ไก่ย่าง - gegrilltes Hühnerfleisch) serviert. Mohrrüben statt Papaya sind eine Variation des westlichen Auslands, da unreife Papaya dort schwer zu bekommen sind.

Das Gericht kombiniert die vier Geschmacksrichtungen der thailändischen Küche: süße Papaya, saure Limonen, scharfe Chilischoten und salzige Fischsoße. Es wird bei Zimmertemperatur mit Klebreis gereicht.

In Laos und im Isaan ist das Gericht gewöhnlich noch schärfer und saurer als in Zentralthailand. Som Tam Lao (auch Som Tam Phu, ส้มตำปู) ist der Name der laotischen Zubereitungsart: es enthält fermentierte Krabben (ปูดอง in Thai), während Som Tam Thai (ส้มตำไทย) mit kleinen getrockeneten Garnelen zubereitet wird.

Som Tam kann auch mit anderen unreifen Früchten, zum Beispiel Mangos (genannt tam ma-muang) und Salatgurken (tam mak daeng), zubereitet werden."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29]


Thailands erstes im Inland produziertes Cocktail von Anti-AIDS-Medikamenten kommt auf den Markt. Eine Behandlung (hochaktive antiretrovirale Therapie - HAART) mit dem Gemisch aus Stavudin, Lamivudin und Nevirapin kostet monatlich 1.200 Baht (20 Baht pro Tablette).


In seiner wöchentlichen Radiosendung sagt Ministerpräsident Thaksin, dass seine politischen Feinde in Taxis als Passagiere fahren und bösartige Gerüchte über ihn verbreiten. Er werde gegen jeden gerichtlich vorgehen, der Gerüchte über ihn verbreitet.

Abb.: Höchste Gefahr! In jedem Taxi kann als Passagier ein böswilliger Gerüchte-Verbreiter sein
[Bildquelle: Christian Haugen. -- -- Zugriff am 2011-12-29. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Ministerpräsident Thaksin löst CPM-43 (Civilian-Police-Milizary Unit 43) und SB-PAC (Southern Border Provinces Administrative CCommand) auf. Beide dienten der Bekämpfung des Terrorismus und Separatismus in den vier malaiisch-muslimischen Südprovinzen.


Eine über 50jährige Staatsbeamtin der Provinz Suphan Buri (สุพรรณบุรี) über das rüpelhafte Benehmen von Banharn Silpa-archa (บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา, 1932 - ) gegenüber Staatsbediensteten (mit dem Finger auf einen Staatsbediensteten zeigen, dem er eine Anordnung oder Rüge erteilt):

"Pointing your finger at someone is not part of Thai manners, but Banharn does it all the time without thinking about the feelings of others."

[Quelle: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 126]


Ein Wachmann aus Suphan Buri (สุพรรณบุรี) über die Korruption von Banharn Silpa-archa (บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา, 1932 - ):

"All Thai politicians must eat {d.h. กินเมือง = das Land fressen} [pocket public funds] ... But we shouldn't criticize them just because they eat. The important thing is how much they eat and what they do with what they eat. Do they eat a lot, but keep it all to themselves, or do they use part of it for their hometowns? ... Banharn eats, but he gives a lot to us. Look at all the things he has built."

[Quelle: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 185]


NZZ: Im postmodernen Bangkok / von Hugo Loetscher

"Wenn zum Jahreswechsel am Fernsehen zunächst ein buddhistischer Würdenträger spricht, hernach ein Hindupriester und wenn schließlich ein Mullah und der Erzbischof von Bangkok das Wort ergreifen, kann dies als Ausweis für multikulturelles Bewusstsein genommen werden. Diese Auftritte finden übrigens nicht am thailändischen Neujahr statt, an Songkran, dem populären Reinigungs- und Wasserfest, sondern am 1. Januar, dem westlichen Neujahr.

