नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्

2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam

5. vanauṣadhivargaḥ II

3. Vers 44 - 62

(Über Pflanzen)


Übersetzt von Alois Payer

mailto:payer@payer.de 


Zitierweise | cite as: Amarasiṃha <6./8. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana (Amarakośa) / übersetzt von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- 2. Dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam. -- 5. vanauṣadhivargaḥ II.  -- 3. Vers 44 - 62. -- Fassung vom 2010-12-31. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/amarakosa/amara205c.htm           

Erstmals hier publiziert: 2010-11-13

Überarbeitungen: 2010-12-31 [Verbesserungen] ; 2010-11-19 [Ergänzungen] ; 2010-11-16 [Ergänzungen]

©opyright: Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit von Tüpfli's Global Village Library


Meinem Lehrer und Freund

Prof. Dr. Heinrich von Stietencron

in Dankbarkeit gewidmet.


Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Die Devanāgarī-Zeichen sind in Unicode kodiert. Sie benötigen also eine Unicode-Devanāgarī-Schrift.


"Those who have never considered the subject are little aware how much the appearance and habit of a plant become altered by the influence of its position. It requires much observation to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the low country, small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye they appear to be different plants. The Jatropha curcas grows to a tree some 15 or 20 feet on the Neilgherries, while the Datura alba is three or four times the size in>n the hills that it is on the plains. It is therefore with much diffidence that I have occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub. The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering seasons, especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstroemia Reginae, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, previous to the commencement of the rains, in blossom more or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endeavoured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in contradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little success; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a lifetime would scarcely suffice."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- S. VIII f.]


2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam - Zweiter Teil


2.5. vanauṣadhivargaḥ II - Abschnitt über Wälder und Pflanzen II


Identifikation der lateinischen Pflanzennnamen


Bei der Identifikation der lateinischen Pflanzennamen folge ich, wenn immer es möglich ist:

Bhāvamiśra <16. Jhdt.>: Bhāvaprakāśa of Bhāvamiśra : (text, English translation, notes, appendences and index) / translated by K. R. (Kalale Rangaswamaiah) Srikantha Murthy. -- Chowkhamba Varanasi : Krishnadas Academy, 1998 - 2000. -- (Krishnadas ayurveda series ; 45). -- 2 Bde. -- Enthält in Bd. 1 das SEHR nützliche Lexikon (nigaṇṭhu) Bhāvamiśras.

Pandey, Gyanendra: Dravyaguṇa vijñāna : materia medica-vegetable drugs : English-Sanskrit. -- 3. ed. --  Varanasi : Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, 2005. -- 3 Bde. ; 23 cm. -- ISBN: 81-218-0088-9 (set)

Wo möglich, erfolgt die aktuelle Benennung von Pflanzen nach:

Zander, Robert <1892 - 1969> [Begründer]: Der große Zander : Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen  / Walter Erhardt ... --  Stuttgart : Ulmer, ©2008. -- 2 Bde ; 2103 S. -- ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7.

WARNUNG: dies ist der Versuch einer Übersetzung und Interpretation eines altindischen Textes. Es ist keine medizinische Anleitung. Vor dem Gebrauch aller hier genannten Heilmittel wird darum ausdrücklich gewarnt. Nur ein erfahrener, gut ausgebildeter ayurvedischer Arzt kann Verschreibungen und Behandlungen machen! Die Bestimmung der Pflanzennamen beruht weitgehend auf Vermutungen kompetenter Āyurvedaspezialisten.


Abkürzungen


Hortus malabaricus

Hortus Indicus Malabaricus : continens regni Malabarici apud Indos cereberrimi onmis generis plantas rariores, Latinas, Malabaricis, Arabicis, Brachmanum charactareibus hominibusque expressas ... / adornatus per Henricum van Rheede, van Draakenstein, ... et Johannem Casearium ... ; notis adauxit, & commentariis illustravit Arnoldus Syen ... --  11 Bde.  -- Amstelaedami : sumptibus Johannis van Someren, et Joannis van Dyck, 1678-1703. -- Online: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/b11939795. -- Zugriff am 2010-01-01

Zu den Identifikationen siehe:

Dillwyn, L. W. (Lewis Weston) <1778-1855>: A review of the references to the Hortus malabaricus of Henry Van Rheede Van Draakenstein [sic]. -- Swansea : Printed at the Cambrian-Office, by Murray and Rees, 1839.

Roxburgh

Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Plants of the coast of Coromandel, selected from drawings and descriptions presented to the hon. court of directors of the East India company / by William Roxburgh. Published by their order under the direction of Sir Joseph Banks <1743 - 1820> ...  -- London : Printed by W. Bulmer for G. Nicol, 1795-1819. -- 3 Bde. : 300 kolorierte Tafeln ; 59 cm. -- Online: http://www.botanicus.org/title/b12006488 usw. -- Zugriff am 2009-09-19

Wight Icones

Wight, Robert <1796 - 1872>: Icones plantarum Indiae Orientalis :or figures of Indian plants. -- 6 Bde. -- Madras : published by J.B. Pharoah for the author, 1840-1853. -- Online: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/92. -- Zugriff am 2010-01-01

Wight Illustrations

Wight, Robert <1796 - 1872>: Illustrations of Indian botany :or figures illustrative of each of the natural orders of Indian plants, described in the author's prodromus florae peninsulae Indiae orientalis. -- 2 Bde. + Suppl. -- Madras : published by J. B. Pharoah for the author, 1840-1850. -- Online: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/9603. -- Zugriff am 2010-01-01 

Kirtikar-Basu

Kirtikar, K. R. ; Basu, B. D.: Indian medical plants with illustrations. Ed., revised, enlarged and mostly rewritten by E. Blatter, J. F. Caius and K. S. Mhaskar. -- 2. ed. -- Dehra Dun : Oriental Enterprises. -- 2003. -- 11 Bde : 3846 S. : Ill. ; 26 cm. -- Unentbehrlich! -- Reprint der Ausgabe von 1933, die Abbildungen stammen aus der Ausgabe von 1918


2.5.0. Übersicht



2.5.79. Michelia champaca L. 1753 

Magnoliaceae (Magnoliengewächse)

Baum oder immergrüner Strauch


44. bhaṇḍilo 'py atha cāmpeyaś campako hemapuṣpakaḥ
etasya kalikā gandhaphalī syād atha kesare

भण्डिलो प्य् अथ चाम्पेयश् चम्पको हेमपुष्पकः ।
एतस्य कलिका गन्धफली स्याद् अथ केसरे ॥४४॥

[Bezeichnungen für Michelia champaca L. 1753:]

  1. चाम्पेय - cāmpeya m.: Cāmpeya
  2. चम्पक - campaka m.: Campaka
  3. हेमपुष्पक - hemapuṣpaka m.: Goldblüte

Ihre Knospe heißt गन्धफली - gandhaphalī f.: mit einer wohlriechenden Frucht


Colebrooke (1807): "Champa. Michelia champaca. [c./d.:] Its flower."



Abb.: चम्पकः । Michelia champaca L. 1753
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus I. Fig. 19, 1678]


Abb.:
हेमपुष्पकः । Michelia champaca L. 1753
  [Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
गन्धफली । Knospen von Michelia champaca L. 1753, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/624168128/. -- Zugriff am 2010-11-08. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: हेमपुष्पकः । Michelia champaca L. 1753, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2772024750/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: हेमपुष्पकः । Michelia champaca L. 1753, Brasilien
[Bildquelle: Denis Conrado / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLIcense]


Abb.: चाम्पेयः । Michelia champaca L. 1753, Brasilien
[Bildquelle: Denis Conrado / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLIcense]

"Michelia Champaca. Willd.

[...]

A pretty large tree, common in gardens over most parts of India. Flowering time the rainy season ; the seed ripens in the cold season."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 656.]

"Michelia champaca (Linn.) N. O. Magnoliaceae.

[...]

Descriotion.--Tree, 30-40 feet; [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

W. & A. Prod. i. 6.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 656.— Wight III. L 13.

Cultivated in Bengal. Gardens in the Peninsula.

Medical Uses.—The bitter aromatic bark has been successfully employed in the Mauritius in the treatment of low intermittent fevers. The bark of the root is red, bitter, and very acid, and when pulverised is reckoned emmenagogue. The flowers beaten up with oil are applied to fetid discharges from the nostrils. All parts of the tree are said to be powerfully stimulant.—Lindley. Roxb. Pharm. of India.

Economic Uses.—This tree is highly venerated by the Hindoos, and is dedicated to Vishnoo. It is celebrated for the exquisite perfume of its flowers. Sir W. Jones states that their fragrance is so strong that bees will seldom, if ever, alight upon them. The natives adorn their heads with them, the rich orange colour of the flowers contrasting strongly with their dark black hair. The fruit is said to be edible. The name Champaca is derived from Ciampa, an island between Cambogia and Cochin-China, where the tree grows. The wood is light, but is used for making drums. The seeds are said to destroy vermin.—(Roxb. Don.) Another species is the M. nilagirica, the timber of which is used in house-building. It is of a handsome mottled colour, and has been tried at Bombay for ships.— Wight. J. Grah."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"MICHELIA CHAMPACA, Linn. var. Rheedii.

Golden or Yellow Champa [...]

Hab.—Temperate Himalaya, from Nipal eastward; Pegu, Tenasserim, Nilgiris and Travancore. Commonly cultivated.

History, Uses, &c.--There appear to be several varieties of Michelia which have been produced by cultivation. M. Rheedii, which is referred by Hooker and Thomson to M. Champaca, is cultivated in India for the sake of its yellow, sweet-scented tulip-like flowers which are made into a wreath (veni) and worn by women at the back of the head. The Champa, in Sanskrit Champaka or Dipapushpa (lamp flower) appears to have been cultivated in India from a very early date; it has many synonyms expressing praise of its delicate form, golden colour and intoxicating perfume.

The bark is mentioned in the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of India as having febrifuge properties; but the natives of India do not generally use it, nor is it to be met with in the shops. According to Rheede and Rumphius the flowers are diuretic and are used in gonorrhea to relieve scalding, pounded with cocoanut-oil they are applied as a plaster to inflamed parts. The root is said to be emmenagogue, and the oil of the seeds is rubbed into the abdomen to relieve flatulence."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 42.]


2.5.80. Mimusops elengi L. 1753 - Spanish Cherry

Sapotaceae (Breiapfelgewächse)

Bis 16 m hoher Baum


44. c./d. etasya kalikā gandhaphalī syād atha kesare
45. a./b. bakulo vañjulo 'śoke samau karaka-dāḍimau

एतस्य कलिका गन्धफली स्याद् अथ केसरे ॥४४ ख॥
बकुलो वञ्जुलो
शोके समौ करक-दाडिमौ ।४५ क।

Bezeichnungen für केसर - kesara m.: Mähne, Mimusops elengi L. 1753 - Spanish Cherry:

  • बकुल - bakula m.: Bakula
  • वञ्जुल - vañjula m.: Vañjula

Colebrooke (1807): "Mul-sari. Mimusops elengi."



Abb.: Mimusops elengi L. - Spanish Cherry
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus I. Fig. 20, 1678]


Abb.: Mimusops elengi L. - Spanish Cherry
[Bildquelle: Roxburgh. -- Vol I. -- 1795. -- Image courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.botanicus.org. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


Abb.: Mimusops elengi L. - Spanish Cherry
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Mimusops elengi L. - Spanish Cherry, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Mimusops elengi L. - Spanish Cherry, Brunei - بروني دارالسلام
[Bildquelle: Tony Rodd. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/tony_rodd/2106150461/
. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: Mimusops elengi L. - Spanish Cherry, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Mimusops elengi L. - Spanish Cherry, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]

"Mimusops elengi. Willd.

[...]

I have only once found this tree in its wild state. It was on the mountains in Rajahmundry Circar, where it grows to be a middle-sized tree. On account of its fragrant flowers, it is very generally reared in the gardens of the natives, as well as in those of the Europeans in India. It flowers chiefly during the hot season."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 236f.]

"Mimusops elengi (Linn.) N. O. Sapotaceae.

[...]

Description.--Tree; [...]

Fl. March—April

Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 236.—Cor. i. t. 14.— Wight Icon. t. 1586—Rheedey i. t. 20.

Peninsula. Bengal. Silhet.

Medical Uses.—According to Horsfield, the bark possesses astringent tonic properties, and has proved useful in fevers. A decoction of the bark forms a good gargle in salivation. A water distilled from the flowers is used by the natives in Southern India, both as a stimulant medicine and as a perfume.—Pharm. of India.

Economic Uses.—This tree has an ornamental appearance. The flowers, which appear twice 9-year, are somewhat fragrant and powerfully aromatic. The natives distil an odoriferous water from them. The fruit is edible. The seeds yield an abundance of oil, in request for painters. If the leaves are put in the flame of a candle, they will make a smart crackling noise. The tree is much cultivated in the gardens of the natives, especially round the mausoleums of the Mohammedans. Dr Roxburgh said he only once found it in a wild state. It was on the mountains of the Bajahmundry district.—Roxb."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"MIMUSOPS ELENGI, Linn.

[...]

Hab.--Deccan Peninsula. Cultivated elsewhere.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.--This highly ornamental tree, with dark green, oblong, alternate leaves and small white fragrant flowers, which turn to a tawny yellow colour before they fall, is very common in gardens in India. It is the Vakula, Kesara and Sinha-kesara, "lion's mane" of Sanskrit writers. Chakradatta mentions the astringent properties of the unripe fruit, and recommends it to be chewed for the purpose of fixing loose teeth. He also mentions a decoction of the astringent bark as a useful gargle in diseases of the gums and teeth. In the Concan a similar use is made of the unripe fruit, and the fruit and flowers along with other astringents are used to prepare a lotion for sores and wounds. Mīr Muhammad Husain notices the practice of planting this tree on account of its handsome appearance. He says that the unripe fruit and seeds have powerful astringent properties, and that the decoction of the bark is useful as an astringent in discharges from the mucous membrane of the bladder and urethra, and also as a gargle in relaxation of the gums, &c. He mentions the use of a snuff made from the dried and powdered flowers in a disease called Ahwa, common in Bengal. The symptoms of this disease are strong fever, headache and pain in the neck, shoulders and other parts of the body. The powdered flowers induce a copious defluxion from the nose and relieve the pain in the head. The flowers are much used by the natives on account of their perfume, which they retain when dry; pillows are sometimes stuffed with them, and they afford a distilled water. The juice of the bark and unripe fruit is used by silk dyers to fix colours. Rumphius states that the pounded leaves are applied to cure headache, that a decoction of the root is given in angina, whilst a plaster made from them is applied externally. The ripe fruit pounded and mixed with water is given to promote delivery in childbirth. (Hort. Amb. III., 17.) Horsfield (Asiat. Journ. VII. p. 262) describes the bark as an astringent tonic, and Dr. Bholanauth Bose states that a decoction of it forms a good gargle in salivation. (Pharm. of India, p. 131.)"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 362f.]


2.5.81. Saraca indica L. 1767 - Ashoka Tree

Caesalpiniaceae (Johannisbrotgewächse)

Bis 10 m hoher Baum


45. a./b. bakulo vañjulo 'śoke samau karaka-dāḍimau

बकुलो वञ्जुलो शोके समौ करक-दाडिमौ ।४५ क।

Der अशोक - aśoka m.: "Kummerloser", Aśoka - heißt वञ्जुल - vañjula m.: Vañjula


Colebrooke (1807): "Asoc. Jonesia asoca, R[oxb]." [= Saraca indica L. 1767]



Abb.: अशोकः । Saraca indica L. 1767 - Ashoka Tree
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus V. Fig. 59, 1685]


Abb.: अशोकः । Saraca indica L. 1767 - Ashoka Tree
[Bildquelle: Lemaire 1845 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: अशोकः । Saraca indica L. 1767 - Ashoka Tree, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2209868058/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.:
अशोकः । Saraca indica L. 1767 - Ashoka Tree, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.:
वञ्जुलः । Saraca indica L. 1767 - Ashoka Tree, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Yakṣī (यक्षी) unter अशोकः - Saraca indica L. 1767  - Ashoka Tree, 2./1. Jhdt. v. Chr.
[Bildquelle: World Imaging / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Jonesia asoca, Roxb.

[...]

Found in gardens about Calcutta, where it grows to be a very handsome, middling sized, ramous tree; flowering time the beginning of the hot season ; the seeds ripen during the rains.

The plants and seeds were probably brought originally from the eastern frontier of Bengal, where it is indigenous.

[...]

When this tree is in full blossom, I do not think the whole vegetable kingdom, affords a more beautiful object."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 218ff.]

"SARACA INDICA, Linn.

[...]

The Asoka tree.

Hab.—Himalaya to Ceylon. The bark.

[...]

History, Uses, &C.—This tree is covered with cymes of rich orange-coloured flowers in March and April which gradually turn red. In the fourth act of the Mricchakatika it is likened to a blood-stained warrior. Asoka is famed in Hindu mythology from the circumstance of Sita, the wife of Ramchandra, having been protected from the caresses of the monster Ravana by a grove of the trees. It is the anthropogonic tree of the Vaisya caste, and a branch from it is brought to the house during their marriage ceremonies. In the Bhavaprakasha it is called Ganda-pushpa, or odorous flower; another name is Anganapriya, " dear to women," The tree is the emblem of love, and was burnt by the penitent Siva along with Kamadeva, the god of love, who wished to seduce him (Kumarasamhhava, iii.26); it is said to blossom when touched by the foot of a beautiful woman. (Kalidasa.) The name Ashoka signifies " free from pain;" in the Bhavaprakasha vermifuge properties are attributed to it, and in the Rajanighantu it is called Krimikaraka. At the Ashok-ashtami, or eighth day of the light fortnight of the month Chait (April-May), a festival in honour of Vishnu is observed in most parts of India, when part of the ceremonial consists in drinking water with the buds of the Asoka in it. The bark is much used by Hindu physicians in uterine affections, and especially in menorrhagia. Chakradatta directs a decoction of the bark in milk to be made by boiling eight tolas of it with eight tolas of milk and thirty-two tolas of water till the latter has evaporated. This quantity is given in two or three doses during the course of the day in menorrhagia. (Dutt, Hind. Mat. Med., p. 343.) Its properties appear to be purely astringent."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 507f.]


2.5.82. Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate

Lythraceae (Weiderichgewächse)

Bis 5 m hoher Baum


45. a./b. bakulo vañjulo 'śoke samau karaka-dāḍimau

बकुलो वञ्जुलो शोके समौ करक-दाडिमौ ।४५ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate:]

  1. करक - karaka m.: Wasserkrug
  2. दाडिम - dāḍima m.: Dāḍima

Colebrooke (1807): "Pomegranate."



Abb.:
करकः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate
[Bildquelle: Turpin 1835 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: करकः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate
[Bildquelle: Medicinal plants. Being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants employed in medicine and an account of the characters, properties, and uses of their parts and products of medicinal value. / by Robert Bentley and Henry Trimen. Plates by David Blair. In four volumes., 1880. -- vol. 1, pl. 113]


Abb.: दाडिमः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate
[Bildquelle: Köhler, 1883-1914]


Abb.: करकः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate
[Bildquelle: Köhler, 1883-1914]


Abb.: दाडिमः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: करकः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate, Thane - ठाणे, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/332508895/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

 


Abb.:
दाडिमः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate
[Bildquelle: Momali / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: करकः । Punica granatum L. 1753 - Granatapfel - Pomeganate, Botan. Garten Karlsruhe
[Bildquelle: H. Zell / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Punica granatum. Willd.

[...]

Gool-anar is the Hindee name of the double flowered variety ; both are common in gardens throughout India. A decoction of the bark of the root, has been found a sovereign remedy for the Taenia, or Tape-worm. For the knowledge of this valuable discovery, we are indebted to Mr. Alexander Colvin, and Mr. Home of Calcutta. See Dr. Fleming's Account thereof in the 11th vol. of the Asiat. Res. above quoted."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 499.]

"Punica granatum (Linn.) N. O. Myrtaceae

Pomegranate-tree.

[...]

Description.--Tree, 15-20 feet; [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

W. & A. Prod,. i. 327.—Wight III. ii. 99.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 499.

Cultivated.

Medical Uses.—The pomegranate, according to Pliny, is a native of Carthage, as its name would denote. It is now common in Barbary, France, and Southern Europe, and has become naturalised in this as well as many other countries of the East, to which it has migrated. Royle states that it may be seen growing wild in the Himalaya. The rind of the fruit and the flowers are the parts used medicinally. They are both powerfully astringent, and are employed successfully as gargles in diarrhoea and similar diseases. The pulp is sub-acid, quenching thirst, and gently laxative. The bark of the root is a remedy for tape-worm given in decoction. It sickens the stomach, but seldom fails to destroy the worm. All parte of the plant are rich in tannic acid, and act as astringents and anthelmintics. Besides the above uses, it is used as a local application for relaxed sore-throat and cancer of the uterus.—Ainslie. Powell's Punj. Prod. Royle.

Economic Uses.—The Jews employ the fruit in their religious ceremonies. The bark was formerly employed in dyeing leather, the yellow morocco of Tunis being still tinted with an extract from it. The flowers also were used to dye cloth a light red. The tree is easily propagated by cuttings. The longevity of the tree is said to be remarkable, some at Versailles being nearly two hundred years old. There are several varieties, those with the yellow flowers being most rare.—Don. Royle."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"PUNICA GRANATUM, Linn.

Pomegranate

Hab.—Socotra, Arabia, Africa (?). Cultivated throughout India. The fruit, rind, and root bark.

[...]

History, Uses, &C—The pomegranate, which by Dierbach's account is the Σιδη Hippocrates, is in culture in the south of Europe, Arabia, Japan, Persia, and Barbary. It is also much cultivated in India, but the Indian fruit is greatly inferior to that which is imported from the Persian Gulf ports. The Sanskrit name is Dadima, and the fruit is called Shukadana (parrots' food) and Kuchaphala (breast fruit). Hindu physicians prescribe the juice of the ripe fruit combined with saffron as a cooling medicine. They also use the rind of the fruit and the flowers, combined with aromatics, such as cloves cinnamon, coriander, pepper, &c., as an astringent in such bowel affections as are not accompanied with tenesmus. In the Concan the juice of the green fruit, rubbed with galls cloves and ginger is given in honey as a remedy for piles. The juice of the flowers with Durva root juice (Cynodon dactylon) is used to stop bleeding from the nose. The root bark does not appear to be mentioned in any Sanskrit works on Materia Medica. The Arabs call the pomegranate Rumman; Anar is the Persian name. Mahometan writers describe three kinds, sweet, sour, and subacid. The Rumman-i-bari or Wild Pomegranate of these writers is, perhaps, the P. protopunica discovered by Balfour in Socotra, and which probably exists in the neighbouring continents of Africa and Arabia, but this name is also applied by the Arabs to the Tutsan or large Hypericum. Besides using the flowers and rind in a variety of ways on account of their astringency, they recommend the root bark as being the most astringent part of the plant, and a perfect specific in cases of tapeworm : it is given, in decoction, prepared with two ounces of fresh bark, boiled in a pint and a half of water till but three-quarters of a pint remain; of this when cold a wineglassful may be drunk every half hour, till the whole is taken. This dose sometimes sickens the stomach a little, but seldom fails to destroy the worm, which is soon after passed.

The seeds of the pomegranate are considered to be stomachic, the pulp cardiacal and stomachic. It would appear that the Arabs derived their knowledge of the medicinal qualities of this plant from the ancients, as a similar account of them is found in Dioscorides and Pliny. The balaustium of these writers is the double pomegranate flower, a word which in the corrupted form of Balusitun is common in Arabic and Persian books. The root bark and rind of the fruit are official in the Pharmacopoeia of India. The official preparation of pomegranate root bark is open to objection on account of its nauseousness, and Mr. Siebold, in order to obviate this, has suggested a process for removing the astringent principles. (Pharm. Journ. [3], XIV., 396.) With a similar object Dr. Von Schroeder has recommended the use of an extract free from tannic acid, but containing all the alkaloids of the bark. (Pharm. Zeit., 1886, Sept. 18, p. 556.) The extract is prepared by treating a decoction of the bark with milk of lime to remove the tannic acid, filtering, neutralizing the filtrate exactly with sulphuric acid, evaporating it on a water bath almost to dryness, treating the residue with 70 per cent, alcohol, and then driving off the alcohol from the extract obtained, the product is described as nearly entirely crystalline and soluble in water with a slight turbidity. The yield is about one gram of extract from twenty grams of bark. In order to retard as much as possible the absorption of the pelletierine, which is present in the extract as a sulphate, it is recommended to add to this quantity one or two grains of tannic acid to convert the alkaloid into the difficultly soluble tannate.

It has been stated occasionally that the administration of pelletierine to adults has been followed by symptoms of poisoning, though not very serious ones, and this has caused hesitation in administering it to children. Some recently reported cases appear, however, to indicate that the physiological action of this tasnifuge is relatively less energetic in infants than in adults. (Archiv der Pharm., Sept. 1886, p. 409.) Dr. Meplain administered six centigrams of pelletierine to a child two and a half years old, and Dr. Betences the same quantity to a child five years old without the least symptom of poisoning, but with the removal of the worm in both cases. In another case a dose of ten centigrams was successfully administered to a child ten years of age. (Pharm, Journ., Oct. 2, 1886.)"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 44ff.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Punica granatum L. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/punica_granatum.htm


2.5.83. Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron

Clusiaceae

Bis 30 m hoher Baum


45. c./d. cāmpeyaḥ kesaro nāgakesaraḥ kāñcanāhvayaḥ

चाम्पेयः केसरो नागकेसरः काञ्चनाह्वयः ॥४५ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron:]

  1. चाम्पेय - cāmpeya m.: Cāmpeya
  2. केसर - kesara m.: Haar, Mähne, Staubfaden
  3. नागकेसर - nāgakesara m.: Elefantenhaar
  4. काञ्चनाह्वय - kāñjanāhvaya : alle Wörter für "Gold" (काञ्चन n.)

Colebrooke (1807): "Nagesar. Mesua ferrea."



Abb.: केसरः । Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus III. Fig. 53, 1682]


Abb.: चाम्पेयः । Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron, Thelwatta (Hikkaduwa - හික්කඩුව), Sri Lanka
[Bildquelle: Benvda / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: नागकेसरः । Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron, Flrida, USA
[Bildquelle: scott.zona. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/12017190@N06/2671571271. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Abb.: नागकेसरः । काञ्चनः । Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2209461274/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: नागकेसरः । Elefantenhaar
[Bildquelle: Trisha M Shears / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: नागकेसरः । Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2367103064/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: चाम्पेयः । Mesua ferrea L. 1753 - Gaugauholz - Ironwood, Cobrasaffron, Mumbai - मुंबई, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2209476856/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Mesua ferrea. Willd.

[...]

This most elegant tree is only, so far as I can learn, found in gardens in Bengal. I never saw it on the Coromandel coast. Flowering time the beginning of the warm season.

[...]

I am informed that the Grandees of Ava, stuff their pillows with the dried anthers of this plants on account of their fragrance."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 605.]

"Mesua ferrea (Linn.) N. O. Clusiaceae.

Description.—Tree, 40 feet; [...]

Fl. March—April.

W. & A. Prod. i. 102.— Wight Icon. t. 117.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 605.—Rheede, iii. t. 53.

Courtallum hills.

Medical Uses.—The dried flowers are said to possess stimulant properties, but are probably of little importance in medicine. The expressed oil of the seeds is much employed by the natives in North Canara as an embrocation in rheumatism. The bark and roots are also an excellent bitter tonic in infusion or decoction.—Pharm. of India.

