Dharmashastra : Einführung und Überblick

11. Essensvorschriften und Essenstabus

2. Manu V, 1 - 10

von Alois Payer

mailto: payer@payer.de

Zitierweise / cite as:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Dharmashastra : Einführung und Überblick. -- 11. Essensvorschriften und Essenstabus. -- 2. Manu V, 1 - 10. -- Fassung vom 2004-04-02. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/dharmashastra/dharmash112.htm -- [Stichwort].

Erstmals publiziert: 2004-03-07

Überarbeitungen: 2004-04-02 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung 2003/04

Unterrichtsmaterialien (gemäß § 46 (1) UrhG)

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung der Herausgeberin.

Dieser Teil ist ein Kapitel von:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Dharmashastra : Einführung und Übersicht. -- http://www.payer.de/dharmashastra/dharmash00.htm

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

0. Übersicht

3. Manu V, 1- 56

Vorbemerkung: Jeder, der die Schwierigkeiten kennt, in Sanskrit genannte Tiere und Pflanzen zu bestimmen, weiß, dass die im Folgenden gemachten Angaben nur einen Versuch darstellen können. Auch soll die bis auf die Species genaue Identifikation nicht verschleiern, dass unter einem einzigen Sanskritnamen mehrere Species enthalten sein können, ja u. U. auch verschiedene Genera (vgl. die Bezeichnungen im Deutschen).

3.1. Section I. What shortens Life?

1. The sages, having heard the duties of the accomplished student as just described, said this to the high-souled Bhrgu, who sprang from fire.


Having heard the duties of the Student and the Householder as expounded in the foregoing three Discourses, the great Sages, Marici and others, 'said to'—asked the following question of— Bhrgu, their teacher.

"In the text we find the expression of the Accomplished Student—'snâtakasya' ; why then do you bring in the Student?"

Our answer to this is that the present verse is meant to be descriptive of what has gone before ; and as a matter of fact, the duties of the Student also have been described.

'High-souled' and 'who sprang from the fire' are the epithets of Bhrgu ;—'He whose origination was from the fire.'

"But in discourse I, verse 34, Bhrgu has been spoken of as the son of Manu".

True ; but what was stated there was an imaginary commendation, while what is said here is in accordance with the account found in the Vedas of Bhrgu having been born out of fire. The name 'Bhrgu' has been thus explained—'What rose out first out of the fallen semen was the Sun, and what rose as the second was Bhrgu'. Or, what is asserted here may be only figurative ; the origin of Bhrgu being described as 'Fire', on the basis of similarity, as regards effulgence.

In any case, it is not necessary to lay stress upon either of the two explanations as being the more reasonable of the two; because this is not what forms the main subject-matter of the treatise.

The whole of the text, describing the question and the answer, is meant to indicate the importance of the subject of the evils attaching to food ; the meaning being that the evils attaching to the food itself are more serious than those attaching to the nature of its gift and acceptance ; and this on the ground that the defects attaching to the thing itself are more intimate, and hence more serious, than those arising from contact.

"In connection with the defects of contact, the Expiatory Rite that is laid down is a three days' fast; while that in connection with the thing itself, is a single day's fast (5. 20). How then can this latter be said to be more serious ?"

Our answer is as follows:—The greater seriousness here spoken of refers to garlic and such things, in connection with which it is stated that—'by eating these intentionally the man becomes an outcast' (5.19) ; so that the expiation necessary would be that which has been prescribed for outcasts (which is very serious).

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

"Bhrgu, who sprang from fire":

"'Nârada was born from Brahmâ's lap,  .... Bhrgu from his skin ...'

From these lines we see that Bhrgu was born from Brahmâ's skin (tvak). But in Mahâbhârata Âdi Parva, 5th Chapter, we find another version regarding his birth. In that passage we read that Bhrgu was born from "Vahni" (fire). In the light of these two statements, we may examine Bhrgu's birth.

Bhrgu had two incarnations.

The first time he was born from Brahmâ's skin. In course of time, the sage Bhrgu became famous. In the Dakshayâga, this sage was present as one of the Rtviks (officiating priests). On that occasion, Satiîevî who was in rage and grief because her husband (Shiva) was not invited to the yâga, committed suicide by jumping into the sacrificial fire. Hearing about this, Shiva was enraged and the monster spirits who emerged from his matted locks caught hold of the Rtviks. Bhâgavata caturtha skandha says that the Bhûta named Nandîshvara, who emerged from Shiva's locks, caught hold of Bhrgu and killed him. Therefore the Bhrgu who was born from Brahmâ's skin must be considered as having died at Dakshayâga.

Bhrgu was born again in Vaivasvata Manvantara. This second birth was at the famous Brahmayajna of Varuna. He was reborn from fire, as Brahmâ's son. This child who was born from Brahmâ's semen which fell in the sacrificial fire, was brought up by Varuna and his wife Carshanî. Consequently Bhrgu is referred to as "Varunaputra" and "Carshanîputra" in some Purânas. Since he was born at Varuna's yâga he is sometimes called "Vârunî Bhrgu"."

[Quelle: Mani, Vettam [Vettammâni] <1921 - >: Puranic encyclopaedia : a comprehensive dictionary with special reference to the epic and puranic literature. -- 1. ed. in engl.. - Delhi : Motilal Banarsidas, 1975. - VIII, 922 S.  -- ISBN 0-8426-0822-2. -- Originaltitel: Purananighantu (1964). -- S. 139.]

2. "How is it ,O Lord, that Death overpowers the Brahmanas who are learned in the vedic lore, and who perform their duty exactly as it has been described?"


The Text now shows what the great Sages asked.

'Thus'—refers to the manner in which the Treatise has propounded the subject; and 'exactly as described'—-refers to the subject-matter of the Treatise.

Those Twice-born men who perform the duty exactly in the form in which it has been described in the present Treatise ;—that all twice-born men are indicated by the terms 'vipra' 'brâhmana', in the Text will be clear from what is going to be said in verse 26 below, where 'twice-born' is the term used ;—'how is it that Death overpowers them'—while still in the state of the 'Student,' or in that of the 'Accomplished Student'? How is this, when, in reality, they should live the full span of human life? The span of a man's life is a hundred years ; so that the death of Brahmanas before that is not proper ; specially as it has been declared that 'from right conduct one attains longevity ' (4-156), and 'no calamity befalls persons who recite the Veda and offer oblations' (4-146).

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

3.-4. Bhrgu, the righteous son of Manu, said to the great sages— "Listen, by what fault Death seeks to destroy the Brahmanas."—(3).

Death seeks to destroy the Brahmanas


Objection—"When the question has been put forward in regard to Brahmanas who perform their duties, it is not right to answer it by indicating the 'fault' ; nor can there be any connection with what follows (in verse 4) [as omission of Vedic Study &c. is not possible for those who perform their duties]."

The answer to the above is as follows :—'Omission of Vedic Study' and the rest have been put forward only by way of illustration ; the sense being—'just as the omission of Vedic Study and the rest are acknowledged by you all to be the causes of death, so also are the defects of food, going to be described below. Even when a man carries on Vedic Study &c, the fulfilment of his above-described duty is not complete, if it is beset with the very much more serious drawback of defective food. This is emphasised here in view of the fact that this is an entirely different section (dealing with defects of food).

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

This verse [Vers 4]  is quoted
  • in Parâsharamâdhava (Prâyashcitta, p. 8) to the effect that laziness also is the source of a 'force' that brings about untimely death;
  • in Vîramitrodaya (Ahnika, p. 510), which explains 'âlasya' as ' not being disposed to perform one's duty, even when he is able to do it';—'annadosha' as standing for defective production and so forth;
  • and in Smrtisâroddhâra (p. 294)

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part II: Explanatory. --1924.  -- z. St.]

Parallelstellen zu 4.:

Yâjnavalkya (Parâsharamâdhava, Prâyashcitta, p. 6).— 'By omitting to do what is enjoined and by doing what is forbidden, and by not controlling the senses, doth a man fall into degradation.'

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part III: Comparative. --1926.  -- z. St.]

3.2. Section II. Objectionable Food


are unfit to be eaten by twice-born men.

"Garlic [Allium sativum]"

Abb.: Lashuna = Knoblauch (garlic) (Allium sativum) [Bildquelle: http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/328Fall98/328VegLab/veglablist.htm. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

Knoblauch gilt als Aphrodisiacum (Liebesmittel):

"Überall und zu allen Zeiten schwor man auf die liebesfördernde, aphrodisierenede Kraft des Knoblauchs. Andererseits mieden von jeher viele seinen durchdringenden Geruch." [Quelle: Rätsch, Christian <1957 - > ; Müller-Ebeling, Claudia <1956 - >: Lexikon der Liebesmittel : pflanzliche, mineralische, tierische und synthetische Aphrodisiaka. -- Aarau : AT-Verlag, ©2003  -- 784 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3855027722. -- S. 405]


"Allium sativum L.; Eng.—Garlic; Hindi— Lahsan, Lasun (Alliaceae). Native of Central Asia. It is exported to other countries. Bulbs (rhizomes) are used as condiment and flavouring substance. Garlic powder is extensively used as condiment and also serves as carminative and gastric stimulant in medicinal preparations. Garlic has antibacterial properties and is widely used both in intestinal disorders and for number of infectious diseases. Antibacterial activity is due to allicin which is found to inhibit growth of a number of microorganisms. Bulbs are used in cough and fever. Also relieves rheumatism, clears chest and improves lungs. Juice, used as rube-facient in skin diseases, as ear drops in earache, and in colic and flatulence. Plant has germicidal properties, and has inhibitory effects on gram-negative germs of typhoid-paratyphoid-enteritis group. Garlic is strongly antiseptic, taken internally it destroys worms, and externally, will rid the skin of parasites."

[Quelle: Dictionary of economic plants in India / Umrao Singh, A.M. Wadhwani, B.M. Johri. -- Reprint [der Ausg. 1965]. --  New Delhi : Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 1996 . --288 S. -- S. 12]

"leeks [Allium porrum]"

Abb.: Grnjana = Lauch (Poree, leeks) (Allium porrum) [Bildquelle: http://crsc.calpoly.edu/Brown/VegID/leeks.htm. -- Zugriff am 2003-02-18]

"onions [Allium cepa]"

Abb.: Palându = Zwiebel (Allium cepa), Tamilnadu  [Bildquelle: http://www.ag.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/Photos/India/Tamil%20N%20Onion%20pinkroot1.htm. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

Lauch und Zwiebeln gelten als Aphrodisiaca (Liebesmittel):

"Zwiebeln fördern die Verdauung und regen die sexuelle Energie an. Sie sind ein  Rajas-Nahungsmittel, und daher denjenigen, die sexuelle Enthaltsamkeit als spirituelle Disziplin üben, nicht zu empfehlen."