Eine solche multikulturelle TV-Grußbotschaft ist ein Novum, Ausdruck eines neuen Kulturbewusstseins. Dieses war auch das Thema der 8.Internationalen Konferenz für Thai-Studien, die Anfang dieses Jahres in Nakhon Phanom (นครพนม) durchgeführt wurde, einer Stadt an der laotischen Grenze am rechten Mekong-Ufer, berühmt für einen Tempel, der der Legende nach von Buddhas Jüngern errichtet wurde und in dessen Schrein als Reliquie eine Rippe von Buddha verehrt wird.

Was an dieser Tagung zur Debatte stand, war schon drei Jahre zuvor an der Thai-Studien-Konferenz in Amsterdam diskutiert worden. Es wird von den Thais nicht mehr als von einer reinen Rasse gesprochen und auch nicht mehr von einer homogenen kulturellen Identität: An die Stelle von Einheit ist Diversifikation getreten.

Mit Diversifikation sind primär nicht religiöse Gruppierungen gemeint, sondern die verschiedenen Ethnien, wobei die Chinesen einen ersten Platz einnehmen. Doch neu ist, dass Laoten und Khmer (Kambodschaner) als Thai begrüßt werden. Damit wird der Überzeugung Rechnung getragen, dass «nationale Geschichte über die nationalen Grenzen hinausweist».


Die Diversifikation ist von viel größerer Konsequenz für die Bergvölker, die aus einer folkloristischen und völkerkundlichen Ecke herausgeholt werden sollen, die auch eine geographische Ecke ist, mit dem Goldenen Dreieck, dem Grenzgebiet zu Laos und Burma, berüchtigt für die Opiumproduktion. Diese Bergstämme führten lange eine seltsame Existenz, da sie Staatsbürger ohne Dokumente waren, staatenlos im eigenen Staat. Gewöhnlich auch nicht Buddhisten, sondern Anhänger von Naturreligionen. Dass Bergstämme wie die Akha, Yao oder Lisu nun als gleichberechtigte Thai aufgeführt werden, ist nicht selbstverständlich. Wenn in dem Zusammenhang von Integration gesprochen wird, soll diese nicht oder so wenig wie möglich auf Kosten ihrer traditionellen Kulturen gehen."

[Quelle: NZZ Internationale Ausgabe. -- 2002-04-06. -- S. 61f. -- Fair use]

Abb.: Lage von Nakhon Phanom (นครพนม)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Ethnien Thailands 1974
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]


Das Büro des Ministerpräsidenten droht dem Fernsehsender Channel 3 mit dem Entzug der Lizenz, wenn die Show "The Weakest Link" (กำจัดจุดอ่อน) in der gegenwärtigen Form weiterläuft. Die Show hat fast 3 Mio. Zuschauer. Moralisten kritisieren, dass die Show un-thaisches Verhalten fördere, wie harte Konkurrenz, direkte Konfrontation und Selbstsucht. (Dagegen hat Thailand ja die selbstlosen Militärs, Polizisten, Politiker und Geschäftsleute ... ).

Abb.: ®Logo
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia

"The Weakest Link (often simply called Weakest Link) is a television game show which first appeared in the United Kingdom on BBC Two on 14 August 2000 and will end its run in 2012 when its host Anne Robinson ends her contract. The original British version of the show airs around the world on BBC Entertainment. The format has been licensed across the world, with many countries producing their own series of The Weakest Link. As with the original British version, all of the hosts wear black clothing (or sometimes dark colours with black). Most versions also have disciplinarian female hosts, again similar to the British original (with notable exceptions of Eamon Dumphy (Ireland), Edu Manzano, Allan K. (both Philippines), Shiro Ito (Japan), Tseng Yang Qing (Taiwan) and George Gray (United States)). Recordings of the show commenced from BBC's Elstree facility, but were switched in 2009 to Glasgow and the BBC Pacific Quay studio centre.

Not all the international versions share the title The Weakest Link. The format is distributed by BBC Worldwide, the commercial arm of the BBC. Australia was the first country to adapt the BBC show, and versions have also been produced in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, The Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and the United States.

The Link franchise is the second most popular international franchise, behind only the Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? franchise, which also originated in the United Kingdom.