Economic Uses.—This tree is much cultivated in Java as well as in Malabar for the beauty and fragrance of its flowers. When dried they are mixed with other aromatics, such as the white sandal-wood, and used for perfuming ointment. The fruit is reddish and wrinkled when ripe, with a rind like that of the chestnut, which latter it much resembles both in size, shape, substance, and taste. The tree bears fruit in six years from the planting of the seed, and continues to bear during three centuries. It is planted near houses, and affords an excellent shade. The bark, wood, and roots are bitter and sweet- scented. The blossoms are found in a dried state in the bazaars, and are called Naghesur; they are used medicinally, and are much esteemed for their fragrance, on which latter account the Burmese grandees stuff their pillows with the dried anthers. Round the base, or rather at the bottom of the tender fruits, a tenacious and glutinous resin exudes with a sharp aromatic smell.—Roxb. Ainslie."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"MESUA FERREA, Linn.

Iron wood tree

Hab.—E. Bengal, E. Himalaya, E. and W. Peninsulas, Audamans.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.--This beautiful tree, with its large Cistus-like white flowers, called in Sanskrit Kanjalkama and Nāgkesara, is a favourite of the Indian poets. In the Naishada the poet compares the petals of the flowers from which the bees were scattering the pollen of its golden anthers, to an alabaster wheel on which Kamadeva was whetting his arrows, while the sparks of fire were dispersed in every direction. It is the Castanea rosea indica of Rheede, so called, because the fruits are like chestnuts in size and shape. The dried blossoms are prescribed by Hindu physicians as an adjunct to medicinal oils on account of their fragrance, and are also considered to have astringent and stomachic properties. Powdered and mixed with ghī (liquid butter) they are recommended by most of the later Hindu writers in bleeding piles, and burning of the feet. The root bark of Mesua ferrea contains much resinous juice, which exudes freely when it is wounded; it has a reddish brown epidermis, consisting of ten or more rows of brick-shaped cells, full of condensed resin. Within the epidermis is a variable number of rows of cells of the same shape, yellow, refractive, and containing resinous juice; the medullary rays are also yellow and refractive; there are numerous large laticiferous vessels; the bark is mildly astringent and feebly aromatic, but is not bitter as stated in the Pharmacopoeia of India. Rheede says that combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. The oil of the seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and as a healing application sores. A poultice of the leaves made with milk and cocoanut oil is applied to the head in severe colds. (Rheede.) On the whole, the plant may be classed with the terebinthinate astringents."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 170f.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Mesua ferrea L. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/mesua_ferrea.htm


2.5.84. Premna corymbosa (Burm. f.) Rottler & Willd.  / Premna mollissima Roth 1821 oder Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. 1781 - Losbaum

Lamiaceae (Lippenblütler) + Verbenaceae (Eisenkrautgewächse)

Sträucher und bis 3 m hohe Bäume


46. jayā jayantī tarkārī nādeyī vaijayantikā
śrīparṇam agnimanthaḥ syāt kaṇikā gaṇikārikā
47. a./b. jayo 'tha kuṭajaḥ śakro vatsako girimallikā

जया जयन्ती तर्कारी नादेयी वैजयन्तिका ।
श्रीपर्णम् अग्निमन्थनः स्यात् गणिकारिका ॥४६॥
जयो
ऽथ कुटजः शक्रो वत्सको गिरिमल्लिका ।४७ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Premna corymbosa (Burm. f.) Rottler & Willd.  / Premna mollissima Roth 1821 oder Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. 1781 - Losbaum:]

  1. जया - jayā f.: Siegreiche, Ehefrau

  2. जयन्ती - jayantī f.: Siegreiche, Jayantī (= Tochter Indras)

  3. तर्कारी - tarkārī f.: Tarkārī

  4. नादेयी - nādeyī f.: zum Fluss Gehörende, aus dem Fluss Entstandene

  5. वैजयन्तिका - vaijayantikā f.: Banner, Fahne (viell. zu Vaijayanta: Indras Banner)

  6. श्रीपर्ण - śrīparṇa n.: Blatt der Glücksgöttin (Śrī), Glücksblatt

  7. अग्निमन्थन - agnimanthana m.: Feuerquirl-Mittel

 

  1. गणिकारिका - gaṇikārikā f.: Gaṇikārikā (zu gaṇikā f.: Hure)

  2. जय - jaya m.: Sieg


Colebrooke (1807): [46. a./b.:] "Jainsi. Aeschynomene sesban [L. = Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. 1912 - Ägyptische Sesbanie - Egyptian Sesban; Fabaceae (Hülsenfrüchtler)]." [ [46. c./d. ; 47 a./b.:] "Ganiyari. Premna spinosa [Roxb. 1820 = Premna integrifolia]. Some make these five synonymous with the preceding five, as names of the Arani or Premna spinosa."


Premna corymbosa (Burm. f.) Rottler & Willd.



Abb.: Premna corymbosa (Burm. f.) Rottler & Willd., Singapur
[Bildquelle: Ria Tan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/wildsingapore/3459342168/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: Premna corymbosa (Burm. f.) Rottler & Willd., Singapur
[Bildquelle: Ria Tan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/wildsingapore/3391618825/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]
 

"Premna spinosa. Roxb. [= Premna corymbosa (Burm. f.) Rottler & Willd.]

[...]

A small ramous tree, found in woods near Calcutta. Flowering time, the beginning of the rainy season. The fruit ripens in three months afterwards."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 76.]


Premna serratifolia L. 1771


"PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA, Linn.

Hab -Coasts of lndia from Bombai to Malacca, Silhet and and Ceylon.

History, Uses, &C.—This shrub, in Sanskrit Arani, Harimantha, Agnimantha, and Vahnimantha, "producing fire by friction," is so named on account of its wood being one of those used to obtain the sacred fire. Gamble states that in Sikkim the hill tribes habitually make use of the wood of P. latifolia and P. mucronata for obtaining fire. Of the two pieces of wood used by the Hindus for this purpose, the lower or soft wood is called in Sanskrit Adhararani, and the upper or hard wood, with which friction is made, is called the Pramantha; they are considered to be symbolical of the Yoni and Upastha (organs of generation).

In the Nighantas Arani is described as hot, an expellant of phlegm and wind. Its root is one of the ingredients of the Dasamula, and the leaves are a popular remedy in the exanthematous fevers.

Ainslie states that the root has a warm bitter taste and agreeable smell, and is prescribed in decoction as a gentle cordial and stomachic in fevers. Rheede calls the plant Appel, and notices the use of a decoction of the leaves for flatulence. Ainslie also remarks that it is the Folium hirci of Rumphius and that Burman calls it Cornutia corymbosa and Herman Sambucus odorta aromatica. In Ceylon it is known as Maha-midi or Midigass.  Atkinson states that the leaves rubbed with pepper are administered in colds and fevers, and that externally a decoction of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 66f.]


Premna mollissima Roth 1821



Abb.: Premna mollissima Roth 1821

[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]

"Premna latifolia. Roxb. [= Premna mollissima Roth 1821]

[...]

It is a native of most parts of the coast of Coromandel, though by no means common ; grows to be a small tree. Flowers during- the hot season.

[...]

The wood of this tree is white, firm, and used for various economical purposes. The leaves have a pretty strong, though not disagreeable smell, and are much used in curries by the natives."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 76.]

"Premna mucronata. Roxb. [= Premna mollissima Roth 1821]

[...]

A small tree, a native of Silhet, and there called Manoamal. Flowering in April, and the seed ripens in July and August. The wood is said to be remarkably hard and useful.

It differs from all the other species known to me, in the tapering base of the leaves ; the sharp point of the acuminate leaves is also a good mark ; for though in P. scandens the same mark exists, even in a greater degree, yet this is a small tree ; that a scandent shrub."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 80f.]


Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. 1781 - Losbaum



Abb.:
Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. 1781 - Losbaum
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]


Abb.: Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. 1781 - Losbaum, Vadodara District - વડોદરા જિલ્લો, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. 1781 - Losbaum, Vadodara District - વડોદરા જિલ્લો, Gujarat
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Clerodendrum phlomoides. Willd.

[...]

Of this small tree, there are two varieties, one, the common one, with white flowers ; the other with red, this variety is rare, a native of the mountainous parts of the coast of Coromandel, and differs from the white variety in the colour of the flowers only, consequently, the same description serves for both."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 56f.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Premna latifolia Roxb. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/premna_latifolia.htm

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Clerodendrum phlomidis L. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/clerodendrum_phlomidis.htm


Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. 1912 - Ägyptische Sesbanie - Egyptian Sesban



Abb.: Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. 1912 - Ägyptische Sesbanie - Egyptian Sesban
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 27, 1686]


Abb.:
Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. 1912 - Ägyptische Sesbanie - Egyptian Sesban
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. 1912 - Ägyptische Sesbanie - Egyptian Sesban, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2958833002/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-26. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Aeschynomene sesban.

[...]

If the true Sesban has an articulate legume, as stated by the accurate Vahl, (Symb. i. p. 54.J this cannot be it.

This small beautiful tree is in general found in the vicinity of villages, and is likewise of few years' duration. Flowers chiefly during the wet and cold seasons.

[...]

There is a variety of this tree with yellow flowers which is not so elegant as the above described. I have also seen another with red flowers.

The wood is said to make the very best charcoal for gunpowder."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 332.]

"Sesbania Aegyptiaca (Pers.) N. O. Leguminosae.

[...]

Description.—Small tree, unarmed ; [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

W. & A. Prod. i. 214.— Wight Icon. t. 32.

Aeschynomene Sesban, Linn.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 332.

Coronilla Sesban, Willd.

Peninsula. Bengal

Medical Uses.—There are two varieties, one the S. bicolor, which has leaflets 15-18 pairs, flowers orange, and vexillum purple on the outside; and the other, S. concolor, leaflets 10-12 pairs, vexillum yellow-speckled, with black dots and lines.

The leaves are much used by the natives as poultices to promote suppuration.—Wight.

Economic Uses.—The wood makes excellent charcoal in the manufacture of gunpowder. In the plains of the Deccan the tree is cultivated and used as a substitute for Bamboos.—Gibson. Roxb."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"SESBANIA AEGYPTIACA, Pers.

Hab.—India. Vernacular.

[...]

History, Uses, &C—This plant, in Sanskrit Jaya (victorious), Jayanti (daughter of Indra), Vaijayanta (banner of Indra), Nadeyi (river-born), is extensively cultivated in India, where the stems are used as a substitute for bamboos. It is the Kedangu of Rheede and Emerus of Burmann. The Hindus have a superstition that the sight of the seeds will remove the pain of scorpion wings; they also pound them and apply them locally as an astringent. The juice of the bark is given internally as an astringent, and Wight remarks that the leaves are much used in poultices to promote suppuration. Forskahl calls the plant Dolichos Saiseban; it is the Saisaban of the Egyptians, who use the seeds medicinally on account of their astringent properties. Prosper Alpinus says of these "Et ut uno verbo dicam, in omnibus vacuationibus firmandis illorum seminum usum habent frequentissimum." Mir Muhammad Husain and others who describe the use of the seeds in India give a similar account of their medicinal properties. The generic name of the plant is Persian, and according to the Burhan, should be pronounced " Sisiban." This the author of that work says is the same as Panjangusht (a plant generally identified with Vitex Agnus-castus) and called Hab-el-fakd by the Arabs. Here he agrees with Abu Hanifeh, who describes al-fakd as a plant which is thrown into mead to make it strong, and is called in Persian Fanjangusht. On the other hand Iba Arabi says El fakd is the Kushuth and also a beverage  prepared from raisins and honey, into which the fakd has been thrown, to cause it to become strong. It seems probable that the Fakd of the Arabs was an astringent plant, which was used, like Acacia bark in India, for clearing spirituous liquor.

Description.—Sir W. Jones describes the flowers as varying in colour; in some plants, wholly yellow; in others, with a blackish-purple awning yellow within, and dark yellow Wings tipped with brown; in some with an awning of the richest orange-scarlet externally, and internally of a bright yellow; wings yellow, of different shades; and a keel pale below, with an exquisite changeable light purple above, striated in elegant curves."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 474f.]


2.5.85. Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844 - Kurchibaum - Easter Tree, Tellicherry Bark

Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844 = Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don 1837

Apocynaceae (Hundsgiftgewächse)

Bis 15 m hoher Baum


47. jayo 'tha kuṭajaḥ śakro vatsako girimallikā
etasyaiva kaliṅgendrayava-bhadrayavaṃ phale

जयो ऽथ कुटजः शक्रो वत्सको गिरिमल्लिका ।
एत्स्यैव कलिङ्गेन्द्रयव-भद्रयवम् फले ॥४७॥

[Bezeichnungen für Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844 - Kurchibaum - Easter Tree, Tellicherry Bark:]

  1. कुटज - kuṭaja m.: in einem Wasserkrug Geborener, Kuṭaja (Beiname Agastyas)
  2. शक्र - śakra m.: Kräftiger, Indra
  3. वत्सक - vatsaka m.: Kälbchen
  4. गिरिमल्लिका - girimallikā f.: Berg-mallikā (mallikā = Jasminum sambac L. - Arabischer Jasmin)

Die Frucht (= Samen) davon heißt:

  1. कलिङ्ग - kaliṅga n.: Kaliṅga
  2. न्द्रयव - indrayava n.: Indra-Gerste
  3. भद्रयव - bhadrayava n.: Glücks-Gerste

Colebrooke (1807): "Coraiya. Echites antidysenterica [Roxb. ex Fleming 1810 = Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844] or Nerium antidysentericum [L. 1753 = Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844]." [47. c./d.:] "Its seed."



Abb.: कुटजः । Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus I. Fig. 47, 1678]


Abb.: वत्सकः । Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844
[Bildquelle: Wight Icones II, Tab. 439, 1843]


Abb.: गिरिमल्लिका । Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/485385362/. -- Zugriff am 2007-06-29. -- NamensnennungKeine kommerzielle NutzungKeine BearbeitungCreative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: कलिङ्गम् । न्द्रयवम् । भद्रयवम् । Samen von Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. 1844
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus I. Fig. 47, 1678]

"Holarrhena antidysenterica (Wall.) N. O. Apocynacea

Description.—Shrub; [...]

Fl. Feb.—May.

Wight Icon. t. 439.

Chittagong. Malabar. Peninsula.

Medical Uses.—The bark of this shrub was formerly imported into Europe under the names of Conessi bark, Codaga pala, Corte de pala, and Tellicherry bark. It has a bitter taste. It has astringent and tonic properties, but has obtained its chief repute as a remedy in dysentery. Cases have occurred of its having succeeded as a remedy in that complaint when Ipecacuanha and other remedies had failed. It has also been extensively employed as an anti-periodic. The seeds are also highly valued by the natives in dysenteric affections. They are narrow, elongated, about half an inch long, of a cinnamon-brown colour, convex on one side, and concave and marked with a longitudinal pale line on the other, easily broken, bitter to the taste, and of a heavy unpleasant odour. They are often confounded with the seeds of Wrightia tinctoria, to which they bear a general resemblance. An infusion of the toasted seeds is a gentle and safe astringent in bowel-complaints, and is given to allay the vomiting in cholera. — (Ainslie.) Anthelmintic virtues are also assigned to them. During the last cattle-plague epidemic in Bengal they were extensively employed, being regarded as possessing certain specific virtues.—(Indian Med. Gazette. Pharm. of India.) A variety of the above, the H. pubescens, is also an esteemed remedy for dysentery and bowel-complaints, the seeds being the parts used. The bark also possesses astringent, tonic properties, and is employed in fevers.—Wight."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA,  Wall.

Conessi or Tellicherry Bark

Hab.—Throughout the drier forests of India.

[...]

The Sanskrit names for this useful tree are very numerous, the best known are Kutaja and Kalinga, amongst others we may mention Girimallika, Vatsaka "cow tree," Sakra sakhin "Indra's tree," and Sakrāsana "Indra's food." The tree is fabled to have sprung from the drops of amrita, which fell on the ground from the bodies of Rama's monkeys, which were restored to life by Indra. The seeds are called in Sanskrit Indrayava, Bhadrayava, Vatsakavija, or Sakravija, "Indra's seed." The bark is one of the most important articles in the Hindu Materia Medica, and is described in the Nighāntas as bitter, astringent, cold and digestive; a remedy for piles, dysentery, bile, leprosy, and phlegmatic humours. Suśruta says it is expectorant, an antidote to poisons, cures dysuria, urinary and skin diseases, checks nausea and vomiting, removes pruritus, improves the condition of bad ulcers, relieves pains of the stomach, and checks the derangement of the three humours, viz., phlegm, air and bile. The seeds are considered to be astringent, febrifuge and anthelmintic. Both bark and seeds are usually combined by Hindu physicians with a number of other medicines, which are principally astringents, bitters and aromatics. As examples of such preparations we may mention we may mention the Kutajaleha or confection, and the Pathādya churna or compound powder of Chakradatta. In the Pradarāni lauha the drug is combined with iron, but perhaps the most popular preparation is the Kutajārishta or Kutaja wine of Sarangadhara, which is made in the following manner: -Take of fresh root bark, 12 1/2 seers, raisins, 6 1/4 seers, flowers of Bassia latifolia and bark of Gmelina arborea of each 80 tolas; boil them together in 256 seers of water, till reduced to 64 seers, and strain. Then add flowers of Woodfordia floribunda 2 1/2 seers; treacle 12 1/2 seers, and let the mixture ferment for a month in a cool place (it us usually buried under the ground). Draw off and bottle. This preparation has an agreeable flavour, is not bitter, and is an excellent remedy in chronic dysentery and diarrhoea. Plasters and oils, containing Conessi bark combined with astringents and aromatics, are also used by the Hindus. They are applied over the part of the abdomen which is most painful.

Arabic and Persian writers describe the seeds under the name of Lisān-el-asafīr-el-murr, and Zabān-i-gungishk-i-talk (bitter sparrow's tongue); they consider them to be carminative and astringent, and prescribe them in chronic chest affections, such as asthma, also in colic and diuresis; besides this they attribute lichontripic, tonic and aphrodisiac properties to them, and combined with honey and saffron make them into pessaries which are supposed to flavour conception. We may mention incidentally that the use of medicated pessaries for this purpose is common practice in India. (Similar pessaries were used by the Greeks and Romans.) They are also used after delivery. According to the Makhzan, the bark is Tiwaj (tvac?) of Persian writers, which the author of the Tuhfat identifies with Talisfar, by some supposed to be the Indian bark used in dysentery by the Greek physicians under the name of μακερ.

The Portuguese physicians, Garcia and Christopher a Costa, describe the drug under the names of Coru, Curo, Cura and Corte de pala. Rheede, who calls the tree Codaga-pala, states that the bark is applied as a l‚p (plaster) in rheumatism, and that a hot decoction of it is used in toothache, and in the cure of bowel affections. Ainslie mentions the bark as having been lately admitted into the British Materia Medica, under the name of Conessi bark.

Conessi bark, also known as Codaga pala, Corte de pala, and Tellicherry bark, enjoyed for a time considerable repute in Europe. It has however fallen into disrepute, principally, according to Sir Walter Elliot, who regards it as one of the most valuable medicinal products of India, from the comparatively inert bark of W. tinctoria having been confounded with it. Favourable reports of its use as a remedy in dysentery will be found in the Pharmacopoeia of India. For administration Mr. O. C. Dutt prefers a watery extract of the root bark, of which the average dose is about three grains in combination with half a grain or more of opium.

Other European physicians have preferred the powdered bark, or a decoction made with 2 oz. of the bark to 2 pints of water, to be boiled down to one pint. The impure alkaloid (wrightine) is bitter, and has been used with some success as an antiperiodic, and in the treatment of dysentery ocurring in aged persons and infants. It is sold by druggists in Calcutta.

For an exhaustive analysis of the botanical confusion which has arisen in connection with this plant and the various species of Wrightia, we would refer our readers to an article by M. R. Blondel (Nouveaux Remédes, Sept. 24. 1887), in which the botanical history and structure of Holarrhena antidysenterica is fully discussed and illustrated."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 391ff.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Flem.) Wall. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/holarrhena_antidysenterica.htm


2.5.86. Carissa carandas  L. 1767 - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda

Apocynaceae (Hundsgiftgewächse)

Strauch


48. a./b. kṛṣṇa-pāka-phalāvigna-suṣeṇāḥ karamardake

कृष्ण-पाक-फलाविघ्न-सुषेणाः करमर्दके ।४८ क।

Bezeichnungen für den  करमर्दक - karamardaka m.: Hand-Peiniger = Carissa carandas  L. 1767 - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda:

  1. कृष्ण-पाक-फल - kṛṣṇa-pāka-phala m.: schwarze reife Früchte Tragender
  2. कृष्ण-पाक - kṛṣṇa-pāka m.: schwarz Reifender
  3. कृष्ण-फल - kṛṣṇa-phala m.: Schwarzfrucht
  4. आविघ्न - āvighna m.: Hemmnis
  5. सुषेण - suṣeṇa m.: gut Bewehrter

Colebrooke (1807): "Caranda. Carissa carandas. Applied also, but erroneously, to the Flacourtia cataphracta [Roxb. ex Willd. 1806 = Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. 1797]."


Carissa carandas L. - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda



Abb.:
करमर्दकः । Carissa carandas L. - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda
[Bildquelle: Roxburgh. -- Vol I. -- 1795. -- Image courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.botanicus.org. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


Abb.: करमर्दकः । Carissa carandas L. - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్ - حیدرآباد, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: कृष्णपाकफलः । Carissa carandas L. - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2465366890/. -- Zugriff am 2007-10-13. -- NamensnennungKeine kommerzielle NutzungKeine BearbeitungCreative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: करमर्दकः । आविघ्नः । सुषेणः । Carissa carandas L. - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్ - حیدرآباد, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: करमर्दकः । Carissa carandas L. - Karanda-Wachsbaum - Karanda, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్ - حیدرآباد, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]

"Carissa Carandas. Willd.

[...]

A common, large shrub ; or irregularly formed small tree, growing in most wild, woody, dry, uncultivated parts. Flowering time February, March, and April. Fruit ripe in July and August.

[...]

Obs. This plant makes exceedingly strong fences. The number of their strong, sharp thorns, renders them almost impassable.

The fruit just before ripe is employed to make tarts and preserves of various kinds, also to pickle, and by most people reckoned superior for these uses, to every other fruit in the country, not even the mango excepted. They are universally eaten by the natives when ripe, and are tolerably pleasant to the taste even of a European."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 687f.]

"Carissa carandas (Linn.) N. O. Apocynaceae.

[...]

Description.—Shrub; [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

Roxb. Cor. i. t. 77.— Wight Icon. t. 426.

Common everywhere.

Economic Uses.—This thorny shrub is very good for fences, the number and strength of the thorns rendering it impassable. The berries scarcely ripe are employed to make tarts, preserves, -and pickles. They are universally eaten by the natives, and are pleasant- tasted. The shrub is found in jungles and uncultivated places.— Roxb.

Another species, the C. diffusa, a thorny shrub, bears a small black edible fruit. Native combs are made from the wood, which is also used in fences. The wood of a very old tree turns quite black, and acquires a strong fragrance. It is considered a valuable medicine, and is sold at a high price under the name of Ajar in the North-West Provinces.-—Powell's Punj. Prod."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"CARISSA CARANDAS, Linn.

Hab.—Throughout India, in dry, sandy or rocky ground.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—This shrub is the Karamardaka and Krishna-phala of Sanskrit writers, and is described in the Nighantas as heavy, hot, and acid when unripe, and a generator of the three humors : when ripe it is said to be sweet, light, and digestive, and an expellant of bilious and rheumatic humors. The fruit is generally made use of by both Europeans and natives on account of its acid and antiscorbutic properties; when unripe it makes a good pickle and when ripe an excellent tart fruit. A jelly, similar to red currant jelly, is also made from it by Europeans. In Orissa a decoction of the leaves is much used at the commencement of febrile complaints. The root is acrid and bitterish, and is applied in the form of a paste with lime-juice and camphor as a remedy for itch and to keep off flies.

Description.—A large shrub, with many dichotomous, rigid, spreading branches;"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 419f.]


Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. 1797



Abb.:  Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. 1797
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus V. Fig. 38, 1685]


Abb.: A male Brown-throated Sunbird (Anthreptes malacensis) auf Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. 1797, Provinz Chumphon - ชุมพร, Thailand
[Bildquelle:
Phirada Chaturanwanit / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

"Flacourtia cataphracta. Willd.

[...]

This species I found in the Company's Botanic garden, where it grows to be a pretty large tree; it was introduced about three years ago from the eastern frontier.

[...]

The berries are palatable and reckoned wholesome."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 834f.]

"Flacourtia cataphracta (Roxb.) N. O. Flacourtiaceae.

[...]

Description.—Tree, armed with large multiple thorns; [...]

Fl. Dec.— Jan.

Roxb. Fl Ind. iii. 834.—Dec. Prod. I 256.—Rheede, v. t. 38.

Warree country. Assam. Nepaul. Behar.

Medical Uses.—The fruit is edible. The leaves and young shoots, which are bitter and astringent, have the taste of rhubarb, and are considered stomachic, and are given in diarrhoea, dysentery, fevers, and even in consumption. An infusion of the bark is used in hoarseness. —Ainslie. Lindley.

Economic Uses.—The wood is close-grained, hard, and durable. Another species, the F. crenata, is common on the Neilgherries and Shevaroys, and yields a first-rate timber. It is white, very hard, and dense.—Bedd. Flor. Sylv. t. 78."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"FLACOURTIA CATAPHRACTA, Roxb.

Manyspined Flacourtia

Hab.—India. Commonly cultivated.

[...]

History, Uses, &C—This is the Prachinamalaka of Sanskrit writers; it appears to be doubtful whether it is a native of India, as it is generally met with in a cultivated state. The author of the Makhzan-el-Adwiya speaks of two kinds of Paniala, one cultivated and the other wild. He describes the fruit as being like a plum, but differing from it in having 5 to 6 stones instead of one, and suggests that this difference may be due to the impurity of the atmosphere of Bengal operating upon the plum tree of Persia. The Bombay name Jaggam appears to be a corruption of Jangomas. Dalzell and Gibson consider the tree to be truly wild in the Southern Concan. The fruit is recommended as useful in bilious conditions; and like most acid fruits, it no doubt relieves the nausea and checks purging. It is the size of a plum, purple, and acid ; indehiscent, with a hard endocarp ; seeds 5 to 6, obovoid; testa coriaceous; cotyledons orbicular.

F. Ramontchi, L'Herit., the Mauritius plum, and F. sepiaria, Roxb., have similar properties. None of these plants are of any importance medicinally, nor are they worth cultivating as fruit trees. Their bark and leaves are acid and astringent, and are sometimes used by the natives both internally and externally.

[...] 

An oil is extracted from the seeds on the Malabar Coast."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 152.]


2.5.87. Garcinia morella Desr. 1792 - Mangostane -  Mangosteen, Indian Gamboge Tree

Clusiaceae

Baum


48. c./d. kālaskandhas tamālaḥ syāt tāpiccho 'py atha sinduke

कालस्कन्धस् तमालः स्यात् तापिच्छो प्य् अथ सिन्धिके ॥४८ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Garcinia morella Desr. 1792 - Mangostane -  Mangosteen, Indian Gamboge Tree:]

  1. कालस्कन्ध - kālaskandha m.: Schwarzstamm 
  2. तमाल - tamāla m.: Tamāla (wohl: "Finsterer", zu tamas n. Finsternis)
  3. तापिच्छ - tāpiccha m.: Tāpiccha

Colebrooke (1807): "Tamal. A tree noted for the dark hue of its blossoms."

PW: "Name eines Baumes mit überaus dunkler Rinde. Xanthochymus pictorius Roxb. [= Garcinia xanthochymus Hook f. 1874] (Die Blüte ist weißlich)."


Garcinia morella Desr. 1792 - Mangostane -  Mangosteen, Indian Gamboge Tree



Abb.:
तापिच्छः । Garcinia morella Desr. 1792 - Mangostane -  Mangosteen, Indian Gamboge Tree
[Bildquelle: Köhler, 1883-1914]


Abb.: तापिच्छः । Garcinia morella Desr. 1792 - Mangostane -  Mangosteen, Indian Gamboge Tree
[Bildquelle: Wight Icones I, Tab. 102, 1840]

"GARCINIA MORELLA, Desrouss.