[Quelle: Lad, Vasant <1943 - >: Das Ayurweda-Heilbuch : eine praktische Anleitung zur Selbst-Diagnose, -Therapie u. Heilung mit dem ayurwedischen System. -- Haldenwang : Ed. Schangrila, ©1986Umfang/Format: 191 S. : Ill. -- Originaltitel: Ayurveda (1984). -- ISBN: 3-924624-27-5. -- S. 159. -- Zitiert in:  Rätsch, Christian <1957 - > ; Müller-Ebeling, Claudia <1956 - >: Lexikon der Liebesmittel : pflanzliche, mineralische, tierische und synthetische Aphrodisiaka. -- Aarau : AT-Verlag, ©2003  -- 784 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3855027722. -- S. 735]

"Es fällt schwer zu glauben, dass Zwiebeln, die einen unangenehmen Geruch haben und beim Schälen in die Augen stechen, ein Liebesmittel sein sollen. Vielleicht beförderte aber gerade die Reizwirkung den Glauben, mit der Zwiebel auch den Stachel der Liebe reizen zu können.
In allen Kompendien über Liebesmittel ist die Zwiebel aufgeführt. Allerdings wird nirgends erklärt, warum sie aphrodisisch wirkt. »Man nahm die Zwiebel gegen Husten, Hämorrhoiden, Wassersucht und Spulwürmer und unterstellte ihr eine aphrodisierende Wirkung« (Mautner und Küllenberg 1989:114). Laut der Literatur bereitet man aus der Zwiebel Liebestränke und nutzt sie als Gewürz für aphrodisische Speisen. In China isst man die Samen der Winterzwiebel (Allium fistulosum L.) als Aphrodisiakum."

[Quelle: Rätsch, Christian <1957 - > ; Müller-Ebeling, Claudia <1956 - >: Lexikon der Liebesmittel : pflanzliche, mineralische, tierische und synthetische Aphrodisiaka. -- Aarau : AT-Verlag, ©2003  -- 784 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3855027722. -- S. 735]


Abb.: Im Wahlkampf zu den Parlamentswahlen von 1998 spielten die hohen Zwiebelpreise eine bedeutende Rolle [Bildquelle: http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9811/20/india.elex/. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

"Allium cepa L.: Engl.—Onion; Hindi—Piyaz (Alliaceae). A biennial herb commonly cultivated as an annual all over the country. Th most important onion growing states are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Also an exported crop. Immature and mature herbs (rhizmes) are consumed raw or may be cooked and eaten as vegetable. Used for seasoning. Bulbs are used as stimulant, expectorant, aphrodisiac; and in flatulence and dysentery. Onion juice increases diuresis in rabbits. Active principle is glycolic acid."

[Quelle: Dictionary of economic plants in India / Umrao Singh, A.M. Wadhwani, B.M. Johri. -- Reprint [der Ausg. 1965]. --  New Delhi : Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 1996 . --288 S. -- S. 12]


Abb.: Indisches Pilzgericht in Dosen [Bildquelle: http://www.handibazaar.com/products/matarm.html. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

Es gibt sowohl psychoaktive Pilze als auch Pilze, die als Aphrodisiaca angesehen werden. Daneben gibt es - wegen der Giftpilze - auch eine allgemeine Furch, Pilze zu essen (pilzfeindliche Kulturen bzw. Subkulturen).

Zu psychoaktiven Pilzen siehe:

Rätsch, Christian <1957 - >: Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen : Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendung. -- Aarau : AT-Verlag ; Stuttgart : Wiss[enschaftliche] Verl[ags]-Ges[ellschaft], ©1998  -- 941 S. : Ill. --  ISBN 3855025703. -- S. 620 - 693

Zu Pilzen als Aphrodisiaca siehe:

Rätsch, Christian <1957 - > ; Müller-Ebeling, Claudia <1956 - >: Lexikon der Liebesmittel : pflanzliche, mineralische, tierische und synthetische Aphrodisiaka. -- Aarau : AT-Verlag, ©2003  -- 784 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3855027722. -- S. 557 - 559 sowie unter den dort angegebenen Einzelstichworten.

"Let non-winter varieties also mushroom : Haryana should exploit Delhi-neighbourhood advantage / B. S. Dahiya and Surjeet Singh

AMONG the food sources for humans also come microbes, of which fungi comprise the largest and most important group containing edible species of mushroom. Although mushrooms, which appear in nature, are delicious and nutritious, not all are edible and a few are even poisonous.

Mushrooms have traditionally been used in India as garnishing on food and a few varieties have also been treated as tonic or medicinal material. Sincere efforts to bring mushrooms under cultivation were made in 1961 after the commissioning of a scheme, "Development of mushroom cultivation in Himachal Pradesh," at Solan. Initially it was thought that Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) being a temperate mushroom could be grown only in the hills under seasonal conditions during winter. But now it has been scientifically proved that seasonal cultivation of this European mushroom is also successful in North-Indian plains.

From left: Summer white button mushroom, paddy straw mushroom, oyster mushroom and milky mushroom.

Though Haryana was a late starter in mushroom cultivation, yet in the past decade it has achieved tremendous increase in mushroom production. Mushroom growers of the state, apart from generating employment, earned Rs 7 crore as additional income from this crop alone during 1997-98. At the CCS Agricultural University, Hisar, standardisation of the cultivation technology suited to local conditions for locally consumable mushrooms has been done. These are Agaricus bisporus, A. bitorqis, Pleurotus, spp., and Volvoriella volvacea (paddy straw mushroom). Though the production technologies for these have been developed, yet all these mushrooms could not achieve commercial status, except the white button mushroom (A. bisporus). Now, growers are also showing interest in oyster mushroom cultivation and in the coming years it is likely become a commercial venture. Since all mushrooms are grown indoor, thatched structures made of locally available material like stalk of sarkanda, jowar, bajra, cotton sticks, dhaincha, etc., have been found superior to brick structures under low-cost technology. These structures are cheap and provide natural ventilation, which is required in mushroom houses.

Regarding marketing of fresh mushrooms, growers of Haryana do not face any difficulty, being in the vicinity of Delhi, which is a major market for fresh mushrooms. Out of India’s estimated production of 50,000 tonnes, Haryana alone produces more than 5000 tonnes annually. However, even this quantity is not sufficient, considering the growing popularity of mushroom among consumers due to its flavour, nutritive and medicinal attributes. Farmers like to cultivate mushrooms because this venture is less land dependent as it is grown indoors using vertical space. It also escapes natural vagaries like rain, hailstorms, etc. Environmentalists prefer it because of its eco-friendly nature as mushrooms use agricultural waste/byproducts as their food and convert them into protein-rich food. The spent compost substrate—the compost left after taking the crop—can be used as organic manure or as casing material.

Alternative varieties

Unfortunately, till today only A. bisporus is ‘in vogue’ in Haryana. This being a temperate mushroom can be cultivated only during winters in Haryana. For most part of the year, the temperature is not suitable for white button mushroom. Keeping this in mind, efforts have been made to popularise A. bitorquis, a high-temperature white button mushroom that can tolerate slightly higher temperatures (24-25° C) as compared to A. bisporus, which requires relatively lower temperatures (14-18° C) for production. But the temperature range of 24-25° is most congenial for pests and diseases, which create hurdles in its successful production using low-cost cultivation technology. So growers should cultivate oyster mushroom, paddy straw mushroom or white milky mushroom for which the market is likely to develop in near future.

As the mushroom spawn (seed) is a crucial component in mushroom cultivation, and in Haryana mushroom growers require approximately 100 tonnes of spawn annually, this is also a major opportunity for agricultural science graduates who can put up spawn laboratories so that the growers get good quality spawn."

[Quelle von Text und Abb.: http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20021021/agro.htm#1. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-28]



The terms 'garlic' &c. are well-known among men.

The term 'kavaka' is the name of a genus, sometimes regarded as the same as the well-known thing 'kryâku' (?); mushrooms also are 'kavaka' ; as it is forbidden under the name of 'kavaka' while the expiatory rite in connection with its eating has been prescribed under the name of 'chatrâka' in verse 19 ; and no other thing (except the mushroom) is known by the name 'chhatrâka'; nor will it be right to regard, on the basis of verbal similarity alone (between 'chatrâka' and 'chatrâkâra' umbrella-shaped), all those things as 'chatrâka' which resemble the umbrella, are 'chatrâkâra' ; as in that case the prohibition (of 'chatrâka') would apply also to the suvarcala and other things (which also are umbrella-shaped) ; and this would be contrary to all usage. Hence we conclude that 'chatrâka' and 'kavaka' are one and the same thing. Says the author of the Nirukta—'The chatrâka is ksuinna, since it is smashed.' From this it is clear that the name 'kavaka' applies to those white shoots that grow out of the earth that has been ploughed ; this is also in keeping with what is going to be said in connection with 'kavakas growing out of the earth' (6-14) ; and it has also been just pointed out that the name applies to what is 'smashed' by a stroke of the foot. It is for this reason (of its being described as growing out of the earth, and of its being smashed by a stroke of the foot) that the prohibition (of 'kavaka') is not applicable to those vegetable growths that shoot out of the trunks of trees.

In medicinal treatises the kukunda has been described as 'kavaka' ; but this explanation (of the name on a purely conventional basis) cannot be accepted in the same manner as that in regard to the term 'go' and the rest. Further, as a matter of fact, in ordinary parlance the term 'kavaka' is always applied to a vegetable. Hence it is on the basis of usage that the exact signification of the term, wherever it occurs in a medical or other scientific treatise, should be ascertained, and we have already shown what that signification is.

Other things also, which resemble garlic and such things mentioned here, which resemble these latter in colour and smell, have been forbidden by Vishnu. In the Smrti of Parâshara however the prohibition is by name, and this for the purpose of prescribing the special Expiatory Rite of 'Candrâyana' in connection with it. From this it follows that 'lavataka' (?), 'karnikâra' [Pterospermum acerifolium, die Blüten dieses Baums sind essbar] and such other things are forbidden.

Abb.: Karnikâra = Pterospermum acerifolium [Bildquelle: http://caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de/~stueber/brandis/tafel_11_m.jpg. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

"Pterospermum acerifolium Willd.
Sans.—Karnikara; Hindi—Kanakchampa, kaniar, katha-champa, muchkund; Beng.—Kanak-champa, muskunda; Tel.—Matsa kanda; Oriya—Kanako champa; Jaunsar— Mayeng; Assam—Hatipeala, morra, moragos; Khasi Hills— Dieng-khong-swet, dieng-tharo-masi; Lushai— Waisip-thing; Lepchei—Nunthong; Nepal—Hatti-paila. Trade—Hathipaila.