Country Name Host TV station Top prize Airdate
Thailand Weakest Link (กำจัดจุดอ่อน) Krittika Kongsompong (กฤษติกา คงสมพงษ์, 1965 - ) ThaiTV 3 (ช่อง 3) 1 Mio. Baht 2002 - 2003

Abb.: Krittika Kongsompong (กฤษติกา คงสมพงษ์)
[Bildquelle: th.Wikipedia. -- Fair use]


Catch phrase "You are the weakest link. Goodbye!""

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-30]


Songkran (สงกรานต์). In Bangkok am konzentriertesten in der Khao San Road (ถนนข้าวสาร), wo Rucksacktouristen und Thais, die Ausländer bevorzugen, aufeinander treffen. Heuer wird sogar eine Farang (ฝรั่ง, Ausländerin) Miss Songkran.

Abb.: Lage der Khao San Road (ถนนข้าวสาร)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Songkran (สงกรานต์), Bangkok, 2009
[Bildquelle: Anthony Bouch. -- -- Zugriff am 2011-12-30. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abschlussdokument der UNO-Konferenz über den Artenschutz: die Regierungen werden aufgefordert, die ökologische Bewirtschaftung der Wälder zu fördern und den illegalen Holzeinschlag zu bekämpfen.


Tod des Komödianten Lor Tok (ล้อต๊อก, geb. 1914).  Zusammen mit Chusri Meesommon (ชูศรี มีสมมนต์, 1929 - 1992) trat er in unzähligen Vorführungen auf.


Die Deutsche Presseagentur (dpa) meldet, dass das US-TV-Netzwerk CBS von den Behörden die Erlaubnis erhalten hat, die 5. Staffel der Reality-Show Survivor im Meeres-Nationalpark Tarutao (อุทยานแห่งชาติตะรุเตา) zu drehen. Die Teilnehmer dürfen im Nationalpark Essen sammeln - was eigentlich per Gesetz verboten ist.

Abb.: ®Logo
[Bildquelle: Wikimedia. -- Fair use]

Abb.: Lage des Meeres-Nationalparks Tarutao (อุทยานแห่งชาติตะรุเตา)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Die amerikanische Reality-Show "Survivor" wird auf Koh Tarutao (เกาะตะรุเตา), Provinz Satun (สตูล), gedreht. Die 45 Tage währenden Dreharbeiten bringen der lokalen Wirtschaft 200 Mio. Baht und 150 Arbeitsplätze. Nach der Ausstrahlung boomt der Tourismus auf Koh Tarutao.

Abb.: Lage von Koh Tarutao (เกาะตะรุเตา)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: ®Logo
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

"Survivor: Thailand is the fifth season of the United States reality show Survivor. It was filmed in the summer of 2002 and aired from September 19 – December 19, 2002 on CBS. It was set on the island of Ko Tarutao (เกาะตะรุเตา) in Thailand. Fourteen episodes aired weekly. The two initial tribes were Chuay Gahn (Thai: ช่วยกัน "to help one another") and Sook Jai (สุขใจ "happy heart" ). They eventually merged into the Chuay Jai tribe. On December 19, 2002, Brian Heidik defeated Clay Jordan by a vote of 4-3 to become the sole survivor.

The season introduced several new game-play twists. The first occurred on Day 1, when the two eldest contestants, Jake Billingsley and Jan Gentry, were given the power to pick their own tribes. This was the first time in Survivor history that the two initial teams were not preselected by the producers. The second was an offer of mutiny on Day 14: each of the twelve remaining contestants were given the chance to leave their tribe and join the other if they wished; no one took the offer. (The twist was re-used during Survivor: Cook Islands, with two contestants switching tribes.)

The major twist of the season was the fake merge. When only ten players remained, the usual time for a merge, the two tribes moved onto one beach, with a feast awaiting them. The two tribes took this to mean that they were merging, and Shii Ann Huang attempted to use this to her advantage by openly trying to ally herself with the former opposing tribe. At the next challenge they attended, however, the two tribes were informed that they were living on one beach, but were not merged. This backfired on Shii Ann when her tribe lost the Immunity Challenge and she was voted off for her excessive scheming.