Gamboge tree

Hab.—Eastern Bengal, Western Peninsula, Eastern Peninsula, Ceylon.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—The Gamboge tree of Malabar and Canara, which is also found in other parts of India, is by Beddome called G. pictoria and kept distinct from G. Morella. Hooker considers them both to be the same species. There would seem to be no doubt that Gamboge has never been collected in India as an article of commerce; and that it is only from a comparatively recent date that the drug has been known in this country; but the Hindus of Canara and Mysore, and probably of other parts of India, have for a long time used the juice of this tree under the Sanskrit name of Tamala as a pigment for making sectarial marks on the forehead, and this name is still current in Hindi, Bengali and Marathi. Other Sanscrit names for the tree are Tapiccha and Tapinja. The Ussarah-i-Rewand of Arabic and Persian books is, properly speaking, an extract of Rhubarb as the name implies, but owing to a similarity in properties and also in colour, the same name was applied to Gamboge upon its becoming known as an article of commerce. Siam Gamboge is the only kind obtained in the drug markets. An interesting account of the history of commercial Gamboge will be found in the Pharmacographia from which it appears that it only became known to the Chinese about A.D. 1300, and was not introduced into Europe before 1603. Reudenius (1611—1625) described its medicinal properties and recommended its use as a purgative in arthritis (gout)."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 168f.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Garcinia hanburyi Hook f. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/garcinia_hanburyi.htm


Garcinia xanthochymus Hook f. 1874



Abb.: Garcinia xanthochymus Hook f. 1874 (Roxb.: Xanthochymus pictorius)
[Bildquelle: Roxburgh. -- Vol II. -- 1795. -- Tab. 196. -- Image courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.botanicus.org. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]


Abb.: तमालः ।
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook f. 1874, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Forest & Kim Starr. -- http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=091104-0884&o=plants. -- Zugriff am 2010-11-08. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)] 

"Xanthochymus pictorius. R. Corom. pl. 2. N. 196.

[...]

A native of the mountainous districts in India. Flowers during the hot season. Fruit ripens in November and December.

This beautiful tree yields a green fruit, and a large quantity of indifferent gamboge. It is truly guttiferous, and but little removed in its natural habit, from the Garcinias."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 633.]


2.5.88. Vitex trifolia L. 1753 - Dreiblatt-Keuschbaum - Simpleleaf Chastetree und Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet

Lamiaceae (Lippenblütler)

Großer Strauch


48. c./d. kālaskandhas tamālaḥ syāt tāpiccho 'py atha sinduke
49. a./b. sinduvārendrasurasau nirguṇḍīndrāṇikety api

कालस्कन्धस् तमालः स्यात् तपिच्छो प्य् अथ सिन्दुके ॥४८ ख॥
सिन्दुवारेन्द्रसुरसौ निर्गुण्डीन्द्राणिकेत्य् अपि ।४९ क।

Bezeichnungen für den सिन्दुक - sinduka m.: Sinduka = Vitex trifolia L. 1753 - Dreiblatt-Keuschbaum - Simpleleaf Chastetree und Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet:

  1. सिन्दुवार - sinduvāra m.: Sindu-Abwehrer
  2. इन्द्रसुरस - indrasurasa m.: Indras Wohlgeschmack 
  3. निर्गुण्डी - nirguṇḍī f.: Staubfreie (?)
  4. इन्द्राणिका - indrāṇikā f.: Kleine Indrāṇī (= Indras Liebling)

Siehe auch unten Vers 51!

Colebrooke (1807): "Seduart. Vitex trifolia [L. 1753] and negundo [L. 1753]. Applied also to Buddleia neemda, B. Mss." [Buddleia neemda Ham. = Buddleja asiatica Lour. 1790]


Vitex trifolia L. 1753 - Dreiblatt-Keuschbaum - Simple-leaf Chastetree



Abb.: Vitex trifolia L. 1753 - Dreiblatt-Keuschbaum - Simple-leaf Chastetree
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus II. Fig. 11, 1679]

"Vitex trifolia. Willd.

[...]

A small tree, or large shrub, a native of various parts of India, and its Islands. The leaves of this plant are a powerful discutient, and by the Malays employed to remove the boss. The following is their recipe, furnished, by W. Ewer Esq. The leaves are given in decoction, and infusion, and formed into a cataplasm, which is applied to the enlarged spleen. In very obstinate cases it becomes necessary to have recourse to gentle mercurials."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 69.]

"Vitex trifolia (Linn.)

Three-leaved Chaste-tree or Indian Privet [...]

Desckiption.—Shrub, 10 feet; [...]

Fl. April—May.

Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii 69.— Rheede, ii t.11.

CoromandeL Concan. Deccan.

Medical Uses.—The leaves and young shoots are considered as powerfully discutient, and are used in fomentations, or simply applied warm in cases of sprains, rheumatism, and contusions, also externally in diseases of the skin and swellings. The leaves powdered and taken with water are a cure for intermittent fevers; the root, and a cataplasm of the leaves, are applied externally in rheumatism and local pains. The fruit is said by the Vytians to be nervine, cephalic, and emmenagogue, and is prescribed in powder in electuary and decoction. A clear sweet oil of a greenish colour is extracted from the root.—Roxb. Ainslie."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"VITEX NEGUNDO, Linn.

VITEX TRIFOLIA, Linn.

Hab.--Throughout India and Ceylon.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.--These two shrubs, the properties of which appear to be identical, are described by Sanskrit writers under the names of Nirgundi, Sindhuvāra (Sinduka, Sinduvāra or Syandavāra, from being used to prevent a flow of humours, is probably more correct.), Sephālika, Svetapushpi, Pushpanīlika, &c. Two varieties are recognized: one with pale blue flowers (Svetapushpi), and the other with blue flowers (Pushpanīlika). Among the Tamils, one of these plants is supposed to be male and the other female, and for this reason they are usually combined together in their prescriptions. In the Nighantas, Nirgundi is described as cephalic, pungent, astringent, bitter and light; a remedy for colic, swellings, rheumatism, worms, leprosy, dyspepsia, phlegm and boils.

The leaves are generally used as a discutient fomentation in sprains, rheumatism, swelled testicles, contusions, &c. The root is thought to be tonic, febrifuge, and expectorant, and the fruit nervine, cephalic, and emmenagogue.

Mahometan physicians use these plants as substitutes for Vitex Agnus-castus, the fruit of which is imported into India and sold in the bazaars as Sambhālu-ke-bij.

V. Negundo is the Lagondium of Rumphius, who states that the leaves are used to preserve rice and clothes from insects and to drive them away; and that the Javanese women make an extract from it which they use as a carminative and emmenagogue. In India the leaves are often placed between the leaves of books to preserve them from insects.

V. trifolia, Linn., is highly extolled by Botius. (Diseases of India, p. 226) He speaks of it as anodyne, diuretic, and emmenagogue, and testifies to the value of fomentations and baths prepared with 'this noble herb,' as he terms it, in the treatment of Beri-beri, and in the allied and obscure affection, burning of the feet in natives. Of V. Negundo, Fleming remarks (Asiat. Researches, Vol. XI.) that its leaves have a better claim to the title of discutient than any other vegetable remedy which he is acquainted. The mode of application followed by the natives is to put the fresh leaves into an earthen pot and heat them over the fire till they are as hot as can be born without pain; they are then applied to the affected part, and kept in situ by a bandage; the application is repeated three or four times a day until the swelling subsides. Pillows of the dried leaves are sometimes used to lie upon for cold in the head and headache. Dr. Hov‚ (1787) states that the Europeans in Bombay call it the fomentation shrub, and that it is used in the hospitals there as a foment in contractions of the limbs occasioned by the land winds. In the Concan the juice of the leaves with that of Mākā (Eclipta alba) and Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) is extracted, and Ajwān seeds are bruised and steeped in it, and given in doses of six massas for rheumatism. The juice in half tolā doses with ghi and black pepper is also given, and in splenic enlargement 2 tolās of the juice with 2 tolās of cow's urine is given every morning. A very interesting account of the treatment of febrile, catarrhal, and rheumatic affections, as practised by the people of Mysore, by means of a sort of rude vapour bath prepared with this plant, is furnished by Dr. W. Ingledew. (Edin. Med. and Surg. Journ., Oct. 1817, p. 530.) Roxburgh mentions the use of baths prepared with the aromatic leaves in the puerperal state of women in India. According to Ainslie, the Mahometans are in the habit of smoking the dried leaves in cases of headache and catarrh. The dried fruit is deemed vermifuge. (Pharm. of India, p. 163.)"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 73ff.]


Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet



Abb.: Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus II. Fig. 12, 1679]


Abb.: Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet, Spanien
[Bildquelle: Cillas / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet
[Bildquelle: Doronenko / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2465229914/. -- Zugriff am 2007-10-13. -- NamensnennungKeine kommerzielle NutzungKeine BearbeitungCreative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Vitex Negundo. Willd.

[...]

Sindooka in Sanscrit. See Asiat. Res. vol. iv. p. 292.

[...]

An elegant, small tree, though generally found in the state of a large shrub ; delights in a rich, moist soil, yet it grows almost every where. Flowers all the year round.

[...]

A decoction of the aromatic leaves helps to form the warm bath for women after delivery ; bruised, they are applied to the temples for the head-ache; pillows stuffed with them are put under the head to remove a catarrh, and the head-ache attending it."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 70.]

"Vitex Negundo (Linn.) N. 0. Verbenaceae.

Five-leaved Chaste-tree [...]

Description.—Arboreous; stem twisted, 10 feet; [...]

Fl. April—June.

Wight Icon. t. 519.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 70.—Rheede, ii. t. 12.

Peninsula. Bengal Deyra Dhoon.

Medical Uses.—This species is similar in medicinal properties to the V. trifolia, but somewhat weaker: the root in decoction is a pleasant bitter, and administered in cases of intermittent and typhus fevers. The leaves simply warmed are a good application in cases of rheumatism and sprains. The Mohammedans smoke the dried leaves in cases of headache and catarrh. The dried fruit is considered a vermifuge. A decoction of the aromatic leaves helps to form the warm bath for native women after delivery. The root in decoction is used as a vermifuge, and to reduce swellings in the body.—(Ainslie. Roxb.) Dr Fleming remarks that the leaves have a better claim to the title of discutient than any other vegetable remedy with which he is acquainted; and he adds that their efficacy in dispelling inflammatory swellings of the joints from acute rheumatism, and of the testes from suppressed gonorrhaea, are very remarkable. The mode of application resorted to by the natives is simple enough; the fresh leaves, put into an earthen pot, are heated over a fire till they are as hot as can be borne without pain; they are then applied to the parts affected, and kept there by a bandage; the application is repeated three or four times daily until the swelling subsides.— Flem. As, Res. voL xi. Pharm. of India.

Economic Uses.—Many species of this order yield good timber. Such is the Vitex alata (Roxb.) and the V. altissima (Do.), a large treey somewhat common in subalpine forests. Also the V. arborea Do.) The latter, when old, becomes chocolate-coloured, and is useful for many economical purposes.—Roxb."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]


Buddleja asiatica Lour. 1790



Abb.:
Buddleja asiatica Lour. 1790, Taiwan
[Bildquelle:
LiChieh Pan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/plj/468437448/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Buddleia Neemda, Buchanan.

Arborescent.

[...]

Nimda the vernacular name at Chittagong, where the plant is indigenous, and from thence introduced into the Botanic garden by Dr. Buchanan, where it begins to blossom about the close of the cold season. Seeds ripen in March and May.

[...]

Obs. The whiteness of the leaves, and young shoots of this plant, independently of its numerous, beautiful, small, fragrant, pure white flowers, makes it highly ornamental, particularly amongst plants with darker foliage."

 

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 396f.]


2.5.89. Luffa echinata Roxb.  - Schwammgurke - Bristly Luffa

Cucurbitaceae (Kürbisgewächse)


49. c./d. veṇī garā garī devatāḍo jīmūta ity api

वेणी गरा गरी देवताडो जीमूत इत्य् अपि ॥४९ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Luffa echinata Roxb.  - Schwammgurke - Bristly Luffa:]

  1. वेणी - veṇī f.: Haarflechte, Zopf
  2. गरा - garā f.: Verschlingende, Trank
  3. गरी - garī f.: Verschlingende, Trank
  4. देवताड - devatāḍa m.: Götter-Schlag
  5. जीमूत - jīmūta m.: Gewitterwolke

Colebrooke (1807): "Deotar. A plant so called."



Abb.:
देवताडः । Luffa echinata Roxb.  - Schwammgurke - Bristly Luffa
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]


Abb.: वेणी । Luffa echinata Roxb.  - Schwammgurke - Bristly Luffa, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2855894364/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.:
जीमूतः । Luffa echinata Roxb.  - Schwammgurke - Bristly Luffa
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2855860040/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)] 

"Luffa echinata. Roxb.

[...]

A native of the coast of Coromandel. It flowers about the close of the rains. The seed ripens during the cold season."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 716.]

"LUFFA ECHINATA, Roxb.

Hab.—Guzerat, Sind, Bengal, Dacca.

History, Uses, &C This plant is used medicinally in most parts of India. In the Niganthas it bears the following Sanskrit names: Devadali, Vrata-kosha, Devatadi, Gara, Jimuta, Taraki, Veni, Jalani, and Akhu-visha-ha ; it is described as expelling bile, phlegm, and removing piles, swellings, jaundice, phthisis, hiccough, worms and fever, and acting as an emetic.

In Gruzerat the fruit is well known as Vapala-bij, a name derived from the Sanskrit vapa, "weaving," in allusion to the cocoon-like network in which the seeds are enclosed. The drug is a frequent ingredient in the compound decoctions which are prescribed for bilious fevers. In the Concan a few grains of the bitter fibrous contents of the fruit are given in infusion for snake-bite and in cholera after each stool; in putrid fevers the infusion is applied to the whole body, and in jaundice it is applied to the head and also given internally ; the infusion has also a reputation as a remedy for colic. We have not met with any notice of the medicinal use of this plant in European works on the Materia Medica of India."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 81f.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Luffa echinata Roxb. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/luffa_echinata.htm


2.5.90. Heliotropium indicum L. - Indian Heliotrope

Boraginaceae (Borretschgewächse)

Einjähriges Kraut


50 a./b. śrīhastinī tu bhūruṇḍī tṛṇaśūnyaṃ tu mallikā

श्रीहस्तिनी तु भूरुण्डी तृणशून्यं तु मल्लिका ।५० क।

[Bezeichnungen für Heliotropium indicum L. - Indian Heliotrope:]

  1. श्रीहस्तिनी - śrīhastinī f.: die zur Hand der Śrī (Lakṣmī) gehört, Glückshändige

  2. भूरुण्डी - bhūruṇḍī f.: Erd-Verstümmelte (vermutlich, weil die Pflanze auf trockenem Boden wächst)

Colebrooke (1807): "Sirtari. Heliotropium indicum."



Abb.: Heliotropium indicum L. - Indian Heliotrope
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus X. Fig. 48, 1690]


Abb.: Heliotropium indicum L. - Indian Heliotrope
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Heliotropium indicum L. - Indian Heliotrope, Pocharam Forest & Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: Heliotropium indicum L. - Indian Heliotrope, Pocharam Forest & Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Heliotropium indicum. Willd.

Annual

[...]

Sans. Shreehustinee, Bhooroondee.

This is one of the most common plants in India, it is in flower at all seasons, and delights in out-of-the-way corners, rubbish, &c. where the soil is rich and dry."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 454.]

"HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM, Linn.

Indian Turnsole

Hab.—Throughout India.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—This plant is the Hasti-sunda of Sanskrit writers, it is also called Sri-hastini, from its being held in the hand of Sri or Lakshmi; it appears to be very generally used as an astringent and vulnerary in different parts of the world. It is the Bona Patsja of Rheede. Ainslie describes it under the name of Heliotropium indicum. Of its medicinal properties he says:—

"The juice of the leaves of this plant, which is a little bitter, the native practitioners apply to painful gum boils, and to repel pimples on the face; it is also prescribed as an external application to that species of ophthalmia in which the tarsus is inflamed or excoriated. The Heliotropium indicum is also a native of Cochin-China and of the West Indies; in the first mentioned country the natives call it Cay-boi-boi. Of its virtues, Loureiro says 'Folia istius herbae contusa maxime conducunt ad majores anthraces, vel, quando incipiunt, resolvendos, vel postea supperandos.' (Flor. Coch.-Chin. Vol. I,, p. 103.) It is well described by Browne, in his History of Jamaica (p. 150), and I find Barham (p. 42) tells us that it cleans and consolidates wounds and ulcers, and that boiled with castor oil it relieves the pain from the sting of a scorpion, and cures the bite of a mad dog!" (Mat. Indica, Vol. II., p. 414.)

In India also the plant is used as a local application to boils, sores, and the stings of insects and reptiles.

Description—An annual plant common in ditches where the soil is rich."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 525.]


2.5.91. Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine

Oleaceae (Ölbaumgewächse)

Immergrüne Ranke oder Strauch


50. śrīhastinī tu bhūruṇḍī tṛṇaśūnyaṃ tu mallikā
bhūpadī śītabhīruś ca saivāsphoṭā vanodbhavā

श्रीहस्तिनी तु भूरुण्डी तृणशून्यं तु मल्लिका ।
भूपदी शीतभीरुश् च सैवास्फोटा वनोद्भवा ॥५०॥

[Bezeichnungen für Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine:]

  1. तृणशून्य - tṛṇaśūnya n.: Grasfreies
  2. मल्लिका - mallikā f.: Mallikā
  3. भूपदी - bhūpadī f.: Erdfuß
  4. शीतभीरु - śītabhīru m., f.: Kälte Fürchtender

Colebrooke (1807): "Arabian Jasmin. J. zambac."



Abb.: मल्लिका । Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 50, 1686]


Abb.: मल्लिका । Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 var. trifoliatum Vahl. - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 51, 1686]


Abb.: मल्लिका । Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine
 [Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: मल्लिका । Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: Biswarup Ganguly / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Jasminum Zambac Willd.

Shrubby, [...]

Of this we have three varieties, viz.

  1. Single flowered Arabian Jasmine, [...]

  2. Double-flowered  Arabian Jasmine. [...]

  3. Great double Arabian or Tuscan Jasmine. [...]

All the varieties flower during the rains chiefly.  The single variety of this plant, (which is the one described,) is one of the most common in every forest on the Coast. Birds eat the berries, and drop the seeds, which vegetate. In this way, I account for its being so general. Flowers during the hot season.

[...]

Obs. From this species we have the common double ; and rose, or great-flowered, and full Moogaries, (Arabian, or Tuscan Jasmines;) these are always raised from layers, and have been improved by culture into their present state as above noted.

The plant that bears the common double sort still retains its twining habits, but it is lost in the great rose, or full-flowered sort; here the branches are erect, or spreading, but never twining."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 88f.]

"Jasminum sambac (Ait.)

[...]

Description. — Twining shrub ; [...]

Fl. March—May.

Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 88.— Wight Icon. t. 704.

Nyctanthes Sambac, Linn.

Common everywhere.

Medical Uses.—Of this there are two other varieties: the double-flowered Jasmin, called Bela in Bengal—the Nulla mulla of Rheede (vi. t. 50) ; and the Buro-bel and Kadda mulla of Rheede (vi. t. 51). The plant is common in every forest in the Peninsula, and is generally cultivated in gardens. The leaves if boiled in oil exude a balsam which is used for anointing the head in eye-complaints. It is said to strengthen the vision. An oil is also expressed from the roots used medicinally. The flowers, commonly known as the Moogree flowers, are sacred to Vishnoo.—(Rheede) The flowers possess considerable power as a lactifuge, and are effectual in arresting the secretion of milk in the puerperal state, in cases of threatened abscess. For this purpose about two or three handfuls of the flowers bruised and unmoistened are applied to each breast, and renewed once or twice a-day. The secretion is sometimes arrested in about twenty-four hours, though it generally requires two or even three days.—Pharm. of India."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"The Mogra, Jasminum Sambac, is considered to have the same properties as J. grandiflorum. In the Pharmacopoeia of India the flowers, upon the authority of Mr. J. Wood, are said to have considerable power as a lactifuge; he speaks of them as effectual in arresting the secretion of milk in the puerperal state, in cases of threatened abscess. For this purpose about two or three handfuls of the flowers are bruised and applied to the breasts and renewed once or twice a day. The secretion is sometimes arrested in twenty-four hours, though generally a longer time is required. Mr. Wood speaks of this practice as being well known in Madras.

The wild single variety, called Vikhmogra or Vishmogra (Rheede vi., 56), is used as an emmenagogue."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 379.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton. --  URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/jasminum_sambac.htm


2.5.92. Eine Wald-Varietät von Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine


50. c./d. bhūpadī śītabhīruś ca saivāsphoṭā vanodbhavā
भूपदी शीतभीरुश् च सैवास्फोटा वनोद्भवा ॥५०॥

Dieser [Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789] heißt, wenn er im Wald wächst आस्फोटा f.: Zittern


Colebrooke (1807): "A wild variety."



Abb.: Wildform von
Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton 1789 - Arabischer Jasmin - Arabian Jasmine (?)
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 56, 1686]

"The wild single variety, called Vikhmogra or Vishmogra (Rheede vi., 56), is used as an emmenagogue."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 379.]


2.5.93. Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet

Vitex: Lamiaceae (Lippenblütler)

Großer Strauch


51. śephālikā tu suvahā nirguṇḍī nīlikā ca sā
sitāsau śvetasurasā bhūtaveśy atha māgadhī

शेफालिका तु सुवहा निर्गुण्डी नीलिका च सा ।
सितासौ श्वेतसुरसा भूतवेश्य् अथ मागधी ॥५१॥

[Bezeichnungen für die blaue Varietät von Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet,  oder Nyctanthes arbor-tristis [L. 1753 - Trauerbaum - Tree of Sadness:]

  1. शेफालिका - śephālikā f.: Śephālikā (zu śephas n.: Penis)
  2. सुवहा - suvahā f.: gut Führende, gut Bewegende 
  3. निर्गुण्डी - nirguṇḍī f.:  Staubfreie (?)
  4. नीलिका - nīlikā f.: Blaue

Die weiße Varietät heißt:

  1. श्वेतसुरसा - śvetasurasā f.: Weiße mit gutem Saft
  2. भूतवेशी - bhūtaveśī f.: Gespensternadel

Siehe oben Vers 48c-49b!

Colebrooke (1807): "Nebari. Jasminum villosum, R[oxb] [von mir nicht identifizierbar, nur Jasminum villosum Stokes 1830 (!)]. The Sanscrit names are assigned, in Bengal, to the Nyctanthes arbor-tristis [L. 1753 - Trauerbaum - Tree of Sadness. Verbenaceae (Eisenkrautgewächse)]. Some apply the two last terms to a distinct sort." [51. c./d.:] "The same white."


Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet, blaue Varietät



Abb.:
नीलिका ।  Vitex negundo L. 1753 - Keuschbaum - Chastetree, Indian Privet, blaue Varietät
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3351960176/ . -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"VITEX NEGUNDO, Linn.

VITEX TRIFOLIA, Linn.

Hab.--Throughout India and Ceylon.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.--These two shrubs, the properties of which appear to be identical, are described by Sanskrit writers under the names of Nirgundi, Sindhuvāra (Sinduka, Sinduvāra or Syandavāra, from being used to prevent a flow of humours, is probably more correct.), Sephālika, Svetapushpi, Pushpanīlika, &c. Two varieties are recognized: one with pale blue flowers (Svetapushpi), and the other with blue flowers (Pushpanīlika). Among the Tamils, one of these plants is supposed to be male and the other female, and for this reason they are usually combined together in their prescriptions. In the Nighantas, Nirgundi is described as cephalic, pungent, astringent, bitter and light; a remedy for colic, swellings, rheumatism, worms, leprosy, dyspepsia, phlegm and boils.

The leaves are generally used as a discutient fomentation in sprains, rheumatism, swelled testicles, contusions, &c. The root is thought to be tonic, febrifuge, and expectorant, and the fruit nervine, cephalic, and emmenagogue.

Mahometan physicians use these plants as substitutes for Vitex Agnus-castus, the fruit of which is imported into India and sold in the bazaars as Sambhālu-ke-bij.

V. Negundo is the Lagondium of Rumphius, who states that the leaves are used to preserve rice and clothes from insects and to drive them away; and that the Javanese women make an extract from it which they use as a carminative and emmenagogue. In India the leaves are often placed between the leaves of books to preserve them from insects.

V. trifolia, Linn., is highly extolled by Botius. (Diseases of India, p. 226) He speaks of it as anodyne, diuretic, and emmenagogue, and testifies to the value of fomentations and baths prepared with 'this noble herb,' as he terms it, in the treatment of Beri-beri, and in the allied and obscure affection, burning of the feet in natives. Of V. Negundo, Fleming remarks (Asiat. Researches, Vol. XI.) that its leaves have a better claim to the title of discutient than any other vegetable remedy which he is acquainted. The mode of application followed by the natives is to put the fresh leaves into an earthen pot and heat them over the fire till they are as hot as can be born without pain; they are then applied to the affected part, and kept in situ by a bandage; the application is repeated three or four times a day until the swelling subsides. Pillows of the dried leaves are sometimes used to lie upon for cold in the head and headache. Dr. Hov‚ (1787) states that the Europeans in Bombay call it the fomentation shrub, and that it is used in the hospitals there as a foment in contractions of the limbs occasioned by the land winds. In the Concan the juice of the leaves with that of Mākā (Eclipta alba) and Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) is extracted, and Ajwān seeds are bruised and steeped in it, and given in doses of six massas for rheumatism. The juice in half tolā doses with ghi and black pepper is also given, and in splenic enlargement 2 tolās of the juice with 2 tolās of cow's urine is given every morning. A very interesting account of the treatment of febrile, catarrhal, and rheumatic affections, as practised by the people of Mysore, by means of a sort of rude vapour bath prepared with this plant, is furnished by Dr. W. Ingledew. (Edin. Med. and Surg. Journ., Oct. 1817, p. 530.) Roxburgh mentions the use of baths prepared with the aromatic leaves in the puerperal state of women in India. According to Ainslie, the Mahometans are in the habit of smoking the dried leaves in cases of headache and catarrh. The dried fruit is deemed vermifuge. (Pharm. of India, p. 163.)"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 73ff.]


Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. 1753 - Trauerbaum - Tree of Sadness



Abb.:
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. 1753 - Trauerbaum - Tree of Sadness
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus I. Fig. 21, 1678]


Abb.:
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. 1753 - Trauerbaum - Tree of Sadness
[Bildquelle: E. Knoblauch 1892 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. 1753 - Trauerbaum - Tree of Sadness, Kolkata - কলকাতা, West Bengal
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense] 

"Nyctanthes arbor tristis. Linn.

[...]

Of what country this is a native I know not, nor I have never found it but in a cultivated state; and it is always raised from seed, which may be the reason we have no varieties of this most delightfully fragrant plant. In our gardens it is found in the state of a large shrub, or small tree. Flowers on the Coast nearly the year round ; in Bengal only during the rains. The seeds ripen in the cold season.

[...]

Obs. The flowers of this tree are exquisitely fragrant, partaking of the smell of fresh honey, and on that account the plant is much esteemed ; for when destitute of flowers it has but an indifferent appearance. The orange tubes of the flowers dye a most beautiful buff or orange colour, with the various shades between them, according to the preparation, and mode of conducting the operation; but unfortunately, no way has yet been discovered of rendering this elegant colour durable."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 86f.]

"Nyctanthes arbor tristis (Linn.) N. O. Jasminaceae.

[...]

Description. — Tree, 15-20 feet, [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 86.—Rheede, i. t 21.

Cultivated in gardens.