Wood used for planks, packing-cases and turnery articles; suitable for veneers, plywood for general use, constructional work, panelling, bridges, boats, tool-handles, match-boxes, furniture, toys, walking-sticks, mathematical instruments, and brush-backs. Flowers edible, used for inflammations, ulcers, tumours, and leprosy. Leaves employed for thatching and as packing material for tobacco."

[Quelle: The useful plants of India. -- Reprint [der Ausgabe 1986]. -- New Delhi : National Institute of Science Communication, 2000. -- 918 S. -- ISBN 821-7236-205-6. -- S. 502f.]

'Things proceeding from impure substances';—those that grow of impure things or are in contact with them.

Others have declared that it is not right to forbid those things that grow only out of impure things, these standing on the same footing as 'mûlâ' (radish) [wohl eher Asparagus racemosus, Spargel] 'vâstuka' (a kind of grass) [Chenopodium album, Weißer Gänsefuß] and such other things (known to grow out of impure things);—so that the prohibition does not apply to those grains and vegetables growing in fields specially manured for the purpose of enriching the harvest.

Abb.: Mûlâ = Asparagus racemosus (?) [Bildquelle: http://www.myrobalan.com/Asparagus_racemosus.htm. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

"Asparagus adscendens Roxb.; Hindi— Safed musli (Liliaceae). A small herb distributed in W. Himalayas and Punjab. Root is used as demulcent and also in diarrhoea and dysentery.

Asparagus gonocladus Baker; Hindi—Shakakul (Liliaceae). An undershrub, grows in Kanara, Konkan and W. Ghats. Root, aphrodisiac, and boiled with oil applied to cutaneous diseases.

Asparagus officinalis L.; Eng.—Garden Asparagus; Hindi—Halyun, Seet muli (Liliaceae). Native of Europe and W. Asia. The young shoots commonly known as spears are used as vagetable. A substantial quantity of spears is canned and frozen.

Asparagus plumosus Baker; Eng.—Asparagus fern (Liliaceae). A woody, feathery, fern-like climbing vine; native to S. Africa. Grown as an ornamental.

Asparagus racemosus Willd. var. javanicus Baker; Hindi—Satmuli, Satawar, Phusar (Liliaceae). A straggling or scandent, much branched, spinous shrub, distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the country. Consumed as vegetable. Root is used as demulcent, aphrodisiac, diuretic, anti-dysenteric, and as demulcent in veterinary medicine.

Asparagus sarmentosus L.; (Liliaceae). Found in N. India. Roots are edible and also used as demulcent.

Asparagus sprengeri Regel; (Liliaceae). A climbing undershrub; native to Natal. Linear, flat cladodes make pretty bouquet, and are useful in floral decoration."

[Quelle: Dictionary of economic plants in India / Umrao Singh, A.M. Wadhwani, B.M. Johri. -- Reprint [der Ausg. 1965]. --  New Delhi : Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 1996 . --288 S. -- S. 24]


Abb.: Vâstuka = Chenopodium album = Weißer Gänsefuß [Bildquelle: http://www.lysator.liu.se/runeberg/nordflor/pics/351.jpg. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

"Chenopodium album, L. India (Monghyr, Mirzapur, Dholpur, Alwar, Udaipur, Poona, and Ahmednagar; Bombay Presidency): leaves eaten as a famine food, typically boiled with salt and chili peppers; (Rajasthan, western): leaves eaten. China: stems, leaves and seeds eaten. Russia: seeds used for bread. Altitude: up to 14,000 feet (in Tibet). Chemical composition (Chinese samples): Protein = 16.1%. Fat = 6.87%. Carbohydrate = 48.85%. Ash = 5.8%. (Leafy stems): Protein = 3.9%. Fat = 0.76%. Carbohydrate = 8.93%. Ash = 3.0%. Chemical composition (after Hooper): Water = 78.00% (fresh). Fat = 4.53% (dry). Albumenoids = 22.14% (dry). Carbohydrates = 40.22% (dry). Fibre = 7.60% (dry). Ash = 25.51% (dry). Nitrogen = 3.54% (dry). Phosphoric acid = 1.35% (dry). Silicates = 2.00% (dry). Analysis of non-Chinese seed samples indicates that the seeds are a promising plant protein source, with a balanced amino acid pattern close to that of the hen's egg. Vernacular names - Bombay Presidency, Ahmednagar district, Sangamner: Chili. Poona and Ahmednagar districts: Chil. Rajasthan (western): Bathua, Bathusag. Bengali, Hindi: Botha -sag, Bethua -sak, Chandan -beta, Chakai. Sikkim: Kandrabe, Kato bethu, Kanda lathe. Assam: Palang, Tirrhye, Aghu, Aru, Jilmil. Punjab (plains): Bathua, Bathu, Jausag, Chulai, Lúnak. Chena Valley: Irr. Ladakh: Em. Uttar Pradesh: Bethuwa, Charai, Jau ság, Bhútwa. Santal: Bhatua arak. Hindi in Santal Perganas [sic]: Khartua sag. Bombay: Chakwit, Chil. Sindh: Jhil. Ali-Rajpur, C.I.: Chil -babra. Duk.: Khuljeh -ke -baji. Tamil: Parupa kire. Pappu -kura. Sanskrit: Vastuk. Arabic: Kulf. English: Pigweed, Goosefoot, White Goosefoot, Lambs Quarter. "

[Quelle: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/FamineFoods/ff_families/CHENOPODIACEAE.html. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

"Chenopodium album Linn. Lamb's Quarters Hindi—Bethu sag; Beng.—Chandan betu, bethusag; Tam.—Parupuk-kirai; Tel.—Pappukura.

Used as a pot-herb and accredited with laxative and anthelmintic properties. Yields an essential oil. Plant may serve  as a field indicator for magnesium, as it  greatly stimulates the growth of the plant, Seeds made into gruel."

[Quelle: The useful plants of India. -- Reprint [der Ausgabe 1986]. -- New Delhi : National Institute of Science Communication, 2000. -- 918 S. -- ISBN 821-7236-205-6. -- S. 119.]

This however is not right. Because from what the text says it is clear that all these things are equally unfit to be eaten. Further, what has been suggested might have been accepted if it were absolutely impossible for anything to grow without the use of impure substances. There are some things however that grow directly out of impure substances, while there are some that grow out of mere connection with them; the right view to take therefore is that the prohibition applies to the former only, and not to the latter.

As regards meat, even though it grows out of semen and blood (both impure substances), yet the present prohibition does not apply to it ; because it has been dealt with in a totally different context.

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

This verse is quoted
  • in Vîramitodaya (Âhnika, p. 510), which explains 'amedhyaprabhavâni' as 'produced directly from human ordure, or in trees growing from seeds passed with human excreta';
  • and in Smrtitattva (p. 448), Which reads 'karakâni' (for kavakâni) and explains it as 'chatrâka,' 'mushroom; 'and explains 'amedhyaprabhavâni' as ' produced from ordure and such things.'

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part II: Explanatory. --1924.  -- z. St.]


Gautama (17.32).—'Fresh leaves, mushrooms, garlic, and exudations (from trees).'

Âpastamba (1.17.26, 28).—'Red garlic, white garlic, onion and mushroom, are not eatable; so says the Brâhmana-text.'

Vasishtha (14.33).—'For eating garlic, onions, mushrooms, turnips, Shleshmâtaka [Cordia dichotoma], exudations from trees, the red sap flowing from incisions, food pecked at by crows or worried by dogs, or the leavings of a Shudra,—Atikrcchhra penance.'

Vishnu (51.3, 34, 36).—'Garlic, onion, turnips, things having the same smell, village-pigs, village-cocks, monkey, beef, —on eating these also, the Cândrâyana is to be performed.— On eating mushrooms and Kavakas, the Sântapana penance ;— also exudations, products of unclean things, the red sap flowing from trees.'

Yâjnavalkya (1.171).—'Red or white exudations from trees, mushrooms flowing out of unclean things.'

Baudhâyana (Aparârka, p. 247).—'Of trees planted on unclean ground, the flowers and fruits are not objectionable.'

Bhavishyapurâna (Vîra-Âhnika, p. 511).—'Garlic, leeks, onions, mushrooms, brinjals, gourds—by eating these, one's caste becomes defiled.'

Brahmapurâna (Vîra-Âhnika, p. 511).—"The circular-shaped Kunkunda [?], the Caitya-shaped and Umbrella-shaped mushrooms,—all these were born out of the body of the Daitya.'

Taittirîya-Shruti (Vîra-Âhnika,, p. 512).—'The red sap that flows from trees, or any sap that flows from incisions in trees—that is harmful.'

Yama (Vîra-Âhnika,, p. 513).—'Garlic, leek, Vilaya [?], Sumukha [?], mushrooms, onion,—these the wise man should always avoid.'

Hârîta (Vîra-Âhnika,, p. 511).—'The mushroom, the village-hog, onion, garlic,—on eating these, the Brahmana, even though he be conversant with all the Vedas, becomes degraded.'

Devala (Vîra-Âhnika,, p. 511).—'Shleshmâtaka [Cordia dichotoma], Vrajaphalî [?], Kausumbha [Färberdistel, Carthamus tinctorius] , Nâlamastaka [?], and leek,—among vegetables, these are not eatable.—Onion, garlic, shukta, exudations, kuchunda, the white brinjal, and kumbhanda,—these one should not eat.'

Abb.: Kausumbha = Carthamus tinctorius (Färberdistel) [Bildquelle: http://www.codina.net/ccarthame.shtml. -- Zugriff am 2004-03-03]

"Carthamus tinctorius Linn.
Sans.—Kusumbha; Hindi—Kusum, karrah; Beng.—Kusum, kusumphul; Guj.—Kusumbo; Mar.—Kardai, kurdi; Tam.— Sendurakam; Tel.—Kushumba; Kan.—Kusambe, kusume.

Flower-heads source of a red and yellow dye. called safflower, used for colouring butter, liqueurs, and candles; also employed in cosmetic industry in the production of rouge, the best brands being Bengalese and Iranian Safflower.

Fruits produce a drying oil suitable for use in paints and varnishes, and linoleum and other similar products; also used for edible purposes.

Oil applied to sores and rheumatic swellings.

Fried achenes used in chutneys.