The final Tribal Council was similar to the Africa season; after the votes were cast for the winner, Jeff Probst exited to retrieve the voting urn. When he returned, it appeared he had returned to the Tribal Council location on set in Thailand. However, he had actually returned to a CBS sound stage in Hollywood made up to look like the Thailand set. This was revealed the moment he announced Heidik the winner.

Jeff Probst stated that he was not fond of the season, going as far as calling it his least favorite. He described the season as mean-spirited and marred with hostility and ugliness, even calling Brian, Clay, Helen, and Jan "the least likable final four ever."

Shii Ann was the only representative of the season to appear as a contestant on Survivor: All-Stars, where she placed 6th.

The complete season, including the recap and reunion episodes, was released on DVD exclusively through on October 25, 2011.

Season summary

The game began with the contestants being brought to the island in two boats, with all the men in one and the women in the other. This led the contestants to assume that the tribes would be divided by gender, for the first time. However, this was wrong. Instead, Jake and Jan, as the two eldest contestants, were given the opportunity to select their own tribes; this was the first time in series history that the tribes were not preselected. Jan picked the orange buff, Chuay Gahn, while Jake selected the purple buff, Sook Jai. While Jake selected many of the younger and more athletic contestants, Jan chose most of the older players. Both beaches had advantages and disadvantages. The Chuay Gahn campsite had a large cave that was habitable, thus negating the need to build a shelter; however, their water source was quite far and required them to row their boat a distance. On the other hand, Sook Jai's water source was only located a couple of feet from camp, but they needed build their own shelter, as there was no cave.

The lack of shelter at Sook Jai proved to be a source of tension in the tribe, as the tribe members quickly became divided between those who worked on building the shelter and those who gathered water and food. Jed, Robb, and Stephanie who ignored the shelter work, separated themselves from the rest of the tribe and chose to sleep on the beach rather than in the shelter. This quickly affected alliances formed on Sook Jai as the others quickly coalesced and formed their own alliance. However, in spite of their internal turmoil, Sook Jai took an early lead in the tribal challenges, winning 5 of the first 7 challenges. However, Chuay Gahn remained a close tribe, for the most part.

Unity at Chuay Gahn was threatened, when Ted had made sexual advances while cuddling with Ghandia, which had made her feel uncomfortable. Hoping to use the opportunity to make an alliance, Ghandia rallied the two other women of the tribe, Jan and Helen, and tried to convince them to join forces against the three other males in the tribe. However, Helen went with the men at the next Tribal Council and voted out Ghandia, who was perceived as the bad apple. After that, Chuay Gahn was able to regain their momentum and unity and were able to even the tribes at 5-5 by Day 18.

On Day 19, the two tribes were gathered together at a beach and were told to go off in pairs, one person from each tribe, and get to know one person from the other tribe. Two of the pairs received instructions to visit one of the tribes' campsites to evaluate which campsite would be more suitable to live at. Once each of the pairs were gathered together again, they were informed that the two tribes would, from that point on live together on the same beach. They selected Chuay Gahn's beach, and the contestants quickly assumed a merge had occurred. Shii Ann, who had been feeling ostracized by Sook Jai, quickly aired all their dirty laundry, and she agreed to vote with Chuay Gahn to eliminate Penny, who she felt had been the most antagonistic towards her. However, when the two tribes gathered for the next Immunity Challenge, they were shocked to learn that they were still two tribes about to compete for tribal immunity. Chuay Gahn won the challenge, Shii Ann was voted out for her treachery, and for the first time, Sook Jai had less members than Chuay Gahn. Despite being tightly knit, Sook Jai's downward spiral continued as they lost immunity for the fourth consecutive time, and the tribe tearfully sent Erin to the jury, as the first member.