Economic Uses.—The flowers of this plant shed a delicious fragrance in gardens where they grow, only during the night. It is at sunset that they open, and before the morning the ground is covered with the fallen corollas. The native women collect them, and, stringing them on threads, wear them as necklaces or twine them in their hair. The orange-coloured tubes dye a beautiful buff or orange colour, with the various shades between them, according to the preparation and mode of conducting the operation; but no way has yet been discovered of rendering the colour durable. Simmonds mentions the bark of this tree among other yielding tanning substances.—(Roxb. Lindley.) This tree is extremely common along the foot of the mountains which skirt the Deyra Dhoon, and may be seen for several hundred feet above Rajpore in the ascent to Mussoorie. Dr Wallich found it in a wild state near the banks of the Irrawaddy, on the hills near Prome. This affords a very satisfactory instance of the extensive distribution of the same species along the base of the mountains, even when separated by 12° of latitude, or from 18° to 30°.—Royle. Him. Bot."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS, Lin..

Weeping Nyctanthes, Nigh Jasmine

[...]

Royle in his Himalayan Botany states that this tree is extremely common along the foot of the mountains which skirt the Dehra Dhoon, and may be seen for several hundred feet above Rajpore in the ascent to Mussoorie. Dr. Wallich it in a wild state near the banks of the Irrawaddy, on the hills near Prome. In all parts of India it is one of the commonest cultivated shrubs, its flowers open at sunset, and fall before morning; they have a very strong perfume. The Sanskrit names for the tree are Sephālika; Pārijātaka; Rajanihāsa, "night-smiling"; and Atyūhā, "very pensive." Acoording to the Indian legend, a certain Nāga (prince) called Pārijāta had a daughter of whom the Sun became enamoured, but he soon deserted her for another sweetheart; whereupon the damsel pined away and died of grief. Upon the spot where she died sprang up the tree Pārijātaka, whose flowers have such a dread of the Sun that they fall from the tree in the early morning before he rises.

Chakradatta mentions the use of the leaves in fever and rheumatism; a decoction of the leaves prepared over a gentle fire is recommended by several writers as a specific for obstinate sciatica. In the Concan about 5 grains of the bark are eaten with Betel-nut and leaf to promote the expectoration of thick phlegm.

The author of the Makhzan gives a minute description of all parts of the tree, and states that the Indians use the white portion of the flowers as a purple dye, which they call Gulkāmah, and the orange part as a yellow dye. The seeds and leaves are considered by them to have medicinal properties. Six or seven of the young leaves are rubbed up with water and a little fresh ginger, and administered in obstinate fevers of the intermittent type, at the same time a purely vegetable diet is enforced. The powdered seeds are used to cure scurfy affections of the scalp. Directions for the preparations of Gulkāmah will be found in the Karabādin-i-kabir (a well known Persian Pharmacopoeia)."

Description—Tree, 15 to 20 feet"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 376f.]


2.5.94. Jasminum auriculatum Vahl 1794 - Jasmine

Oleaceae (Ölbaumgewächse)

Strauch oder Ranke


51. c./d. sitāsau śvetasurasā bhūtaveśy atha māgadhī
52. a./b. gaṇikā yūthikāmbaṣṭhā
sā pītā hemapuṣpikā

सितासौ श्वेतसुरसा भूतवेश्य् अथ मागधी ॥५१ ख॥
गणिका यूथिकाम्बष्ठा
सा पीता हेम्पुष्पिका ।५२ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Jasminum auriculatum Vahl 1794 - Jasmine:]

  1. मागधी - māgadhī f.: Die Magadherin1
  2. गणिका - gaṇikā f.: Hure
  3. यूथिका - yūthikā f.: Hure (zu yūtha n.: Herde, Schar = gaṇa)
  4. अम्बष्ठा - ambaṣṭhā f.: Ambaṣṭhā (eine ethnische Bezeichnung, bzw. die Tochter eines Brahmanen und einer Vaiśyā)

Colebrooke (1807): "Sort of Jasmin. Jasminum auriculatum."


1 मागधी - māgadhī f.: Die Magadherin


Abb.: Lage von Magadha
[Bildquelle: Kmusser / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]



Abb.: गणिका । Jasminum auriculatum Vahl 1794 - Jasmine, Chittoor District - చిత్తూరు, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Jasminum auriculatum. Linn.

Shrubby, twining. [...]

Sans. Magudhee, Gunika, Yoot'hika, Umbustha. See Asiat. Res. iv. 246.

This species is a native of various parte of India, but not common. Its habit is twining, with a woody stem, and branches."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 98.]


2.5.94a.  Jasminum humile L. 1753 = Jasminum chrysanthemum Roxb. 1820 - Niedriger Jasmin - Italian Yellow Jasmine


52 a./b. gaṇikā yūthikāmbaṣṭhā sā pītā hemapuṣpikā

गणिका यूथिकाम्बष्ठा सा पीता हेम्पुष्पिका ।५२ क।

Die gelbe Varietät [in Wirklichkeit Jasminum humile var. revolutum L. = Jasminum chrysanthemum Roxb. 1820] heißt हेम्पुष्पिका - hemapuṣpikā f.: Goldblüte


Colebrooke (1807): "Yellow Jasmin."



Abb.: हेम्पुष्पिका । Jasminum humile L., Osaka - 大阪, Japan
[Bildquelle: KENPEI / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Jasminum chrysanthemum. Roxb.

[...]

Hemapushpica, or yellow yuthica, Asiat. Res. iv. 246.

Sans. Hema-psoohpika.

A native of the mountainous countries north of Hindoostan. Colonel Hardwieke found it on his journey to Sirinagur, (see Asiat. Res. vi. 349; Jasminum, No. 3.) and Dr. Buchanan in Nepal. In the Botanic garden it grows freely from cuttings, and becomes a stout, erect ramous shrub, even a small tree, without the smallest tendency to lean, or twine. Flowers more or less the whole year; but, like the other species, the proper season is April and May, at which time it is the most desirable Jasmine I have yet seen.

[...]

Flowers large, bright yellow, delightfully fragrant. [...]"

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 99f.]


2.5.95. Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 1874 - Clustered Hiptage

Malpighiaceae (Malpighiengewächse)

Strauch oder Ranke


52. c./d. atimuktaḥ puṇḍrakaḥ syād vāsantī mādhavīlatā

अतिमुक्तः पुण्ड्रकः स्याद् वासन्ती माधवीलता ॥५२ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 1874 - Clustered Hiptage:]

  1. अतिमुक्त - atimukta m.: vollständig Befreiter
  2. पुण्ड्रक - puṇḍraka m.: Puṇḍraka (Name eines Volkes in Bihar und Bengalen)1
  3. वासन्ती - vāsantī f.: Frühlingsblume
  4. माधवीलता - mādhavīlatā f.: Frühlings-Liane

Colebrooke (1807): "Malati lata. Gaertnera racemosa [Roxb. 1795 = Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 1874] or Banisteria bengalensis [L. 1753 = Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 1874]."


1 पुण्ड्रक - puṇḍraka m.: Puṇḍraka (Name eines Volkes in Bihar und Bengalen)


Abb.: Lage des Wohngebiets der Puṇḍraka
[Bildquelle: Fanghong / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]



Abb.: अतिमुक्तः । Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 1874 - Clustered Hiptage
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 59, 1686]


Abb.:
वासन्ती । Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 1874 - Clustered Hiptage
[Bildquelle: Roxburgh. -- Vol I. -- 1795. -- Image courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.botanicus.org. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung) (Roxb. = Gaertnera racemosa)]


Abb.: माधवीलता । Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 1874 - Clustered Hiptage, Taiwan -  臺灣
[Bildquelle:
LiChieh Pan. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/plj/468424318/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Gaetnera racemosa. Willd.

[...]

Found in various parts of India. It flowers during the rainy and cold season. The blossoms are uncommonly beautiful, and exceedingly fragrant."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 368f.]


2.5.96. Jasminum grandiflorum L. 1762 - Chinesischer Tee-Jasmin - Royal Jasmine

Oleaceae (Ölbaumgewächse)

Großer laubabwerfender Strauch


53. a./b. sumanā mālatī jātiḥ saptalā navamālikā

सुमना मालती जातिः सप्तला नवमालिका ।५३ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Jasminum grandiflorum L. 1762 - Chinesischer Tee-Jasmin - Royal Jasmine:]

  1. सुमनस् / सुमना - sumanas / sumanā f.: Heitere, Wohltuende
  2. मालती - mālatī f.: Mālatī
  3. जाति - jāti f.: (von edler) Geburt

Colebrooke (1807): "Great flowered Jasmin. Jasminum grandiflorum."



Abb.: मालती । Jasminum grandiflorum L. 1762 - Chinesischer Tee-Jasmin - Royal Jasmine
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 52, 1686]


Abb.:
सुमना । Jasminum grandiflorum L. 1762 - Chinesischer Tee-Jasmin - Royal Jasmine, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Forest & Kim Starr. -- http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=090806-3873&o=plants. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. --  -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Jasminum grandiflorum. Linn.

Shrubby, scandent (in India).

[...]

Sans. Soomuna, Malutee, Jati.

This plant I have only found in gardens, where it flowers the greater part of the year."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 100.]

"Jasminum grandiflorum, Spanish Jasmine or Chambeli, is cultivated almost everywhere in India. The Sanskrit name is Jāti; from the flowers a perfumed oil is prepared which is a favourite perfume amongst the Hindus. Their physicians prescribe the leaves as a remedy in skin diseases, ulcers of the mouth, otorrhoea, &c. Chakradatta mentions the use of the fresh juice of the leaves as an application to soft corns, and of an oil prepared with it in otorrhoea. In the Bhavaprakāsa the leaves are recommended to be chewed by those who suffer from ulceration of the mucous membrane of the mouth.

Mahometan writers consider the plant to have deobstruent, anthelmintic, diuretic and emmenagogue properties. Mīr Muhammad Husain mentions the use of the flowers applied in the form of plaster to the lions and pubes as an aphrodisiac. He classes J. grandiflorum along with several other kinds of Jasmine under the name of Yasmīn."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 378.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Jasminum grandiflorum L. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/jasminum_grandiflorium.htm


2.5.97. Jasminum arborescens Roxb. 1820

Oleaceae (Ölbaumgewächse)

Großer Strauch


53. a./b. sumanā mālatī jātiḥ saptalā navamālikā

सुमना मालती जातिः सप्तला नवमालिका ।५३ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Jasminum arborescens Roxb. 1820:]

  1. सप्तला - saptalā f.: Saptalā (zu saptan: sieben)
  2. नवमालिका - navamālikā f.: Einen Kranz aus neun [Blütenblättern] habend

Colebrooke (1807): "Double Jasmin. Jasminum zambac fl. multiplicatis." [= ??]



Abb.: नवमालिका । Jasminum arborescens Roxb. 1820
[Bildquelle: Kirtikar-Basu, ©1918]

"Jasminum arborescens. Roxb.

Arborescent.

[...]

Sans. Suptula, Nuva-mulika.

A native of the more elevated parts of Bengal, where it blossoms about the beginning of the hot season.

[...]

Obs. This species is nearly allied to my J. latifolium, and indeed the only specific difference I have yet been able to observe, is that this species has no tendency to twine or climb ; that is twining."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 95f.]

"The juice of the leaves of Jasminum arborescens, (Roxb.) is used with pepper, garlic and other stimulants as an emetic in obstruction of the bronchial tubes by viscid phlegm. Seven leaves will furnish sufficient juice for a dose. For young children the juice of half a leaf and of four leaves of Agasta (Sesbania grandiflora) may be mixed with two grains of black pepper and two grains of dried borax and given in honey."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 379.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Jasminum arborescens Roxb. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/jasminum_arborescens.htm


2.5.98. Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews 1807 - Sternblütiger Jasmin - Star Jasmine

Oleaceae (Ölbaumgewächse)

Immergrüner Strauch


53. c./d. mādhyaṃ kundaṃ raktakas tu bandhūko bandhujīvakaḥ

माध्यं कुन्दं रक्तकस् तु बन्धूको बन्धुजीवकः ॥५३ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews 1807 - Sternblütiger Jasmin - Star Jasmine:]

  1. माध्य - mādhya n.: Mittleres (wohl wegen des auffälligen Mittelkelchs)  
  2. कुन्द - kunda n.: Kunda

Colebrooke (1807): "Many flowered Jasmin. Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens [(Retz.) Willd. 1797 = Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews 1807]."



Abb.: कुन्दम् । Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews 1807 - Sternblütiger Jasmin - Star Jasmine
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 54, 1686]


Abb.:
माध्यम् । Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews 1807 - Sternblütiger Jasmin - Star Jasmine, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Forest & Kim Starr. -- http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=030602-0071&o=plants. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Jasminum pubescens. Linn.

[...]

Sans. Maghyun, Koondum. See Asiat. Res. 4. 244.

A very ramous shrub, brought originally from China into the Company's Botanic garden. It is also indigenous in Bengal. Is in flower during the rains chiefly.

[...]

Obs. This is a goodly looking plant, its numerous, large, pure white, fragrant flowers, opening in succession make it very desirable."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 91f.]


2.5.99. Pentapetes phoenicea L.

Malvaceae (Malvengewächse)

Verholztes, bis 1 m hohes Kraut


53. c./d. mādhyaṃ kundaṃ raktakas tu bandhūko bandhujīvakaḥ

माध्यं कुन्दं रक्तकस् तु बन्धूको बन्धुजीवकः ॥५३ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Pentapetes phoenicea L.:]

  1. रक्तक - raktaka m.: Roter
  2. बन्धूक - bandhūka m.: Bandhūka (zu bandhu m.: Zusammenhang, Beziehung, Verwandtschaft)
  3. बन्धुजीवक - bandhūkajīvaka m.: welcher in / von Verwandtschaftsgruppen lebt

Colebrooke (1807): "Dopharia. Pentapetes phoenicea. The Sanscrit names are by some assigned to the Ixora coccinea [L. 1753 - Dschungelbrand - Jungle Flame. Rubiaceae (Krappgewächse)]."


Pentapetes phoenicea L.



Abb.: बन्धूकः । Pentapetes phoenicea L.
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus X. Fig. 56, 1690]


Abb.:
रक्तकः । Pentapetes phoenicea L.
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: रक्तकः । Pentapetes phoenicea L.
[Bildquelle: Rushafi / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Pentapetes phoenicea. Willd.

[...]

Ruktuka, Bhundhuka, Sanscrit names.

Naga-pu, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 56, is evidently this plant, while Sjasmin, vol. x. t.1. is Hibiscus phoeniceus.

This elegant plant is annual, a native of wet rice-fields. Flowering time, the rainy season."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 157.]

"PENTAPETES PHOENICEA, Linn.

Hab.—Throughout the hotter parts of India.

[...]

A large annual (4 to 5 ft.) found in rice-fields and other wet places during the monsoon. It is the Naga-pu of Rheede. The capsules of this plant are used medicinally on account of their mucilaginous properties ; they are subglobose, bristly, 5-celled, 5-valved, about half the length of the persistent interior calyx, which is 5-partite and bristly. Each cell contains from 8 to 12 seeds arranged in two vertical rows. (See Gaertn. Fr., 1.134.) The plant appears to have attracted the attention of the Hindus on account of its peculiar habit and time of flowering, and has many Sanskrit names, such as Bandhuka and Bandhujiva, living in association or groups ; Arka-vallabha, beloved of the sun ; Pushparakta, red-flowered, &c."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 235f.]


Ixora coccinea L. 1753 - Dschungelbrand - Jungle Flame



Abb.: Ixora coccinea L. 1753 - Dschungelbrand - Jungle Flame
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus II. Fig. 13, 1679]


Abb.:
Ixora coccinea L. 1753 - Dschungelbrand - Jungle Flame
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
Ixora coccinea L. 1753 - Dschungelbrand - Jungle Flame, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/1452890009/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.:
Ixora coccinea L. 1753 - Dschungelbrand - Jungle Flame, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3441724516/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Ixora coccinea. Linn.

Shrubby.

[...]

In the Tanjore country and in China I have found this most beautiful shrub in great abundance in its wild state. In a cultivated state it flowers all the year round. I have had it eight years in my garden, and it is not more than three or four feet high, with many erect branches, but scarcely any thing like a trunk.

* Sir William Jones observes (Asiat. Res. iv. 251), that no Indian god was ever named Ixora ; he adds at the same time that Iswara, which is indeed a title of Shiva, would be a very improper appellation of a plant which has already a classical name."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 375f.]

"IXORA COCCINEA, Linn.

Jungle Geranium

Hab.--Western Peninsula. Cultivated elsewhere.

[...]

History, Uses, &c—The shrub is sacred to Shiva, and Don is probably correct in stating that the generic name is derived from that of a Malabar idol. The Sanskrit word Ishvara, which signifies god, and especially Shiva, would be written Ixora in Portuguese, and nothing can be more probable than that the first explorers of the Malabar Coast, on learning that the plant was sacred to Ishvara, should name it after that god. In Southern and Western India the Hindus use the bright red flowers, probably in accordance with the doctrine of signatures, as a remedy for dysentery. In the Concan they are fried in melted butter, rubbed down with a little cumin and nagkesar (cinnamon buds), and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy. In Southern India they are given with tyre or goat's milk. Rheede notices the use of the root in fever and gonorrhoea, also its external application in headache, and to boils, with or without cocoanut milk. The root was brought to the notice of the profession a few years ago as a remedy for dysentery by a medical man in Bengal, but Dr. F. Willis reports :—" I tried it in many cases, but only in a small number did I find it of any benefit, one case only was cured without other drugs; it is, however, a very good stomachic tonic, useful in cases of debility of that organ, and that I think is its proper place in therapeutics.""

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 212.]


2.5.100. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. 1768 - Echte Aloe - Bitter Aloe

Aloaceae (Aloengewächse)

Stammlose bzw. kurzstämmige Sukkulente


54. a./b. sahā kumārī taraṇir amlānas tu mahāsahā

सहा कुमारी तरणिर् अम्लानस् तु महासहा ।५४ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. 1768 - Echte Aloe - Bitter Aloe:]

  1. सहा - sahā f.: Überwältigende, Bezwingende
  2. कुमारी - kumārī f.: Mädchen, Jungfrau
  3. तरणि - taraṇi f.: Rettende 

Colebrooke (1807): "Aloe. Aloe perfoliata [var. vera L. 1753 = Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. 1768]."



Abb.: तरणिः । Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. 1768 - Echte Aloe - Bitter Aloe
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus XI. Fig. 3, 1692]


Abb.: सहा । Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. 1768 - Echte Aloe - Bitter Aloe
[Bildquelle: Holtzbecker 1649 - 1659 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: कुमारी । Blütenstand von Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. 1768 - Echte Aloe - Bitter Aloe, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Forest & Kim Starr. -- http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=070302-4990&o=plants. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Aloe perfoliata. Willd.

[...]

Taruni. Asiatick Researches. 4. 272.

Sans. Ghrita-koomaree.

It is common in gardens throughout India."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 167.]

"Aloe vulgaris (Lam.) N. O. Liliaceae.

Barbados Aloe [...]

Description.--Stem short; [...]

Lam. Enc. i. 86. Rheede, xi. t. 3.

A. Barbadensis, Mill.

Common in the Peninsula.

Medical Uses.—The above species of Aloe, which is properly a native of Greece, or, as some say, of the Cape Colony, has long been naturalised in both Indies. It yields what is known as the Barbadoes Aloes. This substance is of a dark or reddish-brown colour, and has a most unpleasant odour. In quality it is far inferior to the real Socotrine Aloes (A. Socotrina). As a drug, Aloes is reckoned extremely valuable, and its medical properties are very numerous. Although aperient, yet, unlike other cathartics, the effect is not increased, if given in large doses, beyond a certain point. To persons predisposed to apoplexy it is more beneficial than most other purgatives. The compound decoction is a valuable emmenagogue, particularly when combined with preparations of iron. One of the best modes of covering the unpleasant taste of Aloes, when given liquid, is in the compound tincture of lavender. Aloes are produced by most of the varieties of these plants, but Dr O'Shaughnessy remarks that the quality of the product is apparently more dependent on soil, climate, and preparation, than on any specific difference in the plant itself A great deal depends on the mode of preparation. The usual mode of extracting the substance is by making a transverse incision in the leaves, or cutting them off at the base, and scraping off the juice as it flows if done in the former way, and allowing it to run in a vessel placed for the purpose if in the latter. Pressure is made occasionally to assist the flow; but, as Dr O'Shaughnessy observes, " by this means large quantities of the mucilage are forced out and mix with the proper bitter juice, which is proportionately deteriorated;" for it must be recollected that the Aloe contains a great deal of mucilaginous matter, abundant towards the centre of the thick fleshy leaves. The Aloes after being received into a vessel are exposed to the sun or other heat, by which means they become inspissated. The greater portion of Aloes sent to England is from the Cape Colony. Of late years the importation of the true Socotrina Aloes has considerably decreased. What is now shipped to Europe is sent usually round by Bombay; but Simmonds says, " Socotrine Aloes, although long considered the best kind, is now below Barbadoes Aloes in commercial value." The several kinds of Aloes are the East Indian or Hepatic Aloes, so called from its liver colour, and said to be the produce of the A. Arabica ; and the Horse-Aloes, which is only used in veterinary medicine. This latter product is said to be obtained by boiling the leaves that have been previously used for producing a finer sample. The greater part of Cape-Aloes is the produce of A. Spicata, which is of a yellowish colour, and has a heavy disagreeable odour. —(Ainslie. Lindl. Bengal Disp. Comm. Prod. Mad.) The other species yielding Aloes are the A. Indica, Royle (A. perfoliata, Roxb.), inhabiting dry sandy plains in the North-Western Provinces, and the A. litorali8 (Koenig), found on the sea-coasts of the Peninsula. A good kind of Aloes is procurable from the latter. The natives attach much value to the juice of the leaves, which they apply externally in cases of ophthalmia, and especially in what are commonly termed country sore-eyes. The mode of administering it is to wash the pulp of the leaves in cold water and mix it up with a little burnt alum. In this state it is applied to the eyes, being previously wrapped in a piece of muslin cloth. An ink is prepared by the Mahometans from the juice of the pulp.—{Ainslie.) It appears certain that, with a little care, Aloes of good quality might be obtained from this source in considerable quantities, at a cost far less than that of the imported article. The freshly-expressed juice is in almost universal use as an external refrigerant application to all external or local inflammations.—Pharm. of India."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"ALOE PERRYI, Baker.

Hab.—Socotra.

ALOE ABYSSINICA, Lam.

Jaferabad Aloe

Hab.—Africa, Coasts of India.

ALOE VERA, Linn.

Common or Barbadoes Aloe, (Eng.).

Hab.—Africa, Arabia, India.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—The common Aloe (Ghrihakanya), if not a native of India, must have run wild in the country from a very remote period, as the Sanskrit synonyms do not in any way indicate a foreign origin. By the names Ghrita-kumari, Kumari, Mata, Kanyaka, Taruni, Svari, the plant is compared to a beautiful girl or to the virgin Durga. Many synonyms are descriptive, such as Dirgha-pattrika "long-leaved," Sthale-ruha " growing in dry ground," Mridu "soft," Bahu-pattra "having numerous leaves,"Kantaka-pattra " having prickly loaves," Vipula-srava "juicy," Mandala "scimitar-like," Ati-picchila " very slimy," &c. The juice is considered to be cathartic, cold, and useful for removing disease of the spleen, swellings, phlegm, carbuncles, and blood and skin diseases. The Hindus appear not to have been acquainted with the drug until it was introduced into India by the Arabs; when this took place it is very difficult to decide, but it must have been at a very remote period if we are to believe Dioscorides, who says "the Aloe grows plentifully in India, whence also the juice is brought to us, also in Arabia and Asia (minor), and in certain maritime districts and islands, as Andros." On the other hand, Sanskrit writers do not mention the drug ; possibly the orthodox Hindu physicians of those days may have regarded it as an impure compound prepared by foreigners. Elwa or Ailwa, the Hindi name for aloes, appears to be cognate to the Greek Aloes appears to have been first manufactured by Arabs or Abyssinians, through whom the Greeks obtained a knowledge of it. Hippocrates and Theophrastus do not mention it, but Dioscorides and Pliny were evidently well acquainted with the drug and its uses, and also with the plant, which it appears had been introduced into the Cyclades. Abu Hanifeh in the 9th century describes aloes (Sabir) and the plant from which it is obtained as having a yellow flower and very thick leaves which are crushed and thrown into the presses, and trodden with the feet until their juice flows, when it is left until it thickens, and is then put into leathern bags and exposed to the sun until it dries. This method of preparation fully accounts for the inferiority of Arabian aloes. All the Arabian and Persian writers agree in stating that the best aloes is prepared in Socotra, and many relate that Alexander, on the recommendation of Aristotle, took possession of the island on that account and settled a colony of Greeks there to cultivate the plant more carefully, Schweinfurth has observed an apparently Semitic type amongst the hill tribes of the island, which he thinks may be traced to a Greek source; characterised by small head, with long nose and thick lips, straight hair, and lean limbs. In some hieroglyphics on the Kadhab plain he has also traced combinations of Greek characters. The Socotrian women are reputed to be sorceresses of the most dangerous kind, who by the aid of a magic cup steal away the liver and lights of those against whom they bear malice ; a horrid suggestion to account for the excellence of their aloes. This story seems to support the derivation of the names Socotra and Socotrine suggested by Mr. Mowat in 'Alphita' p. 67. He connects them with the Greek συκωτοσ =Lat. ficatus = It. fegato. This word 'originally seems to have denoted the liver of a goose fattened on figs,' and the word socotrinum or succotrinum applied to aloes would therefore be the equivalent of epaticum. (Cf. Trans. Rl. Soc. Edinburgh, xxxi., p. 444.) Burton says: "The aloe, according to Burckhardt, is planted in graveyards as a lesson of patience: it is also slung, like the dried crocodile, over house-doors to prevent evil spirits entering : ' thus hung without earth and water/ says Lane (Mod. Egypt, Chapt. XI.), 'it will live for several years and even blossom. Hence (?) it is called Sabr, which signifies patience.' But Sibr as well as Sabr (a root) means 'long-sufferance.' I hold the practice to be one of the many Inner African superstitions. The wild Gallas to the present day plant aloes on graves, and suppose that when the plant sprouts the deceased has been admitted to the gardens of Wak, the Creator." (Arab. Nights, i., 138.) Mahometan physicians describe aloes as aperient, deobstruent, depurative, anthelmintic and tonic; as a collyrium they consider that it strengthens the sight and removes styes of the lids ; it is often applied for the dispersion of swellings and the promotion of granulations. They direct it to be purified in the following manner:—Take Socotrine Aloes 1 lb., powder and sift, then take wormwood, Jatamasi, Chiretta, Cinnamon, Cassia, wood of the Balsam tree, Herba Schoenanthi, Asarum, Mastich, of each 3 dirhems, boil in 2 lbs. of water down to one pound and strain. Put the aloes into a mortar, rub it down with part of the above decoction and strain, repeat the process with the remainder of the decoction and any aloes remaining on the strainer, let the strained liquors subside, draw off the supernatant fluid, mix the aloes with 3 dirhems of saffron and preserve for use. In Anthony Colin's translation of Clusius, the following notice of aloes by Garcia d'Orta occurs:—" Les Indiens s'en servent en leurs collyres et aux médicaments purgatifs comme aussi ès playes, lesquelles ils veulent remplir de chair pour lequel usage ils ont le plus souvent dedans leur boutiques un médicament composé de myrrhe et aloès appelé par eux Mocebar (mussabar). J'ai vue un médecin du grand Sultan Badur Roy de Cambaya lequel usait de l'herbe d'aloès pour médicament familier en ceste façon. II faisait cuire avec du sel les feuilles de l'herbe coupées, de telle décoction il en faisait prendre huit onces lesquelles faisaient vider le ventre fort bénignement et sans aucune extorsion quatre ou cinq fois. En ceste ville de Goa ils donnent en breuvage a ceux qui ont des ulcères aux reins ou en la vesce de l'aloe bien pulvérisé et meslé avec du lait qui a si heureux succès et profit que les malades en sont incontinent guéris. Ils s'en servent aux Indes pour faire meurir les flegmons." In the same work there is a prescription for the use of fresh aloe leaves by Christophe de la Coste. Take of aloe leaves sliced 3 ozs., salt 3 drms., heat to boiling over a gentle fire, strain and add 1 oz. of sugar. Let the liquid cool, and take it cold early in the morning. The patient should be directed to keep moving about to promote the action of the medicine, and four hours after taking it some chicken broth may be given. The leaves and flower stalks of the aloe are pickled by Banians of Guzerat after having been soaked in salt and water, and it is a general practice among Hindus to give a little of the juice of the plant with honey in a golden spoon to new-born children; it is supposed to hasten the expulsion of the meconium. The dose must be administered by the father of the child, or by the nearest male relative in the absence of the father.