Capitula laxative and diaphoretic, used in jaundice.

Pressed cake excellent food for cattle."

[Quelle: The useful plants of India. -- Reprint [der Ausgabe 1986]. -- New Delhi : National Institute of Science Communication, 2000. -- 918 S. -- ISBN 821-7236-205-6. -- S. 107]

"Im Himalaya ist die Färberdistel ein tantrischer und brahmanischer Räucherstoff. In diesem Zusammenhang heißen die Blütenblätter kusam dhup und werden meist als Zusatz zu anderem Räucherwerk verwendet."

[Quelle: Rätsch, Christian <1957 - > ; Müller-Ebeling, Claudia <1956 - >: Lexikon der Liebesmittel : pflanzliche, mineralische, tierische und synthetische Aphrodisiaka. -- Aarau : AT-Verlag, ©2003  -- 784 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3855027722. -- S. 274]

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part III: Comparative. --1926.  -- z. St.]

6. He shall carefully avoid

"shelu berries [Cordia dichotoma]"

Abb.: Cordia dichotoma [Bildquelle: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/images/cor_dic_2178.jpg. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-18]

"Cordia dichotoma var. walichii ... A small tree occurring throughout the country, and also planted in gardens for its fruits, which are eaten raw or pickled. Fruits are also used medicinally as anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent and expectorant. Bark is a rich source of tannin."

[Quelle: Dictionary of economic plants in India / Umrao Singh, A.M. Wadhwani, B.M. Johri. -- Reprint [der Ausg. 1965]. --  New Delhi : Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 1996 . --288 S. -- S. 57]


'Exudation from trees';—anything, apart from the constituent parts of the tree itself,—such as, the root, the trunk, the branches, the leaves, the fruits and the flowers,—which proceeds from the tree, either in the form of some liquid flowing from the cavity in the tree, or in some other form. The epithet 'red' excludes, from prohibition, such exudations as the camphor and the like.

Those that have their origin, source, in 'incisions'; those that flow from the bark and such parts of the tree. These things, if not red, are not forbidden.

'Shelu'—the shleshmâtaka fruit, to be known from medical and other treatises. It should not be taken to mean the cream of fresh milk; as it is never known to have that meaning. It has been argued that—"it is better to take the word as standing for cream, on account of its proximity to the term, 'curdled milk'." But proximity becomes a means of deciding in favour of one of the two possible meanings of a term, only when the term is actually found in usage to be used in both senses ; but it can never be the authority for attributing an unheard of meaning to a word.

'Of the .cow';—this shows that that of the buffalo etc. is not forbidden. The milk is unfit to be eaten if, by mere contact with fire, it becomes 'curdled',—i.e. thickened without adhesion ; the term 'pîyûshsa' is used in the sense o£ the milk o£ the newly-calved cow.

Abb.: Büffelrassen Indiens [Bildquelle: http://www.icar.org.in/nbagr/buffalo.jpg. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-19]

Abb.: Melken einer Büffelkuh, bei Jaipur  [Bildquelle: http://www.who.int/multimedia/indiaweb/galleryfeature/nutrition2/WHO-210884.jpg. -- Zugriff am 2004-03-02]

"The text is going to declare, as unfit to be eaten, the milk, along with all its preparations, of the cow for the first ten days of its calving; and it is only during three or four days that the milk is of the nature described above {i.e. curdled by mere contact with fire) [so that no separate prohibition appears to be called for.] [die Rede ist von der Kolostralmilch]"

"Die Kolostralmilch ( Kolostrum, Biestmilch ) ist ein unmittelbar nach der Geburt von der Milchdrüse abgegebenes Sekret. Es hat einen höheren Gehalt an Eiweißen ( Immunglobuline ), Vitaminen, Mineralstoffen und Leukozyten. Bei Huf- und Klauentieren ist die Aufnahme von Immunglobulinen aus dem Kolostrum für die passive Immunisierung des Neugeborenen besonders wichtig."

[Quelle: http://vetmedia.vetmed.fu-berlin.de/tiergeburt/kolostr.htm. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-19]

True ; the thing is mentioned in the present verse with a view to those cases where the milk continues to be so 'curdled' even after the first ten days.

The two words—'carefully' and 'avoid'—are added only for filling up the metre ; since 'unfit to be eaten' (of verse 5) continues to be connected with all that is mentioned in the text.

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

This verse is quoted in
  • Aparârka (p. 247);
  • in Mitâksharâ (on 1. 171), which notes that the addition of the epithet 'red' makes it clear that the prohibition does not apply to such exudations as assafoetida, camphor and the like; and
  • in Parâsharamâdhava (Âcâra, p. 711), which adds—'the red exudations' meant are the lac and the rest,—the epithet 'red' indicating that such exudations as are white, e.g., assafoetida, camphor and the like—are not forbidden, —'shelu' is shleshmâtaka,—'peyûsa' is 'new milk' i.e., the milk of the newly-delivered cow, whose blood-flow has not ceased; and in support it quotes verse 8 following.
  • It is quoted in Vîramitrodaya (Âhnika, p. 510), which adds the following notes—'Vrkshaniryâsa' is 'the solidified exudation from trees ',—'Vrashcana' is cutting, and the exudations from cuttings are to be avoided even when they are not red. The prohibition does not apply to such things as assafoetida, camphor and the like,—'shelu' is shleshmâtaka,—and 'peyûsa' is the milk of the newly dilivered cow, which solidifies at the slightest contact with fire ;—
  • in Hemâdri (Shrâddha, p. 567) ;
  • and in Prâyashcittaviveka (p. 287).

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part II: Explanatory. --1924.  -- z. St.]


Gautama (17.32, 33).—(See above.)

Vasishtha (14.33).—(See above.)

Vishnu (51 36).—(See above.)

Yâjnavalkya (1.171).—(See above.)

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part III: Comparative. --1926.  -- z. St.]

7. Needlessly cooked

"Rice-sesamum and Butter-sugar-sesamum"

"Lateinischer Name: Sesamum indicum
Indische Namen:
  • Bengali: Til
  • Gujarati: Tal
  • Hindi: Til
  • Kannada: Ellu
  • Malayalam: Karuthellu
  • Marathi: Til
  • Sanskrit: Tila
  • Telugu: Nuvvulu

Familie: Pedaliaceae

Sesam, eine einjährige, hochwachsende Blütenpflanze, wurde offenbar schon vor fünf Jahrtausenden von den Angehörigen der Industal-Kultur angebaut. In Harappa, dem Zentrum der geheimnisvollen Hochkultur, fanden Archäologen verklumpte Reste der Samen. In Mesopotamien war die Pflanze damals auch bereits ein wichtiger Öl- und Nahrungslieferant, und wurde daher von den Königen exakt verwaltet.

Der Name leitet sich vom griechischen Wort Sesamos ab, das bei Hippocrates erstmals aufscheint und auf arabische Quellen zurückgeht. Das indische Stammwort »tila« bezeichnet ein kleines Körnchen, denn in den zweikammrigen Schoten der Pflanze finden sich hunderte flache, tropfenförmige Samenkörner, jedes von einer dünnen gelblichen bis schwarzen Hülle umgeben und innen kremig weiß. In der Natur platzen die Schoten explosionsartig und verstreuen ihr Saatgut, ein Gleichnis, das sich im »Sesam öffne Dich« von Tausendundeine Nacht erhalten hat.

Die nussartig schmeckenden Samen werden gebacken oder geröstet zu Brot, Gebäck oder Gajjak, einer Süßigkeit aus Sesam und Zucker, verarbeitet oder vermahlen und gepresst. Denn das Sesamöl ist besonders gesund und haltbar.

Im klassischen Indien war Sesam die einzige Ölpflanze der Arier. Die hinduistische Überlieferung berichtet, dass die Pflanze aus Vishnus Schweißtropfen, die zur Erde fielen, gekeimt sei. In den Vedas wird die Nase häufiger als Tilapushpa, als Knospe der Sesam-Pflanze bezeichnet. Die Blüten stehen einzeln in den Achsen der ovalen, deutlich geäderten Blätter. Deren Stroh diente, laut Atharva Veda, der Düngung von Feldern und Obstbäumen."

[Quelle:Gandhi, Maneka <1956 - >: Brahmas Haar : die Mythologie der indischen Pflanzenwelt / Maneka Gandhi. In Zusammenarbeit mit Yasmin Singh. Ill. von Mona Bhandari.  -- Frankfurt a.M. : Brandes und Apsel, 1995. -- 173 S. : Ill. -- Originaltitel: Brahma's hair (1989). -- ISBN: 3-86099-438-7. -- S. 129f.]



'Krsarasamyâvan' is an aggregative copulative compound. Rice cooked with Sesamum is called 'krsara' ;—'samyâva' is a particular article of food, made up of butter, sugar, sesamum and such things, well-known in cities.

Some people, on the strength of the root 'yu' (from which the term 'samyâva' is derived) signifying the act of mixing, explain the term 'samyâva' as standing for all those articles of food that are prepared by mixing together different kinds o£ grains,— such as the mudga [Mungbohne, Phaseolus mungo], the kushthaka and the rest.

For these persons the separate mention of 'krsara' would be superfluous; as this would be included under 'samyâva', as just explained.

The term 'needlessly cooked' is to be construed with all the terms. It stands for what the householder cooks for himself, and not for the sake o£ Gods, Pitrs or guests,

This however does not appear to be right. Because the ordinary cooking that the Householder does is not always for any such set purpose as that of making offerings out of it. What happens is that the cooking having been done, without reference to any particular purpose, and only in a general way, the Five Sacrifices have been laid down, as to be offered out of the food thus cooked. So that if the man eats the food without having made the offering to the Vishvedevas out of it, he transgresses a direct injunction ; but no prohibition enters into the case. According to the present text however, as just explained, such eating would necessitate two expiatory rites,—one due to transgressing an injunction (by not making the offering to the Vishvedevas), and another due to the doing of a prohibited act (of cooking the Rice-sesamum needlessly). If however such articles of food as 'Rice-sesamum' and the rest, are cooked without reference to a particular God, or to a particular sacrificial rite,—this involves a transgression of the rules pertaining to one's daily duties also.