On Day 25, the two tribes finally merged into the Chuay Jai tribe, but the deficit Sook Jai faced entering the merge was too much for them to overcome, and they were systematically picked off one by one. With only Chuay Gahn members left, they were faced with the reality of voting one of their own out, something they hadn't done since Day 12. Helen and Ted quickly targeted Clay for his lack of work ethic. However, Brian, who had made separate alliances with three of the four other people used his influence to manipulate the vote to his liking. First, he turned the tribe on Ted, who was perceived as the biggest physical threat. Then, he targeted Helen, as he mistakenly thought the plan to get rid of Clay was a plan with him as the target. Both members were blindsided, and he won the final Immunity Challenge and voted off Jan, taking Clay with him to the Final 2.

Both Brian and Clay were met with heavy criticism from the jury. Brian, who had made separate alliances and formed friendships with both Helen and Ted, was lambasted for his callous approach, but he was praised for his challenge performances and strong work ethic. In comparison, Clay was felt as not deserving for his lack of work ethic, and he was accused of making racial slurs against Ted. In the end, the jury voted 4-3 for Brian to win, awarding him for his control of the game."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-30]


Ein Bauer aus der Provinz Suphan Buri (สุพรรณบุรี) über die Korruption von Banharn Silpa-archa (บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา, 1932 - ):

"Suppose you are a contractor. You have won a project channeled by Banharn. Then you must give something back to him to show your appreciation. It may be a little money, whisky, dinner, or whatever. Giving nothing back and continuing to receive benefits is ugly and inappropriate. It is against Thai culture. Do you call gift-giving corruption? I call it a Thai custom."

[Quelle: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 183]


Weit verbreitete Kämpfe an der Grenze zwischen Thailand und Myanmar.

Abb.: Grenze zwischen Thailand und Myanmar
[Bildquelle: CIA. -- Public domain]


Die Militärjunta in Myanmar entlässt Aung San Suu Kyi (အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်) aus dem Hausarrest, unter dem sie seit 2000-09 steht.

Abb.: Aung San Suu Kyi (အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်), 2002-13
[Bildquelle: Neko. -- -- Zugriff am 2011-12-28. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Auflösung von CPM 43 (Civilian-Police-Military) in den drei südlichsten Provinzen.


Dreharbeiten in Thailand für "Lara Croft: Tomb Raider" mit der Hauptdarstellerin Angelina Jolie (1975 - ). Als Sonderbotschafterin für das UNO-Hochkommissariat für Flüchtlinge (UNHCR) besucht sie heute per Hubschrauber das  Flüchtlingslager Tham Hin. In diesem Flüchtlingslager sind 9.000 Karen. Angelina Jolie stellt fest: "I've been to camps that are better and worse, but here I was surprised that they said they were comfortable with the situation, and didn't complain. They have many things under their control." Sie verspricht, $100.000 aus eigenen Mitteln für die Ausbildung der Karen zu spenden.

Abb.: Lage von Tham Hin
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Angelina Jolie, 2004
[Bildquelle: Stefan Servos / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Osttimor (Timór Loro Sa'e) erklärt seine Unabhängigkeit von Indonesien.

Abb.: Lage von Osttimor
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Ein buddhistischer Mönch, Phra Maha Sayan Jirasutho, 37, stürmt ins Parlamentsgebäude (อาคารรัฐสภาไทย), schießt mit einer Kalaschnikow (AK-47) in die Luft und verlangt, Ministerpräsident Thaksin zu sehen. Er hatte die Kalaschnikow unter seinem Mönchsgewand versteckt. Als Motiv nennt der Mönch, dass er gegen ungerechte Behandlung durch die Polizei protestieren wolle, die er bei einer Verhaftung vor einigen Jahren erlitten habe. Der Mönch wird von Sicherheitskräften entwaffnet und abgeführt.