Prof. Bayley Balfour, who visited Socotra on a botanical expedition in 1880, has given the following account of the manner in which «aloes is prepared:—"The gum is known as tayef by the natives. The collector scrapes a slight hollow on the surface of the ground in the vicinity of an aloe plant, into which he depresses the centre of a small portion of goat-skin spread over the ground. The leaves of the aloe are cut and laid in a circle on the skin, with the cut ends projecting over the central hollow. Two or three layers are arranged. The juice, which is of a pale amber colour, with a slight mawkish odour and taste, trickles from the leaves upon the goat-skin. After about three hours the leaves are exhausted; the skin containing the juice is then removed from beneath them, and the juice is transferred to a bag made of skin. Only the older leaves are used. The juice thus collected is of a thin watery character, and is known as tayef rhiho, or watery aloes. In this condition it is exported to Muscat and Arabia, and sells for three dollars the skin of 30 lbs. By keeping, however, the aloes changes in character. After a month the juice, by loss of water, becomes denser and more viscid; it is then known as tayef gesheeshah, and is more valuable, a skin of 30 lbs. fetching five dollars; whilst in about fifteen days more—that is, about six weeks after collection—it gets into a tolerably hard solid mass, and is then tayef kasahul, and is worth seven dollars a skin of 30 lbs. In this last condition it is commonly exported. (Trans. Rl. Soc. of Edinburgh, xxxi., Introductory Chapter, p. xxxviii.).

Description.—Socotrine aloes is imported into Bombay via Zanzibar and the Red Sea ports. It is packed in skins, the packages varying much in size and shape, and often containing a large proportion of rubbish, such as pieces of hide, stones, &c. In Bombay the skins are opened, and the aloes repacked in boxes for exportation to Europe. The best Socotrine aloes is of a golden-brown colour, hard externally, soft internally: the odour is aromatic and peculiar; when powdered or in thin fragments it is orange-brown, sometimes it is almost fluid."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 467ff.]


2.5.101./102. Barleria sp.: Barleria strigosa Willd. 1802 - Barleria; Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower; Barleria buxifolia L.; Barleria cristata L. 1753 - Philippinenveilchen - Philippine Violet; (Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees 1832 - Firecracker Flower)

Acanthaceae (Akanthusgewächse)

Kräuter und Sträucher


54. sahā kumārī taraṇir amlānas tu mahāsahā
tatra śoṇe kurabakas tatra pīte kuruṇṭakaḥ
55. nīlī jhiṇṭī dvayor bāṇā dāsī cārtagalaś ca sā
saireyakas tu jhiṇṭī syāt tasmin kurabako 'ruṇe
56. a./b. pītā kuruṇṭako jhiṇṭī tasmin sahacarī dvayoḥ

सहा कुमारी तरणिर् अम्लानस् तु महासहा ।
तत्र शोणे कुरबकस् तत्र पीते कुरुण्टकः ॥५४॥
नीली झिण्टी द्वयोर् बाणा दासी चार्तगलश् च सा ।
सैरेयकस् तु झिण्टी स्यात् तस्मिन् कुरबको
रुणे ॥५५॥
पीता कुरुण्टको झिण्टी तस्मिन् सहचरी द्वयोः ।५६ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Barleria strigosa Willd. 1802 - Barleria:]

  1. अम्लान - amlāna m.: Frischer, Ungeschwächter
  2. महासहा - mahāsahā f.: Großmächtige

Die rote Varietät [= Barleria buxifolia L. oder Barleria cristata L. 1753.] heißt कुरबक - kurabaka m.: Kurabaka / Kuravaka

Die gelbe Varietät [= Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower] heißt कुरुण्टक - kuruṇṭaka m: Kuruṇṭaka

Die blaue Varietät [= Barleria strigosa Willd. 1802 - Barleria] heißt

  1. झिण्टी - jhiṇṭī f.: Jhiṇṭī
  2. बाणा - bāṇā f., m.: Pfeilpflanze
  3. दासी - dāsī f.: Dienerin
  4. आर्तगल - ārtagala m., f.: Halsweh

[Bezeichnungen für Barleria; Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower und Barleria cristata L. 1753 - Philippinenveilchen - Philippine Violet:]

  1. सैरेयक - saireyaka m.: Saireyaka
  2. झिण्टी - jhiṇṭī f.: Jhiṇṭī

Die rötliche Varietät [= Barleria buxifolia L. oder Barleria cristata L. 1753.] heißt कुरबक - kurabaka m.: Kurabaka / Kuravaka

Die gelbe Jhiṇṭī [= Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower] heißt

  1. कुरुण्टक - kuruṇṭaka m: Kuruṇṭaka
  2. सहचरी - sahacarī f., m.: Begleiterin

Colebrooke (1807): [54. b.:] "Globe amaranth. Gomphrena globosa [L. ist eine Pflanze Amerikas!]." [54. c.:] "The crimson sort." [57. d.:] "The yellow (or white) variety." [55. a./b.:] "Blue Barleria. Barleria caerulea [Roxb. 1832 = Barleria strigosa Willd. 1802."[55. c.:] "Jhinti. Barleria cristata." [55. d.:] "A purple sort." [56. a./b.:] ""A yellow sort. Barleria prionitis."


Barleria strigosa Willd. 1802 - Barleria



Abb.: Barleria strigosa Willd. 1802 - Barleria
[Bildquelle: Meneerke bloem / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Barleria caerulea. Roxb.

Shrubby, unarmed, straight.

[...]

Barlerria strigosa. Willd.

A middle-sized, erect, flowering shrub, cultivated in our garden, for the sake of its numerous, beautiful, large, light blue flowers. It is a native of the shady moist vallies, up amongst the mountains, through the Circars, also of Bengal. Flowering time the cold season."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 39.]


Barleria cristata L. 1753 - Philippinenveilchen - Philippine Violet



Abb.:
Barleria cristata L. 1753 - Philippinenveilchen - Philippine Violet
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
Barleria cristata L. 1753 - Philippinenveilchen - Philippine Violet, Narsapur - నరసాపురం, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.:
Barleria cristata L. 1753 - Philippinenveilchen - Philippine Violet, Ananthagiri Hills, Rangareddy District - రంగా రెడ్డి జిల్లా, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Barleria cristata. Willd. iii. 378.

Unarmed, shrubby.

[...]

Found in gardens about Calcutta, and wild in the forests of Silhet. It is a large, very ramous shrub. Flowering time the cold season, during- which period it is uncommonly gaudy."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 37f.]


Barleria buxifolia L.


"Barleria buxifolia. Willd. iii. 377.

[...]

Cara-schulli. Rheede Mal. ii. t. 47. bad, if for this plant.

A native of Malabar, Mysore, &c. from the latter country the seeds were sent by Dr. Buchanan in 1800 to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where the plants thrive well, and are in blossom during the hot season.

[...]

Flowers [...] of a beautiful pink tinged with violet."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 37.]


Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower



Abb.: Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus IX. Fig. 41, 1689]


Abb.: Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]

S
Abb.: Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower
[Bildquelle: Addisonia : colored illustrations and popular descriptions of plants. -- Vol. 10 (1925). -- Pl. 330]


Abb.: Barleria prionitis L. 1753 - Stachelschweinblume - Porcupine Flower, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్ - حیدرآباد, Andhra Pradesh

[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]

"Barleria prionites. Willd.

Shrubby; [...]

Kooroontuka, the Sanscrit name.

[...]

Is one of the most common, and at the same time elegant, small, shrubby plants in India ; every soil and situation suits it equally well, and it is in flower all the year round."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 36.]

"Barleria prionitis (Linn.) N. O. Acanthaceae.

[...]

Description.--Shrub, 4 feet; [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii 36.—Wight Icon. ii. 452.—Rheede, ix. t. 41.

Peninsula. Bengal

Medical Uses.—The juice of the leaves, mixed with sugar and water, is given to children in fevers and catarrhal affections. The ashes of the burnt plant, mixed with water and rice conjee, are employed in cases of dropsy and anasarca; also in coughs.—Ainslie."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"BARLERIA PRIONITIS, Linn.

Hab.—Tropical India

[...]

History, Uses, &C.—This small shrub is the Kuranta, Kuruvaka or Kuravaka of the Hindu poets, who compare its yellow flowers to a flash of lightning. In the Gita Govinda the zealous Radha pictures to herself the absent Hari binding them in the floating locks of the Gopis. Other Sanskrit names are Amlana, Pitajhinta, Mahasaha, and Kuruntaka. Though not mentioned in the Nighantas, its medicinal properties appear to be very generally known; it is the Coletta Veetla of Rheede, and the Hystrix frutex of Rumphius.

The natives apply the juice of the leaves to their feet in the rainy season to harden them, and thus prevent the maceration and cracking of the sole which would otherwise occur. Ainslie says that the juice of the leaves, which is slightly bitter and acid, is a favourite medicine of the Hindus of Lower India in those catarrhal affections of children which are accompanied with fever and much phlegm ; it is generally administered in a little honey or sugar and water in the quantity of two table- spoonfuls twice daily. (Materia Indica, II., p. 376*)

In the Concan the dried bark is given in whooping cough, and 2 tolas of the juice of the fresh bark with milk in anasarca. Dr. Bidie observes that it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant.

A paste is made of the root which is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings, and a medicated oil, made by boiling the leaves and stems with sweet oil until all the water has been driven off, is used as a cleansing application to wounds."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 43f.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Barleria strigosa Willd. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/barleria_strigosa.htm


Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees 1832 - Firecracker Flower



Abb.: Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees 1832 - Firecracker Flower
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus IX. Fig. 62, 1689]


Abb.: Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees 1832 - Firecracker Flower, Sri Lanka
[Bildquelle:
Luke McGuff. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/holyoutlaw/4693673399/. -- Zugriff am 2010-11-09. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"The following plant [Crossandra undulaefolia Salisb. = Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees 1832 - Firecracker Flower] is classed by the natives along with the Barlerias, of which Barleria  cristata and several other species appear to be included by the Sanskrit names Kuruntaka, Kuruvaka, and Artagala. In Hindi Jhinti is a kind of general name for these plants, and in Marathi Koranta and Aboli."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 45.]


2.5.103. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 1753 - Hibiscus

Malvaceae (Malvengewächse)

Immergrüner, bis 3 m hoher Strauch


56. c./d. oṇḍrapuṣpaṃ japā vajrapuṣpaṃ puṣpaṃ tilasya yat

ओण्ड्रपुष्पं जपा वज्रपुष्पं पुष्पं तिलस्य यत् ॥५६ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 1753 - Hibiscus:]

  1. ओण्ड्रपुष्प - oṇḍrapuṣpa n.: Oṇḍrablume 
  2. जपा - japā f.: Flüsternde, Murmelnde

Colebrooke (1807): "China rose. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis."



Abb.: जपा । Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 1753 - Hibiscus
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus VI. Fig. 43, 1686]


Abb.:
जपा । Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 1753 - Hibiscus
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: ओण्ड्रपुष्पम् । Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 1753 - Hibiscus, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/348646036/in/photostream/. -- Zugriff am 2007-10-13. -- NamensnennungKeine kommerzielle NutzungKeine BearbeitungCreative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis. Willd.

Shrubby. [...]

Juva, the Sanscrit name.

Shoe-flower of the English, because the flowers are frequently used for blacking shoes.

Of this beautiful shrub there are several varieties, viz. single and double red, single and double yellow, and white. I have only found it in a cultivated state, however the single sort is found wild in the interior parts of Hindoostan. It continues in flower the greatest part of the year in our gardens."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 194.]

"Hibiscus Rosa sinensis (Linn.)

Shoe-flower plant, or China Rose [...]

Description.—Shrub, 12-15 feet; stem arborescent, without prickles; [...]

Fl. All the year.

W. & A. Prod. i. 49.—Rheede, ii. t. 16.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 194.

Peninsula. Cultivated in gardens.

Medical Uses.—The leaves are considered in Cochin China as emollient and slightly aperient. The flowers are used to tinge spirituous liquors, and the petals when rubbed on paper communicate a bluish-purple tint, which forms an excellent substitute for litmus-paper as a chemical test. The leaves are prescribed by the natives in smallpox, but are said to check the eruption too much.— (Don. Ainslie.) An infusion of the petals is given as a demulcent refrigerant drink in fevers.—Pharm. of India.

Economic Uses.—In China they make these handsome flowers into garlands and festoons on all occasions of festivity, and even in their sepulchral rites. The petals of the flowers are used for blacking shoes, and the women also employ them to colour their hair and eyebrows black. They are also eaten by the natives as pickles."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"The roots of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis, Shoe-flower (Eng.), Ketmie de Cochinchine (Fr.), the Jasund or Jasus of Bombay, the Java of Hindustan, Shappathupu of Madras, Foulsapattes of the French Creoles, and Java or Japa of Sanskrit writers, are also dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea. In the Concan the fresh root-juice of the white flowered variety is given in doses of two tolas with milk, sugar and cummin for gonorrhoea, and the root powdered is given with an equal quantity of Lotus-root and the bark of Eriodendron anfractuosum in the same manner for menorrhagia, the dose of the three being 6 massas. This shrub is the Flos festalis of Rumphius. (vi., II.), who relates the confession of a native of Banda in 1655 that he had caused the abortion of his concubine by giving her the flowers rubbed down with Papaya seeds. He says they are popularly considered to boeemmenagogue in Amboyna. In India the Papaya is considered an abortifacient, but not the flowers of H. Rosa sinensis ; the notion is evidently a fanciful one, and connected with their red colour."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 204.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/hibiscus_rosasinensis.htm


2.5.104. Blüte von Sesamum indicum L. 1753 - Sesam - Sesame

Sesamaceae (Sesamgewächse)

Einjähriges, bis 180 cm hohes Kraut


56. c./d. oṇḍrapuṣpaṃ japā vajrapuṣpaṃ puṣpaṃ tilasya yat

ओण्ड्रपुष्पं जपा वज्रपुष्पं पुष्पं तिलस्य यत् ॥५६ ख॥

Die Blüte von तिल - tila m.: Sesamum indicum L. 1753 - Sesam - heißt वज्रपुष्प - vajrapuṣpa n.: Donnerkeilblüte, Keulenblüte


Colebrooke (1807): "The blossom of sesamum."



Abb.:
वज्रपुष्पम् । Blüte von Sesamum indicum L. 1753 - Sesam - Sesame
[Bildquelle: Aha / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: तिलः । Sesamum indicum L. 1753 - Sesam - Sesame
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus IX. Fig. 54, 1689]


Abb.: तिलः । Sesamum indicum L. 1753 - Sesam - Sesame
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus IX. Fig. 55, 1689]


Abb.: तिलः । Sesamum indicum L. 1753 - Sesam - Sesame
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: तिलः । Sesamum indicum L. 1753 - Sesam - Sesame
[Bildquelle: Köhler, 1883-1914]

"Sesamum orientale. Willd.

[...]

Sans. Tila.

[...]

Gingeli, is the name by which it is generally known amongst Europeans on the Coromandel coast.

This species or variety, is by far the most generally cultivated in the warmer parts of Asia. It is annual, and in a good soil grows generally to be about three or four feet high, I never found it in a wild state.

My figure of this plant, called S. indicum by Linnaeus, is the Krishna til of the Hindoos, I can at most make only a variety of this species; It is larger, more ramous, the stem and branches tinged with a rusty, reddish colour ; the leaves a darker green ; but in situation and structure the same. The flowers are deeper tinged with red, and the seed darker coloured.

Both are described by Rumphius, p. 204. &c. of the 5th volume of his Herbarium Amboinense. Fig. 1. t. 76. of the same volume is a tolerable diminished figure of this variety. Their greatest difference, however, appears in the seed, and harvest time.

The former, S. orientale, is sown in Bengal in February, and the crop got in three months afterwards, so that the dews, and the little remaining moisture of the earth, are the only sources of humidity by which it can benefit, as this is in general a period of drought. S. indicum is sown on high places, about the beginning of the rains, June; and the crop cut down in September."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 100f.]

"Sesamum Indicum (Linn.) N. O. Pedaliaceae.

Gingely-oil plant [...]

Description.—Annual, 2-3 feet; [...]

Fl. July.

Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 100.

S. orientale, Linn.

Rheede, ix. t. 54, 55.

Cultivated.

Medical Uses.—This is extensively cultivated in India for the sake of the oil of its seeds, known as Til or Gingely-oil. This is reckoned quite equal to olive-oil for medicinal purposes, especially in the treatment of wounds and ulcers. A piece of common country cloth dipped in pure sesamum-oil is superior to any other simple dressing for ulcers, especially during the hot season of the year. The seeds have powerful emmenagogue properties assigned them. The leaves abound with thick viscid mucilage, and an infusion of them is used in parts of North America, in all affections requiring demulcents. One or two full-sized fresh leaves, infused in half a pint of cold water, will soon render it sufficiently viscid for the purpose. If the dried leaves be used, hot water should be substituted for the cold. The leaves also serve for the preparation of emollient poultices.— U. S. disp. p. 714. Pharm. of India.

Economic Uses.—The oil known as the Gingely-oil is expressed from the seeds, and is one of the most valuable of Indian vegetable oils. It will keep for many years without becoming rancid either in smell or taste; after a time it becomes so mild as to be used as a substitute for sweet-oil in salads. In Japan, where they have no butter, they use the oil for frying fish and other things; also as a varnish, and medicinally as a resolvent and emollient. The plant is cultivated to a great extent in every part of the Peninsula. The following mode of preparation is given in the Jury Reports of the Madras Exhibition : "The method sometimes adopted is that of throwing the fresh seeds, without any cleansing process, into the common mill, and expressing in the usual way. The oil thus becomes mixed with a large portion of the colouring matter of the epidermis of the seed, and is neither so pleasant to the eye nor so agreeable to the taste as that obtained by first repeatedly washing the seeds in cold water, or by boiling them for a short time, until the whole of the reddish-brown colouring matter is removed, and the seeds have become perfectly white. They are then dried in the sun, and the oil expressed as usual. This process yields 40 to 44 per cent of a very pale, straw-coloured, sweet-smelling oil, and excellent substitute for olive-oil."

There are two varieties of seeds known in commerce, one white and the other black : the plant bearing white seeds is not so common as the other one. The Kala-til, or black seed, must not be confounded with that of the Guizotia oleifera, to which the same name is applied. It is said that the fragrance of the oil is much weaker when the plant has been sown in too moist a soil. The plant has a very general distribution, and the oil is procured and used in Egypt, China, Cashmere, and the West Indies. In the Rajahmundry district, the seed is sown in the month of March, after the rice crop, and is irrigated twice, once at sowing and once afterwards. The seed which is black is called first-sort gingely, from the fact of its yielding the largest percentage of oil, ripens in May, and sells at the rate of 60 rupees per candy of 500 lb. The oil obtained from both varieties sells at the same price—viz., 2-14-0 to 3 rupees per maund of 25 lb., according to quality.

Second-sort gingely is sown in June, and produces a red seed. The plant, although a little larger, resembles in most respects the former: it has, however, a somewhat longer leaf, and the flower differs a shade or two in colour. A candy of 500 lb. of this seed sells at 57-8-0 rupees. The price of the oil is the same as that of gingely. " The fix or expressed oil, besides being eaten by the natives, is used medicinally. It possesses such qualities as fairly entitle it to introduction into Europe; and if divested of its mucilage, it might perhaps compete with oil of olives, at least for medicinal purposes, and could be raised in any quantity in the British Indian Presidencies. It is sufficiently free from smell to admit of being made the medium for extracting the perfume of the jasmine, the tuberose narcissus, camomile, and of the yellow rose. The process is managed by adding one weight of flowers to three weights of oil in a bottle, which being corked is exposed to the rays of the sun for forty days, when the oil is supposed to be sufficiently impregnated for use. This oil, under the name of gingely-oil, is used in India to adulterate oil of almonds."

The seeds are toasted and ground into meal, and so eaten by the Hindoos. It is externally used in rheumatism, also in the process of dyeing silk a pale-orange colour.

Sesamum-seeds contain about 45 per cent of oil; the Ramtil seeds only 34 per cent. The price of the oil varies in different districts, but the average price is from 3 to 4 rupees a maund. In England its value is about X47,10s. a ton.—Jury Rep. Mad. Exhib. Simmonds. Roxb. Ainslie."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"SESAMUM INDICUM, DC.

Hab.—Throughout the warmer parts of India, cultivated.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—In Hindu mythology Sesamum seed is symbolic of immortality. According to the Brahmapurana, Tila was created by Yama, the "king of death," after prolonged penance. The Grihyasutra of Asvalayana directs that in funeral ceremonies in honour of the dead, Sesamum seeds be placed in the three sacrificial vessels containing Kusa grass and holy water, with the following prayer : "O Tila, sacred to Soma, created by the gods during the Gosava (the cow-sacrifice, not now permitted), used by the ancients in sacrifice, gladden the dead, these worlds and us!" Sesamum seeds with rice and honey are used in preparing the funereal cakes called Pindas, which are offered to the Manes in the Sraddh ceremony by the Sapindas "or relations" of the deceased.

On certain festivals six acts are performed with Sesamum seeds, as an expiatory ceremony of great efficacy, by which the Hindus hope to obtain delivery from sin, poverty, and other evils, and secure a place in Indra's heaven. These acts are, tilodvarti, " bathing in water containing the seeds" ; tilasnayi, " anointing the body with the pounded seeds tilahomi, "making a burnt offering of the seeds" ; tilaprada, "offering the seeds to the dead"; tilabhuj, "eating the seeds"; and tilavapi, "throwing out the seeds." Water and Sesamum seeds are offered to the Manes of the deceased. In the first act of Sakuntala this practice (called Til-anjli) is alluded to by the anchorite's daughter in love with King Dushyanta, when she tells her companions that if they do not give their assistance, they will soon have to offer her water and Sesamum seeds. (De Gubernatis.) In proverbial language a grain of Sesamum signifies the least quantity of anything—Til chor so bajjar chor, "who steals a grain will steal a sack" ; Til til ka hisab, "to exact the uttermost farthing."

A worthless person is compared to wild Sesamum (Jartila, Sans.) which yields no oil—In tilon men tel nahin, "there is no good in him." Dutt remarks:—" The word Taila, the Sanskrit for oil, is derived from Tila; it would therefore seem that Sesamum oil was one of the first, if not the first oil manufactured from oil-seeds by the ancient Hindus.

The Bhavaprakasa describes three varieties of Til seeds, namely, black, white, and red. Of these the black is regarded as the best suited for medicinal use; it yields also the largest quantity of oil. White Til is of intermediate quality. Til of red or other colours is said to be inferior and unfit for medicinal use. Sesamum seeds are used as an article of diet, being made into confectionery with sugar or ground into meal. Sesamum oil forms the basis of most of the fragrant or scented oils used by the natives for inunction before bathing, and of the medicated oils prepared with various vegetable drugs. It is preferred for these purposes from the circumstance of its being little liable to turn rancid or thick, and from its possessing no strong taste or odour of its own. Sesamum seeds are considered emollient, nourishing, tonic, diuretic, and lactagogue. They are said to be especially serviceable in piles, by regulating the bowels and removing constipation. A poultice made of the seeds is applied to ulcers. Both the seeds and the oil are used as demulcents in dysentery and urinary diseases in combination with other medicines of their class." (Mat. Med. of the Hindus, p. 216.)

Mahometan writers describe the seed under the Arabic name of Simsim. In Africa it is called Juljulan, and in Persia Kunjad. The Mahometan bakers always sprinkle the seeds upon their bread, the sweetmeat-makers mix them with their sweets. The following Delhi street-cry indicates the properties attributed to them by the latter class of people: —

"Til, tikhur, tisi, dāna,
Ghi, shakkar men sāna,
Khāe buddha, hoe javāna."

"Sesamum, tikhur, and linseed,
Butter and sugar, poppy seed,
Old men it makes quite young with speed." (Fallon.)

The oil, which is called in Arabic Duhn-el-hal, is used for the same purpose as olive oil is in Europe. Sesamum is considered fattening, emollient, and laxative. In decoction it is said to be emmenagogue; the same preparation sweetened with sugar is prescribed in cough; a compound decoction with linseed is used as an aphrodisiac; a plaster made of the ground seeds is applied to burns, scalds, &c.; a lotion made from the leaves is used as a hair-wash, and is supposed to promote the growth of the hair and make it black; a decoction of the root is said to have the same properties; a powder made from the roasted and decorticated seed is called Rahishi in Arabic and Arwah-i-Kunjad in Persian; it is used as an emollient, both externally and internally.

Sesamum (σησαμον) is frequently mentioned by Greek and Latin authors. Lucian (Pisc. 41) speaks of a σησαμαιοσ πλαχουσ: this was probably similar to the til ka laddu of India.

Sesame oil was an export from Sind to Europe, by way of the Red Sea, in the days of Pliny. In the Middle Ages the plant was known as Suseman or Sempsen, a corruption of the Arabic Simsin or Samsim. It is now called by Europeans, both in India and Europe, Jinjili, Jugeoline, Gigeri, Gengeli, or Gingelly, which appear to be corruptions of the word Juljulān. The oil is one of the most valuable of Indian vegetable oils; it keeps for a long time without becoming rancid, and is produced in large quantities in almost every part of the Peninsula. The following mode of preparation is described in the Jury reports of the Madras Exhibition:—"The method sometimes adopted is that of throwing the fresh seeds, without any cleansing process, into the common mill, and expressing in the usual way. The oil thus becomes mixed with a large portion of the colouring matter of the epidermis of the seed, and is neither so pleasant to the eye nor so agreeable to the taste as that obtained by first repeatedly washing the seeds in cold water, or by boiling them for a short time, until the whole of the reddish-brown colouring matter is removed and the seeds have become perfectly white. They are then dried in the. sun, and the oil expressed as usual. The process yields from 40 to 44 per cent, of a very pale straw-coloured sweet-smelling oil, an excellent substitute for olive oil."

Hydraulic presses are now in use in the more civilized parts of India for extracting the oil, but have as yet by no means superseded the native oil mill.

Sesamum oil may be used for plaster-making, but it takes more oxide of lead than groundnut oil, and does not make so light-coloured or so hard a plaster. After a prolonged trial at the Government Medical Store Department in Bombay, its use was abandoned in favour of the latter oil for the following reasons:—The rolls of Sesame oil plaster soften in hot weather. The plaster has a disagreeable odour. It darkens in colour when kept for any time. For liniments and ointments, except Ung. Hydr. Nitratis, it appears to be a perfectly satisfactory substitute for olive oil. F. H. Alcock (Pharm. Journ. [3], xv., 282) recommends its use in making Lin. Ammonice B. P. Sesame or Benne leaves, preferably in the fresh state, are much used in America as a demulcent in disorders of the bowels; they yield an abundant mucilage.