As regards the text 'one shall not cook for himself',—this cannot be regarded as a prohibition; because it being absolutely necessary to do the cooking, all that the sentence does is simply to make a reference to the act of eating done by one who has disobeyed the rules (regarding the daily 'sacrifices'). For, as already pointed out above, if it were a prohibition, there would be a twofold expiatory rite involved. Then again, even when the cooking is done for some other purpose, it cannot be absolutely denied that it has been done by the man 'for himself' also. 'Cooking' means the act of cooking food, and the fact of its being done for one's own self cannot be denied by means of the same word; as the man is directed to live upon the same food {i.e. what is left after the feeding of the guests &c.). The eating of the remnant of food, after the guests and others have been fed, (which has been laid down for the Householder) is not meant to be a mere 'embellishment' of the Remnant (and not an act necessary for the maintenance of the man himself) Nor has it been laid down anywhere that at the time of cooking the Householder is to make use of any such formulas of determination as 'cook food for me', which would be regarded as forbidden (by the sentence 'he shall not cook for himself') In fact the cooking is said to be 'for himself' only in consideration of what happens subsequently. That is to say, if the food were cooked with the determination to make an offering to the Gods, and then subsequently the man, were toeat it all himself, this would involve the wrong of being false to one's own resolve also. From all this it is clear that the sentence in question is a mere reiterative reference, the sense being—'what one cooks, he should not use for himself until he has made the offering to the Vishvedevas'.

It is in view of all this that this same rule has been held to be applicable also to the case of the man eating uncooked food ; in accordance with the assertion—'the Gods of a man have the same food as the man himself '. (Vâlmîkîya  Râmâyana.)

Further cooking is not to be done only by the hungry householder ; in fact, the act of cooking every day forms an integral factor of Householdership itself. So that even on the day on which the man himself does not eat, if he omits the act of cooking, he incurs sin.

The upshot of the whole is this;—The man may cook for himself, or for others ; the words 'shall not cook for himself ' can only mean that people should not undertake the act, if they do not intend to make the offering to the Vishvedevas. So that this only reiterates the obligatory character of the offering. Similarly also the text that—'For the removal of the sin of the Five Slaughters, the Vishvedeva-offering shall be made in the ordinary fire, in the Vedic sacrificial fire, in the fire in which oblations have been already poured and the deity dismissed, in water or on the ground,'— only reiterates the obligatory character of the offering to the Vishvedevas, Because the said offering cannot be made into the Vedic sacrificial fire ; specially as there is no authority attaching to a Smrti text (as against a Shruti text,) [so that the text just quoted cannot be taken in its literal sense].

'Milk-rice and flour-cakes',—'Pâyasa' , 'Milk-rice,' stands for rice cooked in milk, and not for preparations of milk ;—'Purodâsha' is flour-cuke.
'Food of the Goods' : - what these are can only be ascertained from usage.

'Sacrificial viands',—the materials laid down in the Shruti as to be offered into the Fire.

These are 'unfit to be eaten' only before the Grahahomas ; as the text is going to lay down the necessity of eating the remnants of the offerings.

The meat of an animal that has not been 'consecrated,'—i.e. which has not been killed at a sacrifice. 'Consecration' is a peculiar form of purification of the animal, prescribed in connection with the 'Animal-Sacrifice.' The mention of this indicates that one should eat the remnant of the meat that has been offered at a sacrifice.

Though the Text has already used the qualification 'needlessly prepared', yet the epithet 'unconsecrated' has been added with a view to forbid the meat of the cow, the sheep and the goat that may have been left by the guest and other persons to whom they may have been offered. Or, the term unconsecrated may be taken as refering specially to the meat, of the cow, the sheep and the goat; since it is the killing of these animals only that has been enjoined in connection with sacrifices; the other animals being described as already 'prokshita', 'washed clean' (fit for eating).

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

Cf. The Mahâbhârata 13,104.41.

This verse is quoted

  • in Smrtitattva (p. 448), which explains 'vrthâ'' as  'what is cooked for oneself, and not for being offered to gods or pitrs',—and quotes the Chandoga-parishishta as defining 'krsara' to be 'rice and sesamum cooked together'—'samyâva' is a preparation of ' butter, milk, molasses, and the flour of wheat and other grains'—'anupâkrtamâmsa' is ' meat not consecrated by mantras,'—'devânna,' is 'food prepared for offering to gods'—'havish' is the 'sacrificial cake' and such things;
  • and in Hemâdri (Shrâddha, p. 610.)

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part II: Explanatory. --1924.  -- z. St.]


Gautama (17.31).—'Flesh of animals with teeth not fallen out, flesh of diseased animals, and flesh got without any religious purpose.'

Vishnu (51.37).—'Shâlûka [Lotuswurzel], needlessly cooked rice-sesamum and butter, sugar-wheat, rice-milk, cakes, breads fried in butter, food of the gods and sacrificial viands.'

Abb.: Shâlûka = Lotuswurzel (Nelumbo nucifera) [Bildquelle: http://www.foodsubs.com/Roots.html. -- Zugriff am 2004-03-03]

"Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. syn. Nelumbium nelumbo Druce; N. speciosum Willd.
Sacred Lotus, Indian Lotus, Chinese Water Lily
Sans.—Ambuja, padma, pankaja, kamala; Hindi—Kanwal, kamal; Beng.—Padma; Mar.—Kamal; Guj.—Suriyakamal; Tel.—Kalung, erra-tamara; Tam.—Ambal, thamarai; Kan. — Kamala, tavaregadde; Mal.—Thamara, senthamara; Oriya—Padam; Kashmir—Pamposh; Punjab—Kanwal, pamposh, Mundari—Salukid ba, upal ba, kombol ba; Assam—Podum; Khasi Hills—Soh-lapudong.

Farinaceous rhizomes (Kamal-kakdi, bhen) used as a vegetable. Fruiting torus (Kamal-gatta, Kaul chapani) contains round or oblong carpels which are eaten after removing the outer covering and intensively bitter embryo. Carpels are sweet and eaten raw, roasted, boiled, candied, or ground into flour; considered more nutritive than cereals. Flowers were once used for extraction of perfume. Young leaves, petioles, and flowers also eaten as vegetables. Rhizomes yield a kind of nutritious arrowroot, given to children in diarrhoea and dysentery. Carpels demulcent and nutritive. Leafstalks yield a fibre. Petioles, pedicels and embryos contain an alkaloid, nelumbine, which acts as a cardiac poison."

[Quelle: The useful plants of India. -- Reprint [der Ausgabe 1986]. -- New Delhi : National Institute of Science Communication, 2000. -- 918 S. -- ISBN 821-7236-205-6. -- S. 394f.]

Yâjnavalkya (1.171,173).—'Offerings meant for gods... . unconsecrated meat, rice-sesamum or butter-sugar-wheat, or milk-rice or flour-cakes or wheaten bread fried in butter,—neddlessly cooked.'

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part III: Comparative. --1926.  -- z. St.]

8. The milk


Abb.: Kuh mit Kalb, Sandstein, Agroha, 10. Jhdt., Victoria and Albert Museum, London [Bildquelle: http://www.archipelago.org/vol3-4/snead6.htm. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-19]


Abb.: Kameleuter, Punjab


The geographical distribution of camels (dromedaries) in India, is in the States of Gujarat, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya, Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and U.P. (Rao et al., 1970). The females calve for the first time at the age of 4 years. They lactate for 8–18 months. The amount of milk for the calf, and the amount that is milked, is regulated by tying up the teats to prevent the calf from suckling. The camels are milked twice a day. The daily milk production is between 2.5–6 kg, but often 15 kg per day is milked. Lactation yields range from 2 000 kg (Gohl, 1979) to 2 700–3 600 kg (Rao et al., 1970) under good feeding conditions, to about 1 360 kg, when feed supplies are poor (Yasin and Wahid, 1957).


The Arabian camel is found mainly in West Pakistan (Yasin & Wahid, 1957). Length of the lactation varies from 270–540 days; daily milk yields of 15 to 40 litres were recorded (Knoess, 1977). The total milk yield ranges from 1 350–3 600 kg. The lower milk yields were found in the areas where feed supplies are poor and under desert conditions. When the camels were well fed, there was an average milk yield of 10–15 kg per day (Yasin and Wahid, 1957). As much as 22 kg a day were obtained from some camels. In the areas with poor feeding the daily average was 4 kg. The heavy Pakistani camels produced up to 35 kg per day (Knoess, 1979). The desert camels gave more milk than the animals getting poor feed. These animals were milked twice daily."

[Quelle: http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X6528E/X6528E02.htm. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-19]


Abb:: Chottnagpuri

Abb.: Shahabadi

Abb.: Balangir

Abb:: Ganjam

Abb.: Weibchen einiger Schafrassen Indiens [Bildquelle: http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/004/X6532E/X6532E05.htm. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-19]

If we read the opening words as 'anirdashâham goh kshîram' then the prohibition regarding the milk of the camel and other animals also would be understood as limited to the ten days from calving; so that the qualification 'that has not pnsstd its ten days' being taken with every one of the animals, it would become necessary to depend entirely upon usage in support of the absolute prohibition of the milk of the camel and other animals. If however we read 'anirdashâyâh' in the feminine form, then there would be no possibility of the above misunderstanding. Because it would not be possible to interpret the nominal affixes (attached to the names of the other animals) as, in any way, connecting these animals with the epithet 'anirdashâyâh'.

In as much as the word 'milk' is repeated in the second half of the verse, this implies that what are forbidden by the former half are the milk of the camel, of the one-hoofed animals, of the sheep, of the goat and of the cow within ten days of its calving,— along with all its preparations; while in the case of the 'irregular' cow and the cow 'deprived of its calf', it is the milk only that is forbidden Such is the usage also.

That cow is called 'anirdashâh', 'not passed its ten days', in whose case ten days have not passed since her calving.

'Irregular cow';—the cow that is expected to give milk both morning and evening, but gives it only at one time; giving milk in the evening only if not milked in the morning; and on account of the supply of milk being scanty, she is milked once only.

Some people explain 'Sandhinî' as standing for that cow which, on having lost her own calf, is made to yield milk by bringing to her the calf of another cow ; and in this case the cow 'without her calf ' would be one whose calf is alive, but is separated from it, and is milked, independently ot the calf, through presenting before her such special articles of food as the husks of barley, rice etc, so that the cow would be called 'without her calf' by the calf being held aside; just as people say—'bring the cow without her calf'.

The 'cow' having been already mentioned in the first half, the term is repeated in the second half, with a view to show that similar milk of the goat and the buffalo is not forbidden. The same does not hold good regarding the epithet 'anirdashâyâh' 'that has not passed its ten days;' so that in this connection the 'cow' includes the goat and the buffalo also. So says Gautama (17.22-23) —'The milk of the cow that has not passed its ten days, during the period of impurity; also of the goat and the buffalo.'