Abb.: Lage des Parlamentsgebäudes

Abb.: Kommt nicht unter den Utensilien eines Mönchs in den Ordensregeln vor: Kalschnikow (AK-47)
[Bildquelle: Cpl. D.A. Haynes / US Marine Corps / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Community relations project der US Navy:

Abb.: "Pattaya Beach (พัทยา), Thailand (May 23, 2002) -- A local elementary school student says ‘thank you’ for hair clips she received during a community relations project. U.S. Sailors, Marines, Soldiers, and Airmen took part in the project while deployed for Exercise Cobra Gold 2002. Cobra Gold 2002 is the 21st U.S. Pacific Command exercise conducted in Thailand, demonstrating the ability of U.S. forces to rapidly deploy and conduct joint-combined operations with armed *forces from Thailand and Singapore."
[Bildquelle:  U.S. Navy Photo by Photographer’s Mate 2nd Class Jennifer A. Smith (RELEASED) / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Lage von Pattaya (พัทยา)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


30 Männer der United Wa State Army (UWSA, ဝပြည် သွေးစည်းညီညွတ်ရေး တပ်မတော်) greifen den Stützpunkt Ban Muang Ma Nu, Provinz Chiang Mai (เชียงใหม่), der Thahan Phran (ทหารพราน, Rangers) an.


Bei den Filmfestspielen in Cannes (Frankreich) gewinnt erstmals einen ersten Preis: Sud Sanaeha (สุดเสน่หา, Blissfully Yours) von Apichatong Weerasethakul (อภิชาติพงศ์ วีระเศรษฐกุล, 1970 - ) gewinnt den "Prix d'un certain regard".

Abb.: Lage von Cannes (Frankreich)
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]

Abb.: Plakat
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia. -- Fair use]

"Blissfully Yours (Thai: สุดเสน่หา or Sud sanaeha) is a 2002 Thai romance film directed by Apichatpong Weerasethakul (อภิชาติพงศ์ วีระเศรษฐกุล). It won the Un Certain Regard prize at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival.


Min is an illegal Burmese immigrant living in Thailand who has contracted a mysterious rash. His girlfriend, Roong, and an older woman, Orn, take him to see a doctor. But the doctor is unable to do anything because Min is forbidden to speak, since he might reveal he is Burmese. Nonetheless, as is customary in Thai hospitals, some medicine is prescribed.

Orn is not satisfied, however, and she stops to buy some more supplies and then goes to her husband's office, where she concocts some lotion made with from store-bought creams and chopped vegetables and instructs Roong to slather it on Min.

Roong works in a factory, painting ceramic figurines. It's painstaking work, and she does not want to work after having worked overtime the day before. She feigns an illness and takes off with Min. She drives into the countryside, with the plan of having a picnic in the forest where she and Min can make love.

Orn, meanwhile, is longing for love. She steals her husband's motorcycle and goes into the jungle to meet Tommy, a worker at the factory. They have sex just off the roadside, but are interrupted when the motorcycle is stolen. Tommy chases after the thief and disappears.

Unsatisfied, Orn wanders deeper into the woods and stumbles upon Min and Roong, who have just finished making love.

  • Kanokporn Tongaram (กนกพร ทองอร่าม) as Roong
  • Min Oo (มิน อู) as Min
  • Jenjira Jansuda (เจนจิรา จันทร์สุดา) as Orn
 Title sequence and soundtrack

The opening title credits roll about 45 minutes into the film, during Roong and Min's drive into the jungle. Roong turns on the car radio and the music playing is a Thai-language version of "Summer Samba (So Nice)", composed by Marcos Valle and sung by the Thai artist, Nadia.

 Alternate versions

Because of its graphic sex scenes, the film was censored in Thailand, with about 10 minutes cut from the Thai DVD release.