Description.—Annual, 2 to 3 feet;"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 26ff.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Sesamum indicum L. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/sesamum_indicum.htm


2.5.105. Nerium oleander L. 1753 - Oleander

Apocynaceae (Hundsgiftgewächse)

Immergrüne, verholzende Pflanze


57. pratihāsa-śataprāsa-caṇḍāta-hayamārakāḥ
karavīre
karīre tu krakara-granthilāv ubhau

प्रतिहास-शतप्रास-चण्डात-हयमारकाः ।
करवीरे
करीरे तु क्रकर-ग्रन्थिलाव् उभौ ॥५७॥

Bezeichnungen für den करवीर m.: Handheld - Nerium oleander L. 1753 - Oleander:

  1. प्रतिहास - pratihāsa m.: Entgegen-Lacher
  2. शतप्रास - śataprāsa m.: der hundert Wurfspieße hat
  3. चण्डात - caṇḍāta m.: Caṇḍāta (caṇḍātaka n.: Kurzer Frauenunterrock)

  4. हयमारक - hayamāraka m.: Pferdetöter

Colebrooke (1807): "Oleander. Nerium odorum [Aiton 1789 = Nerium oleander L. 1753]."



Abb.: शतप्रासः ।  Nerium oleander L. 1753 - Oleander
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus IX. Fig. 1, 1689]


Abb.: करवीरः । Nerium oleander L. 1753 - Oleander
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus IX. Fig. 2, 1689]


Abb.:
प्रतिहासः । Nerium oleander L. 1753 - Oleander
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: चण्डातः । Nerium oleander L. 1753 - Oleander, Maharashtra
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/405635437/. -- Zugriff am 2007-10-13. -- NamensnennungKeine kommerzielle NutzungKeine BearbeitungCreative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Nerium odorum. Willd.

[...]

Sans. Karavira, vide Asiat. Researches, 4. 265.

[...]

Common in gardens in every part of India, and in flower the whole year."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 2.]

"Nerium odorum (Ait.) N. O. Apocynaceae.

Sweet-scented Oleander [...]

Description.—Shrub, 6-8 feet;

Fl. June—Aug.

Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 2.—Rheede, ix. t. 1-2.

Near banks of rivers. Common in gardens.

Medical Uses.—There are two or three varieties with deep red, white, rose-coloured, single and double flowers. The bark of the root is used externally as a powerful repellent, and made into a paste is applied in cases of ringworm. The root itself taken internally acts as a poison.—(Ainslie.) The root contains a yellow poisonous resin, tannic acid, wax, and sugar, but no alcaloid or volatile poison. The same poison resides in the bark and flowers. It is very soluble in carbonate of soda, and, though not volatile, is carried off mechanically when the plant is distilled with water. It is used in leprosy, eruptions of the skin, and boils.—Powell's Punj. Plants."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"Nerium Odorum, Soland.

Oleander

Hab.—W. Himalaya, Central India, Sind. Cultivated all over India.

[...]

Hist., Uses, &c.--In Sanskrit medical works two varieties of Karavira are mentioned, namely, Svetapushpa, "white-flowered"; and Raktapushpa, "red-flowered." Other well known Sanskrit names for the Oleander are Asvamāraka "horse killer," and Pratihasa, "laughing." In the Nighantas both kinds are described as hot and poisonous; they are said to be of use as an external application to swellings, leprosy and skin diseases such as itch. The flowers of the red and white Oleander are much used by the Hindus in religion ceremonies. De Gubernatis states that the N. Oleander is called in Italy Ammazza cavallo or Ammazza l'asino, and remarks that this accounts for the dread of its presence shown by the ass of Lucian and Apuleius. (Myth. des Plant. ii., 259.)

For external application the Hindus make a strong decoction of the root and boil it down with oil and cow's urine until the water has been driven off, other drugs are usually added, such as Plumbago root, Embelia seeds, &c.

The root of Oleander beaten into a paste with water is recommended by Saraugadhara to be applied to chancres and ulcers on the penis. According to Chakradatta the fresh juice of the young leaves is dropped into the eyes in ophthalmia with copius lachrymation. In Arabic and Persian works the plant will generally be found described under the name of Difli; other names are Sum-el-Himār and Kharzahrah, which both signify Asses'-bane; it is identified with the Nerium of the Greeks. (Nerium Oleander, hardly different from the Indian plant. Conf. Dios. περι νηριου iv., 80. It was also called by the Greeks and Romans Rhododaphne and Rhodadendros.) The Mahometan physicians describe it as a most powerful resolvent and attenuant, only to be used externally; taken internally it acts as a poison upon men and animals. A decoction of the leaves is recommended to reduce swellings, and oil prepared from the root bark in skin diseases of a scaly nature in leprosy. Mīr Muhammad Husain says that the Oleander is poisonous to insects, and that it cures itch. He also states that the leaves though poisonous to all four-footed animals are a counter-poison against serpents. The latter statement appears to be copied from Pliny. (Hist. Nat. 24, 2.) Ainslie informs us that the bark of the root and leaves are considered by the Vitians as powerful repellants, applied externally. The active principles of N. odorum are powerful heart poisons. 0.0016 grams of Neriodorein injected hypodermically into a large healthy frog caused in 14 minutes diminution of the heart beats from 70 to 12 per minute, followed by a temporary rise to 60; after the lapse of five minutes longer the heart ceased to beat. This cessation of the heart action was closely followed by cessation of the respiration. According to Fraser (Trans. Royal Soc. Ed. xxiv.) oleander like digitalis, &c., produces at first irregularity and acceleration of the hearts action, then a diminished frequency caused by protraction of the ventricular systole, and, finally, stoppage of the contractions by cessation of the dilation of the ventricles, which remain contracted, white and perfectly empty."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 398ff.]


2.5.106. Capparis decidua Edgew. - Kapernstrauch - Caper

Capparaceae (Kaperngewächse)

Strauch oder kleiner Baum


57. c./d. karavīre karīre tu krakara-granthilāv ubhau

करवीरे करीरे तु क्रकर-ग्रन्थिलाव् उभौ ॥५७॥

Bezeichnungen für den करीर m.: Karīra - Capparis decidua Edgew. - Kapernstrauch - Caper:

  1. क्रकर - krakara m.: "Kra"-macher, Sandflughuhn (Pterocles orientalis L. 1758)1
  2. ग्रन्थिल - granthila m.: Knotiger

Colebrooke (1807): "Cartil. Described as a thorny plant, of which Camels are fond."


1 क्रकर - krakara m.: "Kra"-macher, Sandflughuhn (Pterocles orientalis L. 1758)


Abb.:
क्रकर - krakara m.: "Kra"-macher, Sandflughuhn (Pterocles orientalis L. 1758)
[Bildquelle: Svtiste / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]



Abb.: ग्रन्थिलः । Capparis decidua Edgew. - Kapernstrauch - Caper
[Bildquelle:
LRBurdak / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: करीरः । Capparis decidua Edgew. - Kapernstrauch - Caper
[Bildquelle:
LRBurdak / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Capparis aphylla (Roxb.) N. O. Capparidaceae. [=Capparis decidua Edgew.]

Description.—Shrubby; stipules thorny, nearly straight; [...]

Fl. June—Aug.—

W. & A. Prod. i. 27.—Dec. Prod. i. 246.

Waste places in the Deccan. Guzerat. Banks of the Jumna.

Medical Uses.—This plant, though used occasionally as food, is considered by the natives heating and aperient It is reckoned useful in boils, eruptions, and swellings,, and as an antidote to poisons; also in affections of the joints.—Powell's Punj. Prod.

Economic Uses.—It has immense roots. The branches are commonly used for fuel, burning with a strong gaseous flame even when green, and are also used for brick-burning. The wood is very durable, bitter, and not liable to the attacks of white ants. On this latter account it is much used for rafters in the North-West Provinces. Ploughshares are also made of it. It is useful in turning. The bud is eaten as a pot-herb, and the fruit largely consumed by the natives, both green and ripe. In the former state it is generally steeped for fifteen days in salt and water, being put in the sun to ferment till it becomes acid, pepper and oil being then added. The ripe fruit is made into pickle with mustard or oil, to be eaten with bread.—Stewarts Punj. Plants.

The Capparidaceae are chiefly tropical, yet are extensively found, too, in temperate climates. Species of Polanisia and Gynandropsis occur as high as 6000 feet in the Himalaya, but only during the moisture and equable temperature of the rainy months.—Royle."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]


2.5.107. Datura metel  L. 1753 - Flaumiger Stechapfel - Downy Thorn Apple

Solanaceae (Nachtschattengeächse)

Strauchige Pflanze


58. unmattaḥ kitavo dhūrto dhattūraḥ kanakāhvayaḥ
mātulo madanaścāsya phale mātulaputrakaḥ

उन्मत्तः कितवो धूर्तो धत्तूरः कनकाह्वयः ।
मातुलो मदनश् चास्य फले मातुलपुत्रकः ॥५८॥

[Bezeichnungen für Datura metel  L. 1753 - Flaumiger Stechapfel - Downy Thorn Apple:]

  1. उन्मत्त - unmatta m.: Berauschter, Erfreuter, von Sinnen Gekommener 
  2. कितव - kitava m.: Würfelspieler, Betrüger
  3. धूर्त - dhūrta m.: Betrüger, Schurke
  4. धत्तूर - dhattūra m.: Dhattūra = Datura
  5. कनकाह्वय - kanakāhvaya: alle Bezeichnungen für "Gold"
  6. मातुल - mātula m.: Mutterbruder (Onkel mütterlicherseits)  
  7. मदन - madana m.: Berauscher

Seine Frucht heißt मातुलपुत्रक - mātulaputraka m.: Söhnchen des Mutterbruders (Cousin mütterlicherseits)


Colebrooke (1807): "Thorn apple. Datura metel and fastuosa [Datura metel var. fastuosa]." [58. d.:] "The fruit."



Abb.:
धत्तूरः । Datura alba. N. Esen.
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus II. Fig. 28, 1679]

"Datura alba. N. Esen. in Lin. Trans, xvii. p. 73.

Other authors have followed Linnaeus in quoting this figure for D. Metel, with which it has been generally confounded, and Von Esenbeck has shown good cause for considering it to be distinct from the D. metel which grows on the coasts of Africa."

[Quelle: Dillwyn, L. W. (Lewis Weston) <1778-1855>: A review of the references to the Hortus malabaricus of Henry Van Rheede Van Draakenstein [sic]. -- Swansea : Printed at the Cambrian-Office, by Murray and Rees, 1839. -- zu dieser Abb.]


Abb.:
मदनः । Datura metel  L. 1753 - Flaumiger Stechapfel - Downy Thorn Apple
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: उन्मत्तः । Datura metel  L. 1753 - Flaumiger Stechapfel - Downy Thorn Apple, Hongkong - 香港
[Bildquelle:
Kai Yan, Joseph Wong. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/33623636@N08/4221881332/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]


Abb.: मातुलपुत्रकः । Frucht einer Varietät von Datura metel  L. 1753 - Flaumiger Stechapfel - Downy Thorn Apple
[Bildquelle: Meneerke bloem / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Datura Metel. Willd.

Annual.

[...]

Very common every where over India ; produces flowers and seed the whole year."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 561.]

"Datura alba (Nees, Ab. Esenb.) N. O. Solanaceae.

White-flowered Thorn-apple [...]

Description.—Annual, 2-3 feet; [...]

Fl. All the year.—Wight Icon. t. 852.

D. metel, Roxb.—Rheede, ii. t. 28.

Common everywhere.

Medical Uses.—This plant has probably in almost all respects the same properties as the D. fastuosa. It is a strong narcotic, though it is said not to be quite so virulently poisonous as the latter. The juice of the leaves boiled in oil is applied to cutaneous affections of the head. It is also used by Rajpoot mothers to smear their breasts, so as to poison their new-born female children. The seeds are employed in fevers about three at a dose, and are, with the leaves, applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings of the limbs.—Roxb. Brown on Infanticide.

The D. fastuosa, is a variety with purple flowers. It is known for the intoxicating and narcotic properties of its fruit. The root in powder is given by Mohammedan doctors in cases of violent headaches and epilepsy. The inspissated juice of the leaves is used for the same purpose. The Hindoo doctors use the succulent leaves and fruit in preparing poultices, mixed with other ingredients, for repelling cutaneous tumours and for piles. They also assert that the seeds made into pills deaden the pain of the toothache when laid upon the decayed tooth. In Java the plant is considered anthelmintic, and is used externally in herpetic diseases. The Chinese employ the Datura seeds for stupefying and even poisoning those whom they are at enmity with—a practice resorted to also in India. This species is reckoned more poisonous than the white- flowered one. The leaves in oil are rubbed on the body in itch or rheumatic pains of the limbs. The seeds bruised are applied to boils and carbuncles. They are soporific, and very dangerous if incautiously used.—(Rheede. Ainslie.) It contains an alkaloid called Daturine, and is used as a narcotic anodyne and antispasmodic, especially in asthma and bronchitis, also in insanity and ophthalmia. —Powell's Punj. Prod."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

DATURA STRAMONIUM, Linn.

Hab.--Temperate Himalaya, Afghanistan, Persia.

"DATURA PASTUOSA, Linn.

Hab.--Throughout India,

DATURA METEL, Linn.

Hab.—W. Himalaya, W. Deccan Peninsula.

[...]

History, Uses, &C.—The Sanskrit names Dhustura or Dhattura, and Unmatta, " insane," include all the species and varieties of the plants and are the source from which the vernacular names are derived. We know of no aboriginal name for the plant, and consequently infer that it was introduced into India at the time of the Arian invasion. The Marathi name Pisola appears to be derived from the Sanskrit pis, to hurt or injure. Sanskrit writers sometimes specify whether black or white Dhostura is to be used, but do not draw any distinction between the properties of the different plants. In modern native practise the black or purple-flowered variety of D. fastuosa is preferred. In the Nighantas Dhustura bears numerous synonyms, such as Dhūrta, "rogue"; Kitava," crazy"; Mātula, "maternal uncle", Tarala, "libidinous," &c. It is described as intoxicating, digestive, emetic and heating; useful in fever, skin diseases, boils, itch, worms, insanity, &c. Hindu physicians frequently prescribe the drug in fever attended with catarrhal symptoms, but combine it with so many other remedies that it is difficult to judge how much of the effect produced is due to the Datura. The Svalpajvarankusa may be taken as a specimen of this kind of prescription; it contains mercury, sulphur, aconite, ginger and long and black peppers, of each one part, to two parts of Datura seeds. The dose is 4 grains of the mass, which is directed to be mode with the assistance of lemon juice.

As a local application to inflamed and painful parts, the pounded leaves mixed with turmeric in the form of a paste are much used as a domestic remedy. Similar pastes are made with the fruit and juice, with or without opium, and mixed with oil; they are used to destroy lice and in parasitic skin diseases.

A pill made of the pounded seeds is placed in decayed teeth to relieve toothache, and the leaves are smoked along with tobacco in asthma. According to Dutt, no mention of the latter use of the plant is to be found in old Hindu books, Mahometan writers also are silent upon this point. Ainslie found upon enquiry that the physicians of Southern India were unacquainted with the value of Datura in spasmodic asthma, but he tells us that his friend, Dr. Sherwood of Chittore, noticed the smoking of D. fastuosa as a remedy in that disease. In the Concan the juice of the same plant is given with fresh curds in intermittent fever to the extent of one told during the intermission, and at least two hours before the fever is expected. The seeds also often enter into the composition of the bakha, used in the fermentation of country spirits, and Norman Chevers states that bakha is also frequently added to Kaita an intoxicating drink prepared from the fruit of Feronia elephantum, and indulged in by the lower classes during the Holi festival. The several species of Datura are described by Mahometan writers under the Arabic name of Jouz-el-mathil. The Persian name is Tatulah. The author of the Makhzan recommends preference to be given to the purple kind; he says that all parts of the plant are powerfully intoxicating and narcotic; as a local application they relieve the pain of tumours, piles, &c. The roasted leaves applied to the eyes give relief in ophthalmia, similarly they are useful in headache, enlarged testicles, boils, &c. The following description of Datura intoxication is by the same author:—" Every thing he (the patient) looks at appears dark; be fancies that he really sees all the absurd impressions of his brain, his senses are deranged, he talks in a wild, disconnected manner, tries to walk but is unable, cannot sit straight, insects and reptiles float before his eyes, he tries to seine them, and laughs inordinately at his failure. His eyes are bloodshot, he sees with difficulty, and catches at his clothes and the furniture and walls of the room. In short, he has the appearance of a mad man." (Makhzan, article "Jova-el-mathil")

The leaves and seeds of D. fastuosa have been made official in the Pharmacopoeia of India, and of these a tincture, extract, plaster and poultice are directed to be made. The extract has been used successfully at the General Hospital, Madras, as a substitute for extract of belladonna. The value of the plant as a remedy for painful syphilitic nodes, tumours, &c., is well known to many European physicians in India.

For a description of the physiological effects of Datura, the reader is referred to the article upon Belladonna."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 384ff.]


2.5.108. Citrus medica L. 1753 - Zitronat-Zitrone - Citron

Rutaceae (Rautengewächse)

Strauch oder kleiner Baum


59. a./b. phalapūro bījapūro rucako mātuluṅgake

फलपूरो बीजपूरो रुचको मातुलुङ्गके ।५९ क।

Bezeichnungen für den मातुलुङ्गक - mātuluṅgaka m.: Citrus medica L. 1753 - Zitronat-Zitrone - Citron:

  1. फलपूर - phalapūra m.: voll von Früchten
  2. बीजपूर - bījapūra m.: von voll Kernen (Samen)
  3. रुचक - rucaka m.: Gefallender, Heller, Zahn (vermutlich: Zahnaufheller)

Colebrooke (1807): "Citron. Citrus medica. Two sorts are here named : but some make the terms synonymous."



Abb.: मातुलुङ्गकः । Citrus medica L. 1753 - Zitronat-Zitrone - Citron
[Bildquelle: Curtis's Botanical Magazine, v. 110 (1884), Tab. 6745]


Abb.: मातुलुङ्गकः । Citrus medica L. 1753 - Zitronat-Zitrone - Citron
[Bildquelle: Medicinal plants. Being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants employed in medicine and an account of the characters, properties, and uses of their parts and products of medicinal value. / by Robert Bentley and Henry Trimen. Plates by David Blair. In four volumes., 1880. -- vol. 2, pl. 54]


Abb.:
मातुलुङ्गकः । Citrus medica L. 1753 - Zitronat-Zitrone - Citron
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/91314344@N00/2463046159. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)] 


Abb.:
रुचकः । Citrus medica L. 1753 - Zitronat-Zitrone - Citron
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2463922814/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.: फलपूरः । Citrus medica L. 1753 / Citrus x aurantifolia - Zitronat-Zitrone / Saure Limette - Citron / Key lime
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2077406273/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

"Citrus medica. Willd.

[...]

Lemon tree.

On the continent of India, it is found in gardens, where it blossoms most plentifully during the hot season, and the fruit ripens about the close of the rains.

The citron (Sans. Beeja-poora, Arab. Utrej, Pers. Turcre, Hind. Bejoura) is likewise found common in gardens, where it blossoms, and bears fruit abundantly the whole year. There are now, besides the large rough-skinned common citrons, three varieties or species in the Botanic garden reared above twelve months ago, from seed from the Garrow hills where they are found indigenous in the forests."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 392.]

"Citrus medica (Linn.)

Citron [...]

Description.—Shrub; young branches rigid; [...]

Fl. April—June.

W. & A. Prod. i. 98.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 392.

Foot of the Himalaya. Cultivated in the Peninsula.

Economic Uses.—The Citron is supposed to be the same as the Median apple which was introduced into Greece and Italy from Persia and the warmer regions of Asia at an early period. It was cultivated in Judea, and the fruit may be seen as a device on Samaritan coins. To the present day the Jews make a conserve of the fruit, which is invariably used by them in the Feast of Tabernacles. The ancients attached medical virtues to the fruit, for Theophrastus in his history of plants says that it was an expellent of poisons. " The Median territory, and likewise Persia, have many other productions, and also the Persian or Median apple. Now, that tree has a leaf very like and almost exactly the same as that of the bay-tree, the arbutus, or the nut: and it has thorns like the prickly pear or black-thorn, smooth, but very sharp and strong; and the fruit is not good to eat, but is very fragrant, and so too are the leaves of the tree. And if any one puts one of the fruit among his clothes, it keeps them from the moth. And it is useful when any one has taken poison injurious to life; for when given in wine it produces a strong effect on the bowels, and draws out the poison. It is serviceable also in the way of making the» breath sweet: for if any one boils the inner part of the fruit in broth or in anything else, it makes his breath smell sweet" Virgil, who has imitated this passage in his second Georgic, mentions also that the fruit was used in asthma:—

" Media fert tristes succos, tardumque saporem
Felicis mali : quo non presentius ullum,
Pocula si quando saevae infecere novercae,
Miscueruntque herbas et non innoxia verba,
Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena,
Ipsa ingens arbos, faciemque simillima lauro;
Et, si non alium late jactaret odorem,
Laurus erat: folia haud ullis labentia ventis:
Flos ad prima tenax ; animas et olentia Medi
Ora fovent illo, et senibus medicantur anhelis."

—Georg., ii. 126-185.

There are three principal varieties now cultivated in Europe. The fruit itself is seldom eaten, but is generally preserved and made into confections. The outer rind yields a volatile oil. In China there is a large variety known as the fingered Citron, so called from its lobes separating into fingers of different shapes and sizes. The rind is very fragrant, from the quantity of aromatic oil which exists in it. On this account the Chinese place it on dishes in their apartments to perfume the air.—G. Don."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]


2.5.109. Origanum majorana L. 1753 - Majoran - Sweet Majoram

Lamiaceae (Lippenblütler)

Bis 80 cm hohes Kraut oder Halbstrauch


59. c./d. samīraṇo maruvakaḥ prasthapuṣpaḥ phaṇijjakaḥ
60. a./b. jambīro 'py
atha parṇāse kaṭhiñjara-kuṭherakau

समीरणो मरुवकः प्रस्थपुष्पः फणिज्जकः ॥५९ ख॥
जम्बीरो
प्य् अथ पर्णासे कठिञ्जर-कुठेरकौ ।६० क।

[Bezeichnungen für Origanum majorana L. 1753 - Majoran - Sweet Majoram:]

  1. समीरण - samīraṇa m.: Bewegender, Anregender, Wind
  2. मरुवक - marubaka m.: Maruvaka (zu maru m. Wüste, Fels ?) 
  3. प्रस्थपुष्प - prasthapuṣpa m.: Blüte der (Hochebene)
  4. फणिज्जक - phanijjaka m.: Phaṇijjaka (zu phaṇin m.: Haubenschlange, Kobra, Schlange)
  5. जम्बीर - jambīra m.: Jambīra

Colebrooke (1807): "Marua. Marjoram? The Sanscrit names are also assigned to a species of basil (Ocimum) with small leaves ; and to another sort of citron."



Abb.:
फणिज्जकः । Biene auf Origanum majorana  L. 1753 - Majoran - Sweet Majoram
[Bildquelle: Maksim / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

ORIGANUM MAJORANA, Linn.

Sweet Marjoram

Hab.—Portugal to Western Asia. Cultivated in India.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—The name οριγανον, in modern Greek ριγανι, was applied in ancient times to plants of this genus, but O. marjorana was distinguished by the names σαμψυχον and αμαρακος. A Greek myth informs us that Amaracus was a page to the king of Cyprus, who one day on letting fall a vessel of perfume became so frightened that he was turned into this plant. The Greeks and Romans decorated the newly married with it. [...]

It is the Marjolaine of the French. De Gubernatis states that in Southern Europe it is the symbol of honour and the protector of married women. It is the Maruva and Jambhira of the Raja Nirghanta and the Marwa or Marzangush of the Persians. Ibn Sina calls it Marzanjush. The Persian word signifies "mouse-ear," a name given to it on account of the greyish downy character of the leaves, which is more marked in the Persian variety than in the European plant. Marjoram is cultivated as a pot-plant in most Indian gardens, and is used as a substitute for thyme in cookery. At Bandora, near Bombay, it is grown as a garden crop to supply bouquets for the Bombay market, which are much worn by women in their hair. The medicinal uses of Marjoram in the East are similar to those of mint."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 108f.]


2.5.110. Ocimum basilicum L. 1753 - Basilikum - Common Sweet Basil

Lamiaceae (Lippenblütler)

Bis 60 cm hohe Krautige Pflanze


60. jambīro 'py atha parṇāse kaṭhiñjara-kuṭherakau
site 'rjako 'tra
pāṭhī tu citrako vahnisaṃjñakaḥ

जम्बीरो प्य् अथ पर्णासे कठिञ्जर-कुठेरकौ ।
सिते
र्जको ऽत्र पाठी तु चित्रको वह्निसंज्ञकः ॥६०॥

Bezeichnungen für den पर्णास - parṇāsa m.: Parṇāsa - Ocimum basilicum L. 1753 - Basilikum - Common Sweet Basil:

  1. कठिञ्जर - kaṭhiñjara m.: Kaṭhiñjara
  2. कुठेरक - kuṭheraka m.: Feuerchen

Die weiße Varietät heißt अर्जक - arjaka m.: Strahlender, Verehrer


Colebrooke (1807): [60. a./b.:] "Parnas. Considered by some to be the sacred Basil (Ocimum sanctum [L. = Ocimum tenuiflorum L. 1753 - Kleines Basilikum]) [60. c.:] "The white sort. Ocimum gratissimum [L. 1753 - Baum Basilikum - African Basil]."


Ocimum basilicum L. 1753 - Basilikum - Common Sweet Basil



Abb.: पर्णासः । Ocimum basilicum L. 1753 - Basilikum - Common Sweet Basil
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: कठिञ्जरः । Ocimum basilicum L. 1753 - Basilikum - Common Sweet Basil
[Bildquelle: Goldlocki / Wikipedia. -- GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: अर्जकः । Ocimum basilicum L. 1753 - Basilikum - Common Sweet Basil
[Bildquelle: Sten / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Ocimum pilosum. Roxb.

Shrubby; [...]

A native of India.

[...]

The seeds steeped in water swell into a pleasant jelly, which is used medicinally by the natives."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 16f.]

"Ocimum Basilicum (Linn.) N. O. Lamiaceae.

Sweet Basil, [...]

Description.—Herbaceous, erect, glabrous; [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

Wight Icon. t. 868.

O. pilosum, Benth. and Willd.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii 16.

Peninsula. Bengal Oude. Travancore.

The varieties are :—

  1. O. anisatum, Benth.  More erect and less pilose; leaves larger, thicker, and slightly toothed; corollas usually villous.—O. basilicum, Linn.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 17.—Rheede, x. t. 87.
  2. O. glabratum, Benth. Erect; petioles and calyxes sparingly ciliated; leaves scarcely toothed; racemes elongated, simple.—O. in- tegerrimum, Willd.—O. caryophyllatiim, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii 16.—Goolaltulsee, Beng. --Patna.

  3. O. thyrsiflorum, Benth. Erect, glabrous; petioles and calyxes hardly ciliated ; raceme thyreoid; branched flowers pale-pink.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 15.— Wight Icon. t. 868.

Medical Uses.—The whole plant is aromatic and fragrant The seeds are cooling and mucilaginous, and are said to be very nourishing and demulcent. An infusion is given as a remedy in gonorrhoea, catarrh, dysentery, and chronic diarrhoea. The juice of the leaves is squeezed in the ear in ear-ache. Dr Fleming states that the seeds are a favourite medicine with Hindoo women for relieving the after- pains of parturition. In Europe the leaves and small branches or leafy tops are gathered for culinary purposes, and used in highly- seasoned dishes. Sometimes they are introduced into salad and soups.—(Don, Ainslie.) The juice of the leaves of O. villosum, mixed with ginger and black pepper, is given during the cold stages of intermittent fever. It is also prescribed to allay vomiting arising from irritation produced by worms.—(Long Indig. Plants of Bengal.) The seeds steeped in water swell and form a pleasant jelly, useful as a diaphoretic and demulcent—Powell's Panj. Prod."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"OCIMUM BASILICUM, Linn.