The term 'payah' 'milk,' has been added because it is not easy to construe the term 'goh' 'of the cow,' with the term 'kshîram' 'milk' as contained in the compound 'sandhinîkshîram'.

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

  • ' a cow that gives milk only once a day' (Medhâtithi and Govindarâja);
  • 'a cow in heat' (Kullûka, who quotes Hârita in support, Narâyana and Râghavânanda);
  • 'a cow big with calf' (Nandana);
  • 'a cow whose own calf being dead, is milked with the help of another's calf ('some one' mentioned in Medhatithi.)

This verse is quoted

  • in Mitâksharâ (on 3. 290), where it is said that the unintentional drinking of these milks, if done once only, makes one liable to the penance of a single day's fast, while if done intentionally, or if repeated, it entails a three days' fast.
  • It is quoted in Parâsharamâdhava (Âcâra, p. 712), where the 'Sandhinî' is described as ' the cow that approaches the bull,' i. e., 'the cow in heat',—and the 'anirdashâ' as 'the one that has not passed more than ten days since delivery.'
  • It is quoted in Smrtitattva (p. 448), which adds the following:—'anirdashâ' is that which has not passed ten days since its delivery;—the 'cow' stands for the goat and the buffallo also ;—'ekashapha' are the horse and other one-hoofed animals;—the 'sandhinî' is the cow that seeks for the bull; the avoiding of the second 'goh' in the second line indicates that it is the milk of the cow only that has lost its calf, and not that of the goat or the buffalo.
  • It is quoted in Vîramitrodaya (Âhnika, p. 525), which adds the following:—'nirdashâ' is the cow that has passed ten days since delivery;—'ekashapha' are the horse and other one-hoofed animals—'âvika' is 'the milk of the ewe';— 'sandhinî' is the cow in heat;—'vivatsâ' is one devoid of her calf.
  • It is quoted in Madanapârijâta (p. 929), which contains the same remarks as Mitâksarâ;
  • in Nrsimha-prasâda (Shrâddha, p. 13 a) ;
  • in Hemâdri (Shrâddha, p. 567) ;
  • in Shuddhikaumudî (p. 323), which explains 'ekashapha' as standing for the Horse and the like, and 'Sandhinî' as the cow 'which has been covered by the bull';
  • and in Prâyashcittaviveka (p. 335).

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part II: Explanatory. --1924.  -- z. St.]


Gautama (17.22-26).— 'The milk of the cow until ten days have elapsed since its calving, which is its period of impurity;—also of the she-goat and the she-buffalo;—the milk of sheep and of the camel is never to be drunk, as also that of one-hoofed animals; also the milk of the cow that is constantly dripping milk, or which gives birth to twins or of the irregular cow; also of the cow that has lost its calf.'

Baudhâyana (1.12. 9-11).—'The milk of an animal until its calf is ten days old, and of one that gives milk while pregnant should not be drunk ;—nor that of a cow which has no calf, or which is milked with a strange calf; the milk of sheep, camels or one-hoofed animals.'

Âpastamba (1.17.22-24).—'The milk of sheep,—also the milk of the camel, the deer, the milk of the irregular cow and of the cow that gives birth to twins,—also of the cow within ten days of its calving.'

Vasishtha (14.34-35).—'Let him not drink the milk of the cow in heat, nor of one whose calf has died ;—nor that given by cows, buffalos and goats within ten days of calving.'

Vishnu (51.88-40).—'All milks, except that of the cow, the goat and the buffalo;—the milk of even these within ten days of calving;—also the milk of those which are irregular in milk, or which constantly drip milk, or which has lost its calf.'

Yâjnavalkya (1.170).—'Milk of the cow in heat, of the cow within ten days of its calving, of the cow that has lost its calf,— one should avoid; also the milk of camels, of one-hoofed animals, of women, of wild animals and of sheep.'

Shankha (Aparârka, p. 246).—' The milk of all animals with two teats should be avoided, except that of the goat.'

Zwei Zitzen (teats) besitzen: Pferd, Schaf, Ziege, Elefanten, Affen, Mensch

Abb.: Gesundes Ziegeneuter [Bildquelle: Späth, Hans ; Thume, Otto: Ziegen halten. -- 4., völlig neu gestaltete Aufl. -- Stuttgart  : Ulmer, 1997. -- 216 S. : Ill. -- ISBN 3-8001-7363-8. -- S. 50]

Âpastamba (Parâsharamâdhava, p. 712).—'The well-behaved Kshattriya, or Vaishya or Shûdra should not drink the milk of the Kapilâ cow.'

Abb.: Kapilâ-Kuh als Markenbezeichnung

Hârîta (Vîra-Âhnika, pp. 525,526).—'One shall not drink the milk of the cow in heat;—nor of the cow whose calf is absent or dead, of the cow that has been milked dry, nor of one just calved, till seven days have elapsed, according to some,—ten days, according to others,—while according to some, milk becomes drinkable after a month;—they say that for two months, all the milk should be given to the calf; during the third month, one shall milk only two teats, during the fourth three teats.'

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part III: Comparative. --1926.  -- z. St.]


should be avoided.

"wild buffalo":

Abb.: Wilde Büffel, Kaziranga, Assam [Bildquelle: http://www.cmp.caltech.edu/~mcc/India/PictureShow/Buffalo.html. -- Zugriff am 2004-02-19]

"Gaur und Büffel

Trotz seiner Mächtigkeit als Zugtier ist der Arni-Büffel ausgezeichnet dem Leben in sumpfigen Gebieten angepasst. Seine breiten Hufe und die abstehenden Afterklauen lassen selbst seinen bis 900 kg schweren, ungewöhnlich kräftigen Körper nicht einsinken. Zweifellos hat gerade diese Fähigkeit zu seiner Domestikation durch den Menschen beigetragen. Der Arni ist der Stammvater eines der wichtigsten Haustiere, des Wasserbüffels oder Kerbaus, welcher schon in vorgeschichtlicher Zeit in Vorderindien und vermutlich auch in Mesopotamien gezüchtet und vor allem zum Pflügen der künstlich bewässerten Reisfelder verwendet wurde.

Hausbüffel lebten bald weitverbreitet in der Alten Welt, im südlichen China, in Hinter- und Vorderindien, Ceylon, Afghanistan, Persien, Armenien, Syrien und Palästina. Wann und auf welchen Wegen der gezähmte Büffel nach Europa kam, wissen wir nicht genau. Wahrscheinlich erschien er zuerst in Persien im Gefolge großer Kriegsheere oder wandernder Völker, wo ihn die Begleiter Alexanders des Grossen bereits antrafen. Im Jahre 596 unserer Zeitrechnung gelangte er unter der Regierung Agilulfs nach Italien. Er ist heute auch in Griechenland und in den Donautiefländern anzutreffen. In Italien wird aus seiner Milch der bekannte Mozarella-Käse hergestellt.

In jüngster Zeit breiteten sich die Bestände der domestizierten Wasserbüffel über sämtliche warmen Länder der Erde aus, von Australien bis nach Amerika. Gleichzeitig schmolzen die letzten natürlichen Vorkommensgebiete in Assam und in Burma zusammen.

Der Wasserbüffel, der in verschiedenen Spielformen gehalten wird, von weißen bis zu hornlosen Tieren, lässt sich nicht mit den Hausrindern kreuzen, denn er gehört einer ganz anderen Tiergruppe an. Der anatomische Unterschied zwischen Rindern und Büffeln ist bedeutend größer als derjenige zwischen Löwen und Tigern. Wie bei den Elefanten kennen wir auch bei den Büffeln eine afrikanische und eine asiatische Form. Der afrikanische Büffel (Syncerus), der imposanteste Paarhufer der ostafrikanischen Savannen, wurde nie domestiziert. Der Querschnitt seiner Hörner ist rund. Auf der Stirne vereinigen sich diese zu einer Platte. Die Wildform des asiatischen Büffels trägt Hörner, die in ihrer Länge denjenigen des Afrikaners nicht nachstehen, jedoch graziler erscheinen und einen ovalen Querschnitt aufweisen. Die Hornwülste sind beim asiatischen Büffel in regelmäßigen, beim afrikanischen in unregelmäßigen Abständen angeordnet.

Wer heute noch wilde Arnibüffel beobachten will, besucht am besten das Kaziranga-Reservat in Assam. In den einmaligen Grasdschungeln des Brahmaputra-Tales lichtet sich die Vegetation gelegentlich in kleinen Senken und macht Weideflächen mit kurzwachsenden Futtergräsern Platz. Hier weiden nicht nur die Panzernashörner, sondern auch die wilden Büffel. Mir fiel auf, dass sich ihre Herden gegenüber den mit Touristen beladenen Reitelefanten viel scheuer verhalten als etwa die Nashörner, welche gelegentlich den zahmen Rüsseltieren dreist den Weg versperren und sogar mit kurzen Attacken drohen.

Kaum erhalten die Büffel Wind von den ungebetenen Besuchern, donnern sie davon. Die zehn- bis zwanzigköpfigen Herden bleiben erst in sicherer Distanz stehen, ordnen sich auf einer Linie und sichern mit hocherhobenen Köpfen, die mächtigen Hörner nach hinten gelegt, gegen die Störenfriede.

Wie bei vielen gesellig lebenden Huftieren bilden auch beim Büffel mehrere Muttertiere und ihre Nachkommen eine Herde, die von einem
besonders starken Bullen angeführt wird. Die überzähligen Bullen leben entweder als Einzelgänger oder halten sich in Junggesellenverbänden auf.
In einigen Gebieten Indiens und ganz besonders auch in Ceylon zeigen wildlebende Büffel ein völlig anderes Sozialverhalten. Es handelt sich bei den Beständen, von welchen ich jetzt berichte, um solche, die oft während Generationen als Haustiere bei Menschen lebten und erst in jüngster Zeit freigelassen wurden, weil ihre Arbeit jetzt von wirtschaftlicheren Maschinen geleistet wird. Das ändert nichts daran, dass sich diese Tierart ungemein rasch den jeweiligen Umweltsbedingungen anpassen kann.

Als der Mensch den Wald rodete, schuf er für bodenbewohnende Pflanzenfresser oft geradezu ideale Lebensbedingungen, denn an offenen Stellen wachsen Gräser und Kräuter in der Regel leichter als in schattigen Wäldern. Solche <Kultursavannen> wurden in einige der asiatischen Reservate aufgenommen. Dort fanden verwilderte Hausbüffel bald ideale Rückzugsgebiete. Sie vermehrten sich unheimlich rasch. Wiederholt dezimierten Seuchen die riesigen Bestände, nachdem die Futterreserven durch maßlose Überweidung erschöpft waren.