 Festivals and accolades
  • 2002 Cannes Film Festival - Un Certain Regard Prize
  • 2002 Thessaloniki Film Festival - Golden Alexander
  • 2002 Tokyo FilmEx - Grand Prize
  • 2003 International Film Festival Rotterdam - Circle of Dutch Film Critics (KNF) Award
  • 2003 Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema - Best director and FIPRESCI Prize
  • 2003 Singapore International Film Festival - Young Cinema Award"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2011-12-30]


Es erscheint:

Gregory, Sandra <1965 - >: Forget you had a daughter. -- Vision, 2002. -- 288 S. -- ISBN 978-1904132066

Abb.: Einbandtitel

"Sandra Gregory (born 1965) is a British woman who was imprisoned in Thailand for drug smuggling after being caught trying to smuggle heroin out of Bangkok's Don Muang Airport. She later wrote a book about her experiences, titled Forget You Had a Daughter. It was released as a hardback in 2002 by Vision. The paperback edition was published in 2004 by Vision Paperbacks.


Gregory had spent two years travelling around Thailand and living in Bangkok, sometimes working as an English language teacher. Suffering a bout of dengue fever, Gregory was unable to work; her money was running out and she was desperate to return to the UK. She met and became friends with Robert Lock from her home country. She claims that soon after they met, he made her a proposal, "Come to Tokyo with me and if you hide my drugs on your person, I will give you £1000." Gregory agreed to carry Lock's 89 grams of heroin, for his personal use, from Bangkok to Tokyo.

On arrival together at Bangkok's Don Muang Airport (ท่าอากาศยานดอนเมือง) on February 3, 1993, Lock, Lock's girlfriend, and Gregory were detained after a tip-off about Lock. While security personnel interviewed Lock, Gregory was also observed to be nervous. All three travellers were searched and x-rayed. Gregory was the only person carrying illegal items; the drugs hidden inside her body were detected. Lock and Gregory were arrested; the girlfriend was released. Gregory was held at the Lard Yao Women's section within Bangkok's Klong Prem Central Prison (คลองเปรม), notorious for its brutality, drug abuse, squalid conditions and severe overcrowding. She befriended other foreign prisoners Karyn Smith from the UK, and Australian Nola Blake.

Gregory spent three years at Lard Yao before being convicted. In court she entered a guilty plea to possession and attempting to smuggle heroin out of Thailand. She was only carrying 89 grams; it is standard procedure in Thailand to give the death sentence to those smuggling more than 90 grams of heroin. Lock pleaded not guilty; he was found not guilty by the courts and released. Gregory was found guilty and was sentenced to death. This was subsequently reduced to life imprisonment, then downgraded further to 25 years the same day.

After spending four years in Lard Yao, Gregory was transferred at her choice to Britain in 1997 to complete the remainder of her sentence (21 years). She found she was imprisoned in maximum security prisons there: in the UK prisoners were classified by the length of their sentence despite the fact that in the UK trafficking would have attracted a much shorter sentence. In one letter to her parents she said "I wish I had stayed in Thailand". She spent hours confined to her cell in England. In Lard Yao prisoners had the freedom to roam around the prison and the grounds. At least in Lard Yao she was "happy" as she could see the blue sky and the green trees in the prison garden.

After years of long and gruelling campaigning by her parents for her release, the King of Thailand granted Gregory a Royal Pardon and she was released on July 20, 2000.[1] She has stated that she is disappointed in her actions as—among other things—it will mean that she will not be able to return to "the country I grew to love."

After prison

A few weeks after being released from prison, Gregory applied to Oxford University. She started studying geography as a mature student at Harris Manchester College[1] in 2002. Prior to attending Oxford, she took a year out to tour schools and talk about her experiences in the hopes of dissuading others from making the same mistakes she did.

"I thought I would be cheeky and I applied to Oxford. I thought, 'When I don't get in here I can apply somewhere else,'" she said. "I didn't think I was going to – but lo and behold, I got in."

"Everyone has preconceived ideas about Oxford and I thought, 'My CV looks blotchy, I've got a criminal record and I'm not part of mainstream society so I'll not get a place.' But I did and I found that the college I had applied to takes people on their individual merits. They accept a diversity of students who have something to offer."

Gregory appeared in the 2006 British documentary series Banged Up Abroad where she tells about the experience.