Sweet Basil.

[...]

Hab. —Persia, Punjab. Cultivated throughout India.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—The Hindus dislike the smell of this plant; the Mahometans on the other hand are very partial to it. The Arabs call it Rihān or " the herb," and the Persians Shahasperham or " king of herbs," and Nazbu, " having a delicate odour "; it is also known in Persia as Habak-i-Kirmani, "Kirman mint," from its abundance in that province. The author of the Makhzan states that it is the Ocimum of Europeans, who call the large-leaved variety Ocimum magnum, and the small-leaved Ocimum parvum. The plant is considered to be hot and dry, deobstruent, carminative, and stimulant, and the seeds taken whole are much valued on account of their mucilaginous properties : when crushed they are said to be astringent, and are prescribed in fluxes from the bowels. The juice of the plant snuffed up causes sneezing and clears the brain. O. basilicum is probably the ωκιμον of Dioscoridcs, but perhaps not of Theophrastus, who describes ωκιμον as a shrub.

The Ocimum of Pliny is probably a kind of clover which also bore this name, as he states that it is given to mares and asses to promote conception.

De Gubernatis (Myth, des Plant, ii., 35) gives an interesting account of the history of Basil in Europe where it is considered to be erotic and funereal. In Southern Italy it is worn in the waist or bosom of young girls and in the hair of married women, and is called Bacia-nicola; the youths stick a sprig of it above the ear when they go courting. In Tuscany the Basil is called Amorino. In Crete it is a sign of mourning, but is universally cultivated in window gardens; Boccacio's story of Isabetta of Messina is too well known to require repetition. De Gubernatis is of opinion that all the superstitions concerning this plant current in Southern Europe are of Byzantine origin. According to the Apomasaris Apotelesmata, to dream of Basil is unlucky.

In Europe Sweet Basil is used as a potherb for certain kinds of food, and is considered to have the same general qualities as thyme, sage, &c. It has long been a popular remedy for mild nervous or hysterical disorders."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 83f.]


Ocimum tenuiflorum L. 1753 - Kleines Basilikum



Abb.: Ocimum tenuiflorum L. 1753 - Kleines Basilikum
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus X. Fig. 85, 1690]


Abb.: Ocimum tenuiflorum L. 1753 - Kleines Basilikum
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Ocimum tenuiflorum L. 1753 - Kleines Basilikum, Salem - சேலம், Tamil Nadu
[Bildquelle: Ramanraj / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Tulsī (तुलसी =
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. 1753) als Göttin
[Bildquelle:
GourangaUK / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: Tulsīpūjā
[Bildquelle: Premkudva / Wikimedia. -- Public domain.]

"Ocimum sanctum. Willd.

Somewhat shrubby. [...]

Purnasa the Sanscrit name. See Asiat. Res. iv. p. 188.

Is always found cultivated in the gardens belonging to the Hindoo temples, in flower all the year round.

[...]

This is a very grateful smelling plant, the Brahmins hold sacred to their gods Krishnu and Vishnu."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 14.]

"Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) Do.

Holy basil [...]

Description.—Stems and petioles pilose;

Fl. Nearly all the year.

Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 14.

O. hirsutum, Benth.—Rheede, x. t. 85.

Cultivated in gardens and near pagodahs.

Medical Uses.—The whole plant is of a dark purple, colour, and has a grateful smell. The root is given in decoction in fevers, and the juice of the leaves in catarrhal affections in children. Also an excellent remedy, mixed with lime-juice, in cutaneous affections and ringworm. The leaves, dried and pulverised, are used by natives in Bengal as snuff in the endemic affection of the nasal cavities called Peenash ; it is said to be an effectual means of dislodging the maggots.—Pharm. of India."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"OCIMUM SANCTUM, Linn.

Holy Basil

Hab.—Throughout India.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—The Tulasi plant is venerated in India by the Hindus like the Vervein was amongst the Romans. Its worship is expounded in the Tulasikavaçam, a little book composed of two parts: the first being the Tulasikavaçam proper or "Tulasi amulet,'' from the Tulasimahatmya of the Brahmanda Parana, and the second, a hymn in honour of the plant by a certain Pundarika. The Tulasi is invoked for the protection of all parts of the body in life and death, and especially in its quality of putradah putrakankshinam, or " giver of children." The plant is the beloved of the gods and of pious persons, to whom it affords its amrita (ambrosia); it is especially dear to Vishnu and Lakshmi, whence its synonyms Haripriya, Vishnupriya and Lakshmipriya. The divine Narada has sung the praises of this immortal plant, which contains in itself every perfection, cures every ill, and purifies and guides to the heavenly paradise those who worship it. The mystery of the Tulasi is the mystery of the Creator.

The worship of the plant is strongly recommended to Vishnuites in the latter part of the Padmapurana, and it is also worshipped by the followers of Siva. Krishna, the popular incarnation of Vishnu, has adopted this herb for his cult, whence the name Krishna-tulasi. Sita, according to the Ramayana, was turned into a Basil plant, which on this account bears the synonym Sitahvaya. The connection between the Tulasi and the Amrita is indicated by the suspension over the plant of a dropping pot of water in the month Vaisakh. Worshippers of Vishnu wear a necklace of Tulasi beads, and the Vishnu dutas or "messengers of Vishnu," carry tulasimani rosaries. When a Hindu dies, his head is washed with water in which are placed Tulasi leaves and Sesamum seeds, and a sprig of the plant is placed upon his breast as a viaticum. According to the Kriyayogasaras, the devout worshipper of the Tulasi is privileged to ascend to Vishnu's paradise accompanied by 10 millions of his kindred. The wretch who destroys the plant is abhorred of Vishnu, and can never hope for any prosperity; it may only be plucked for religious or medicinal use and when offering the following prayer:—"Mother Tulasi, who brings joy to the heart of Govindas, I gather thee for the worship of Narayana; without thee, O blessed one, every work is vain ; that is why I pluck thee ; O goddess, be propitious to me. As I gather thee with care, be merciful to me, O Tulasi, mother of the world, I beseech thee."

In worshipping the plant, it is addressed as the goddess Sri or Lakshmi—

Sakhi, Subhe, Pāpahārini, Punyade, Namas te,
Nāradanute, Nārāyanamahāhpriye !

O beloved, O beautiful, O destroyer of the wicked, O purifier;
Honour to thee, O distinguished of Nārada, O dear to the heart of Vishnu!

The goddess is besought to protect the head (siras), the forehead (phālam), the sight (dṛśas), the nose (grānam) in her quality of sugandha or perfumed, the face (mukham) in her quality of sumukhi or fair of face, the tongue, the neck, the shoulders, the body (madhyam) in its quality of punyada, &c., down to the feet. (De Gubernatis.)

The Tulasi plant may be often seen occupying a prominent position in front of Hindu houses ; when thus kept it has to be watered and worshipped daily. It is often grown on the top of the Brundavanas - (Vrindavana is a raised platform of earth or masonry on which the worshippers of Krishna plant and preserve the Tulasi.) - or square brick structures erected in the outer courts of temples, and in Calcutta, even in European compounds, there is hardly a hut occupied by a Darwān or Ooriya bearer without a pot of Tulsi close to the door. Frequently in the evenings a light is kept burning near the plant. Sanskrit writers make two varieties of this plant (founded upon some difference in the colour of their leaves), namely, white and black; the plant, irrespective of colour, is called in Sanskrit Tulasi and Parnasa. According to the Raja Nirghanta, it removes cold, destroys intestinal worms and evil spirits, and alleviates vomiting.

The leaves are said to be expectorant, and are prescribed in catarrhal affections. The dried leaves powdered are used as a snuff in a disease called peenash (ozoena). Ainslie mentions the use of the root in decoction in febrile affections. In the Concan a decoction of the leaves with the flowers of Careya arborea and black pepper is given in remittent fever. Tulasi is also an ingredient in prescriptions for rheumatism. (See Vitex trifolia.) The seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent.

Description.—Stem short, woody, perennial;"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 86ff.]


Ocimum gratissimum L. 1753 - Baum Basilikum - African Basil / Wild Basil



Abb.:
Ocimum gratissimum L. 1753 - Baum Basilikum - African Basil / Wild Basil
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus X. Fig. 86, 1690]


Abb.:
Ocimum gratissimum L. 1753 - Baum Basilikum - African Basil / Wild Basil
[Bildquelle: Icones plantarum rariorum / editae Nicolao Josepho Jacquin. -- Vol. 3. -- 1786 - 1793. -- Tab. 495]


Abb.:
Ocimum gratissimum L. 1753 - Baum Basilikum - African Basil / Wild Basil
[Bildquelle: Forest & Kim Starr. -- http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=090623-1610&o=plants. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-27. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

"Ocimum gratissimum. Willd.

Shrubby ;

[...]

Hind. Ram-tulasi.

The whole plant, I think diffuses a stronger degree of fragrance, than any other of the genus. It is only found in gardens, and about the temples of the natives."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 17.]

"OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, Linn.

[...]

Hab.—Bengal, Chittagong, E. Nepal, Deccan Peninsula.

[...]

History, Uses, &c—This plant is the Varvara, Barbara, and Ajvalla of the Nighantas. The leaves have a remarkably grateful lemon odour and taste, and are made into a chutney by the Hindus, and are also used as a cooling remedy in gonorrhoea. Baths and fumigations prepared with this plant are used in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. A decoction of the mucilaginous seeds is used as a demulcent. This plant has been wrongly identified with the Palangmishk or Faranjmishk of Persia. The seeds imported into Bombay from Persia under these names bear no resemblance to those of O. gratissimum.

Description.—Stem erect, woody, perennial;"

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 85f.]


2.5.111. Plumbago zeylanica L. 1753 - Bleiwurz - Leadwort

Plumbaginaceae (Bleiwurzgewächse)

Bis 120 cm hoher Busch


60. c./d. site 'rjako 'tra pāṭhī tu citrako vahnisaṃjñakaḥ

सिते र्जको ऽत्र पाठी तु चित्रको वह्निसंज्ञकः ॥६० ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Plumbago zeylanica L. 1753 - Bleiwurz - Leadwort:]

  1. पाठिन् - pāṭhin m.: Gelehrter
  2. चित्रक - citraka m.: Mannigfacher
  3. वह्निसंज्ञक - vahnisaṃjñaka : alle Bezeichnungen für Feuer

Colebrooke (1807): "Lead wort. Plumbago zeylanica." [61. d.:] "The white sort."


Plumbago zeylanica L. 1753 - Bleiwurz - Leadwort



Abb.:
पाठी । Plumbago zeylanica L. 1753 - Bleiwurz - Leadwort
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus X. Fig. 8, 1690]


Abb.: वह्निः । Plumbago zeylanica L. 1753 - Bleiwurz - Leadwort, Ananthagiri Hills, Rangareddy District - రంగా రెడ్డి జిల్లా, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]

"Plumbago zeylanica. Willd.

Shrubby. [...]

Sans. Pathin, Chitruka; also Vuhni, and all the other names of fire.

A perennial shrubby plant, a native of India."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 463.]

"Plumbago Zeylanica (Linn.)

[...]

Description.—Perennial, shrubby; [...]

Fl. Nearly all the year.

Roxb. Fl. Ind, i. 463.—Rheede, x. t. 8.

Courtallum. Travancore. Concans. Bengal.

Medical Uses.—The fresh bark bruised is made into a paste, mixed with rice-conjee and applied to buboes. It acts as a vesicatory. Wight says the natives believe that the root, reduced to powder and administered during pregnancy, will cause abortion. —(Ainslie. Wight) It appears to possess the properties of the preceding species, but is milder in its operation. A tincture of the root-bark has been employed as an antiperiodic. Dr Oswald states that he has employed it in the treatment of intermittents with good effect. It acts as a powerful sudorific. The activity of both species resides in a peculiar crystalline principle known as Plumbagin.—(Pharm. of India,) The root used in combination with Bishtali is applied in cases of enlarged spleen, and as a tonic in dyspepsia. In the Sandwich Islands it is employed to stain the skin permanently black.— Ag. Hort. Journ. of India."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA, Linn.

PLUMBAGO ROSEA, Linn.

Hab.—Sikkim, Khasia wild ? Cultivated in India

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—These plants, in Sanskrit Chitraka, are described as digestive, light, astringent, hot and appetizing; a remedy for dyspepsia, piles, leprosy, anasarca, worms, cough, phlegm, wind and biliousness. In the Nighantas, among other synonyms, they bear the names Dāruna, Dahana, and Agni, in allusion to their burning and acrid properties. P. zeylanica is much used as a stimulant adjunct to other preparations, in the form of a combination called Trimada, consisting of Plumbago root, Bāberang (fruit of Embelia Ribes), and Nāgarmoth (tubers of Cyperus pertenuis). It enters into the composition of numerous medicines for dyspepsia. The following is an illustration: Take of Plumbago root, Rock salt, Chebulic myrobalans and long pepper, equal parts; powder and mix. Dose about 40 grains. (Chakradatta.) A favourite medicine for flatulence is an old prescription of Susruta's called Shaddharanayoga. It is a powder composed of equal parts of the following substances: Plumbago root, seeds of Holarrhena antidysenterica, roots of Cissampelos Pereira, of Picrorrhiza kurroa and Aconitum heterophyllum, Chebulic myrobalans. Dose about 1 drachm. The root of P. zeylanica is said to exercise a beneficial effect on piles, in which disease it is given in various combinations. One mode of administering it is as follows:—An earthen jar or pot is lined in its interior with a paste of the root, and curdled milk (dadhi) or Kanjika (rice vinegar) is prepared in this pot. Plumbago root reduced to a paste is applied to abscesses with the object of opening them. It enters also into the composition of several preparations used as caustics. Religious mendicants attending fairs use the root for the purpose of raising sores upon their bodies in order to obtain pity and alms. In the Concan the following formula is used :—Chitrak root, Emblic myrobalans, small black myrobalans (Bāl-hartaki), Long pepper, Pepper root, Rhubarb and Rock salt. Powder and give 6 mashas (90 grains) with hot water every night at bed-time in flatulence with rheumatic pains.

In paralysis, the bark, with Crataeva bark, Indian elm bark (Vāvalā), Wild Moringa bark, and the bark of Vitex trifolia, is boiled in one part of white, and two of black mustard oil and applied. Mahometan writers treat of the drug under the name of Shītaraj, a corruption of the Indian name Chitrak ; they describe it as caustic and vesicant, an expellant of phlegmatic humours; useful in rheumatism and spleen, digestive; it also causes abortion. For external administration it is made into a paste with milk, vinegar or salt and water. Such a paste may be applied externally in leprosy and other skin diseases of an obstinate character, and be allowed to remain until a blister has formed. In rheumatism it should be removed after 15 to 20 minutes. When administered internally the dose is one dirhem. Mir Muhammad Husain speaks of several kinds of Shītaraj, and says one of them is the Lībādiyūn or Līfādiyūn of the Greeks. Rhazes describes two kinds, Indian and Syrian. (Plumbago europaea is considered to be the τριπολιον of Dioscorides by Sprengel. λιβαδιον or fel terrae is the name of a plant mentioned by Pliny (25, 31), which has not, we believe, been identified by European writers with Plumbago.)

The Shītaraj of Mahometan writers must, therefore, be considered to refer to the genus Plumbago, and not to any particular species. P. zeylanica is mentioned by several European writers upon Indian drugs, but has not attracted the same amount of attention as P. rosea, which is said to be more active. However, this may be, the former is the Chitrak of the native physicians, and very possibly may have been used by some under the supposition that it was the root of P. rosea. In the Pharmacopoeia of India, Dr. Oswald is said to have employed P. zeylanica in the treatment of intermittent with good effect. It acts as a powerful sudorific. In many parts of India the root is one of the most important drugs of the itinerant herbalist; it is also sold by all druggists. Ainslie, speaking of P. rosea, remarks.—"The bruised root of this plant is, in its natural state, acrid and stimulating, but when tempered with a little bland oil, it is used as an external application in rheumatic and paralytic affections; it is also prescribed internally in small doses for the same complaints, in combination with some other simple powder." (Mat. Ind., II., p. 37U.)

O'Shaughnessy, who instituted a series of trials with the root as a vesicant, has expressed a very favourable opinion of it as a cheap substitute for cantharides. Dr. Waring thinks less favourably of it; he found that it caused more pain than an ordinary blister, and that the resulting vesication was less uniform, and not always easily healed. From what we have seen of its use, we are inclined to support Dr. Waring's opinion. Given internally in large doses, Plumbago root acts as a narcotico-irritant poison. In small doses it acts first as a powerful stimulant of the mucous membrane of the digestive organs, and after absorption, as a stimulant of the excretory glandular organs. Its action is well worthy of accurate scientific investigation.

Description.—The roots of P. zeylanica are from 1i to 2 or more inches in diameter, seldom branched."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 328ff.]


Plumbago rosea L.



Abb.: Plumbago rosea L.
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus X. Fig. 9, 1690]


2.5.112. Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811 - Mudarpflanze - Giant Milkweed und Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom

Asclepiaceae (Seidenpflanzengewächse)

Bis 4 m hoher Strauch


61. arkāhva-vasukāsphoṭa-gaṇarūpa-vikīraṇāḥ
mandāraś cārkaparṇo 'tra śukle 'larka-pratāpasau

अर्काह्व-वसुकास्फोट-गणरूप-विकीरणाः ।
मन्दारश् चार्कपर्णो
त्र शुक्ले लर्क-प्रतापसौ ॥६१॥

[Bezeichnungen für Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811 - Mudarpflanze - Giant Milkweed und Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom:]

  1. अर्काह्व - arkāhva : alle Bezeichnungen für "Sonne"
  2. वसुक - vasuka m.: Reicher
  3. आस्फोट - āsphoṭa m.: Aufplatzer
  4. गणरूप - gaṇarūpa m.: Scharförmiger
  5. विकीरण - vikīraṇa m.: Ausstreuer
  6. मन्दार - mandāra m.: Mandāra (zu manda 3: langsam, träge)
  7. अर्कपर्ण - arkaparṇa m.: Sonnenblatt

Die weiße Varietät heißt

  1. अलर्क - alarka m.: tollwütiger Hund
  2. प्रतापस - pratāpasa m.: zum Glühen Bringender, Erhitzer

Colebrooke (1807): "Swallow wort. Asclepias gigantea [L. 1753 = Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811]." [61. d.:] "The white sort."


Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811 - Mudarpflanze - Giant Milkweed



Abb.: वसुकः । Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811 - Mudarpflanze - Giant Milkweed
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus II. Fig. 31, 1679]


Abb.: अर्कपर्णः । Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811 - Mudarpflanze - Giant Milkweed
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.: अर्कपर्णः । Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811 - Mudarpflanze - Giant Milkweed
Abb.: Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom
[Bildquelle: Curtis's Botanical Magazine, v. 112 (1886), Tab. 6862]


Abb.:
अर्कपर्णः । Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811 - Mudarpflanze - Giant Milkweed, Hyderabad - హైదరాబాద్ - حیدرآباد, Andhra Pradesh
[Bildquelle: J. M. Garg / Wikipedia GNU FDLicense]


Abb.: आस्फोटः । गणरूपः । विकीरणः । Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811
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Abb.: अर्कः । Eidechse auf
Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton 1811, Nawadamkulam, Sri Lanka
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"Asclepias gigantea. Willd.

Shrubby, hoary. [...]

Urka is the Sanscrit name of the lilac variety, and Ulurka, the name of the white.

[...]

This is one of the most common, large, ramous shrubs over India. It is in flower, and has ripe seed all the year round. It grows every where, but chiefly about old walls, hedges, or ruinous places.

[...]

The white flowered variety differs only from the lilac flowered, in the colour of the flowers.

A large quantity of an acrid, milky juice, flows from wounds made in every part of these shrubs ; the natives apply it to various medicinal purposes; besides which, they employ the plant itself, and the preparations thereof to cure all kinds of fits ; Epilepsy, Hysterics, Convulsions from Coitu immediately after bathing ; also Spasmodic disorders such as the locked jaw. Convulsions in children, Paralytical complaints, Cold sweat, Poisonous bites, and venereal complaints. Good charcoal for gunpowder is said to be made of it. A fine sort of silky flax is in some parts prepared from the bark of the young shoots. A large, beautiful, inactive species of Gryllus feeds upon the leaves."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 2, S. 30f.]

"Calotropis gigantea (R. Br.) N. O. Asclepiaceae.

Gigantic Swallow-wort, Eng. Yercum, Tam. Yerica, Mal. Nella-jilledoo, Tel. Akund, Beng. Mudar, Ark, Hind.

Description,—Shrub; 6-10 feet; leaves stem-clasping, decussate, oblong-ovate, wedge-shaped, bearded on the upper side at the base, smooth on the upper surface, clothed with woolly down on the under side; segments of corolla reflexed, with revolute edges ; stamineous corona 5-leaved, shorter than the gynostegium; leaflets keel-formed, circinately recurved at the base, incurved and subtridentate at the apex; umbels sometimes compound, surrounded by involucral scales; follicles ventricose, smooth; seeds comose; flowers rose-colour and purple mixed. Fl. All the year.—Dec. Prod. viii. 535.— Asclepias gigantea, Willd.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii 30.—Ericu, Rheede, ii. t 31.— Wight Icon. t. 1278.——Peninsula in waste places. Southern provinces.

a—Alba.—Shevet akund, Beng.—Belerica, Mal.—Tella jilledoo, Tel.— Vella-yercum, Tam. — Flowers white, cream-coloured, inodorous.

Medical Uses.—The only difference in the two varieties of this shrub consists in the colour of the flowers. It is commonly to be found in waste ground, among rubbish, ruins, and suchlike places. Of late years the plant has attracted much attention from the many and important uses to which its several properties can be applied. An acrid milky juice flows from every part of the shrub when wounded, and this the* natives apply to medicinal purposes in many different ways, besides preparations of the plant itself in epilepsy, paralysis, bites of poisonous animals, and as a vermifuge. In almost all cutaneous affections, especially in leprosy, it is frequently employed, and much attention has lately been bestowed upon its virtues in the cure of the latter dreadful complaint. The root, bark, and inspissated juice are vised as powerful alteratives and purgatives. Its activity is said to be owing to a principle called Mudarine, discovered by the late Dr Duncan of Edinburgh, which ho found to possess the singular property of congealing by heat, and becoming again fluid on exposure to cold. It is obtained from the tincture of Mudar, the powdered root being macerated in cold rectified spirit After recovering the spirit by distillation, the solution is allowed to cool. A granular resin is then deposited, which is allowed to dry, in order that it may concrete. If water be then applied, the coloured solution from which the resin was deposited dissolves, and the resin remains. This solution is called Mudarine. In taste it is very bitter, soluble in alcohol and cold water, but insoluble in sulphuric ether or olive-oil By experiments made by Dr G. Playfair, the milky juice was found to be a very efficacious medicine in leprosy, lues, taenia, herpes, dropsy, rheumatism, hectic and intermittent fevers, By the Hindoos it is employed in typhus fever and syphilitic complaints with such success as to have earned the title of vegetable mercury. Dr Duncan considered that it agreed in every respect with ipecacuanha, and that from the facility of procuring it, might eventually supersede the latter medicine. The powdered bark is given in doses of 5-6 grains twice daily. It will occasionally produce nausea and vomiting, but such symptoms are renoved by a dose of castor-oil. The root pulverised and made into an ointment is very efficacious in the treatment of old ulcere, so common in the western coast.

The milky juice mixed with common salt is given in toothache, and the juice of the young buds in ear-ache. The leaves warmed and moistened with oil are applied as a dry fomentation in abdominal pains, and, moreover, form a good rubefacient. They are fatal to cattle.—Ainslie. Royle. Pharm. of India.

Economic Uses.—Besides the various uses above enumerated, the root is used in the manufacture of gunpowder charcoal. With the powdered flour the natives adulterate Safflower. The silky floss which surrounds the seeds has been woven into shawls and handkerchiefs, and even paper, besides a soft kind of thread by the natives.

But in addition to its other uses, this plant is valuable from the fine strong fibres with which it abounds. To procure them, the straightest branches are cut and exposed to wither for at least twenty-four hours; on the second and third day they are slightly beaten; the skin is then peeled and the stringy substance between the bark and the wood taken out. They are then dried in the sun. This slow process is necessarily expensive, but if the bark is steeped in water, it becomes discoloured, and cutting will destroy it. Still the fibre is strong, and possessed of many of the properties of Europe flax. It can be spun into the finest thread for sowing or weaving cloth. It resists moisture for a long time. From recent experiments made by Dr Wight, its tenacity, compared with other Indian fibres, is as follows:—

 

Breaking weight
lb.

Yercum, Calotropis gigantea 552
Janapura, or Sunn, Crotalaria juncea 407
Kattalay, Agave Americana 360
Cotton, Gossypium herbaceum 346
Marool, Sanseviera Zeylanica 316
Poolay-munja, Hibiscus cannabinnus 290
Coir, Cocoa nucifera 224

This fibre, however, is too valuable for ordinary cordage, and might fetch a high price in Europe. It is said by good judges to be better for cloth than cordage. It is much used in this country for bowstrings, ropes, bird-nets, and tiger-traps. It has never been cultivated as a cordage plant. It is widely diffused through the southern provinces of the Peninsula; while in the Bellary district and to the north it is replaced by the G. procera, which is equally abundant In the ' Journal of the Society of Arts' it is stated " that Yercum, which much resembles Belgian flax, is well calculated for prime warp yams, and worth £100 per ton." Boyle says that it yields a kind of manna called Mudar-sugar. It has been tried to employ the viscid juice as a caoutchouc, and a great quantity was collected for that purpose. To prepare it, the juice was evaporated in a shallow dish, either in the sun or in the shade; when dry, it may be worked up in hot water with a wooden kneader, as this process removes the acridity of the gum. It becomes immediately flexible in hot water, but is said to become hard in cold water, and is soluble in oil of turpentine, takes impressions, and will no doubt prove a valuable product, either alone or mixed with other substances.

In experiments made in London, Petersburg hemp bore 160 lb. —brown hemp of Bombay and Jubbulpore hemp, 190 lb., which latter was also the strength of the Yercum. Its value in England might probably be reckoned at from £30 to £40 the ton.—Ainslie. Boyle. -Report on Fibres. Jury Rep. Mad. Exhib."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]

"CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA, R. Br.

Gigantic Swallowwort

Hab.—Throughout India, Malay Islands, S. China.

CALOTROPIS PROCERA, R. Br.

Hab—W. and Central India, Ava, Persia to Africa.

[...]

Calotropis is mentioned by the earliest Hindu writers, the leaves, arkapattra, arkaparna, "sun leaf" or "lightning leaf," so called from their cuneiform shape, were used in Vedic times in Sun-worship. According to the Shatapatha Brāhmana every part of the human form was supposed to be represented in the different parts of the plant, nevertheless it would appear to have been dreaded (Panchatantra i. 57) and was supposed to blind those who approached it. (Mahabhārata i. 716.) These myths appear to have arisen from the Hindus attributing to the plant the properties possessed by lightning and the sun-rays. (De Gubernatis.) As a medicine Calotropis is noticed by Suśruta and other medical writers, some of whom mention two varieties, arka and alarka, "a white flowered kind." Calotropis bears many synonyms in Sanskrit, such as Rudra, Aditya, Suryapattra and Mandāra, from the last of which is derived the vernacular form Madār.