In diesen von Büffeln dicht besiedelten Gebieten leben die Tiere nicht mehr in gemischten Herden, deren Bestand nur durch Todesfälle und Geburten verändert wird, sondern in offenen Verbänden, die meist aus Tieren des gleichen Geschlechts und ungefähr des gleichen Alters bestehen. Es gibt also Weibchen-, Bullen- und Kälberherden. Tiere verschiedenen Alters und Geschlechts treffen sich nur gelegentlich, vor allem bei der Paarung und zum Stillen der Kälber.

Die Bullen haben bei Beginn der Brunft im Mai die Besitzerverhältnisse der Territorien bereits eindeutig ermittelt. Die Reviere weisen einen Durchmesser von 10 bis 100 Metern auf und liegen auf den offenen Wiesen, welche die Weidegründe der Kühe und Kälber sind. Alle Brunftterritorien entsprechen einem gemeinsamen Bauplan. In ihrer Mitte hat der Besitzer oder sein Vorgänger eine Suhle angelegt, indem er sich ausgiebig in kleinen Wasserrinnen oder Bodensenkungen wälzte, in welchen sich während des Regens Wasser ansammelte. Die Grenzen der Territorien sind von einem ringförmigen, geschlossenen Wechsel umgeben, auf dem der Besitzer sein Revier kontrolliert und mit Harnspritzern täglich mehrmals markiert. Die Territorien vieler Stiere sind, eines neben dem anderen, oft wie Bienenwaben ineinandergeschachtelt. Die Bullen verbringen nicht den ganzen Tag in ihren Brunftterritorien. Diese wären ja zu klein, um genügend Futter für den Besitzer zu liefern. Das schlammige, mit Harn durchsetzte Wasser der Suhle wird nicht getrunken, sondern nur zum Baden verwendet.

Jeden Abend verlassen die gleichen Tiere, die tagsüber eifersüchtig ihren Grundbesitz den Nachbarn gegenüber verteidigt haben, ihr Territorium und schließen sich zu Bullenherden zusammen, die gemeinsam auf Nahrungssuche ziehen und am Morgen früh Körper an Körper in Flüssen und großen Wasserlöchern baden. Dazu tauchen sie vollständig ein. Einzig die Ohren, Augen und Nüstern ragen über die Wasseroberfläche. Selbst die riesigen Hörner, die fast waagrecht nach hinten wachsen, sind nicht zu sehen.

Wenn die Weibchenherden am Morgen auf die Weideplätze ziehen, müssen sie die besetzten Männchenterritorien durchqueren. Dort werden sie von den Revierbesitzern schnaubend an den Grenzen empfangen. Befindet sich in einer durchziehenden Herde eine brünftige Kuh, wird sie vom Territoriumsbesitzer umworben. Entschließt sich die Kuh weiterzuziehen und einen anderen Freier zu suchen, so verfügt selbst der stärkste Büffelmann über kein Mittel, sie daran zu hindern.

Bei den heftigen Kämpfen um die Brunftterritorien werden viele Stiere lebensgefährlich verwundet. Von den überlegenen Gegnern werden ihnen die Augen ausgestochen oder die Vorderbeine gebrochen, und oft schlägt ein rücksichtslos dem Unterlegenen nachlaufender Sieger diesem mit voller Wucht eine Hornspitze in den ungeschützten Hinterteil und reißt dabei die Eingeweide heraus. Die verletzten Büffelbullen sind nicht mehr in der Lage zu kämpfen. Sie müssen Stellen aufsuchen, wo sie vor angriffslustigen Artgenossen geschützt sind. Es bleibt ihnen meist nichts anderes übrig, als sich in felsige Gebiete zu begeben, die von Büffeln sonst gemieden werden. Hier finden sie kaum genügend Futter und laufen Gefahr, auf dem glatten Gestein auszurutschen und sich ein Bein zu brechen. Es ist deshalb nicht erstaunlich, dass die Rückzugsgebiete der Bullen Büffelfriedhöfen gleichen. Sie sind übersät mit den gebleichten Knochen der Verwundeten, die dort starben.

Die scheinbar ungehemmte Vermehrung verwilderter Hausbüffel hat besonders in Ceylon zu massiven, nicht wieder gutzumachenden Schädigungen der Pflanzendecke geführt. Man mag sich mit Recht fragen, warum Raubtiere, denen ja gerne nachgesagt wird, sie würden die Pflanzenfresser reduzieren, nicht eine Massenvermehrung verhindern.

Leoparden und in Indien auch der Tiger schlagen gerne Büffelkälber. Gerade in dicht besiedelten Büffelgebieten, wo die Kälber in Kindergärten oft weitab von den wehrhaften Müttern stehen, sind sie eine leicht zu schlagende Beute. Halbwüchsige und vor allem erwachsene Büffel werden von den Raubtieren gemieden. Sicher wären die großen Raubtiere durchaus in der Lage, einen Büffelbestand am unnatürlichen Wachsen zu hindern, wenn die Büffel ihre Jungtiere über das ganze Jahr verteilt zur Welt brächten, wie das viele andere tropische Huftiere tun. Aber die Büffel haben eine extrem kurze Setzzeit im Januar und Februar, während welcher alle Kälber geboren werden. Dieses für Tropentiere erstaunliche Fortpflanzungsverhalten mag man als Anpassungsmechanismus erklären. In Waldgebieten, wo Büffel selten vorkommen, Büffelkälber aber die bevorzugte Beute der großen Raubtiere sind, schützt dieser Anpassungsmechanismus die Büffel vor großer Dezimierung, weil das Angebot an begehrter Beute kurzfristig so sehr erhöht wird, dass es die Nachfrage bei weitem übersteigt.

Während der Arnibüffel in feuchten Lebensräumen vorkommt, lebt der mächtige Gaur, der <indische Bison>, vorwiegend in trockenen Waldgebieten. Ich beobachtete dieses prächtige Wildrind am Stausee von Periyar, im Kanha-Nationalpark und im Bandipur-Reservat. Nicht einmal wilde Elefanten oder Tiger beeindrucken mich dermaßen stark, wie eine ruhig daher-stampfende Herde dunkelbrauner Gaurkühe und -kälber, angeführt von einem schwarzen Bullen, dessen mächtige Erscheinung durch den höckerartig aufgeworfenen Widerrist noch verstärkt wird.

Wenn man bedenkt, dass die Gaurherden dichte Bambushaine als Aufenthaltsorte bevorzugen, dann mag man sich mit Recht wundern, wie sich die bis zu einer Tonne schweren und oft fast zwei Meter hohen Tiere in dichter, meist dorniger Vegetation überhaupt fortbewegen können. Nach einigem Beobachten stellt man dann nicht nur fest, dass sich die Wildrinder äußerst behende zwischen dem armdicken Bambus verschieben, sondern auch, dass ihr Körperbau ausgezeichnet dem Leben in der dichten Vegetation angepasst ist. Obwohl ausgesprochen hoch und lang gewachsen, sind sie erstaunlich schmal. Noch ein anderes Körpermerkmal deutet auf eine starke Anpassung an den Bambus: die lange Zunge, mit welcher sie Bambusblätter ergreifen und ins Maul ziehen.

Wie alle wiederkäuenden Tiere zieht sich der Gaur nach der oft erstaunlich kurzen Äsperiode an sichere Orte zurück, um in aller Ruhe die Nahrung, welche er im Pansen gesammelt hat, noch einmal durchzukauen. Das Wiederkäuen ermöglicht es, die Nahrung viel besser auszunützen, denn Wirbeltiere verdauen Pflanzenkost viel schwerer als tierische Nahrung, weil ihnen die nötigen Wirkstoffe fehlen, um die aus Zellulose bestehenden Wände der Pflanzenzellen aufzuschließen. Hingegen haben bestimmte Bakterien diese Fähigkeit. In riesigen Mengen leben sie im Magen der Wiederkäuer, fressen Zellwände und machen so den Inhalt der beim Kauen größtenteils unversehrt gebliebenen Zellen den Verdauungssäften ihres Wirtes zugänglich. Der Magen der Wiederkäuer ist eine komplizierte Verdauungseinrichtung. Er besteht nicht nur aus einem oder zwei Abschnitten, sondern aus deren vier. Bei der Nahrungsaufnahme gelangt das Futter vorerst in den größten Abschnitt, den Pansen oder Vormagen. Dort halten sich die Bakterien auf. Zusammen mit einer gehörigen Portion Bakterien gelangt der Nahrungsbrei anschließend in den Netzmagen oder die Haube, wie der Jäger sagt, wo die beiden Komponenten miteinander vermengt werden. Wenn Bakterien und Futter genügend miteinander vermischt worden sind, wird das Gemisch aufgewürgt zwischen den Backenzähnen ein zweites Mal ausgiebig gekaut und erneut geschluckt. Der Brei gelangt nun nicht mehr nur in den Vormagen, sondern durch die Schlundrinne auch in die dritte Abteilung des Magens, den Blättermagen oder Psalter, und von dort in den Labmagen. Pansen, Haube und Psalter sind drüsenlose Ausstülpungen der Speiseröhre, die mit verhornter Haut ausgekleidet sind. Verdauungsdrüsen münden nur in den Labmagen, den eigentlichen Magen, wo die körpereigene Verdauung einsetzt.

Im Kanha-Nationalpark trifft man Gaurherden nur selten an, obwohl sie dort sehr häufig die Bambushaine verlassen und in den Wiesen grasen. Doch noch bevor die Sonne richtig aufgegangen ist, treten sie die langen Märsche in ihre Tagesquartiere hoch über den heißen Steppen auf kühlen Bergrippen an. Ich folgte mehrmals ihren überhandgrossen Spuren, die auf tief ausgetretenen Wegen die steilen Hänge hinaufführten, und hörte gelegentlich das heftige Zusammenknallen der schweren Hörner zweier Bullen, die offenbar im Kampf über den Besitz einer Herde entschieden. Nahe an sie heran gelangte ich allerdings kaum je, ohne dass eines der vorsichtigen Tiere mich gehört oder erspäht und mit einem fast pfeifenden Schnauben die ganze Herde gewarnt hätte. Sicher bildet nicht nur die Vorsicht und das gut funktionierende Warnsystem einen ausgesprochen guten Schutz gegen den Tiger, der mit dem Gaur den Lebensraum teilt, sondern auch der waghalsige Mut, mit welchem Gaurbullen anschleichende Tiger annehmen und vertreiben."