In December 2009, Gregory attempted to re-enter Thailand, but was refused entry despite having a valid visa. According to friends Gregory wished to visit friends she made in jail and "tie up loose ends."[2]"

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2012-10-09]


Bangkok Post: Imtiaz Muqbil (1956 - )  über Touristennepp:

Tourism officials admitted that "cheating and fraud is the biggest source of complaints they get internally. Jewelry shops overcharge visitors by several times the actual amount, mostly in order to pay the hefty commissions given to guides, tour bus drivers and the owners or managers of tour operating companies.

Shopkeepers generally know they have that one chance to squeeze visitors; a tourist is not generally considered a repeat customer. Even though they blame themselves for not having been more careful, they exact revenge by going back home and spreading the word among friends and colleagues."


Zum Beispiel:

Eröffnung eines Gebäudes an der Primar-Schule vonn Wat Phonsawan, Muban 6 (หมู่บ้าน 6), Tambon Nong Bo (หนองบ่อ), Amphoe Song Phi Nong (สองพี่น้อง), Provinz Suphan Buri (สุพรรณบุรี), durch Banharn Silpa-archa (บรรหาร ศิลปอาชา, 1932 - )

Abb.: Lage von Tambon Nong Bo (หนองบ่อ)
[Bildquelle: Series L509 , U.S. Army Map Service, 1954- , Map ND 47-7, 1951. -- Public domain]

Abb.: Programm
[Bildquelle und Übersetzung: Nishizaki, Yoshinori [訳吉武好孝, 西崎一郎]: Political authority and provincial identity in Thailand : the making of Banharn-buri. -- Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell, 2011. -- 254 S. :Ill. ; 26 cm. -- (Studies on Southeast Asia ; 53). -- ISBN 978-0-8772-7753-8. -- S. 154]


Elizabeth the Second (geb. 1926), by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith feiert ihr 50. Thronjubiläum.

Abb.: Denkmal für Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, Toronto, Kanada
[Bildquelle: Douglas Sprott. -- -- Zugriff am 2011-12-28. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


Das Bewässerungs-Ministerium schiebt alle Dammbau-Projekte auf, gegen die die lokale Bevölkerung und Naturschützer Widerstand leisten. "Wenn die Leute keine Dämme wollen, werden wir damit auch nicht fortfahren". Bisher hatte das Ministerium 800 große Dämme, 8.000 kleine Dämme und 3.000 andere Bewässerungsprojekte gebaut.


Thai-Moralapostel haben wieder einen Anlass zur Aufregung: Frauen ohne Büstenhalter in hellen Blusen. (Dabei gehört busenfrei zur echten Thai-Tradition).

Abb.: Ein Fall für die Sittenwächter: Siamesin ohne Büstenhalter, 1908
[Bildquelle: Twentieth century impressions of Siam : its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources / ed. in chief: Arnold Wright. -- London [etc.] : Lloyds, 1908. -- S. 77]


Die folgende Anzeige im Philadelphia (USA) City Paper führt zur Intervention von Thai-Diplomaten und der Thai-Regierung. Es werden Sanktionen bei der Visavergabe an US-Bürger angedroht, falls die Anzeige weiterhin erscheint.

Abb.: Anzeige im Philadelphia City Paper 2003
[Fair use]

Abb.: Lage von Philadelphia
[Bildquelle: OpenStreetMap. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Trotz (oder wegen) Finanzkrise 1997/98 gibt es in Thailand schon wieder über 20.000 Dollar-Millionäre (Grundbesitz nicht eingerechnet).


Staatsbesuch von Bundespräsident Johannes Rau (1931 - 2006) in Thailand.

Abb.: Johannes Rau (links), 1987
[Bildquelle: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung KAS/ACDP 10-001: 2904 / Wikimedia. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, share alike)]


Der US-Telefonkonzern WorldCom gesteht, in seinen Bilanzen einen um $3,8 Milliarden zu hohen Gewinn ausgewiesen zu haben. Die Aktienmärkte sind weltweit erschüttert.

Abb.: ®Logo
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

Verwendete Ressourcen


Zu Chronik 2002 / B. E. 2545. -- 3. Juli bis Dezember