In Western India, and probably elsewhere, there is a curious superstition that a leaf of the Akra (Arka) fetched from the tree with certain ceremonies is of use in tedious labor. The friends of the woman take a packet of betel nut and leaf and a piece of money, and proceed to the plant, which they address in the most respectful manner, placing the betel packet at its root and asking for the loan of one of its leaves, which they promise to return shortly. They then take away a leaf and place it upon the head of the parturient woman, where it remains for a short time, and is afterwards returned to the plant. This practice appears to be connected with the worship of the Maruts or winds, demigods subject to Rudra, to whom these plants are sacred. The Maruts are worshipped on Saturday with a garland of the flowers. The twigs are used as samidhas, and the leaves are used by some in the shati puja to propitiate the goddess of parturition. Calotropis is also the 'kul' or Arbor generationis of the Bhandāri caste, whose business it is to tend the palm gardens and extract the juice of the trees. Another custom general amongst all castes of Hindus is that a man who has lost three wives must make his fourth marriage with the Arka tree, after which he may take a fourth human wife. The object of this seems to be to transfer the man's ill-luck to the plant. The ancient Arab tribes appear to have held superstitious notions about Calotropis, probably connected with Sun-worship. C. procera was first described by Abu Hanifeh circa 270 A.H. in his Book of Plants. From the Kāmus and the Tāj-el-arūs we learn that Ushar was used by the Arabs in the Time of Ignorance along with salaa in the practice called tasliaa which was observed in time of drought or barrenness of the earth. It consisted in tying the dried plants to the tails of wild bulls, setting fire to them, and driving the animals down from the mountains, seeking to obtain rain by the flame of fire, which was likened to the gleaming of lightning. The Salaa from Abu Hanifeh's description appears to have been a kind of Cuscuta. According to the Burhan, ushr is a Persian name for all plants having a milky juice, and especially for the plant known in Hindustan as âk. It would therefore seem that Ushar is not an Arabic word, as generally stated in the Dictionaries, but of Arian origin, and perhaps connected with the Sanskrit verb ush- to burn. The wood is considered to make the best charcoal for the preparation of gunpowder, and Ushar silk is used to stuff cushions by the Arabs, and also to make tinder (makhad), called by the Tartars yālish. Ibn Sina notices Ushar, and an exudation obtained from it called Sakar-el-ushar; he also mentions a superstitious notion that it is fatal to sit under the tree. The author of the Minhāj describes Sakar-el-ushar as a gum which exudes from the inflorescence of the plant and gradually hardens. (He remarks that people say that it is a dew which falls upon the plant and concretes like manna.) Some medical writers confound it with Sakar-el-tighāl. Abu Hanifeh and the author of the Obāb describe it as an exudation from the flowering parts of the plant. The best authorities describe its properties as similar to those of the juice of the plant, it would therefore seem to be nothing more than an exudation of the juices of the plant which naturally contain some sugar. Calotropis is not mentioned by Greek or Roman writers, but some Mahometans give Hejakiyus as its Yunani name; this appears to be a corruption of the word -*-, "most holy," or "under divine protection," and was probably applied to the plant by some of the Syrian physicians who instructed the Arabs in Greek medicine. The modern Persians call C. procera Khark and Darakht-i-zahrnāk, or "poison tree."

By Hindu physicians the root bark is said to promote the secretion and to be useful in skin diseases, enlargements of the abdominal viscera, intestinal worms, cough, ascites, anasarca, &c. The milky juice is regarded as a drastic purgative, and caustic, and is generally used as such in combination with the milky juice of Euphorbia neriifolia. The flowers are considered digestive, stomachic, tonic and useful in cough, asthma, catarrh and loss of appetite. The leaves mixed with rock salt are roasted within closed vessels, so that the fumes may not escape. The ashes thus produced are given with whey in ascites and enlargements of the abdominal viscera. The following inhalation is prescribed for cough: Soak the powdered root bark of Arka in its own milky juice and dry. Bougies are then prepared from the powder, and their fumes inhaled. The root bark, reduced to a paste with sour conjee (rice vinegar), is applied to elephantiasis of the legs and scrotum. The milky juices of C. gigantea and Euphorbia neriifolia are made into tents with the powdered wood of Berberis asiatica, for introduction into sinuses and fistulae in ano. The milky juice is applied to carious teeth for relief of pain." An oily preparation (Arka taila) made by boiling together 8 parts Sesamum oil, 16 parts Calotropis juice, and one part tumeric, is said to be useful in eczema and other eruptive skin diseases. In the Concan the milk with powdered mustard is applied as a lap to rheumatic swellings, the flowering tops pounded and boiled with molasses, are given in doses of about one drachm every morning as a remedy for asthma. In want of virility the following prescription is in vogue: Take 125 of the flowers, dry and powder, then mix with one tolā each of cloves, nutmegs, mace and pellitory root, and make into pills of six massas each. One pill may be taken daily dissolved in milk.

The author of the Makhzan-el-adwiya says there are three varieties of Calotropis- 1st, a large kind with white flowers, large leaves, and much milky juice, it is found near towns and the habitations of man; 2nd, a smaller kind with smaller leaves, the flowers white externally but lilae within; 3rd, a still smaller plant, with pale yellowish green flowers. The second and third kinds grow in sandy deserts. The properties of all three are similar, but the first kind is to be preferred, as it produces the largest quantity of milk. The juice is described as caustic, a purge for phlegm, depilatory, and the most acrid of all milky juices. Tanners use it to remove the hair from skins. Medicinally, it is useful in ringworm of the scalp, and to destroy piles; mixed with honey it may be applied to aphthae of the mouth; a piece of cotton dipped in it may be inserted into a hollow tooth to relieve the pain. Hakīm Mīr Abdul Hamīd, in his commentary upon the Tuhfat, strongly recommends Calotropis in leprosy, hepatic and splenic enlargements, dropsy and worms. A peculiar method of administration is to steep different kinds of grain in the milk and then administer them. The milk itself is a favourite application to painful joints, swellings, &c., the fresh leaves also, slightly roasted, are used for the same purpose. Oil in which the leaves have been boiled is applied to paralysed parts; a powder of the dried leaves is dusted upon wounds to destroy excessive granulation and promote healthy action.

All parts of the plant are considered to have valuable alterative properties when taken in small doses.

C. procera was observed in Egypt by Prosper Alpinus (A.D. 1580-84), and upon his return to Italy was badly figured, and some account given of its medicinal properties. (De plantis Aegypti, Venet. 1592, cap. 25.) A much more correct figure was published 1638 by his commentator Vesling. Rheede (Hort. Mat. II., t. 31) figures a white-flowered Calotropis (Bel-ericu) and a lilac (Ericu), and Rumphius (Hort. Amb. vii., t. 14, f. 1) figures C. gigantea under the name of Madorous. Roxburgh (II., 30) gives a botanical description of C. gigantea under the name of Asclepias gigantea, and mentions the medicinal uses to which it is applied by the natives of India. Ainslie, in his Materia Medica of Hindustan (1813), mentions two kinds of Calotropis, and in the Materia Medica he says, "Both plants in their leaves and stalks contain much milky juice, which, when carefully dried, is considered as powerfully alterative and purgative, and has been long used as an efficacious remedy Koostum (lepra Arabum) of the Tamools; the dose about the quarter of a pagoda weight in the day, and continued for some weeks. The root of the Yercum has a bitter and somewhat acrid, or rather warm taste; it is occasionally given in infusion as a stimulant in low fever. Of the other variety, the Vullerkoo, the bark is warmish, and when powdered and mixed with a certain portion of margosa oil, is used as an external application in rheumatic affections. In the higher provinces of Bengal the Arka is supposed to have antispasmodic qualities. Mr. Robinson has written a paper on elephantiasis, which may be seen in Vol. X. of the Journ. of the Medico-Chirurgical Society, extolling the madar root (Yercum vayr) as most efficacious in that disease, as also in venereal affections. In elephantiasis he gave it in conjunction with calomel and antimonial powder, in a pill, consisting of half a grain of calomel, three of antimonial powder, and from six to ten of the bark of the madar root, every eight hours. Mr. Playfair has also written a paper on the same root which may be seen in Vol. I. of the Edin. Med. Chirurg. Trans., p. 414, wherein he speaks in praise of the alterative, stimulant, and deobstruent virtues of the bark, or rather rind bellow the outer crust of the root, reduced to fine powder, in cases of syphilis, lepra, hectic fever, &c., dose from grs. 3 to 10 or 12, three times in the day, gradually increasing it. Messrs. Robertson, Playfair, and others seem chiefly to dwell on the virtues of the rind or bark of the root; but I must observe, that in Lower India, where I was for many years, I found the simple dried milky juice considered as infinitely more efficacious; and later communications from the East confirm me in this opinion." (Op. cit. I., p. 487.)

The emetic properties of Calotropis were brought to the notice of the profession in Europe by Dr. Duncan in 1829 (Edin. Med. and Surg. Journ., XXXII., p. 65), and they are noticed in the Bengal Dispensatory, where the drug is recommended as a substitute for Ipecacuanha. Since the publication of that work abundant testimony in its favour has been collected, a summary of which will be found in the Pharmacopoeia of India. Duncan (1829) made a chemical examination of the root bark, the activity of which he referred to an extractive matter which he termed Mudarine. A kind of gutta-percha was obtained from the juice of this plant by Dr. Riddell, Superintendent Surgeon H. H. the Nizam's Army, in 1851. (Journ. Agri-Hort. Soc. of India, Vol. VIII.) In 1853 it was examined by Prof. Redwood, who found it to possess many properties in common with the gutta-percha of commerce. No further trial of this substance appears to have been made during the last 37 years.

Modern physiological research has shown that the juice applied to the skin acts as an irritant, the practice of applying it with salt to bruises and sprains to remove pain is therefore rational; also the application of the fresh bark in chronic rheumatism. Given internally in small doses the drug stimulates the capillaries and acts powerfully upon the skin, it is therefore likely to be useful in elephantiasis and leprosy. (Casanora.) The benefit derived from the administration of the flowers given in asthma is probably due to their nauseant action. In large doses Calotropis causes vomiting and purging, acting as an irritant emeto-cathartic.

[...]

Toxicology.- In India Calotropis juice is used for the purpose of infanticide by the castes among which that custom prevails, being placed in the mouth of newly-born female infants. It is also, like other emeto-cathartics, sometimes taken by women to procure abortion, and a few cases are on record of its having been used for suicidal purposes. Like other irritant vegetable juices it is not uncommonly used locally to produce abortion; usually a stick is armed with cotton impregnated with the juice and an attempt is made to introduce it into the os uteri, and leave it there until uterine contractions are induced, but this operation often fails from awkwardness on the part of the operator, and it is not unusual to find that stick has been forced through the uterine walls. Another method of procedure is to select a twig of the plant, and after removing the leaves and making it as smooth as possible, to introduce it into the os uteri, or failing this to allow it to remain in contact with the parts. Pessaries also, containing the irritating juice of this and other plants, are placed in contact with the uterus to induce uterine action."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 2. -- London, 1891. -- S. 419ff.]


Siehe:

Carakasaṃhitā: Ausgewählte Texte aus der Carakasaṃhitā / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer <1944 - >. -- Anhang A: Pflanzenbeschreibungen. -- Calotropis gigantea (L.) R.Br. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/ayurveda/pflanzen/calotropis_gigantea.htm


Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom



Abb.:
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom
[Bildquelle: Curtis's Botanical Magazine, v. 112 (1886), Tab. 6859]


Abb.:
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Rosa Say. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosasay/4731315966/. -- Zugriff am 2010-11-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


Abb.:
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Rosa Say. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosasay/4731316596/. -- Zugriff am 2010-11-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]


 Abb.: Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Rosa Say. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosasay/4730676509/. -- Zugriff am 2010-11-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, keine Bearbeitung)]

 


Abb.: Samen von
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. 1811 - Oscherstrauch - Apple of Sodom
[Bildquelle: Steve Hurst. -- http://plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage?imageID=capr_001_ahp.tif. -- Zugriff am 2010-11-13. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)]

"Calotropis procera (R Br.)

Description.—Shrub, 6-10 feet; [...]

Fl. March—April.

R. Br. in Hort. Kew, ii. 78.

C. Wallichii, Wight Contrib. 53.

C. Hamiltonii, do.

Deccan. Guzerat. Patna. Hindostan.

Medical Uses.—This species differs from the former in the segments of the corolla not being reflexed. It is a widely distributed plant, very abundant in the Bellary district, but quite unknown in the southern provinces. In uses, the two species are probably similar in every respect Five grains of the bark of the root of this species mixed with very minute doses of arsenic, is internally administered in the form of a pill in leprosy with the best effect.— (Wight.) The bark of the root is diaphoretic and expectorant It is used m European practice as a substitute for ipecacuanha, both as an emetic and cure for dysentery. The fresh juice is used as a rubefacient in rheumatism and chest-diseases, and the leaves as a cure for Guinea-worm.—(Powell's Punj. Products.) In the Peshawur valley the juice is employed in the preparation of catgut, and for raising blisters and discussing chronic tumours.—Stewarts Punj. Plants. Pharm. of India."

[Quelle: Drury, Heber <1819 - 1872>: The useful plants of India : with notices of their chief value in commerce, medicine, and the arts. -- 2d ed. with additions and corrections. London : Allen, 1873. -- xvi, 512 p. ; 22 cm. -- s.v.]


2.5.113. Osmanthus fragrans (Thumb.) Lour. 1790 - Süße Duftblüte - Fragrant Olive

Oleaceae (Ölbaumgewächse)

Bis 12 m hoher, immergrüner Strauch oder Baum


62. a./b. śivamallī pāśupata ekāṣṭhīlo buko vasuḥ

शिवमल्ली पाशुपत एकाष्ठीलो बुको वसुः ।६२ क।

[Bezeichnungen für Osmanthus fragrans (Thumb.) Lour. 1790 - Süße Duftblüte - Fragrant Olive:]

  1. शिवमल्ली - śivamallī f.: Śiva-Jasmin 
  2. पाशुपत - pāśupata m.: Zu Pāśupati (Śiva) Gehörender
  3. एकाष्ठील - ekaṣṭhila m.: Einkugliger, Einkerniger
  4. बुक - buka m.: Buka 
  5. वसु - vasu m.: Reichtum

Colebrooke (1807): "Bacapushpa. Confounded by some with Aeschynomene grandiflora [L. 1763 = Sesbania grandiflora
(L.) Pers. 1807]
, but appears to be a different plant."


Osmanthus fragrans (Thumb.) Lour. 1790 - Süße Duftblüte - Fragrant Olive



Abb.: Osmanthus fragrans (Thumb.) Lour. 1790 - Süße Duftblüte - Fragrant Olive
[Bildquelle: Curtis's Botanical Magazine, v. 38 (1813), Tab. 1552]


Abb.: Osmanthus fragrans (Thumb.) Lour. 1790 - Süße Duftblüte - Fragrant Olive, Hawaii
[Bildquelle: Forest & Kim Starr. -- http://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=070906-8517&o=plants. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]


Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. 1807 -  Großblütige Sesbanie - Wisteria Tree



Abb.:
Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. 1807 -  Großblütige Sesbanie - Wisteria Tree

[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus I. Fig. 51, 1678]


Abb.: Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. 1807 -  Großblütige Sesbanie - Wisteria Tree
[Bildquelle: Flora de Filipinas, 1880 / Wikipedia. -- Public domain]

"Aeschynomene grandiflora.

Unarmed, arboreous.

[...]

A small, delicate, but high, viz. from twenty to thirty feet, tree of only a few years' duration. It is generally found in the vicinity of villages, where the natives encourage its growth, for the sake of the leaves and tender pods which they use in their curries. It is in flower and fruit most part of the year.

[...]

The tender leaves and young legumes are much used in food, by all classes of the natives.

The tree is employed for training the Betle plant (Piper betel), it admits of the sun's beams, and the wind, better than any other of its height, being thin of branches and leaves, particularly after it is more than one year old. It is of a very quick growth, which is another reason for employing it. The wood is only fit for fuel. Cattle eat the leaves and tender parts."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 330ff.]

"SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA, Pers.

Syn.—Agati grandiflora.

Hab.—W. Peninsula.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—A native of the. Eastern Islands, but cultivated-in gardens all over India, and now quite naturalised. In Sanskrit it is called Agasti, Vranāri, Vaka and Sthula-pushpa, or " large-flowered." It is named Agasti after a rishi or sage of that name, the author of several Vedic hymns, who is said to have been the son of both Mitra and Varuna by Urvasi - (hot desire, an Apsaras or nymph of Indra's heaven. According to local tradition the sage was not born of her body, but from the lust excited by her beauty. Ainslie.) - , and to have conquered and civilised Southern India. He also wrote on medicine, and his healing spirit is said still to haunt the mountains of Courtallum. To the present day his works are held in the highest estimation in the South of India. The flowers are sacred to Shiva and are supposed to represent the male tad female generative organs.

The bark is very astringent, but not bitter, as stated in the Pharmacopoeia of India, where it is recommended as a tonic by Dr. Bonavia. The statement that it is a bitter tonic occurs also in the Bengal Dispensatory. In Bombay the leaves or flowers are made use of by the natives, their juice being a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache; it is blown up the nostrils and causes a very copious discharge of fluid, relieving the pain and sense of weight in the frontal sinuses.* The root of the red flowered variety, rubbed into a paste with water, is applied in rheumatism; from 1 to 2 tolas of the root-juice are given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh; a paste made of the root with an equal quantity of Stramonium root is applied to painful swellings. The flowers are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. The leaves are said to be aperient. Rumphius states that a poultice of the leaves is so popular a remedy in Amboyna for bruises, that the tree has become notorious as the "solatium et auxilium illorum qui vapulantur," and people who plant it near their houses are laughed at on this account. It is a curious coincidence that the Sanskrit name Vranāri signifies "enemy of sores" (Vrana-ari).

* This kind of medicament is the ρινεγχυτον of Galen. In Scrib. Larg. Gomp. 7, we read:—" Per nares ergo purgatur caput iis rebus infutis per cornu quod rhynenchytes vocatur; Hederae succo per se, vel betae succo, cum exiguo flore aeris, vel cyclamini succo mixto lacte aut aqua pari mensura."

Description—A tree of very short duration, attaining a height of about 80 feet in a few years and then dying."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 1. -- London, 1890. -- S. 472f.]


2.5.114. Loranthus longiflorus Desr. 1789 - Riemenblume

Loranthaceae (Riemenblumengewächse)


62. c./d. vandā vṛkṣādanī vṛkṣaruhā jīvantikety api

वन्दा वृक्षादनी वृक्षरुहा जीवन्तिकेत्य् अपि ॥६२ ख॥

[Bezeichnungen für Loranthus longiflorus Desr. 1789 - Riemenblume:]

  1. वन्दा - vandā f.: Ehrende
  2. वृक्षादनी - vṛkṣādanī f.: Baumfresserin
  3. वृक्षरुहा - vṛkaruhā f.: Baumkletterin
  4. जीवन्तिका - jīvantikā f.: Lebende, Parasitin

Colebrooke (1807): "A parasite plant. Epidendrum tesseloides [Steudel 1840 = Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook ex G. Don 1830. Orchidaceae (Orchideengewächse)] and other species."


Loranthus longiflorus Desr. 1789 - Riemenblume



Abb.: जीवन्तिका । Loranthus longiflorus Desr. 1789 - Riemenblume
[Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus X. Fig. 4, 1690]


Abb.:
वृक्षरुहा । Loranthus longiflorus Desr. 1789 - Riemenblume
[Bildquelle: dinesh_valke. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3271357245/. -- Zugriff am 2010-10-11. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung, share alike)] 


Abb.: वृक्षादनी । Loranthus bicolor Roxb.
[Bildquelle: Roxburgh. -- Vol II. -- 1795. -- Pl.  139. -- Image courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.botanicus.org. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

"Loranthus bicolor. Roxb. Corom. ii. 19. tab. 139.

[...]

Sans. Vunda,1 Vrikshadunee, Vrikshsubhuksha, and Vrikshurooha.

1 Sir William Jones thought Vunda to be the general term for parasitic plants. It is probable that all the names here cited are so.—W. C[arey].

[...]

Is always found growing- upon the branches of various kinds of trees, and is very ramous. Flowers during the greatest part of the year, and is highly ornamental.

Obs. This is a handsome looking parasite, bearing a great number of very beautiful flowers; its foliage also looks very well. All that part of the branch of the tree above where it grows, becomes sickly and soon perishes. It should be compared with L. longiflorus. It differs from Gartner's Lonicera zeylanica in not having the calyx of the fruit, and in having only five parts in the corol ; but in the racemes they agree. I cannot reconcile it with L. falacatus of Linnaeus's supplementun, nor with L. loniceroides, Linn, for here the inflorescence bears no resemblance to an involucred umbel. Neither can it be L. pentandrus, as there the leaves are alternate, with petioles nearly as long as the racemes ; in short I cannot well reconcile it to any of the hitherto described species. It unites the two genera of Loranthus and Lonicera. In Bengal I have found it with leaves from five to six inches long, and four or five broad."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 1, S. 548ff.]

"Viscum et Loranthus, sp. var. In the Pharmacopoeia of India, the leaves of a Viscum, doubtfully referred to V. monoicum (Kuchila ke molung), growing on Nux Vomica trees in the neighbourhood of Cuttack, are stated to possess poisonous properties similar to those of the tree on which the plant grows. The subject was investigated in 1837 by Sir W. O'Shaughnessy, who is said to have detected in the powdered leaves the presence of strychnine and brucine : and the leaves were for a time used by Dr. Duncan Stewart and others as a substitute for Nux Vomica. A case of what is stated to have been fatal poisoning by the leaves is mentioned by Norman Chevers in his work on Indian Medical Jurisprudence. The symptoms were those of strychnia poisoning. In 1861 Mr. Leon Souberain (Pharm. Journ. 568) published an account of a poisonous species of Loranthus found on the Nilgiris, growing on Nux Vomica trees, and known to the natives as Poulourivi.

In Pudukota, a decoction of a species of Loranthus called Pillooroovi or Kooroontkoo, probably the same plant, is applied to skin diseases to relieve itching.

Under the name of Bandākpushp, the flowers of Loranthus longiflorus, Desrouss., Rheede, Hort, Mal, x. t. 4, have been sent to us from Poona as having a reputation among the Hindus as a remedy in consumption, asthma, and mania; they are astringent.

Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, when in Mysore, was shown the Loranthus falcatus, Linn. '( 'Wotu,' Canarese), the bark of which was used by the poorer natives in place of betel-nut; with quicklime it tinges the saliva and mouth of a fine red, brighter even than that communicated by the Areca.

In Travancore, the Loranthaceous parasites on the Nux Vomica are called Kanjiram-eitthal in Malayalim, and are used in medicine by the natives, but when the parasites are scarce, the young leaves of the Nux Vomica tree are used as a substitute.

A contribution by M. A. Chatin to the Paris Academy of Sciences entirely contradicts the statement we have extracted from the Pharmacopoeia of India, and the belief of the natives that these parasites partake of the nature of the plants upon which they grow ; so that the old ideas concerning the non-elaboration of sap by parasitic plants will have to be abandoned.

M. Chatin finds that the tannin of the mistletoe is not identical with that of the oak on which it grows, but gives a green colour and not a blue-black with iron salts; that the Loranthus, which grows on Strychnos Nux Vomica9 does not, as has been asserted, contain a trace of either strychnine or brucine, and that the Balanophora parasitic on Cinchona Calisaya does not contain any of the alkaloids of cinchona barks. The Loranthus growing on orange trees never partakes of the yellow colour of the wood of its host plant, nor does the Orobanche of the hemp possess the odour of the latter; while Hydnora africana, used as food in South Africa by the Hottentots, grows on an acrid and even vesicating Euphorbia. It is evident, therefore, that the sap absorbed from the host plant must be modified by the parasite to form its own peculiar products. (Pharm. Journ. May 2nd, 1891.)

The Forest Officer of Ganjam, a district where the Strychnos grows so plentifully, sent to one of us a specimen of a species of Viscum taken from these trees, which was identified as V. articulatum. The sample was a small one, but it was sufficient to determine by analysis that the trace of alkaloid present was neither strychnine nor brucine. The leaves contained a peculiar tannic acid, giving a green precipitate with ferric salts, and a resin soluble in ether and alcohol, striking a blood-red colour with strong sulphuric acid. The chemical constituents of the leaves of the parasite were altogether different to those of the leaves of the Nux Vomica tree."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 463f.]


Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don



Abb.:
वन्दा । Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don
[Bildquelle: The botanical register 1812 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
वन्दा । Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook ex G. Don 1830
[Bildquelle: Curtis' Botanical Magazine 1831 / Wikimedia. -- Public domain]


Abb.:
वन्दा । Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook ex G. Don 1830
[Bildquelle: Orchi / Wikimedia. -- GNU FDLicense]

"Cymbidium tessaloides. Roxb.

Parasitic, caulescent.

[...]

Vanda. Asiat. Res. iv. 302.

This beautiful plant is very common in most parts of Bengal, and found on various trees, though chiefly on the mangoe. Flowering time the rainy season."

[Quelle: Roxburgh, William <1751-1815>: Flora indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. -- Serampore : Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. -- Vol. 3, S. 547f.]

"VANDA ROXBURGHII, Br.

Hab.—Bengal, Behar, Guzerat, Concan to Travancore.

SACCOLABIUM PAPILLOSUM, Lindl.

Hab.—Bengal and the Lower Himalaya, Assam, the Gangetic Delta, the Circars and Tenasserim.

[...]

History, Uses, &c.—We have already stated (Vol. ii, p. 260) that we consider it probable that the original Rāsna of the Arians was Inula Helenium, as the two drugs at the head of this article are notably deficient in the properties ascribed to Rasna by Sanskrit writers; for instance, the plants under consideration cannot be described a& Gandha-mula having a strong smelling root." Dutt (Mat. Med., p. 258) remarks :—"Under the name of rasna, the roots of Vanda Roxburghii and Acampe papilloma arc both indiscriminately used by native physicians. They are very similar in the appearance of their roots and leaves, though they differ much in their flowers and fruit. One native physician whom I consulted, pronounced both of these plants to be rasna ; when, however, I showed him the different flowers and fruit of the two species, he was puzzled." The description of the properties and uses of rasna will, we think, convince our readers that the original drug was not what is now used.

Rasna is said to be bitter and fragrant, and useful in rheumatism ; the Rasnapanchaka is a decoction of rasna; Tinospora cordifolia, wood of Cedrus Deodara, Ginger, and root of Ricinus communis, of each equal parts; it is a popular prescription for rheumatism. Rasna guggulu is a ghrita composed of eight parts of rasna and ten of bdellium beaten into a uniform mass with clarified butter; it is given in drachm doses in sciatica. Rasna is also an ingredient of several oils used for external application in rheumatism and neuralgia, such as Mahamasha taila, Madhyama Narayana taila, &c. Vanda is a general name in Sanskrit and the vernaculars for parasitic plants; other Sanskrit names for these plants are Vrikshadani and Vriksharuha "growing on trees." They are further distinguished by the addition of the names of the tree on which they grow, thus Amara-vanda would signify the Vanda of the Amara or mango.

[...]

Ordinary bazaar Rasna both in Calcutta and Bombay consists of long branching roots, having something the appearance of sarsaparilla, but of a dark greyish-brown colour. The bark is thin and marked by numerous longitudinal furrows, the substance of the root light-brown and very fibrous ; a transverse section shows the woody portion to be arranged in wedge- shaped bundles. The root is inodorous, and has a starchy bitterish and astringent taste.

In Bombay a second kind of Rasna is sold at a much higher price, which bears no resemblance to the ordinary commercial article ; it occurs as straight pieces of a root about the size of a crowquill at the thickest part, gradually tapering to a point, and tied up in small bundles with thread. This root is of a light brown colour, with a thick and very hard bark; it has a faint peculiar odour when powdered, which recalls that of ipecacuanha. It is called Khadaki-rasna in Bombay. Under this name we have also received the roots of Tylophora asthmatica."

[Quelle: Pharmacographia indica : a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in British India / by William Dymock [1834-1892], C. J. H. Warden and David Hooper [1858-1947]. -- Bd. 3. -- London, 1893. -- S. 392ff.]


Zu 2.6. vanauṣadhivargaḥ III