[Quelle: Kurt, Fred <1939 - >: Zoo Indien / Text: Fred Kurt ; Fotos und Bildtexte Willi Dolder. -- Zürich : Silva-Verlag, 1976.  --169 S. : Ill. -- S,. 144 - 151. -- Dieses empfehlenswerte Silva-Buch ist in der Bücherbrocki Zürich stets preiswertest erhältlich]

"females (women)"

Abb.: Menschenmilch gehört dem Kind, Delhi [Bildquelle: http://www.who.int/multimedia/indiaweb/gallerypeople/breastfeeding/WHO-210296.jpg. -- Zugriff am 2004-03-02]


'Wild animals'—cows, elephants, monkeys and so forth.

There can be no milk of males ; hence the masculine gender used in connection with the words 'sarveshâm mrgânâm' is to be taken as standing for the genus, and the connection is with the female members of that genus: the term 'mrgakshîram' thus being similar to ; 'kukkutândam'. This has been made clear by the author of the Mahâbhâshya in connection with the rules relating to the change of the feminine form into the masculine, (when occurring within a compound).

'Mâhisham vinâ' ;—the neuter form has been used, in view of the neuter form 'payah,' 'milk'.

'Females,'—human females; women. Though in such passages as 'strî gauh somakrayinî', 'the female cow is the price of the soma ',—the term 'strî ', 'female', is found to be used in connection with the animal with the dewlap also,—yet it is to be understood here in the sense of the 'woman', in as much as in the present context the term cannot apply to any other species of animals, and as it is better known as standing for the 'human female' only. In all such assertions as— 'females desire sweets', 'females are the best jewels'—the word is understood as standing for the woman.

The term 'eva' in the text has been explained as indicating the prohibition of applying the woman's milk to the eye and such other uses of it ; the meannig being that the milk of the woman is to be avoided, not only in eating, but also in all similar uses. The word can be taken as indicative of all this only on the strength of usage and other Smrti texts; and it cannot be regarded as directly expressive of it.

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

"Cf. Shatapatha Brâhmana, for an early list of animals whose flesh is forbidden "—Hopkins.

This verse is quoted

  • in Mitâksharâ (on 3.290);
  • and in Smrtitattva (p. 448), which adds that the term 'mrga' here stands for animals, and not for the deer only ; since the ' buffalo' is cited as an exception ;—'shukta' is the name of those things that, by themselves sweet, become soured by keeping.
  • The first half is quoted in Aparârka (p. 246), which adds that the phrase 'payovarjyam' has to be supplied.
  • The verse is quoted in Vîramitrodaya (Âhnika p. 525), which takes 'âranyânâm mrgânâm' together, and explains it as standing for the Ruru, Mahîshsa, Prshata and the rest;
  • in Nrsimhaprasâda (Shrâddha p. 13a);
  • in Hemâdri (Shrâddha, p. 567);
  • in Prâyashcittaviveka (p. 335);
  • and in Shuddhikaumudî (p. 323).

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part II: Explanatory. --1924.  -- z. St.]


Gautama (17.14).—'All soured substances by themselves with the exception of curds:'

Baudhâyana (1.12-15).—'Nor soured substances nor molasses turned sour.'

Âpastamba (1.17.15).—'Also soured substances.'

Vasishtha (14.37-38).—' Let him avoid wheat-cakes, fried grain, porridge, barley-meal, pulse-cakes, oil, milk-rice and vegetables that have turned sour ; like other kinds of sour food prepared with milk and barley-flour.'

Vishnu (51. 1-42).—'Also soured substances by themselves, with the exaeption of curds.'

Yâjnavalkya (1167, 170),—'Things turned sour, food cooked overnight, leavings, &c.'

Bhavishyapurâna (Aparârka, p. 241).—'That should be regarded as spoilt by time, which has been cooked on the preceding day ; among such soured substances, curds may be eaten, but not molasses.'

Shankha-Likhita.—'Nor what has been cooked twice, nor what has been kept over-night, with the exception of rice cooked in sugar, curds, molasses, or preparations of wheat and barley-flour.'

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part III: Comparative. --1926.  -- z. St.]

10. Among Soured Substances,


All 'soured substances' having been forbidden in the foregoing verse, the present text makes an exception in favour of a few of them.

'Shukta', 'soured substance ', is the name of those substances which, being juicy in their constitution and having a distinct taste of their own, become soured either by the flux of time, or by the contact of some other substance. For instance, the Âmrâtaka [Spondias mangifera = S. pinnata = Mangifera pinnata], which is sweet and full of juice, becomes 'soured' after the lapse of some time ; cane-juice becomes 'soured' after sometime. Things that are sour by their very nature—e.g.  the Pomegranate [Punica granatum], the Âmalaka [Emblica officinalis], the Lemon &c.—are not called 'soured substances' ; nor those that are still unripe. Because the term 'shukta', 'soured', is not synonymous with 'sour'. What are directly forbidden here are only those soured substances that have become sour by fermentation; and those that turn sour by the contact of flowers and roots &c. are only indirectly indicated; according to what Gautama has said (17-14)—'All soured substances except Curd only'.

"Pomegranate [Punica granatum]"

Abb.: Punica granatum = Granatapfel

"Punica granatum Linn.


Sans.—Dadima; Hindi—Anar; Beng.—Dalim; Mar. & Kan.— Dalimba; Guj.—Dadam; Tel.— Danimma; Tarn.—Madulai; Mal.— Matalam.

Fleshy testa edible. Among the numerous types grown, Bedana and Kandahari are considered the best. Seeds of wild trees are sour and dried ones constitute Anardana, used as a condiment. Fruit is a good source of sugars and vitamin C, and a fair source of iron, but poor in calcium. Seed juice is a favourite drink, it blends well with other fruit juices and may also be used for making wine. Fruit
rind is rich in tannin and used as a tanning material, also yields a dye. Flowers yield a red dye. Bark used to expel tapeworms, iso-pelletierine is the most potent among the active principles; given as decoction. Rind is used as an astringent diarrhoea and dysentery. Flower-buds used in bronchitis."

[Quelle: The useful plants of India. -- Reprint [der Ausgabe 1986]. -- New Delhi : National Institute of Science Communication, 2000. -- 918 S. -- ISBN 821-7236-205-6. -- S. 505]

"Âmalaka [Emblica officinalis]"

Abb.: Âmalaka = Emblica officinalis

"Emblica officinalis Gaertn. syn. Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

Emblic Myrobalan, Indian Gooseberry

Sans.—Adiphala, dhatri, amalaka; Hindi—Amla, amlika, aonla; Beng.—Amla, amlaki; Guj.—Amali, ambala; Tel.—Amalakamu, usirikai; Tarn.—Nelli; Kan.—Amalaka, nelli; Mal—Nelli.

Fruit sour and astringent, cooling, diuretic laxative; eaten raw or cooked, also pickled; a rich source of vitamin C ; containing twenty times as much vitamin C as orange juice. Fruits used in hair dyes, dried ones are detergent and used for shampooing hair. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Fruits, bark and leaves are rich in tannin; their tannin content being 28%, 8-21% and 22% respectively. Wood used for agricultural implements, poles, and inferior quality furniture."

[Quelle: The useful plants of India. -- Reprint [der Ausgabe 1986]. -- New Delhi : National Institute of Science Communication, 2000. -- 918 S. -- ISBN 821-7236-205-6. -- S. 195]

'Distilled.'—Distillation consists in allowing the thing to remain soaked in water over-night.

"In that case the sourness would be due to the length of time (so that all these would be included among 'Soured Substances')."

True; these also are 'soured substances'; and the Instrumental ending may signify either instrumentality or association. The meaning thus is —'what are distilled- e.g. made out of—flowers etc. along with water'.

Some people offer the following explanation:—"The roots of trees are directly productive of sourness. 8uch 'sour substances' as the Pomegranate, the Âmalaka [Emblica officinalis] and the rest are 'fit to be eaten', while those that are distilled from grapes and other sweet things arc not eaten. 'Distillation' means producing acidity; hence 'distilled from flowers' means soured by flowers and such things. Grapes and such other things however are not themselves productive of acidity; in their case it is time alone that is the acidulating agent."

This however is not right; simply because such is not the meaning of the term ('distillation'). When one says —'he is distilling Soma'—this is not understood to mean that he is making it sour; what is understood is as we have explained above.

'Prepared out of curd';—e.g. Udasvit [Mischung aus Wasser und Buttermilch in gleicher Menge], Mastu (whey) [Molke], Kilâta (Coagulated milk) Kûrcika (inspissated milk) [eingedickteMilch] and so forth.

[Übersetzung: Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Vol. III,1. --1922.  -- z. St.]

This verse is quoted
  • in Mitâksharâ (on 3. 290) ;
  • in Smrtitattva (p. 448), which explains 'dadhisambhavam' as standing for the takra and other similar preparations ;— and again on p. 182 ;
  • and in Hemâdri (Shrâddha, p. 616).

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part II: Explanatory. --1924.  -- z. St.]


Gautama (17.14).—( See above.)

Baudhâyana (1.12.14).—'Stale food should not be eaten, except pot-herbs, broths, meat, clarified butter, cooked grain, molasses, curds and barley-meal.'

Âpastamba (1.17.19).—'Excepting raw sugar, fried grain, curd-rice, fried barley, barley-meal, vegetables, meat, wheat-cake, preparations of milk, herbs, tree-roots and fruits (stale food shall not be eaten).'

Vishnu (51.42).—(See above.)

Yâjnavalkya (1.169),—'Food cooked overnight may be eaten, if it is smeared with fatty oils, or if it has been kept for a long time ; preparations of wheat, barley and milk may be eaten even when not mixed with fatty oils.'

Yama (Aparârka, 7.245).—'Soured foods one should never eat ; but in times of distress they may be eaten after being washed ; preparations of lentil and mâsha [Bohnen], even though cooked overnight, one may eat after washing them and mixing butter with them. Even though one may avoid soured substances, one may eat such things cooked overnight as wheat-cakes, rice-curd, fried grains, small cakes, barley-meal, vegetables, meat, broths, rice-gruel, barley-flour and things mixed with fatty oils. Curds and food mixed with molasses, when stale, should be avoided ; so also drinks prepared with honey and butter.'

Devala (Do.).—'Even though soured, curd may be eaten, also preparations of curd ; drinks made of fruits and roots and flowers may be eaten, if they are not intoxicating.'

[Manu: Manu-smrti : the laws of Manu ; with the Bhasya of Medhathiti / transl. by Ganganatha Jha. - Calcutta : University of Calcutta. -- Notes. -- Part III: Comparative. --1926.  -- z. St.]

Zu Kapitel 11,3: Manu V, 11 - 25